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THIRD ENGLISH MANUAL Let's speak as American Citizens! SCHOOL PROFESSOR’S NAME EMAIL ADDRESS STUDENT’S NAME

THIRD ENGLISH MANUAL

Let's speak as American Citizens!

SCHOOL

PROFESSOR’S NAME

EMAIL ADDRESS

STUDENT’S NAME

EMAIL ADDRESS

TELEPHONE NUMBER

Speaking in a natural way!

English learners dream of talking like natives.

Everybody practices pronunciation and grammar, works hard on writing, broadens their vocabulary. However, have you ever been told that, to sound like a native, you need phrasal verbs?

Most language researchers agree: if there are two ways of saying the same thing in English and one of them is a phrasal verb, you can bet that the phrasal verb will be the one the native speaker will use.

Polishing your phrasal verbs skills, having them on the tip of your tongue and knowing how to use them, give your speech a feel of nativeness.

So, are

towards fluency?

you ready to give

one

more step

Phrasal verbs are verbs that have their meanings changed when they are joined with prepositions or adverbs (or both). The same verb can have dozens of completely different meanings, depending on the term that goes with it.

Let’s go for it and obtain your TOEIC Certificate mastering English!

I N D E X

Unit 1: Let’s remember something about the airport

Page 1

Unit 2: Asking for an address

Page 3

Unit 3: Let’s learn something else about shopping

Page 4

Unit 4: At a hotel

Page 5

Unit 5: Apartment for rent

Page 6

Unit 6: In the office

Page 7

Unit 7: Office documents

Page 11

Unit 8: Passive voice

Page 12

Unit 9: On vacations!

Page 15

Unit 10: Phrasal verbs

Page 17

Unit 11: What do you want to be when you grow up?

Page 56

Unit 12: Introduction to TOEIC®

Page 62

Unit 13: Listening comprehension

Page 67

Unit 14: Describing pictures

Page 68

Unit 15: Logical answers

Page 73

Unit 16: Short conversations

Page 74

Unit 17: Short talks

Page 75

Unit 18: Idioms

Page 76

Unit 19: Reading comprehension

Page 77

Unit 20: Incomplete sentences

Page 78

Unit 21: Error recognition

Page 81

Unit 22: Understanding documents

Page 82

Unit 1: Let’s remember something about the airport

At the airport

When you first reach the counter, you should give them your ticket and your passport. The first question they usually ask is how many are traveling with you.

"Is anybody traveling with you today?"

"Is anybody else traveling with you?"

"Are just you two traveling today?"

All airlines have a list of questions they have to ask you. Let's look at some of these questions.

"Did someone you do not know ask you to take something on the plane with you?"

"Did you have possession of your luggage since you packed?"

"Did you leave your luggage unattended at all in the airport?"

"Are you carrying any weapons or firearms?"

"Are you carrying any flammable material?"

"Do you have any perishable food items?"

"How many suitcases are you checking in?"

"Do you have a carry on?"

"Can you place your baggage up here?"

"How many carry on bags are you taking with you?"

Afterwards, they might ask if you prefer an aisle seat or a window seat.

"Do you prefer window or aisle?"

If they are out of aisle seats, they will ask you if window is ok.

Example:

"We do not have any aisle seats remaining. Is a window seat ok with you or would you prefer a middle seat?"

1

Some people like to be by the emergency exit. You can ask for that seat.

"Do you have a seat next to the emergency exit?"

"Can I have a seat closest to the emergency exit?"

If they do, then you will get a seat by the exit, but if they don't, they will try to give you one

that is close.

"All the seats next to the exit have been taken. I have a seat directly in front of it. Would you like that one?"

Finally, they will tell you the gate number and the boarding time.

"Here are your tickets. The gate number is at the bottom of the ticket. They will start boarding 20 minutes before the departure time. You should report to gate C2 by then. C2 is around the corner and down the hall. Thank you and enjoy your trip."

Dear students, is everything tickety-boo?

How did you feel, did you remember all your tenses?

Now please practice your pronunciation and fluency pretending to be passengers.

Finally, let’s try with a poem.

In The Park

She sits in the park. Her clothes are out of date. Two children whine and bicker, tug her skirt.

A third draws aimless patterns in the dirt.

Someone she loved once passed by too late.

To feign indifference to that casual nod. “How nice” etcetera. “Time holds great surprises.” From his neat head unquestionably rises a small balloon…”but for the grace of God…”

They stand a while in flickering light, rehearsing the children’s names and birthdays. “It’s so sweet

to hear their chatter, watch them grow and thrive,

she says to his departing smile. Then, nursing the youngest child, sits staring at her feet. To the wind she says, “They have eaten me alive.”

By Gwen Harwood.

2

Unit 2: Asking for an address

Let’s check the translation and practice the next dialogue:

Be careful with the first sentence and review with your professor the difference between:

Where is it?

and

Where it is?

Which one is correct, what about the grammatical structures?

Before continue, be sure that you don’t have any doubt or questions.

Dialogue one:

Edward: Excuse me; I'm looking for Holiday Inn Hotel. Do you know where it is?

Mary: Sure. It is down this street on the left.

Edward: Is it far from here?

Mary: No, it is not far.

Edward: How far is it?

Mary: About a mile and a half.

Edward: How long does it take to get there?

Mary: 5 minutes or so.

Edward: Is it close to the subway station?

Mary: Yes, it is very close. The subway station is next to the hotel. You can walk there.

Edward: Thanks a lot.

3

Unit 3: Let’s learn something else about shopping

Let’s go to the mall.

Beth: Where are you going John?

John: I am going to fashion mall. Would you accompany me?

Beth: I’d love to go. But today I don‘t have any money.

John: Don’t worry, I have. I got my salary yesterday.

Beth: What do you want to buy?

John: I have to buy jeans. We can also enjoy ice-cream.

Beth: I also have to shop for a couple of dresses. I’ll return your money tomorrow.

John: Let’s go.

Beth: Shall we go on bike? Where is your car?

John: It is easy to park a bike. Won’t you sit on bike with me?

Beth: I feel uncomfortable on a bike.

John: OK, we’ll go in the car then.

Directions: Now, please write your own conversation and practice different situations using the images. Get something for a boy, a girl and of course for you.

Try to buy something in this clothing store & a toy for children in a toy shop:

a boy, a girl and of course for you. Try to buy something in this clothing
a boy, a girl and of course for you. Try to buy something in this clothing

4

Unit 4: At a hotel

Booking by phone:

A: Good morning, you’re calling to Rans Hotel, could we help you? B: Yes, I would like a room from the 1st through the 3rd of September, please. A: What kind of room would you like? B: I’d like a twin room, please. A: Hold on, please. Ready, thank you very much. What name do I book? B: Mr. Hamilton, please. Excuse me, how much for the twin room? A: Ninety dollars, before tax. B: Does that include meals? A: Yes, of course Sir. B: OK, I’ll take a room. A: I’ll need to get your credit card information, please.

Checking in:

A: Hi, my name is Edward Hamilton and she’s my wife. We have a reservation. B: Let me check. OK, welcome Mr. Hamilton and Mrs. Hamilton. May I have your credit card, please? A: Yes, of course. Do we pay now or when we check out? B: In advance, please. A: Here you go. B: You are in room 502. Please, let our bellboy help you with your luggage. A: You’re so kind, thank you very much. B: Please, follow me. The lifts are just around the corner. A: Many thanks. B: Is there anything else we can do to help you enjoy your stay? A: Everything is okay, thank you. Oh, by the way, does this hotel have a shuttle bus to downtown? B: No, I’m afraid we don’t, but we will be happy to call a taxi for you when you needed.

Calling the front desk:

A: Good evening, I’m in 502 and I will need a taxi tomorrow at 8:00 o’clock, please. B: Correct Sir, leave it to us. A: Can you give me a wake-up call at 7:00? B: Certainly, do you need something else? A: Yes, do the rooms come equipped with irons? B: No, but they are available free of charge here at the front desk. A: Can you send it up, please? B: Sure thing. Our bellboy should be up there in 5 more minutes. A: OK, thanks for everything. B: Enjoy your stay, and don’t hesitate to call, if there is something else we can do for you.

Please develop further your conversation skills working in teams.

5

Unit 5: Apartment for rent

Last month, I decided to move out of my parents' place and start living on my own.

I searched in the newspaper for apartment listings and found a place not too far from my work. The landlord showed me around the apartment, and because it suited my needs, I signed the rental agreement and paid a deposit, some of which I might get back when I move out.

The apartment has two bedrooms, one bathroom, a living room, and kitchen. It also has a small utility room where I keep my washer and dryer. Right before I moved in, the landlord put in new carpet and had the walls painted, so it looks like a new place.

The rent is $650 a month, not including utilities. I pay about $100 for gas, electricity, water, sewage, and Internet service.

Unfortunately, the apartment complex doesn't allow pets, so my dog has to stay with my parents for now.

I might get a roommate at some point to share expenses, but I haven't decided on that yet.

The place looks a little empty because it isn't furnished, but for the time being, I only have the basics: a bed, a table, a small sofa in the living room, and a TV.

It's not as livable and cozy as my parents' place, but it will have to do for now.

Now, please review the vocabulary above and then move on for speaking practice.

Renting a Place of Your Own

Discussion

What is the process of finding an apartment in your hometown? Can you contact the landlord directly, or do you have to go through a real estate agent? On average, how much does it cost to rent a 1-bedroom apartment? Are most apartments already furnished, or do you have to furnish it yourself?

Role Play

Imagine that you have lived with your roommates for six months, but you've decided to

pizza boxes tossed everywhere,

move out because they haven't taken care of the place

dirty socks on the kitchen table, and a pet snake loose somewhere in the sofa.

Directions: Tell your partner about your current situation, and then explain what kind of place you are looking for.

Just figured that one is the proprietor and the other one is looking for a flat.

6

Unit 6: In the office

Now let’s review some vocabulary.

Directions: On your right hand write the meaning and at the bottom complete the table adding more examples in English and in Spanish.

Adhesive tape

Ballpoint pen

Binder clip

Block of paper

Box

Board eraser

Briefcase

Calculator

Calendar

Chair

Computer

Desk

Desk tidy (GB)

Drawer

Drawing pin (GB)

Eraser (US)

Envelope

Fax machine

File

Filing cabinet

Folder

Fountain pen

Glue

Highlighter pen

In tray (GB), in box (US)

Ink

Ink cartridge

Keyboard

Marker

Monitor

Mouse

Out tray (GB), out box (US)

Overhead projector, OHP

Paper

Paperclip

Pen

Pencil

Pencil holder

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Photocopier

Photocopy

Pin

Printer

Punch, hole punch

Rubber (GB)

Rubber band

Rubber stamp

Ruler

Scissors

Scotch tape (US), Sellotape (GB)

Sheet of paper

Stamp

Stapler

Staple remover

Telephone

Thumbtack (US)

Toner

Typewriter

Type Wheel

Wastepaper basket

Whiteboard

Whiteboard marker

8

Dialogue in the office

Directions: Please, translate and practice your conversation.

Rut: Hello buddy, good morning.

Arthur: Hello Rut, nice to see you! How are you?

Rut: Fine, many thanks. Has our boss come?

Arthur: Yes, he has come earlier today.

Rut: Did he ask anything about me? I missed the bus, hence late.

Arthur: Yes. He asked if you had not come also asked me to tell you to meet him.

Rut: Alright, and what about Kenya? Her seat is vacant.

Arthur: She has gone to the accounts section.

Rut: What for?

Arthur: To see whether she is eligible for house loan.

Rut: Poor woman she is suffering like anything.

Arthur: Why?

Rut: She ought not to have had such a huge family.

Arthur: Has she not undergone family planning?

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Rut: My meaning is not that. She has her sister’s children to support with.

Arthur: Oh, I see.

Rut: And what about you Arthur, how are you?

Arthur: Fine thank you. But I am not peaceful nowadays.

Rut: Why haven’t you found out a way to escape from paying the interest?

Arthur: No. The lenders are not soft hearted.

Rut: It is a pity that our colleagues themselves do not have such tendency.

Arthur: Neither we should lend nor we should borrow.

Rut: But we can help them at times without interest.

Arthur: That is right. We must prove “Friend in need is a friend indeed”.

Rut: Well, I have a lot of work.

Arthur: So do I, let’s move on!

Rut: Thank you very much for helping me.

Arthur: Don’t mention it. It was my pleasure.

Rut: See you later.

Arthur: So long.

10

Unit 7: Office documents

Directions: Please translate the next memo:

Office documents Directions: Please translate the next memo: Directions: Now please compose a formal letter informing

Directions: Now please compose a formal letter informing employees celebrating the anniversary party of the company.

Write it down in your notebook and try to use the correct format and vocabulary for it.

11

Unit 8: Passive voice

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or it is not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone.

Example: You have made a mistake.

Form of Passive Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Eg: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence The finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Example Table 1

Tense

 

Subject

Verb

Object

Simple

Active:

Rita

Writes

a letter.

Present

Passive:

A

letter

is written

by Rita.

 

Simple

Active:

Rita

Wrote

a letter.

Past

Passive:

A

letter

was written

by Rita.

 

Present

Active:

Rita

has written

a letter.

Perfect

Passive:

A

letter

has been written

by Rita.

 

Future I

Active:

Rita

will write

a letter.

Passive:

A

letter

will be written

by Rita.

 

Hilfsverben

Active:

Rita

can write

a letter.

Passive:

A

letter

can be written

by Rita.

 

12

Please, practice with more sentences before you work with the second table.

Example Table 2

Tense

 

Subject

Verb

Object

Present

Active:

Rita

is writing

a letter.

Progressive

Passive:

A

letter

is being written

by Rita.

 

Past

Active:

Rita

was writing

a letter.

Progressive

Passive:

A

letter

was being written

by Rita.

 

Past Perfect

Active:

Rita

had written

a letter.

Passive:

A

letter

had been written

by Rita.

 

Future II

Active:

Rita

will have written

a letter.

Passive:

A

letter

will have been written

by Rita.

 

Conditional

Active:

Rita

would write

a letter.

I

Passive:

A

letter

would be written

by Rita.

 

Conditional

Active:

Rita

would have written

a letter.

II

Passive:

A

letter

would have been written

by Rita.

 

Passive Sentences with Two Objects

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Example Table 3

 

Subject

Verb

 

Object 1

Object 2

Active:

Rita

Wrote

a

letter

to me.

Passive:

A letter

was written

to me

by Rita.

Passive:

I

was written

a

letter

by Rita.

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

13

Example: They build houses. Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: He says. It is said.

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

Directions: Please, rewrite the next sentences in passive:

1. Antares draws a cartoon.

2. Antares drew a cartoon.

3. Antares is drawing a cartoon.

4. Antares was drawing a cartoon.

5. Antares has drawn a cartoon.

6. Antares had drawn a cartoon.

7. Antares will draw a cartoon.

8. Antares is going to draw a cartoon.

9. Antares can draw a cartoon.

10. Antares will have drawn a cartoon.

11. Antares would draw a cartoon.

12. Antares would have drawn a cartoon.

13. Antares drew a cartoon for me.

14. Antares drew a cartoon of dinosaurs.

15. He draws.

Be careful with the last sentence, remember the information you have seen.

14

Unit 9: On vacations!

Planning a trip

Mark: Hello, I want to talk to Paul, please. Paul: Hello, do you have any business for me? Mark: Today is Saturday. I will take you on a trip. Paul: Where are we going? Mark: We are going to Dream Word. Paul: Where will I meet you? Mark: At school. I will wait for you there. Paul: Is there anyone else who will go to Dream Word? Mark: No one is free. Paul: Do they sell food there? Mark: I am not sure. I think they do. Paul: Oh! I forgot that on Saturday I don't have any freetime. Can we change the trip to Sunday? Mark: Yes. Paul: Will we go to Dream Word by bus? Mark: By taxi. Paul: How will we pay? Mark: You pay half and I will pay half. Paul: How much money is it? Mark: About 60 bucks altogether. Paul: What time should I meet you? Mark: About 10 o'clock tomorrow. Paul: O.K., I won't forget it. Mark: I won't forget it either. See you tomorrow.

Directions: Please, practice the next dialogue:

Fay: Hi Jerry. The school year is almost over. Do you have any plans for the summer holiday?

Jerry: I'm planning on sleeping all day, every day!

Fay: Oh, come on Jerry, you must be kidding.

Jerry: Yeah, I'm just pulling your leg. Actually, I'm going to go down to Guizhou Province.

Fay: Really? Why would you go to Guizhou? It's not a very popular tourist site.

Jerry: Exactly! It's not very popular, so it won't be too crowded. I enjoyed my trip to the Great Wall, but there were so many people there. I think it spoiled the atmosphere a bit.

Fay: I'm sure Guizhou won't be so crowded. But won't it be too hot in the summer?

15

Jerry: No, according to one of my students, it's very cool in the summer. He said it is "naturally air conditioned".

Fay: Well, that sounds good. I wouldn't mind getting away from the Beijing heat myself.

Still, I wonder

is there anything worth seeing in Guizhou?

Jerry: Sure! For one thing, there's the beautiful natural scenery. I'm sure you've heard of the Huang Guo Shu Waterfalls. There's also the Maling Gorge which is said to be spectacular. There are mountains everywhere in Guizhou, even in the capital city of Guiyang.

Fay: Yes, I have heard of Huang Guo Shu Pubu, but won't you get bored just looking at the scenery?

Jerry: Come on Fay, there's lots of things to do. I can go hiking in Qian Ling Park in Guiyang, visit Miao villages in the southeast, and I know you've heard of Zunyi, a very historical city. It's where Mao Ze Dong first became the leader of the Red Army.

Fay: Gee, when you describe it like that, it sounds really interesting!

Jerry: And that's not all. I'll be able to eat very delicious, spicy food, drink world-famous maotai, and my student told me I can meet some very beautiful women there!

Fay: I'm sure you'll have fun Jerry, but let me give you some advice. Be sure to hold onto your wallet AND your heart!

Jerry: We'll see what happens!

Fay: Do you have a place to stay in Guizhou?

Jerry: Yes, I'm very lucky. My student's sister is the manager of the Guizhou Park Hotel, the best hotel in the province. I've seen some pictures on the Internet, it's really nice! But I think outside Guiyang, I'll stay in a Miao village or maybe buy a tent and go camping.

Fay: That's great, Jerry. I'm looking forward to seeing your photos when you get back.

Now dear students, you are ready to expose your dreaming trip to class.

Choose a destiny and prepare carefully your exposition. Certainly, you can do it!

expose your dreaming trip to class. Choose a destiny and prepare carefully your exposition. Certainly, you
expose your dreaming trip to class. Choose a destiny and prepare carefully your exposition. Certainly, you

16

expose your dreaming trip to class. Choose a destiny and prepare carefully your exposition. Certainly, you

Unit 10: Phrasal verbs

Introduction to Phrasal Verbs:

Phrasal verbs are verbs with more than one word. Examples: pick up, put down, turn on, turn off

Phrasal verbs are also called "two-part verbs" and "three-part verbs."

Phrasal verbs have a different meaning than their one-word counterparts.

For example:

Pick means to choose, but pick up means to lift something. Get means to obtain something, but get along with means to have a good relationship with someone.

Just a simple particle like: “up” or “along with” makes an entirely new meaning, and for that reason, it’s very important to learn about phrasal verbs. Learning these phrasal verbs expands your vocabulary greatly.

Phrasal verbs can be used in any tense simple present or past, present perfect, etc. They can also be used with modals, and used in the passive voice.

Examples: call up (s) = to telephone someone Present: I call up my friend every day. Past:

I called my sister up yesterday. Present perfect: I haven’t called my brother up for a long time. Modal: I would call him up, but he’s never home. Passive: He’s been called up by many people, but he’s never available to talk on the phone.

There are two types of phrasal verbs: separable and non separable.

Non separable phrasal verbs are also called "inseparable". Non separable phrasal verbs must always remain together:

Example: take off (n) = to depart CORRECT: The plane took off at noon. (verb + particle together) INCORRECT: The plane took at noon off. (both words MUST be together)

Separable phrasal verbs can be written three different ways:

Example: take off (s) to remove clothing CORRECT: Sara took off her jacket. (verb + particle together) CORRECT: Sara took her jacket off. (verb + particle separated by noun) CORRECT: Sara took it off. (verb + particle separated with a pronoun) INCORRECT: Sara took off it. (the pronoun MUST be in the middle)

Abbreviations used in the next phrasal verbs tables: (N) = non-separable phrasal verb and (S) = separable phrasal verb

17

Phrasal Verb:

S

Meaning:

 

Examples:

N

ACT LIKE

N

to act in a certain manner to behave like --

•Mary is acting like my friend, but she isn’t. •My brother was acting like a wild animal last night.

ACT UP

N

to behave badly

•The children acted up in class today.

ACT UP

N

to work improperly

•My computer has been acting up lately. It needs to be repaired.

ADD ON

S

to increase something

•Our house was too small, so we added another bedroom on.

ADD UP

S

to find the amount to calculate a total figure

A) How much is the tax?

B)

I don't know. I'll have

 

to add it up.

ADD UP TO

N

to find the total

A) All of those items add up to $550.00.

B)

That's a lot of money!

ASK OUT

S

to invite someone on a date

•That handsome boy asked me out. We're going to see a movie together.

BACK AWAY

N

to retreat

•The people backed away from the tiger.

BACK DOWN

N

to not follow a threat

•Terry was going to hit the man, but then he backed down when he saw that the man was much bigger than he is!

BACK OFF

N

to move in reverse; move backwards

•You are crowding me. Please back up a few steps. •Harry backed off when Susan came near.

BACK UP

S

to drive a vehicle in reverse; move backwards

•She backed the car up to the garage door. •When he backed up, he tripped over a shoe.

BACK UP

S

to make a protection copy

•Don't forget to back your computer files up!

BACK UP

S

to confirm facts; support

•Frank backed Mary's story up. He told us the same facts that Mary told us.

18

BEAT UP

S

to hurt someone by hitting and/or kicking the person repeatedly

•The men in the pub were trying to beat each other up. It was a terrible fight! •My brother and I used to beat each other up.

BEG OFF

N

to ask to be excused from something

•My friends were

supposed to come over for dinner, but they begged

 

off.

BEND OVER

N

to bend at the waist

•Sam hurt his back when he bent over to pick up his

shoes.

BLEND IN

N

to match the surroundings

•New immigrants often try to blend in with the citizens of a country.

WITH

BLOW UP

S

to explode; destroy with an explosion

•The bomb blew the room up, but nobody was hurt. •The socket blew up when I plugged the fan in.

BLOW UP

N

to explode with anger; to suddenly become angry

•Maxine blew up when I

told her I lost her new

 

CD.

•I don’t appreciate you

blowing up at me.

BLOW UP

S

to inflate something

•The clown blew up the

balloons.

•The clown blew the

balloons up. •He blew them up.

BONE UP ON

N

to study something intensely for a short time; to refresh one's memory with information

•Nick's study group boned up on prepositions before the test. •Gina hadn’t studied verbs for a long time, so she boned up on them to refresh her memory.

BOSS AROUND

S

to tell someone what to do constantly

•I hate when my sister tries to boss me around! •I don’t like to be bossed around by anyone.

BREAK DOWN

N

to lose control of one's emotions

•Brent broke down in tears when he heard that his wife had been saved from the fire.

BREAK DOWN

N

to stop working

•Sara's car broke down

yesterday.

19

     

•My tape player is going to break down soon.

BREAK DOWN

S

to dismantle, destroy

•The burglars broke the door down when they came in last night.

BREAK DOWN

S

to separate something into its component parts

•The production costs were very high. When we broke the costs down, we’d spent more on marketing than on the actual product.

BREAK IN

S

to work something so as to be usable; to wear something new until it is comfortable

•My shoes hurt my feet because they haven't been broken in yet. •I need to break in my new baseball glove.

BREAK IN

S

to train; get accustomed to a new routine

•One of the manager's duties is to break the new employees in.

BREAK INTO

N

to enter forcefully or abruptly

•Cory broke into a house and stole a TV. Now, he's in jail!

BREAK OFF

S

to end a conversation

•When I walked into the room, Sara and Sam broke off their conversation. I wonder what they were talking about?

BREAK OFF

S

to end a relationship

•Allen and I broke our engagement off. We're not going to get married.

BREAK UP

N

to end a relationship

•Peter and June broke up yesterday.

BREAK UP WITH

N

to end a relationship

•Peter and June broke up with each other yesterday.

BRING BACK

N

to return something

•My homework is due tomorrow. Will you please bring my book back today?

BRING OFF

S

to accomplish something difficult; do the impossible or unlikely

•Nobody thought Cari could get an A in that class, but she brought it off! •Mel Gibson brought off a wonderful performance.

BRING UP

S

to mention

•No one brought the

20

     

subject of employee raises up at the meeting.

BRING UP

S

to raise; rear

•I was brought up with very strict rules. I had to be a good child, or I was punished.

BRUSH UP ON

N

to practice, to improve your skill or knowledge

•Nick's study group brushed up on pronouns before the test.

BURN DOWN

N

to destroy by fire (Note: For standing things--trees, buildings, etc.--only.)

•If you smoke in bed, you may burn the house down. •The forest fire burned the forest down.

BURN UP

S

to destroy by fire (For non- standing things & people only.)

•All of their pictures burned up in the fire. •After Peter and Judy broke up, she burned his clothes up and threw his things away!

BURN UP

S

to cause someone to become very angry

•That rude woman really burned me up! Arrgh!!!

BUTT INTO

N

to enter a conversation uninvited; rudely interrupt

•That rude man butted into our conversation. •It’s impolite to butt into someone’s business.

BUTT IN

N

to enter uninvited; to interrupt

•The impatient women butted in the line at the market.

BUTT OUT

N

to tell someone to mind their own business.

•Butt out! This is none of your business!

BUTTER UP

S

to praise someone excessively with the hope of getting some benefit

•I guess Marilyn really wants to be promoted. She's been buttering her supervisor up all week.

CALL BACK

N

to return a phone call; to call again

•Could you call back later please? •Hey Sara, don’t forget to call Sam back.

CALL OFF

S

to cancel something

•Shelly called the wedding off because her boyfriend cheated on her.

CALL ON

N

to ask a student to speak in class

•The teacher called on Lee for the answer. •I hope the teacher calls on me today.

CALL ON

N

to visit somebody at his/her

•Frank called on Sara.

21

   

home

They visited for two hours. •Elizabeth will call on us later.

CALL OUT

N

to shout aloud

•When the lights went out, I called out for help.

CALL UP

S

to telephone someone

•Sara’s secretary called the client up.

CALM DOWN

S

to help someone/oneself become calmer, less upset; stop being emotionally distressed

•Steve was so upset that no one could calm him down. •Your cat isn’t missing, so calm down!

CARE FOR

N

to like, want (Note: This is usually negative, but it may be used in questions.)

• A) "Would you care for some dessert? We have ice cream, cookies, or cake." B) "No thank you. I don't care for sweets."

CARE FOR

N

to take care of; give care to; attend / watch

•Emily's grandfather got out of the hospital last week. Her family is caring for him at home.

CARRY ON

S

to continue

•I'm sorry I interrupted you. Please carry on.

CARRY OUT

S

to complete a task

•The secretary carried her boss's orders out exactly as he asked.

CATCH ON

N

to become popular

•Orange hats with purple spots will never catch on!

CATCH ON

N

to gain understanding or knowledge of something.

•My mom had never used email until her company went online, but she caught on very quickly, and now she sends email to everyone she knows.

CATCH UP

N

to stop being behind; to get to the same level as others

•The new employees are slow workers, but they'll catch up as they learn more.

CHECK IN

N

to register (usually at a meeting, hotel, airport, or hospital)

•Thomas checked in at the front desk. •What time do we need to check in?

CHECK INTO

N

to investigate; find information

•Leonardo DiCaprio's agent checked into the

22

     

rumor about Leo marrying his co-star. The rumor was untrue.

CHECK OFF

S

to make a mark to indicate that something on a list has been completed

•The teacher checked the students’ homework off as they handed it in. •He checked off the items as he bought groceries.

CHECK OUT

N

to follow procedures for leaving (a meeting, hotel, hospital, etc.)

•Thomas checked out on Friday.

CHECK OUT

S

to follow procedures for borrowing something (usually for a period of time)

•Peter checked a few books out of the library. •Here is it. I checked this book out for you.

CHECK OUT

S

to appraise

•I asked the jeweler to check my ring out. I think the stone is loose.

CHECK OUT

S

to look at (slang)

•Check that car out; it is beautiful!

CHEER UP

S

to help someone feel less worried, depressed or sad

•Hank was sad about failing his test, so I took him out to dinner to cheer him up.

CHEW OUT

S

to berate; scold someone severely

•My teacher chewed some students out today. •I chewed my son out for coming home late.

CHICKEN OUT

N

to lose the courage or confidence to do something-- usually at the last minute

•Mark was going to ask Lisa for a date when he saw her, but he chickened out. •I wanted to go skydiving, but I chickened out.

CHIP IN

N

to add money to something done by a group

•We chipped in and bought our boss a birthday gift.

CLAM UP

N

to refuse to talk about something

•The robber clammed up when the police questioned him about his partner.

CLAM UP

N

to suddenly become quiet

•My friends clammed up when I walked into the room. Nobody would tell me what they were talking

23

     

about.

CLEAN UP

S

to clean something completely

•Kids - clean your room up and then we'll leave. •Tiffany cleaned her room up on Saturday.

CLEAR UP

S

to clarify; explain

•Her explanation cleared the misunderstanding up.

CLEAR AWAY

S

to remove

•When the dinner dishes were cleared away, we played cards at the table.

COME ACROSS

N

to find; to discover unexpectedly; find by chance

•I came across an old picture in my desk drawer. •Have you come across my earring? I lost it.

COME DOWN

N

to become ill with ( a sickness )

•Ted came down with the flu yesterday.

WITH

 

I hope his children don't come down with it too.

COME TO

N

to regain consciousness; come awake

A) "Nurse, has the

patient come to yet?" B) "Not yet doctor. He's still in a coma."

COME TO

N

to total an amount

•Let's see

You ordered

5 hamburgers and 10 hotdogs. That comes to

$12.00.

COME UP

N

to be mentioned

•Did the topic of employee raises come up at the meeting yesterday?

COME UP

N

to suddenly think of an idea

•The marketing department came up with a brilliant idea.

WITH

COPY DOWN

N

to record in writing

•Patty gave Max her phone number and Max copied it down.

COUNT ON

N

to rely on; depend on; trust that something will happen; trust that someone will do as expected

•Are you crazy? You can't count on winning the lottery! Stop buying so many lotto tickets! •I just can’t count on Steve. He never does what he says he will do.

CROSS OUT

S

to draw a line through mistakes; show that something written is wrong or unnecessary by making an

•Sara crossed her spelling mistake out, then wrote the correct word. •We can't afford to buy

24

   

X across it

everything on the list, so I crossed all the unnecessary things out.

CUT BACK ON

N

to reduce; to lower; to use less of something

•The doctor told me to cut back on sugar and fat in my diet.

CUT DOWN

S

to cut something completely at the base

•They cut the tree down. •Don’t cut my bush down please.

CUT DOWN

N

to reduce; to lower; to use less of something

•My brother needs to cut down on smoking.

ON

CUT OFF

S

to stop service

•When we didn't pay the bill, the electricity was cut off.

CUT OFF

S

to sever; remove by cutting

•The doctor cut off the infected finger. •Vincent Van Gogh, the painter, cut his ear off.

CUT OFF

N

to eliminate from contact

•He was cut off from the city by the storm. He couldn't get home.

CUT OUT

S

to remove something

•I cut the picture out of the magazine.

CUT OUT

S

to stop something

•She cut out smoking and now her health is better.

CUT UP

S

to slice

•We cut the pizza up and gave everyone a slice.

DIE DOWN

N

to decrease

•I think the wind is finally dying down.

DIG UP

S

to look for and find hidden information; to uncover information

•Politicians like to dig embarrassing information up about other politicians.

DO IN

S

to make tired; to exhaust

•Working in the factory really did me in today. I'm exhausted.

DO IN

S

to kill; to murder

•The killer did his victim in by poisoning him.

DO OVER

S

to do something again; repeat a task

•Please do your composition over. There are too many mistakes.

DO UP

S

to fasten; to close

•Please do up your jacket before you go outside.

DO WITH

N

to be related or connected to something

• A) "What's a carburetor?" B) "It has something to do with cars."

25

DO WITHOUT

N

to get along without a necessary item or to manage without a necessary item

•We don't have any lettuce, so we'll have to do without salad with dinner tonight. •Can you do without your dictionary today?

DRAG ON

N

to continue for an extremely long time; last much longer than expected or is necessary

•That boring movie dragged on and on. I thought it would never end! •The professor’s lecture is certainly dragging on today. I hope he finishes soon!

DRAW OUT

S

to prolong something longer than necessary; make something last far longer than normal

•Our boss drew the meeting out until we were all bored and disinterested! •The singer isn’t ready. Please draw your act out until he finishes getting dressed.

DRAW UP

S

to create a formal document; to compose

•The lawyer drew up the company contract. •The architect drew the building plans up.

DREAM UP

S

to think of something new; create

•Versace dreamed a lot of new fashions up. •Thomas Edison dreamed up many inventions.

DRESS UP

S

to put on formal clothing

•I couldn't believe that the bride didn't dress up for her own wedding! She wore blue jeans!

DRINK UP

S

to finish a drink

•Drink up everyone! The pub is closing in five minutes!

DROP BY

N

to visit informally (usually without scheduling a specific time)

•If you're in the area, we'd love to see you. Please drop by any time.

DROP IN ON

N

to visit informally (usually without scheduling a specific time)

•If you're in the area, we'd love to see you. Please drop in on us any time.

DROP OFF

S

to deliver something

•I can take that letter to the post office. I'll drop

26

     

it off when I leave.

DROP OFF

S

to give someone a ride

•I can drop Jerry off on my way home.

DROP OUT OF

N

to stop attending a class; quit school

•Did you hear? Brett dropped out of school last week. He decided to join the Navy.

EAT OUT

N

to go out and eat; have a meal in a restaurant

•Let's eat out at the Hard Rock Cafe. •Are you going to eat out tonight?

EAT UP

S

to finish a meal; to eat all of something

•The boys ate up all of the food in the refrigerator. Now we have nothing to eat.

EGG ON

S

to encourage someone greatly to do something (usually something bad)

•At first the guys were just having a small argument, but their friends egged them on until they started fighting.

END UP

N

to finally arrive at; to arrive at an unexpected place

•At first we got totally lost, but we finally ended up at the right restaurant.

END UP

N

to arrive somewhere as a result or consequence of one's actions

•If you don't stop stealing, you'll end up in jail! •We forgot our map and we ended up in Chicago!

EVEN OUT

S

to make something equal

•After my sister cut her hair by herself, we had to take her to a hairdresser to even her hair out.

FACE UP TO

N

to admit to; take responsibility for

•You need to face up to the truth. You are not doing a good job.

FALL DOWN

N

to fall to the floor or ground

•Betty fell down and hurt her arm. •Careful! The baby is going to fall down again!

FALL THROUGH

N

to not happen (Used for events that were planned but did not happen.)

•Our plans to go to the beach fell through because Sally couldn't go.

FEEL UP TO

N

to feel strong enough or comfortable enough to do

•Is your cold better now? Do you feel up to going to

27

   

something

work today?

FIGHT OFF

S

to keep something or someone away

•I'm trying to fight a cold off. •Sara fought off her attackers.

FIGURE OUT

S

to logically find the answer to a problem; solve a problem by thinking about it carefully

•Did you figure that math problem out yet? •I haven’t figured out what to do about my broken down car yet. Maybe I’ll buy a new one.

FIGURE OUT

S

to understand why someone behaves a certain way

•I just can't figure out why President Clinton did that! What a stupid thing to do! •Have you figured out why he said that?

FILL IN

S

to add missing details

•It's not a good idea to fill your email address in on forms over the internet.

FILL IN

S

to supply information that someone doesn't know

•What happened at the meeting? Can you fill me in please?

FILL IN FOR

N

to temporarily do someone else's work; temporarily substitute for another person

•The secretary filled in for his boss at the conference. •I’ll fill in for you. Go eat lunch. I’ll see you in an hour.

FILL OUT

S

to complete information on a form or application

•My brother filled a loan application out. He wants to buy a house.

FILL OUT

N

to gain weight and look healthy

•Arnold used to be a very small boy, but now he's really filled out. He's got muscles everywhere!

FILL UP

S

to fill completely

•You may borrow my car, but please fill up the gas tank before you return it.

FIND OUT

S

to learn about something; get information; discover information

•Can you find out where I need to go please? •I found out where babies come from when I was 10 years old.

FIT IN

N

to get along with others in a group; be part of a group

•Amy has few friends. She doesn't really fit in

28

     

with her classmates. It's a sad situation.

FOOL AROUND

N

to have fun while wasting time

•We fooled around at Jack's house.

GET ACROSS

S

to make something understood; communicate something understandably

•Gary couldn't get his message across in Japanese. •Finally he got the message across in English.

GET AHEAD

N

to achieve success

•After several slow business years, our company finally got ahead of the competition.

GET ALONG WITH

N

to have a friendly relationship with

•Do you get along with your family? •Cain didn’t get along with Abel.

GET AROUND

N

to move from place to place

•Walter gets around town on his bicycle.

GET AROUND

N

to avoid having to do something

•The kids tried to get around doing the dishes, but they weren't successful.

GET AROUND TO

N

to finally do something; to do something eventually

•I'll get around to doing the laundry soon, but I'm busy right now.

GET AT

N

to try to prove or make clear

•I couldn't understand what Gary was getting at. He didn't make any sense.

GET AWAY

N

to escape

•Walter tried to get away from the office, but he had too much work to do.

GET AWAY WITH

N

to escape punishment ;to avoid criticism

•Edgar got away with stealing that money. He should have gone to jail!

GET BACK

N

to return

•What time will you get back home tonight?

GET BY

N

to survive, financially, in a difficult situation

•After the fire, the family had to get by without a house.

GET EVEN WITH

N

to get revenge; seek revenge; repay in kind

•When Terry told a lie about me, I got even with him by telling the teacher.

GET IN

N

to enter

•We have get in the elevator now.

GET IN

N

to enter a small, closed

•Sara got in her car and

29

   

vehicle

drove away. • The movie star got in the limousine.

GET IN

N

to arrive

•What time will your flight get in tonight?

GET INTO

N

to become strongly involved with or deeply interested in

•I'm sorry, I just can't get into the game right now. I'm thinking about work.

GET OFF

N

to dismount

•Cher got off the horse, then took it to the barn.

GET OFF

N

to be excused from work, class, or other regularly scheduled activities

•Pam got off work early because she had already finished her project.

GET OFF

N

to finish your workday

•I get off at 5:30. Let's meet for dinner.

GET OFF

N

to receive a lesser punishment than what might be expected

•Edgar got off easy after he stole that money. He should have gone to jail!

GET OFF

N

to leave a large, closed vehicle

•Martin will get off the bus in Los Angeles.

GET ON

N

to enter a large, closed vehicle

•Quick! Get on the train - it's about to leave.

GET ON

N

to mount something

•Let's go. Get on your bicycle. It's time to leave.

GET ON

N

to upset; to make angry

•That music is really getting on my nerves!

GET OUT OF

N

to leave a small, closed vehicle

•Get out of the taxi now, because we're here!

GET OUT OF

N

to avoid having to do something

•The kids tried to get out of doing the dishes, but they weren't successful.

GET OVER

N

to recover from an illness or painful experience; overcome; surmount

•I hope Jeffrey gets over his cold soon. •It took me a week to get over my sprained ankle.

GET OVER

N

to finish (for individual activities, not repeated actions)

•What time does the party get over? •Class gets over at 12:30. I’ll see you then.

GET RID OF

N

to dispose of; give away or throw out

•I think it's time to get rid of those shoes. They have too many holes in them!

GET RID OF

N

to fire someone from a job; cause someone to leave; dismiss someone

•The manager got rid of the secretary because he wasn't doing his job

30

     

properly.

GET THROUGH

N

to move past a difficult time/place

•After John's wife died, he had to get through his sadness.

GET TOGETHER

N

to meet; gather; assemble in a group

•Let's get together at Marta's apartment.

GET UP

N

to leave bed after sleeping and begin your daily activities

•When Steve got up this morning, it was still dark. •What time do you usually get up?

GIVE AWAY

S

to dispose of; get rid of or throw out

•We gave our old sofa away when we bought a new one.

GIVE AWAY

S

to reveal a secret; tell information

•Sam gave the surprise away when he talked to Lee.

GIVE BACK

S

to return something

•Please give me my book back.

GIVE OUT

S

to distribute

•The manager gave the awards out at lunchtime.

GIVE UP

S

to stop, quit, or abandon

•You can learn English! Don't give up!

GIVE UP

S

to stop a habit

•You'll get cancer if you don't give up smoking.

GO AFTER

N

to seek; try to obtain something

•I plan to go after the new position at work. •Paul went after some milk at the store.

GO AHEAD

N

to give permission to proceed

•Go ahead and take an early lunch. •Students, you may go ahead and begin writing.

GO AWAY

N

to leave; to command someone to leave

•I'll be going away on vacation for a while. I'll send you a postcard.

GO BACK

N

to return

•Although he's forty-two, he's going back to the university to get his degree.

GO BACK ON

N

to betray, rescind one's word

•He said he'd help me, but then he went back on his promise.

GO DOWN

N

to decrease

•I hope the gasoline prices go down soon!

GO FOR

N

to try to secure or attain

•Every Olympic athlete wants to go for the gold.

31

     

Each team wants to win.

GO FOR

N

to want something

•I could go for a big juicy cheeseburger right now!

GO OUT

N

to have a date with; be in a relationship with someone

•Do you know if Gwyneth Paltrow and Ben Affleck are going out? Or are they just friends?

GO OUT WITH

N

to have a date with; be in a relationship with someone

•Do you know if Rita is going out with Samuel next Friday night?

GO OVER

N

to examine

•My supervisor went over my report carefully.

GO THROUGH

N

to examine; to search

•The customs officer went through my bag. •Parents often go through their kids’ rooms.

GO THROUGH

N

to perform; to carry out

•The salesclerk went through her duties without thinking, and that's how she lost the money.

GO THROUGH

N

to experience

•I am going through a difficult time right now.

GO UP

N

to increase; to rise

•The price of rent went up in January.

GO WITH

N

to coordinate; to look pleasing together

•Your shirt really goes with your eyes. •His tie doesn't go with his shirt.

GO WITH

N

to date; to be in a steady relationship

•Is Gwyneth Paltrow going with Ben Affleck? Or are they just friends?

GOOF OFF

N

to waste time being lazy; do nothing in particular

•We goofed off last night. It was fun to relax.

GROW INTO

N

to change to fit something

•The baby’s shirt doesn't fit right now, but in six months, he'll grow into it.

GROW UP

N

to change from child to adult; behave responsibly

•What do you want to be when you grow up?

HAND IN

S

to submit work you have done

•Harold handed his report in. His boss liked it. •You must hand your homework in on Friday.

HAND OUT

S

to distribute

•The teacher always asks me to hand the homework papers out.

32

HANG AROUND

N

to have fun while wasting time

•The local kids like to hang around the mall.

HANG ON

N

to wait; to wait on the telephone

•Please hang on for a minute. I need to find a pen. •Petra had to hang on for ten minutes.

HANG OUT

N

to have fun while wasting time

The local kids like to hang out at the mall. •Are you hanging out with Frank today?

HANG UP

S

to end a phone call

•My ex-husband hung up when I phoned him.

HANG UP

S

to put away your clothes on a hanger

•Please hang your shirts up before they get wrinkled.

HOLD BACK

S

to restrain

•That man was so rude! I had to hold myself back from hitting him!

HOLD DOWN

S

to keep a job

•Jeremy just can't seem to hold a job down. •Jon has held down the same job for ten years.

HOLD ON

N

to wait

•Hold on a minute! I need to tie my shoe.

HOLD UP

S

to raise; lift to a higher- than-normal position

•Hold your arm up so I can fix this sleeve. •Be proud of yourself. Hold your head up high.

HOLD UP

S

to delay; to cause a delay

•The traffic was so bad that it held me up for 2 hours.

HOLD UP

S

to rob; to steal

•In New York, many people get held up every day.

HURRY UP

S

to go faster, to rush

•We need to hurry up and leave or we'll be late!

IRON OUT

S

to reach an agreement; to resolve difficulties or problems

•Pablo and Lee will iron their difficulties out after the meeting.

JACK UP

S

to lift by using a jack

•We'll need to jack the front of the car up before we can change the tire.

JACK UP

S

to raise prices (usually unfairly)

•During the rainstorm, the store jacked the price of

33

     

umbrellas up.

JOT DOWN

S

to write something down; take notes

•Max jotted down Sarah's phone number. •Jot your password down. Don’t lose it.

JUMP ALL OVER

N

to scold someone suddenly and severely; to berate someone suddenly

•When my report was late, my supervisor jumped all over me.

KEEP AWAY

S

to not allow to come near

•In stories and legends, garlic keeps vampires away.

KEEP ON

N

to continue to remind someone to do something until it is done (even if it angers the person); nag

•My boss always keeps on me. She thinks I'll forget my own name if she doesn't remind me!

KEEP ON -ing

N

to continue

•Keep on going! You can do

it!

KEEP UP

N

to maintain contact with

•I can't keep up with my brother when we go riding because he goes too fast.

WITH

KEEP UP

N

to continue without interruption

•The rain kept up all night.

thought we'd have a flood.

I

KICK OUT

S

expel; force someone to leave because of his/her poor performance or unacceptable behavior

•The health club kicked Frank out because he didn't pay his dues.

KNOCK

S

to strike to the ground

•The tornado knocked the house down. •A monkey knocked some bananas down.

DOWN

KNOCK

S

to strike with a sharp blow

•During the storm, the door flew open and

DOWN

knocked me knocked down.

I

was slightly hurt.

KNOCK OUT

S

to make unconscious

•The fight ended when one boxer knocked the other one out.

LAY OFF

S

to dismiss from a job due to lack of work or money - often temporarily

•I feel bad for Jeremy. His company laid him off yesterday.

LAY OFF

N

to leave someone alone

•I wish my aunt would lay off me. I'm tired of her complaining.

LEAVE OUT

S

to omit; forget to include

•Oh no! When I retyped my essay, I left one

34

     

paragraph out!

LET DOWN

S

to disappoint; to fall short of one's expectations

•The boys let their parents down when they ended up in jail.

LET FLY

S

to throw an object

•The baseball player let the ball fly.

LET GO

S

to dismiss someone from a job; to fire someone

•If Jeremy had done better work, his company wouldn't have let him go.

LET GO

S

to release something

•Please let go of my books. I want to leave now.

LET IN

S

to admit; to allow (obj.) to enter

•Kaye opened the door and let the cats in.

LET ON ABOUT

N

to reveal a secret

•Nobody let on about the surprise party.

LET ON

N

to make acknowledgment

•Frank didn't let on that he knew he was in trouble. He pretended that everything was fine.

LET OUT

N

to conclude a session or performance

•School will let out in June. •The movie let out at 7:45 last night.

LET OUT

S

to allow (obj.) to exit

•Eric opened the door and let the cats out.

LET OUT

S

to expand; to make larger (for clothes)

•The tailor let Mack's pants out because Mack had gained weight.

LET UP

N

to cease; to stop

•Will this rain ever let up? It's been raining for two weeks!

LIE DOWN

N

to recline

•If you are tired, lie down on the sofa.

LIE DOWN

N

to submit meekly or abjectly to defeat, disappointment, or insult

•Your friend insulted you? Don't take his insult lying down - tell him he is wrong about you!

LIE DOWN

N

to fail to perform or to neglect one's part deliberately

•Jeremy was fired because he was lying down on the job. He never finished anything!

LINE UP

N

to go stand in a line; to assume an orderly linear arrangement

•The prisoners lined up to receive their dinner. •The cars lined up at the traffic light.

LOCK IN

N

to lock the door so that

•The prisoners are locked

35

   

someone can't leave

in the jail. They cannot get out until they serve their time.

LOCK OUT

S

to lock the door so that someone can't enter (often done in anger)

•My brother came home late to find that my parents had locked him out of the house. He had to sleep outside!

LOOK AFTER

N

to take care of

•My sister looks after our children when we travel. •Please look after my dog this weekend.

LOOK AROUND

N

to explore an area

•Maxine went to Los Angeles and looked around the downtown area for 2 hours.

LOOK BACK ON

N

to think about the past; reflect; ponder

•On birthdays, many people like to look back on their life for the past year.

LOOK DOWN

N

to have no respect for something or someone; to consider inferior

•Josephine looked down on the French people. She said, "Let them eat cake," but she didn't understand that they had no food at all.

ON

LOOK FOR

N

to search

•I spent two hours looking for my glasses before I found them.

LOOK FORWARD TO

N

to anticipate something with joy; to think about a pleasant thing before it happens

•I am looking forward to my vacation. •The students aren’t looking forward to their final exam in grammar class.

LOOK IN ON

N

to visit someone in order to check on his/her condition

•I need to look in on my grandmother. She just got home from the hospital. I want to make sure she is OK.

LOOK INTO

N

to research; investigate; find the truth about something

•The police will look into the crime. •My supervisor has already looked into the problem.

LOOK LIKE