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Estalane, Aira Mae U.


Dr. Estolloso Final Examination

1. Explain the meaning: Evil may not necessarily be a sin, but sin is always evil. Give examples of evil in nature and physical evil in human beings.

Now, most people are having a wrong notion in terms of understanding the right context of the words evil and sin. Evil is usually understood as the same as sin, but this is not the case. When defined, evil is the absence of what is good, deprivation, corruption, omission, defect and negation while sin is an offense against reason, truth and right conscience or doing things that are against Gods will. Evil should not be necessarily be considered a sin since there are things considered as evil which are not intended directly like natural calamities, adversity, trouble, misfortune or suffering. When the good is lost, evil exists. For example, if one walks down the street and a building falls on him and kills him, it is a bad or evil thing, but it is not a sinful thing since the failure to follow ones right conscience does not exist and the act has been an accident. However, sin can be considered evil since it wounds the nature of man and injures human solidarity. This shows that the existing goodness in men is gone once sin has been done; it is the work of men who pervert God's righteous work. It causes deeper suffering and even death to those who commit it. Sin is the result of evil behavior, whether with thought, word or deed. As such, every evil is sin and every sin is evil. Natural evil are those that stand against the morals in our world that are part of the natural world, and so are independent of the intervention of a human agent. Some of its examples are tornadoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes and other phenomena, which inflict suffering with apparently no accompanying mitigating good. All these are inevitable since they have been a part of the world we live in. Moreover, physical evil are those which are triggered by human actions. Some of its examples are poverty, stress, disease or other psychological problems.

2. Show the relationship between free will and sin. Give one example of evil becoming a sin. The root of sin is in the heart of human, in his freewill. Through a mans freedom to do whether the good or the bad, he possesses the ability to decide if ever he is willing to commit a sin or not. No matter how others may convince a person to be good, if it is in his will to do things, which may offset Gods will or commandments, there will still be a considerable

possibility of him to have a sin. People sin, they say, because they cannot help it, because we have acquired a nature that causes us to do so. The original sin, which was committed by Adam and Eve, was due to the fact that it has been of their will to disobey God. To be free from sin, we shall be able to use our free will in a right way, to avoid sin and choose to do what God wants for us to do.

For some instances, evil may become a sin. Whenever we think of something evil, there will be two ways of converting those evil thought into a sin. The first is to concentrate and allow the thoughts to remain in your head. The second obviously is to act on them. For example, if a child started to think that his parents are providing him with unnecessary limitations such as not allowing him to mingle with friends or even to go out with them until a certain time, and not considering those as a form of his parents concern for him. Instead, he chose to rebel against his parents, disobeyed and disrespected them. This suggests that he sinned not only to his parents, but also to God since he did an action which is against His commandment of respecting ones parents at all times after thinking of such an evil idea. Another example is tolerating evil since in the name of tolerance, every evil is exalted and proudly defended. Whenever we see or know the existence of some evil being done and not doing any action to prevent it, we sin against God. A good example is abortion since it is an evil act of killing unborn children as their irresponsible parents would like to free themselves from the responsibility of being a good parent. Although everyone is aware of the evilness of this act, some people or even societies still tolerate it just for the sake of gaining money or escaping from the reality of their responsibilities, thus committing a sin through tolerating an act of killing.

3. What are the indications of social sin? How does social sin become structured and institutionalized? Social sins are structures that oppress human beings, violate human dignity, stifle freedom, and impose gross inequality. It is a result of different selfish choices by different people in the society. The destructive consequences flow indirectly and as a cumulative result of all the different selfish choices. This sin comes from individual acts of selfishness and the ignorance of the evil that is present. It is structural since there exists a deep structure of injustice that causes sinful actions. Resulting from an ignorance of a particular group, this lack of concern and willingness to help others may lead to lesser chances of overcoming the problems or deficient structures being faced by the society. This is mainly because no problem will be resolved without any action done.

In addition, social sin is institutionalized a distinctive complex of actions, providing procedures through which human conduct is patterned is visible in committing such sin. In social sin, the action of a single person contributes to the possibility of the occurrence of evil. Due that, evil principles become socially acceptable or what is institutionalized in the social structure or laws. Some examples would be slavery, child labor, neglect of the poor or marginalized. 4. Discuss root cause of the evil situation in the film Hotel Rwanda. Why is it a social sin, who are responsible of the genocide that happened in Rwanda?

The film relates how the 1994 conflict between two tribal groups in the country Rwanda lead to genocide as a million members of the Tutsi tribe were killed by members of the Hutu tribe in a massacre that took place while the world looked away. The Hutus rebelled on the Tutsi as they blame them for the death of the Rwandan president, which is a Hutu. As the Hutu politicians assumed that the other tribe killed their president, they started to form a militia group that was known as the Interhamewe, which began to mobilize across Rwanda. In a planned campaign, these Hutu gangs killed roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus over the course of 100 days. Moreover, in full awareness of the situation, the international community did virtually nothing to halt the slaughter. During the genocide, the United Nations is present in Rwanda, represented by Col. Oliver. He was aware of the situation, thus asking his superiors to support the said nation, but was ignored. Paul Rusesabagina, the hotel manager of Hotel des Mille Collins, informs the corporate headquarters in Brussels of the growing tragedy, but the hotel in Kigali is not the chain's greatest concern. Finally, it comes down to these two men acting as free-lancers to save more than a thousand lives they have somehow become responsible for. The social sin existed in this movie since other countries of greater power and capability, should have gotten involved and helped the Tutsis people in Rwanda. Racism, segregation, and discrimination are evident. As the suffering of the Tutsis was ignored, the other nations have shown how ignorant they were as they have made visible the discrimination that is implied to the Tutsis. The Hutu people are committing hate crimes because of how they feel about the Tutsi people, as they desire to eliminate all of them and they do not even care that what they are doing is wrong. These sins are common in the world and sadly enough, they are still happening without change.

5. Explain how and why the following situations are considered social evil? A. Martial Law The martial law in our country started the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. Although the Marcos family fails to admit it, this era has started human right violation and injustice acts for the Filipinos. During this dictatorship of Marcos, numerous abuses were suffered by men, especially the critics of his dictatorial government such as the progressive writers, commentators, organizers, professors, students and artists. They were arrested and detained along with the others who violated the presidents will. Also, the president and his wife continued to allot the countrys money on luxurious projects and events while the rest of the nation suffers. This is evil sin since they have ignored the poor situation of the citizens and allowed such human rights violation to occur.

B. Oil Price Hike Oil is one of the basic commodities of men since through the use of it, transportation is being possible. By allowing the price of oil to continue its increase, the government permits the increase of other commodities since a higher price of oil leads to higher cost of production. Due this, those Filipinos that are not able to afford most of their necessities will have a harder time to purchase needs such as food. Hunger may also worsen for the low class families since their budget will be more constraint. This may be considered as a social sin since as the government or other price regulating agencies allows it, they also permit the increased suffering of the poor.

C. Poverty Poverty is a state of being unable to provide for basic necessities such as food, shelter, clothing or medical care. This may be caused by the inability of the government to provide assistance to the poor or the lack of action that leads to a poor state since a person does not do any action to improve the state of his living. It may be considered as a social sin since the poor have less access to education, health care and support networks for family stability but the other institutions with the ability to prevent it does not partake in more effective actions to eliminate it. Children are also affected since they do not have an income or any independent expenditure. If children are poor, it is because their parents are poor; it is because their parents lack gainful employment and meaningful opportunities to improve their living conditions. Also, the poor are given limited opportunities since they are not given a chance to have a good educational attainment. Great inequality across income brackets, regions, and sectors, as well as unmanaged population growth, when allowed to happen by the government leads to

poverty. Thus, the government must do social actions to prevent this social issue and strengthen the weak local government capacity for implementing poverty reduction programs;

D. Squatting Squatting can be widely seen throughout the cities of our country. this may be caused by the lack of ability of the poor to acquire their own land to settle on. This is considered as a social sin since the poor had no ability to attain their home but instead of giving them a good location, the government just let them settle on any available land without considering the livelihood that those poor people have. The government would do better to create jobs in the countryside than spend billions on relocation. The administration should focus on rural development to create jobs and services in the countryside, and lure people away from Metro Manila and other cities, to decongest them.

E. Prostitution

Prostitution is an act of sexually offering oneself to another person in return for payment. A womans reason for this is that she does not have any other means of gaining income and without doing such, her survival will be hard due to limited resources. Giving yourself to other in return for payment is wrong since there are a lot of other possibilities for women to earn money. In doing such things, a woman does an action against the will of God to submit yourself only to your husband. Also, this may be considered as a social since although it is known by all as a form of sin, some men still tolerate it for the sake of satisfying their sexual desires. Prostitution may also lead to other worse problems such as the destruction of the good relationship within a family. Some other nations also tolerate this act by legalizing it. This is totally wrong since legalizing a sinful act may lead to more people committing it.