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GUIDED BY: Dr. Mrs. Ratna Philip, Principal
PRESENTED BY: Mrs. Udaya Sree.G, M.Sc. (N) II year
Credentialing is the process of establishing the qualification of licensed
professionals, organizational members or organizations, and assessing
their background and legitimacy. Many health care institutions and
provider networks conduct their own credentialing, generally through a
credentialing specialist or electronic service, with review by a medical
staff or credentialing committee. It may include granting and reviewing
specific clinical privileges and medical or allied health staff membership.
1) Credentialing is the process by which selected professionals are
granted privileges to practice within an organization. In health care
organizations this process has been largely confined to physicians.
Limited privileges have been granted to psychologists, social workers and
selected categories of nurses, such as nurse anaesthetists, surgical
nurses, and midwifes.
-Russell C Swans burg

2) Credentialing is the process of establishing the qualifications of

licensed professionals, organizational members or organizations, and
assessing their background and legitimacy.
3) A credential is an attestation of qualification, competence, or authority
issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant de jure or de facto
authority or assumed competence to do so.
1) To prevent a problem before it happens.
2) To research the qualifications and backgrounds of individuals and
companies. Credentialing is also the process of reviewing and verifying
Credentialing is very significant because it shows that an individual or
company performing a service is qualified to do so. For example: your
doctor must have certain credentials to prescribe medicine to you.
It is a good idea to have credentialing process to protect you and your
business from a lawsuit or other legal problems. For instance, lets say
you hire a teacher to work in your day care centre, and this person is a
sex offender. The credentialing process could have prevented this through
a background check.
Almost all professions require, to a certain degree, some sort of
credentials. Police departments, Fire-fighters, lawyers, accountants and
nurses all need credentials. You need credentials to drive a car or semitruck. All states require citizens to take a driving test.


Health care credentialing is a system used by various organizations and
agencies to ensure that their health care practitioners meet all the
necessary requirements and are appropriately qualified. The credentials
may vary depending on the specified area of the practitioner. For
example: An X-ray technician may have different credentialing forms than
an osteopathic physician.
1) Practitioners

Medical Doctors (MD)

Doctor of osteopathy (DO)
Doctor of Podiatric
Medicine (DPM)
Doctor of Chiropractic (DC)
Doctor of dental Medicine (DMD)
Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS)
Doctor of Optometry (OD)
Doctor of Psychology (PhD)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

2) Extenders
Physician of assistant (PA)
Certified Nurse Practitioner (CRNP)
Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM).
3) Facility and Ancillary service Providers

Nursing Homes
Skilled Nursing Facilities
Home Health
Home Infusion Therapy
Hospice, Rehabilitation Facilities
Freestanding Surgery Centres
Freestanding Radiology Centres
Portable X-ray Suppliers
End Stage Renal Disease Facilities

Clinical Laboratories
Outpatient Physical therapy and Speech Therapy providers
Rural Health Clinics
Federally Qualified Health Centres Orthotic
Prosthetic providers
Durable Medical Equipment (DME) providers.

1) Appointment: Evaluation and selection for nursing staff membership.
2) Clinical privileges: Delineation of the specific nursing specialties that
may be managed types of illnesses or patients that may be managed
within the institution for each member of the nursing staff.
3) Periodic reappraisal: Continuing review and evaluation of each
member of the nursing staff to assure that competence is maintained and
consistent with privileges.
Criteria for appointments would include proof of licensure, education and
training, specialty board certification, previous experience, and
recommendations. Clinical privileges criteria would include the proof of
specialty training and of performance of nursing procedures or specialty
care during training and previous appointments.
A report of the Committee for the study of Credentialing in Nursing was
made in 1979. It included fourteen principles of credentialing related to:
1) Those credentialed.
2) Legitimate interests of involved occupation, institution, and general
3) Accountability
4) A system of checks and balances
5) Periodic assessments
6) Objective standards and criteria and persons competent in their use
7) Representation of the community of the interests

8) Professional identity and responsibility

9) An effective system of role delineation
10) An effective system of program identification
11) Coordination of credentialing mechanisms
12) Geographic mobility
13) Definitions and terminology
14) Communications and understanding.
The selection process starts when applications are screened in the
personnel department. Selecting includes interviewing, the employers
offer, acceptance by the applicant, and signing of a contract or written
Those applicants who seem to meet the job requirements are sent blank
job-application forms and are directed to fill them up and return the same
for further action. The job application form is one of most important tools
in the selection process.
It is the process of choosing from among applicants the best qualified
individuals, Selecting includes interviewing, the employers offer,
acceptance by the applicant, and signing of a contract or written offer..
Selection may be carried out centrally or locally, but in either case certain
policies or methods are adopted.
1. Application forms
The issue and receipt of application forms is the administrative
responsibility, and much of the preliminary work is handled by the clerical
staff under the supervision of the administrative head of the college. The
information contained in the application form and reports received in
connection with them should be systematically tabulated and filed as they

are useful for evaluating the effectiveness of the form, analysing entrance
performance, and knowing from which parts of the state or country the
students are most frequently admitted or apply for admission.
2. Selection committee
Usually the selection occurs in the college itself. Otherwise, if the
selection is carried outside the college, it is important that at least
representatives of the college be a part of committee and as far as
possible student is selected for a specific college according to its
individual admission policies and the programme it offers.
3. Orientation programme
After admission an orientation programme is to be conducted to make the
students aware of the college rules, hostel rules and the hospital and the
college building and associated parallel medical education departments.
Orientation should be given by a senior faculty of the college of nursing.
Orientation programme may take three to five days.
4. Development of master plan
When a particular batch is admitted the class teacher may draw a master
plan according to which the whole programme is planned. Date of
examinations and periodic evaluation measures etc are formulated.
5. Parent teachers association
All parents are enrolled in the parent teachers association and this will
help to have a contact between the family members and teachers. This
will help to improve the administration. Meetings of PTA are held
frequently and the parents are kept informed of the students progress.
STEPS IN SELECTION: The steps which constitute the employee
selection process are the following:
I. Interview by personnel department

II. Pre-employment tests-written/oral/practical

III. Interview by department head
IV. Decision of administrator to accept or reject
V. Medical examination
VI. Check of references
VII. Issue of appointment letter.

I. Interviewing
Interviewing is the main method of appraising an applicants suitability for
a post. This is the most intricate and difficult part of the selection process.
The employment interview can be divided into four parts:


warm-up stage
drawing-out stage
information stage
forming an-opinion stage

Main objectives of an interview

1) For the employer to obtain all the information about the candidate to
decide about his suitability for the post.
2) To give the candidate a complete picture of the job as well as of the
3) To demonstrate fairness to all candidates.
Interviewing functions of the personnel manager
The responsibilities of the personnel manager are:
A) To screen the application of the candidate
B) To give information about

a) General nature of work

b) Hours of work
c) pay-scale, allowances and starting total salary
d) Fringe benefits
e) Leave policy
f) Brief information about the background of the hospital
g) To discover any differences in the expectations of the hospital and
those of the candidate.

Sample interview letter:

Name and Address of the hospital
With reference to your application dead for the post
of. .
I am pleased to call you for an interview the personnel department.



You are required t fill up the enclosed job-application form and bring it
with you at the time of the interview.
Please bring your original certificates and certificates and testimonials
with you. We look forward to seeing you.
Youre sincerely,
Personnel Manager)

Encl: 1
II. Pre-employment tests:
To ensure selection of the most suitable candidates for various posts,
interviews should be conducted carefully & pre-employment tests should
be held in a systematic manner wherever necessary & possible.
For certain Categories of post, there is a need for testing the professional
competence of the candidates. These tests can broadly be divided in to
four types:
1) Tests of general ability- intelligence
2) Tests of specific abilities- aptitude tests
3) Tests of achievement-trade tests
4) Personality tests- Tests of emotional stability, interest, values,
traits etc.
III. Final approval by the head of the hospital
In some hospitals, the selection committee consists of one person from
the personnel department, the department head/supervisor of the
concerned department and one representative of the head of the hospital.
After the interviewing all the candidates, the selection committee submits
its recommendations for approval to the head of the hospital, who is
generally the hiring authority.
In other hospitals, the head of the hospital may prefer to interview all the
candidates himself for the key jobs and leave it to the selection
committee for the less vital jobs. In case of appointment of a department
head, one expert is also usually included in the selection committee.
IV. References
The references provided by the applicant should be cross-checked to
ascertain his past performance and to obtain relevant information from
his past employer and others who have knowledge of his professional
competence. The references letters should be brief and should require as

little writing as possible by the person to whom it is sent. If it is directed

to a former employer, it should ask for the following data:

Date of joining
Date of leaving
Job title
Last salary drawn
Promotion/demotion, if any
Unauthorized absentee record
Reason for termination/ leaving
Ability to work with others
Emotional stability
Health conditions
Does the employee habitually borrow money?
Would you re-employ?
Any other information

V. Medical examination
The medical examination of a prospective employee is an aid both to the
employee and to the management. The selection of the right type of
employee who can give his best and be happy requires a thorough
knowledge of his physical capacities and handicaps. The purpose of the
medical examination is threefold:
a) It is for the protection of the applicant himself to know whether
that job will suit him or not from the medical point of view.
b) It is for the protection of the other employees so that they are not
at risk of any communicable or other disease which the prospective
employee may have.
c) It is for the protection of the employer as well, so that he may
avoid selecting a wrong person.
The medical examination will eliminate an applicant whose health is
below the standard or one who is medically unfit.
VI. Joining report by the employee
When new employees reports for joining, he should be given an
appointment letter, his job description and handbook of the hospital. He

should be asked to submit his joining report. A model appointment letter

and joining report form are given.

Placements are a credit bearing part of a degree course and all
placements optional. If a student opts out of a placement or there is no
placement available, this means that placement is not guaranteed.
State of being placed or arranged.
The school of service management believes that taking a placement is
one of the most important decisions you can make in your university
carrier. Not only will you benefit from building personal confidence during
your placement year but you will also establish contacts in your chosen
sector which may provide invaluable for graduate opportunity.


To fairly and without any element of discrimination evaluate job
applicants in view of individual differences and capabilities
To employee qualified and competent hands that can meet the job
requirement of the organization
To place job applicants in the best interests of the organization and
the individual
To help in human resources man power planning purposes in
To reduce recruitment cost that may arise as a result of poor
selection & placement exercises.
Our current placement team consists of a placement coordinator & four
academic tutors, each with specialist knowledge relevant to the degree
courses you under the supervision are studying. These tutors advice and
support you throughout your preparation for placement.
The promotion policy is one of the most controversial issues in every
organization. The management usually favours promotion on the basis of
merits, and the unions vehemently oppose it by saying that
managements resort to favouritism. The unions generally favour
promotions on the basis of seniority. It is hence essential to examine this
issue and arrive at an amicable solution.
A change for better prospects from one job to another job is deemed by
the employee as a promotion.

The factors which are considered by employees as implying promotion

An increase in salary
An increase in prestige
An upward movement in the hierarchy of jobs
Additional supervisory responsibility
A better future
Seniority versus merits
There has been great deal of controversy over the relative values of
seniority and merit in any system of promotion. Seniority will always
remain a factor to be considered, but there be much greater opportunity
for efficient personnel, irrespective of their seniority, to move up speedily
if merit is used as the basis for promotions. It is often said that at least for
the lower ranks, seniority alone should be the criterion for promotion. One
cannot agree with this. The quality of work is more important in the lower
ranks as in the higher.

The promotion policy is one of the most controversial issues in every
organization. The management usually favours promotion on the basis of
merits, and the unions opposite by saying that management resort to
favouritism. The unions generally favour promotions on the basis of
seniority. However, in practice, both seniority and ability criteria should be
taken into consideration; but in order to allay the suspicious of the trade
unions, there should be written promotion policy which should be clearly
understood by all.
From a scientific management view point, a sound promotion policy has
many advantages.

It provides an incentive to employee to work more and show interest

in their work. They put in their best in their best and aim for
promotion within the organization.
It develops loyalty amongst the employees, because a sound
promotion policy assures them of their promotions if they are found
It increases satisfaction among the employees.
It generates greater motivation as they do not have to depend on
mere seniority for that advancement.
A sound promotion policy retains competent employees, and
provides them ample opportunities to rise further
Difficult human relations problem can arise in promotion cases.
These problems may be reduced to the minimum if extra and
following principles are observed.
In promoting an employee to a better job, his salary should be at
least one step above his present salary.
Specific job specifications will enable an employee to realize whether
or not his qualifications are equal to those called for. There should be
a well-defined plan for informing prospective employees may know
the various avenues for their promotion.
The organization chart and promotion charts should be made so that
employees may know the various avenues for their promotion.
With no end in sight for the nations nursing shortage, hospitals are
placing greater emphasis on retaining their current RN staff. Its a
complex process, requiring in-depth knowledge of the needs and wants of
the nursing staff and lots of creativity.
The stresses of the job can be compounded by responsibilities outside of
the workplace. Hospitals are doing what they can to support nurses on a
personal level, which is where creativity mostly comes into play.

Staff choose to stay for long periods within a cost centre, turnover is
under is 10% annually.
The advantages of staff retention are fairly clear. Most importantly
perhaps, key skills, ideas, knowledge and experience remain within
your organization. Client relationships and networks are also
preserved in conjunction with all the income that these areas
Conversely, losing your key employees lays open the possibility that
these people will than assume roles with your direct competitors. As
a result those invaluable skills, ideas, knowledge, experience,
relationships and networks are all transferred to another
On top of all these there are also direct costs involved in losing key
employees. The cost of replacing such an individual includes
advertising, recruitment agency fees and the time spent conducting
actual interview process.


1. Respectful collegial communication and behaviour
Team orientation
Presence of trust
Respect for diversity

2. Communication-rich culture
Clear and respectful
Open and trusting
3. A culture of accountability
Role expectations are clearly defined
Everyone is accountable
4. The presence of adequate numbers of qualified nurses
Ability to provide quality care to meet client/patient needs
Work and home life balance
5. The presence of expert, competent, credible, visible leadership
Serve as an advocate for nursing practice
Support shared decision-making
Allocate resources to support nursing.
6. Shared decision-making at all levels
Nurses participate in system, organizational and process decisions
Formal structure exists to support shared decision-making
Nurses have control over their practice.
7. The encouragement of professional practice and continued
growth/ development
Continuing education/certification is supported/encouraged
Participation in professional association encouraged
An information-rich environment is supported.
8. Recognition of the value of nursings contribution
Reward and pay for performance.

9. Recognition of nurses for their meaningful contribution to the

Career mobility and expansion






1. Sustained leadership commitment to workforce as a strategic

2. A culture centred on employees and patients.
3. Work with other organizations to address workforce needs
4. Systematic and structured approach
5. Excellence in human resource practice

Firing an employee who is unable to meet reasonable company
production standards is common. A number of expressions are commonly
used to describe situations when employment is terminated. These
include "let go," "discharged," "dismissed," "fired" and "permanently laid
off." Termination or firing an employee does not have to be the worst
experience of your year. You can use the occasion to examine what went

wrong in the employment relationship. Assuming the termination is for a

mismatch, you can help the employee build self-esteem despite their
employment termination. You can encourage the employee to look ahead
and get started on a new job search. Even if the firing is for nonperformance, you want to end the relationship on a positive note.
1. Termination is the employee's departure at the hands of the
2. Termination
the progressive employee discipline process where
her employment with the employer is permanently severed.


3. Cancellation by a customer, either in whole or in part, of

any work or performance remaining to be done under a contract.
See also termination for convenience and termination for default.
There are two basic types of involuntary termination, known often as
being "fired" and "laid off."
Dismissal is where the employer chooses to require the employee to
leave, generally for a reason which is the fault of the employee. The most
common colloquial term for dismissal in America is "getting fired"
whereas in Britain the term "getting the sack" is used.
A less severe form of involuntary termination is often referred to as a
layoff (also redundancy or being made redundant in British English). A
layoff is usually not strictly related to personal performance, but instead
due to economic cycles or the company's need to restructure itself, the
firm itself going out of business or a change in the function of the
employer (for example, a certain type of product or service is no longer

offered by the company and therefore jobs related to that product or

service are no longer needed). One type of layoff is the aggressive layoff;
in such a situation, the employee is laid off, but not replaced as the job is
eliminated. Often, layoffs occur as a result of "downsizing", "reduction in
force" or "redundancy".
Some companies resort to attrition (voluntary redundancy in British
English) as a means to reduce their workforce. Under such a plan, no
employees are forced to leave their jobs. However, those who do depart
voluntarily are not replaced. Additionally, employees are given the option
to resign in exchange for a fixed amount of money, frequently a few years
of their salary.
Termination by mutual agreement
Some terminations occur as a result of mutual agreement between the
employer and employee. When this happens, it is sometimes debatable if
the termination was truly mutual. In many of these cases, it was originally
the employer's wish for the employee to depart, but the employer offered
the mutual termination agreement in order to soften the firing (as in a
forced resignation). But there are also times when a termination date is
agreed upon before the employment starts (as in an employment
Some types of termination by mutual agreement include
a. The end of an employment contract for a specified period of time
(such as an internship)
b. Mandatory retirement. Some occupations, such as commercial airline
pilots, face mandatory retirement at a certain age.
c. Forced resignation
Changes of conditions
Firms that wish for an employee to exit of his or her own accord but do
not wish to pursue firing or forced resignation, may degrade the

employee's working conditions, hoping that he or she will leave

The employee may be moved to a different geographical location,
assigned to an undesirable shift, given too few hours if part time,
demoted (or relegated to a menial task), or assigned to work in
uncomfortable conditions. Other forms of manipulation may be used, such
as being unfairly hostile to the employee, and punishing him or her for
things that are deliberately overlooked with other employees.
Often, these tactics are done so that the employer won't have to fill out
termination papers in jurisdictions without at-will employment. In
addition, with a few exceptions, employees who voluntarily leave
generally cannot collect unemployment benefits.
Such tactics may amount to constructive dismissal, which is illegal in
some jurisdictions
Rehire following termination
Depending on the circumstances, one whose employment has been
terminated may or may not be able to be rehired by the same employer.
If the decision to terminate was the employee's, the willingness of the
employer to rehire is often contingent upon the relationship the employee
had with the employer, the amount of notice given by the employee prior
to departure, and the needs of the employer. In some cases, when an
employee departed on good terms, s/he may be given special priority by
the employer when seeking rehire.
An employee who was fired by an employer may in some cases be eligible
for rehire by that same employer, although in some cases it is usually
related to staffing issues.
An employee may be terminated without prejudice, meaning the fired
employee may be rehired readily for the same or a similar job in the
future. This is usually true in the case of layoff.
Conversely, a person can be terminated with prejudice, meaning an
employer will not rehire the former employee to a similar job in the future.
This can be for many reasons: incompetence, misconduct (such as

dishonesty or "zero tolerance" violations), insubordination or "attitude"

(personality clashes with peers or bosses).
Termination forms ("pink slips") routinely include a set of check boxes
where a supervisor can indicate "with prejudice" or "without prejudice".
a. High absenteeism rate / Being late often: During your time
working for a company, they own your time that you are on staff
(except for time off. Never be late and never go to work without an
excuse. Many companies have policies that are signed at employment
that state if you are late / absent for 3 workdays, are out.
b. Performing tasks slowly and with errors: Employee need to invest
his time into your job, and perform well. Being sloppy and inefficient
won't cut it. If you are the type of employee that is always asked to
redo their work over and over, expect to get fired if you cannot turn
that around.
c. Unable to do assign tasks: Employees can convince employers
through their interview and make an impressive resume. Anyone can
state that they can do a task to get a job - but can you prove it? Being
caught unable to perform duties on the job can lead to being fired
unless you learn those skills quickly.
d. Inconsistent and unreliable work behaviors: Employee must
perform at his best level every day at your job. Employees can have
their off days but this can never be every day. Your output to the
company should always benefit it. This means your behaviors and
productivity must be stable and consistent.
e. Refusing to follow directions and orders: Figure this out. Your boss
tells you to perform a task and you refuse, do this multiple times and
you're looking for a new job. While you are getting paid, the company
owns your working time, and you must follow your bosses / supervisors
orders. Now, you do have the ability to propose a new idea but you
must go use the right channels to do so.
Now, if you are asked to do something illegal, unethical or immoral you
need to take stand in a professional manner.

f. Unable to get along with others: The term Social IQ (sometimes

EQ) may have an effect on your ability to get along. While some people
are loners and others sociopathic - must learn to be civil. Mental and
personality disorders will alter this.
g. Drug and Alcohol abuse: Abuse of drinking and doing drugs leads to
inconsistent work, errors, having accidents and poor interpersonal work
ethics, as well as high absenteeism. They also lower morale, reflect
poorly on the company and many other negatives'. Doing drugs and
drinking on the job may result in instant termination as well.
h. Being dishonest, Espionage and Theft: Whenever employee are at
place of employment (on the clock or not) are being judged. It is most
important that you are straight forward with yourself, your job, your co
workers and your managers.
i. Personal business at work: This goes with theft but I want to stress
on it again. Misusing company resources (internet, office supplies and
equipment) for personal use can lead to termination. In addition idle
conversations with co workers means non business time, costing the
company time and money.
j. Lying on your resume: Resumes are seen as legal documents of
experience, skills and background. If any of this material is proven
false, you're out! First let's start with references; increasingly
employers are checking every reference listed. Make sure your
references are traceable, reachable and not dead. Understand that
even after you got the job, your references may still be under review.
1. Conditions to warrant
Firing an employee who is unable to meet reasonable company
production standards is common. So, is firing an employee who,
even with extensive training, proves unable to perform her job.
Sometimes, an employee is bored or unhappy with her current
position, pay, or job title. You have no open positions for which she
qualifies. Her pay and title are consistent with the position.

Unfortunately, the employee's job performance is rapidly

In some instances, an employee is either consciously or
unconsciously asking you to fire her for her performance. The
individual knows, on some level, that her employment with you is
the wrong placement.
In all of these instances, these are the steps to follow.

2. Before the Termination Meeting

Make sure the employee is clear about the job expectations, the
production expectations and any other details that would enable the
person to perform effectively. Job descriptions, posted production
standards, and data about performance help the employee
understand and perform their role.
If the employee is violating policies and procedures, make sure these
are written and that the employee has been trained in the policies
and procedures. A signed form is good testimony to allay the
potential for future litigation.
Provide help and guidance; give the employee regular feedback
about her performance. Make sure you explain the potential
consequences of underperformance. Coaching for Improved
Performance provides a step-by-step coaching approach you can use
to help an employee improve her work performance.
Determine that you are applying the performance standards fairly.
For purposes of discrimination avoidance, you must address any
employee who is doing the same things in the same way. You must
address the employee with the most serious problems first. All
employees who are failing to follow your policies must be disciplined
in the same way; never focus on one persons performance.
If you determine that a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) might
help the employee succeed, use a PIP to positively encourage the

employee. The detail required in a PIP sometimes helps failing

employee reach clarity about job expectations.
Most importantly, you need to document any performance
discussions for the employees file with the time, date, and policy or
performance problem clearly identified. Keep good records because
you never know when you will need them; minimally, good records
will refresh your memory of the termination. Employees move on
and good records ensure the employer will be able to address any
issues about the termination in the future.
In progressive discipline, each write up must escalate so that you
have verbal warnings, verbal written warning and then suspensions
on the record. This ensures that employment termination is never a
surprise. When you schedule the termination meeting, the employee
should not be surprised.
Schedule a meeting that includes the employee, the employees
supervisor and either a Human Resources representative, or in some
cases, the supervisors manager.
Be straight forward. Tell the employee her job is terminated. Tell the
employee the reason for the employment termination. Be civil,
concise, and compassionate.
Respect the person's dignity. Allow her to speak if she wants to and
ask any questions she may have. You may even engage in some
discussion about what went wrong in the employment relationship.
Example, perhaps the person was not a good fit for the position
from the beginning. Perhaps the employees work style is too slow
for the pace of the company. Perhaps the employee had become so
bored, she wanted to be fired. At no point, however, allow the person
to think you might be talked out of" the decision to terminate her
The employee may try to "get even, to lash out and make you
wrong. Don't become angry, argue with the employee, or try to
settle the score. Recognize going in to the meeting that you are

likely very disappointed, too. You had an expensive investment in

this employees success, both personally and financially. You will
have to recruit and train the employees replacement. Make sure
your emotions are under control so you can remain compassionate
and respectful.
You can assess by the way the meeting has gone whether discussion
or advice to the departing employee would be helpful. I find that I
can help by discussing the kind of job the employee might succeed
in, how to locate job searching resources, school attendance ideas,
and the employees strengths. I have consistent feedback from
former employees that this brief discussion helped them clarify their
direction and helped them move on. You build the employees selfesteem, and help them begin the process of job searching.
Collect all company property or determine its location.
Give the employee a choice about who among the meeting
attendees will walk her out of the building. Give the employee a
choice about whether she wants to remove personal belongings from
her work station now or after hours.
Complete all of the steps in your Employment Ending Checklist


Your Name
Job Title
Company Name
City, State, Zip Code
Employee Name
City, State, Zip Code

Dear Mr. /Ms. Last Name:

I would like to inform you that your position with the ABC Company will be
terminated effective immediately.
Human Resources will provide you with a packet of information (attached)
which includes details on a severance package, continuing employee
benefits, and your final paycheck.
If I can be of any help during this transition, please let me know.
Your Signature
Your Typed Name
Please Note: This sample is provided for guidance only. The provided
information, including samples and examples, is not guaranteed for
accuracy or legality. Letters and other correspondence should be edited to
fit your personal situation.

1. Statement of predetermined guidelines
2. Policies in general, they are guidelines to help in the safe and
efficient achievement of organizational objectives.
Personnel Policy
1) Personnel policy is an integrated function which encompasses
many aspects of the personnel management.

2) The written statement of an organizations goal and intent

concerning matters that effect the personnel working in an
3) Personnel policies are the statements of the accepted personnel
principles and the resulting course of administrative action by which
a specific organization pattern determines the pattern of its
employment conditions.
1) To the employee it represents a guarantee of fair and equitable
2) To the supervisor it is a safeguard in that it relieves her of the
responsibility of making a personal decision which may conflict with
decisions given by other supervisors.
1. To employ those persons best fitted by education, skill and
experience to perform prescribed work.
2. Guarantee fairness in the maintenance of the discipline
3. Upgrade and promote existing staff wherever possible.
4. Take all practical steps to avoid excessive hours of work.
5. Ensure the greatest practicable degree of permanent and
continuous employment.
6. Maintain standards of remuneration
7. Provide and maintain high level of physical working conditions.
8. Maintain effective methods of regular consultation between
administration and employees.
9. Provide suitable means for the orientation, on the job training and
evaluation of employees.
10. Encourage social and recreational facilities for employees.
11. Develop appropriate schemes for employees welfare.
a) Implied Policy:

It is the policy which is not directly voiced or written but is

established by pattern of decision.
They may have either favourable or unfavourable effects
It is the policy neither written nor expressed verbally has usually
developed overtime and follow a precedent.
If you have people who are accountable to you, you dont need to
formally issue policy statements to create policy.
Parents, bosses, boards, government administrations, etc. are
producing implied policy all of the time.
b) Expressed Policy:
These are delineated verbally or in writing.
Oral policies are more flexible than written ones and can be easily
adjusted to changing circumstances.
Most of the organization has many written policies that are readily
available to all people and promote consistency in action. It may
o Formal dress code
o Policy for sick leave or vacation time
o Disciplinary procedures



Operating Procedures
Employee Conduct
Equipment Use Regulations
Employer Authority


Every organization should have a complete set of well developed
personnel policies before it begins to function. The existing ones also
need to be revised. At times, the policies may be formulated

simultaneously from the top management as well as the lower division

The stages and sequences of events in the process of development of
policy are:
1) Clarification by top management of philosophy and the objectives
of the organization.
2) Analysis of personnel policy requires assessment of relevant facts.
Job is delegated to the committee who through interviews and
conferences collect data from inside and outside the organization.
3) Consultation with staff representatives.
4) Writing the first draft of the policy statement.
5) Further discussion to get the final approval of policies from top
management and staff representatives.
6) Communication of policy statements by means of training session,
discussion groups and staff hand books.
7) Periodic re evaluation and follow up


The following factors will influence determining of personnel policies of an
i) Law of the country
ii) Social values and customs
iii) Management philosophy and values
iv) Stage of development
v) Financial position of the firm
vi) Type of work force


Specific Consistency, Permanency, Flexible with Purpose Recognize
individual differences.
Be formulated with regards for the interest of all parties, i.e.
employer, employee (individual/ groups) public and clients.
Confirm to the government regulations be written and formulated as
a result of careful analysis of all facts available.
Be forward looking and forward planning for continuing development
Recognize individual difference
Helps to give employees a sense of security and individual worth.
Gives the employees pride and loyalty to the organization for which
they work.
Employees tend to give good service and identify themselves with
the goals of the organization and they want to remain in the
Are planned in advance and with due consideration on how policy
will apply in various situations to meet the needs of the organization
As guides to action, save a great deal of time of the administrator.
Clearly written policy saves the time of the employee as well.


Staff development is the process directed towards the personal and
professional growth of nurses and other personnel while they are
employed by a health care agency. It is essential for the upliftment of
professional as well as administrative field. Staff development programme
helps in updating the knowledge and practice of professionals. It is

applicable not only to the nursing field but also to all the professional
Staff development refers to all training and education provided by an
employee to improve the occupational and personal knowledge, skills and
attitude of vested employees.
To assist each employee to improve performance in his or her present
position and to acquire personal and professional abilities that maximizes
the possibility of career advancement.


To meet social change and scientific advancement. It causes rapid
changes in nursing knowledge and skills.
To provide the opportunity for nurses to continually acquire and
implement the knowledge, skills and attitudes, ideas and values
essential to maintain high quality nursing care.
To meet job related learning needs of the nurse (eg, continuing
education, in-service education, extramural education and post basic
Fill the gaps between theory and knowledge.
To achieve personal or professional development eg: promotion.
To prepare for future tasks or trends.
Activities must base of needs and interest of employees and
Learning is combination of theory and experience.
Learning is internal, personal and emotional process.
Learning involves changes in behaviour.
Learner should be encouraged to contribute in learning process.

Problem solving approach is well suited because; effective learning

takes place when there is need/problem.
Positive reward is effective.
Teaching learning should be based on educational psychology.
Learning can be maximized by providing favourable condition.
Learning is active process i.e., teacher and learner should be active
in learning.
Teaching must satisfy learning needs of an individual.
Use variety of sources for learning as adult learners have wide range
of previous experience.
Staff development includes formal and informal group and individual
training and education. Staff development activities include the following.





a. Induction training (3 days): Is a brief standardized introduction to

an agencys philosophy, purpose policies and regulations given to
each worker during her or his first two or three days of employment
in order to ensure his or her identification with agencys philosophy,
goals and norms.

b. Job orientation (2- 24weeks): Is an individualized training

programme intended to acquaint a newly hired employee with job
responsibilities work place, clients and co-workers.
c. In-service education(2- 8hours): It is a planned educational
experience provided in the job setting and closely identified with
service in order to help the person to perform more effectively as a
person and as a worker.
d. Continuing education: Is a planned activity directed towards
meeting the learning needs of the nurse following basic nursing
education, exclusive of full time formal post basic education.
e. Extramural education: Is a community based education directed
towards meeting the job related learning needs of the nurse and
other personal. Exclusive of full time formal study at a degree
granting institution.
The major factors that determine the administrative structure of an
agency-wide staff development programme are: Administrative philosophy, policies and practices of health care
Policies, practices and standards of nursing and other health
Human and material resources within the health care agency and
Physical facilities within a health care agency and community
Financial resources within a health care agency and community



Orientation Programme
Skill Training Programme
Leadership and management development
Continuing education

1. Orientation Programme:
Is the process of acquiring anew staff with the existing work
environment so that he/she can relate quickly to his/ her new
It is assigned for new staff. It is given at the initial stage of
employment or when a staff takes new responsibilities.
2. Skill Training Programme:
Skill training may be a manual or technical skill of doing for people
or skill in dealing and working well with people. It provides the
nursing staff with the skills and attitude required for job and to keep
them abreast of changing methods and new techniques.
Often it is the continuation of the orientation programme.
It is designed to new and older staff.
3. Leadership and management development:
To improve the managerial abilities of persons at every management
level as well as potential managers to produce the greatest degree
of organizational progress.
It should be begin by establishing agreement among top and middle
level managers as to proper authority, responsibility and
accountability for managers at every level.
Need can identify by incident reports, turnover rates, patient audits
and quality control reports.
4. Continuing education:
Formal, organized, educational programme designed to promote the
knowledge, skills and professional attitude of nurses.


Make rounds with the physicians

Attend medical round in a teaching centre
Visit another hospital to observe their method of patient care
Attend professional meetings, conferences, etc. and present papers
Read articles of special interest and report them to staff


1. For the employees:
Leads to improved professional practice
Aids in updating knowledge and skills at all levels of organization
Keep the nurses abreast of the latest trends and developments in
Equips the nurses with knowledge of current research and
Helps the nurses to learn new and to maintain old competencies
2. For the organizations/employer:
Keeps the nursing staff enthusiastic in their learning
Develop interest and job satisfaction amongst the staff
Develops the sense of responsibilities for being competent and
Creates an appropriate environment and sound decisions as well as
using effective
problem solving techniques
Helps the nurse to adjust to change
Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation and better attitudes
Aids in encouraging and achieving self development and self
Makes the organization a better place to worker
Staff development is an important part of assisting performance
improvement at organizational, faculty/central department, unit and
individual levels. It is therefore important that the transfer of learning into
the workplace is assessed through a process of review and evaluation so

that its success or otherwise can be established and so that we can

demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall
organisational success.
Nursing and non nursing personals in hospitals plays an important role in
patient care and the development of the hospital. Their entire role is very
important to improve the standard of care.

Change agent
Case manager
Health educators




A nursing superintendent supervises the nursing staff. The nursing
superintendent, who is also called the director of nursing, is responsible
for the running and supervision of a nursing department. Depending on
the size of the facility, she may control subsidiary departments, such as
housekeeping. Nursing superintendents generally report to the hospital
director or medical director of their facility.

a. Supervise nursing staf: The top priority of a nursing superintendent

is to ensure that the nursing staff members are providing the best care
for patients. She makes sure that individual nurses and nurses aides
are carrying out care plans and ensures that communication between
shifts happens smoothly and thoroughly. The superintendent also
monitors stock and supplies to make sure that nurses have the
equipment they need to provide quality care.
b. Oversee hiring and training: The nursing superintendent is
responsible for the hiring and training of new staff. She must search for
nurses that complement the existing team, design training programs
and make sure that nursing instructors and trainers are adequately
preparing new staff for the workplace. Often this includes hearing an
evaluation of new nurses from the floor staff during the training period.
c. Patient care: Although the nursing superintendent does not have a
high level of direct patient care, she is responsible for the well-being of
patients at the facility. This means that the superintendent must
monitor nurses' care and the attitude and health of the patients. In
cases where the family requests alternate care, the nursing
superintendent must hear the request and make the final decision.
d. Create work schedules: Each pay period, the nursing superintendent
is responsible for setting the work schedules for the entire department.
She must take into account holidays, hear requests for time off, and
create a schedule that gives the appropriate number of hours to each
nurse. As part of the process, the nursing superintendent assigns
duties and floor responsibilities to each nurse
e. Make disciplinary decisions: In situations where a nurse, nurse's
aide, or other staff member is involved in a dispute, the nursing
superintendent must handle disciplinary actions. In extreme cases like
patient abuse or staff coming to work under the influence, the nursing
superintendent is responsible for terminating contracts as needed.
f. Manage other departments: In a large facility, the nursing
superintendent may be responsible for directing the activities of the
housekeeping, linen, and kitchen facilities. She must handle any

problems that arise, communicate with department leaders, and

address any supply issues.
g. Negotiate with vendors: Because the nursing superintendent is
responsible for the supply of equipment and medical necessities, she
often negotiates with vendors for the new contracts. In large facilities,
a purchasing manager may handle these duties and report to the
Essential Functions/Responsibilities





Take responsibility for a group of activities or subcontractors and

manage the work to be done. Provide liaison between field
engineering, estimating, and subcontractors to ensure compliance of
construction with drawings and specifications.
Assist in planning work schedule, determining manpower levels,
materials quantities, equipment, requirements, etc. are maintained,
including field engineering and construction activities.
Monitor work performance and productivity of crafts to ensure
project rules, procedures, safety requirements, etc. are maintained.
Advice senior level supervision and project management of potential
problems, work interferences, schedule difficulties, etc. Assist in
circumventing/resolving such problems as required.
Maintain liaison with other departments, i.e., Purchasing, Accounting,
Engineering, etc. as required to support construction schedule. May
provide assistance to the Superintendent in resolving problems.
Perform additional assignments per supervisors direction.

A. Clinical Activities:
1. Assesses the situation of given unit in relation to different types of
patients care, facilities provided by the nursing personnel.
2. Identifies the patients need/problem in the unit.
3. Assigns the patients care and others activities to nursing personnel.
4. Evaluates the patients care given by nurses.

5. Attends Doctors round and Matron and Assistant Matrons Clinical

6. Checks and caries out and delegates Doctors instruction and order
after round.
7. Participates and refers the patient for rehabilitation therapy.
8. Guides and conducts health education activities to client as required
including MCH/FP disease control and health promotion.
B. Supervisory Activities
1. Guides and supervises all staff for giving bed side nursing care.
2. Maintains regular records, report concerning the patients care.
3. Provides direct guidance and supervision of nursing and non-nursing
personnel for the efficient running of the wards and in carrying out
nursing routines, bearing in mind the individual needs of patients.
4. Encourages motivates, assesses the effectiveness of their own works
and develops their potential for giving good nursing care.
5. Uses the standard guideline and manual for supervision.
C. Administrative Activities
1. Makes duty roaster for 24 hrs coverage in unit of the Hospital.
2. Conducts nursing conference, meeting and individual conference when
3. Investigates complaints promptly and takes action according to rules
and policy of the hospital.
4. Reports and records absence and sickness of staff including leaves.
5. Maintains cleanliness of the ward and its environment, furniture,
equipment, eg.ventilation, lighting, heating, noise, odours.
6. Maintains adequate linen, other supplies, requisition for ward stores
and repairs, replaces supplies as necessary.
7. Keeps up-to-date record of drugs and maintains records of its

8. Checks and manages all equipment periodically, to see that it is in

good order.
9. Checks daily availability and conditions of emergency equipment and
10. Maintains inventories, reports, breakages and losses.
11. Helps in controlling the visitor of patients as needed.
12. Ensures that relatives of very ill patient are allowed to stay with
patients when necessary.
13. Accompanies, the Matron on the round and reports to her any
important incidents.
14. Informs Matron immediately of any special emergencies or accidents
in the ward, and keeps a written record of nay incidents.
15. Coordinates between Matron and staff in her unit and also with other
16. Takes active part in condemnation of useless materials.
17. Helps Matron for annual plans and budgets in her ward.
18. Delegates responsibilities to the responsible person in her absence.
19. Assist the Matron and Assistant Matron for disaster plan and
D. Educative Activities
1. Identifies the learning need of staff in ward.
2. Plans, conducts and recommends the in-service education and training
programme for her staff.
3. Manages and facilitates the clinical teaching activities for the students
and staffs.


1. Duties and responsibilities of Peri-operative nurses: Perioperative registered nurses provide surgical patient care by assessing,
planning, and implementing the nursing care patients receive before,

during and after surgery. These activities include patient assessment,

creating and maintaining a sterile and safe surgical environment, preand post-operative patient education, monitoring the patients physical
and emotional well-being, and integrating and coordinating patient
care throughout the surgical care continuum. During surgery, the perioperative registered nurse may assume any of the following
Scrub nurse
Circulating nurse
RN First Assistant
2. Diabetes management nurses: Diabetes Management Nurses are
registered nurses who assist patients to manage diabetes. Their main
duty is to educate patients and their families about diabetes and the
self-management skills required. They provide advice on exercise, diet
and medication and monitoring insulin levels. These nurses often work
in outpatient clinics and often travel to hold clinics in regional areas.
3. Duties and responsibilities of Dermatology nurses: Those who
are suffering from skin disorders or in need of skin care may seek the
services of a dermatology nurse. Dermatology nurses are registered
nurses who specialize in treating skin disorders and may administer
treatments for their patients. In some cases, they may prescribe
medication. The nurse may also educate their patients on maintaining
healthy skin.
4. Duties and responsibilities of geriatric nurses: A geriatric nurse is
a registered nurse who specializes in the care of elderly people.
Geriatric nurses must have the same educational background as
registered nurses, including a bachelor's degree from an accredited
college or university. Duties of a geriatric nurse, however, differ from
other fields of nursing due to the unique problems that can arise in
elderly patients.
5. Duties and responsibilities of Pediatric oncology nurses: A
pediatric nurse works in the pediatric department of a hospital,

children's clinics or at their homes. The basic duties of a pediatric nurse

involve performing physical examinations and giving medicines
administrated by the doctor to hospitalized patients. As little children
are usually afraid of medical settings, it is the duty of the pediatric
nurse to make them comfortable with encouraging words, so that they
can conduct the necessary tests and treatment procedures smoothly.
Responsibilities of a pediatric nurse involve taking temperature, blood
pressure, respiratory rate and heart rate of the patient.
6. Ambulatory care nurses: Provide preventive care and treat patients
with a variety of illnesses and injuries in physicians' offices or in clinics.
Some ambulatory care nurses are involved in telehealth, providing care
and advice through electronic communications media such as video
conferencing, the Internet, or by telephone.
7. Critical care nurses: Critical care nurses provide care to patients with
serious, complex, and acute illnesses or injuries that require very close
monitoring and extensive medication protocols and therapies. Critical
care nurses often work in critical or intensive care hospital units.ICU
nurses are specialized, trained nurse professionals working with
patients who have life threatening situations that required an extended
hospital stay in an intensive care or critical care unit of the hospital.
8. Emergency or trauma nurses: Emergency or trauma nurses will
work in hospital or stand-alone emergency departments, providing
initial assessments and care for patients with life-threatening
9. Transport nurses: Transport nurses will provide medical care to
patients who are transported by helicopter or airplane to the nearest
medical facility.
10. Holistic nurses: Holistic nurses will provide care such as
acupuncture, massage and aroma therapy, and biofeedback, which are
meant to treat patients' mental and spiritual health in addition to their
physical health.

11. Home health care nurses: Home health care nurses will provide
at-home nursing care for patients, often as follow-up care after
discharge from a hospital or from a rehabilitation, long-term care, or
skilled nursing facility.
12. Hospice and palliative care nurses: Hospice and palliative care
nurses work in collaboration with other health providers (such as
physicians, social workers, or chaplains) within the context of an
interdisciplinary team. Composed of highly qualified, specially trained
professionals and volunteers, the team blends their strengths together
to anticipate and meet the needs of the patient and family facing
terminal illness and bereavement.
13. Infusion nurses: Infusion nurses administer medications, fluids,
and blood to patients through injections in to patients' veins. Infusion
nurses specialize in administering parenteral fluids, blood & blood
components, pharmacological agents, nutritional solutions and pain
14. Long term care nurses: Long term care nurses provide healthcare
services on a recurring basis to patients with chronic physical or mental
disorders, often in long-term care or skilled nursing facilities.
15. Medical surgical nurses: Surgical nurses are a vital part of the
health care team that provides care for patients before, during and
after surgical procedures. They work both inside and outside of the
sterile field to provide both direct patient care and support to the
surgical staff.
16. Recovery nurses: Surgical prep and recovery nurses are RNs who
care for individuals before surgery and during recovery. They prepare
patients for surgical procedures by starting intravenous lines,
administering medication, taking a complete health history, completing
additional tests such as blood work, and performing pre-surgical
preparations such as shaving.
17. Scrub Nurses: Scrub nurses are RNs who work within the sterile
field to assist the surgeon. The scrub nurse has scrubbed with

antimicrobial soap and is outfitted in a sterile suit. Scrub nurses

prepare the needed instruments and other supplies for surgery and
hand them to the surgeon during the procedure. Typically, scrub nurses
acquire their position only after they have gained extensive nursing
18. Circulating Nurses: Circulating nurses assist the surgical team in
various ways but do not work within the sterile field. Some of the duties
of a circulating nurse include obtaining additional equipment or
instruments for the team, monitoring the condition of the patients,
preparing tissue samples for transport to a lab, and disposing of biohazardous material.
19. Registered Nurse First Assistants: Registered nurse first
assistants (RNFA) have extensive additional training and clinical
experience that qualifies them to assist surgeons by performing basic
surgical procedures. An RNFA must take coursework in peri-operative
care and surgical procedures and pass the CRNFA (Certified Registered
Nurse First Assistant) professional board exam. Duties of an RNFA may
include suturing, exposing a wound, controlling bleeding and assisting
surgeons in holding or operating other instruments.
20. Occupational health nurses: The occupational health nurse role
The prevention of health problems, promotion of healthy living and
working conditions
Understanding the effects of work on health and health at work
Basic first aid and health screening
Workforce and workplace monitoring and health need assessment
Health promotion
Education and training
Counselling and support
Risk assessment and risk management
21. Peri-anaesthesia nurses: Peri-anaesthesia nurses provide
preoperative and postoperative care to patients undergoing anesthesia
during surgery or other procedure.
22. Mental health nurses: Mental health nurses help psychiatrists,
psychologists and other mental health professionals counsel and treat

patients with a variety of emotional and psychiatric issues, from

substance abuse oriented problems to paranoid-schizophrenia. Mental
health nurses also help with the dispensing of medication for patients.
Psychiatric nurses with an advanced education may be able to
prescribe medication on their own.
23. Radiology nurses: Radiology nurses provide care to patients
undergoing diagnostic radiation procedures such ultra sounds,
magnetic resonance imaging, and radiation therapy for oncology
Radiology nurses routinely start or check peripheral I.V.S, assess
infusalports, administer medications, monitor vital signs, suction
patients, insert Foleys and help patients with their personal needs.
24. Rehabilitation nurses: The goal of the rehabilitation nursing
profession is to treat patients who require a broad range of medical
services for their recovery. People who need rehabilitation nursing care
may have suffered from such things as work injuries, car accidents,
strokes, head trauma, drug or alcohol abuse, gunshot wound or other
severe trauma. These nurses find work in general hospitals,
rehabilitation centers, drug and alcohol recovery facilities, mental
hospitals, senior citizen facilities, or private homes. Rehabilitation
nurses are able to provide a broad range of services depending on the
facility they work in.
25. Transplant nurses: Transplant nurses care for both transplant
recipients and living donors and monitor signs of organ rejection.
26. Addictions nurses: Addictions nurses care for patients seeking
help with alcohol, drug, tobacco, and other addictions.
27. Intellectual and developmental disability nurses: Intellectual
and developmental disabilities nurses provide care for patients with
physical, mental, or behavioural disabilities; care may include help with
feeding, controlling bodily functions, sitting or standing independently,
and speaking or other communication.
28. Genetic nurses: Genetic nurses provide early detection screenings,
counselling, and treatment of patients with genetic disorders, including
cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease.

29. HIV/AIDS nurses: HIV/AIDS nurses care for patients diagnosed with
HIV and AIDS. They should give proper care, education, psychological
support and counselling to the patients.
30. Oncology nurses: Oncology nurses care for patients with various
types of cancer and may assist in the administration of radiation and
chemotherapies and follow-up monitoring. The following discussion on
the role of the oncology nurse focuses on patient assessment, patient
education, co-ordination of care, direct patient care, symptom
management, and supportive care. To illustrate how varied the role
may be and its importance across the continuum of cancer care,
examples related to the role of the oncology nurse in direct patient
care, symptom management, and supportive care are provided.
31. Wound, ostomy and continence nurses: Wound, ostomy, and
continence nurses treat patients with wounds caused by traumatic
injury, ulcers, or arterial disease; provide postoperative care for
patients with openings that allow for alternative methods of bodily
waste elimination; and treat patients with urinary incontinence.
32. Cardiovascular nurses: Cardiovascular nurses treat patients with
coronary heart disease and those who have had heart surgery,
providing services such as postoperative rehabilitation.
33. Gynecology nurses: Gynaecology nurses provide care to women
with disorders of the reproductive system, including endometriosis,
cancer, and sexually transmitted diseases.
34. Nephrology nurses: Nephrology nurses care for patients with
kidney disease caused by diabetes, hypertension, or substance abuse.
Before dialysis, the nurse assists the patient in seeking information
about his disease, prognoses and treatments. The nurse is responsible
for ensuring that appropriate care is available. Prior to the actual
treatment, the nephrology nurse must evaluate if it's safe for treatment
to begin. If the patient has no new acute health issues, the nurse
continues with the preparation for dialysis.

35. Neuroscience nurses: Neuroscience nurses care for patients with

dysfunctions of the nervous system, including brain and spinal cord
injuries and seizures.
36. Ophthalmic nurses: Ophthalmic nurses provide care to patients
with disorders of the eyes, including blindness and glaucoma, and to
patients undergoing eye surgery.
37. Orthopedic nurses: Orthopedic nurses care for patients with
muscular and skeletal problems, including arthritis, bone fractures, and
muscular dystrophy.
38. Otorhinolaryngology nurses: Otorhinolaryngology nurses care for
patients with ear, nose, and throat disorders, such ascleft palates,
allergies, and sinus disorders.
39. Respiratory nurses: The role of respiratory nurses is to promote
good pulmonary (lung) health within individuals, families and
communities. By building close relationships with doctors and patients
in their community, respiratory nurses educate the public on the
importance of healthy breathing and proper exercise in people of all
40. Urology nurses: Urology nurses care for patients with disorders of
the kidneys, urinary tract, and male reproductive organs, including
infections, kidney and bladder stones, and cancers. A urology nurse
cares for patients with urinary tract problems in a hospital, urology
clinic, or private doctor's office. A nurse performs initial evaluations of
symptoms, assists doctors with diagnostic and treatment procedures,
and provides expert patient education and counselling services.
Professionals see patients who have urinary tract infections, kidney
stones, cancers, prostatitis, or any of a number of other specific
41. Clinical nurse specialist: Clinical nurse specialists provide direct
patient care and expert consultations in one of many nursing
specialties, such as psychiatric-mental health.

42. Nurse anesthetist: Nurse anesthetist provides anesthesia and

related care before and after surgical, therapeutic, diagnostic and
obstetrical procedures. They also provide pain management and
emergency services, such as airway management.
43. Nurse midwives: Nurse Midwives provide primary care to women,
including gynecological exams, family planning advice, prenatal care,
assistance in labour and delivery, and neonatal care.
44. Nurse practitioners: Nurse practitioners serve as primary and
specialty care providers, providing a blend of nursing and healthcare
services to patients and families. The most common specialty areas for
nurse practitioners are family practice, adult practice, women's health,
pediatrics, acute care, and geriatrics. However, there are a variety of
other specialties that nurse practitioners can choose, including
neonatology and mental health.
45. Forensics nurses: Forensics nurses participate in the scientific
investigation and treatment of abuse victims, violence, criminal
activity, and traumatic accident. Main function of a forensic nurse is to
collect information about crime and investigate details about it but it is
not the only work that they do. Forensic nurses even provide
medication and relief to the victims of any crime, they even provide
counselling to offenders and even children who at times go off track
and start indulging in unethical activities.
46. Infection control nurses: An infection control nurse has one
primary role, and that is to prevent hospital infections in their patients
by carrying out infection prevention protocols diligently. Nurses can
play an important role in controlling and preventing the spread of
infectious diseases in health care facilities. In fact, several nurse duties
are aimed solely at infection control.
47. Nurse educators: Nurse Educators plan, develop, implement, and
evaluate educational programs and curricula for the professional
development of student nurses and RNs.
48. Nurse
communicate nursing data and information to improve decision making

by consumers, patients, nurses, and other healthcare providers. RNs

also may work as healthcare consultants, public policy advisors,
pharmaceutical and medical supply researchers and salespersons, and
medical writers and editors. Work environment. Most RNs work in welllit, comfortable healthcare facilities. Home health and public health
nurses travel to patients' homes, schools, community centers, and
other sites. .RNs may be in close contact with individuals who have
infectious diseases and with toxic, harmful, or potentially hazardous
compounds, solutions, and medications.
Hence, every organization should pay maximum attention to evolve
attractive staffing polices. Recruitment is the first step in the process of
filling a vacancy. Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective
BT Basavanthappa. The text book of Nursing administration, 1 st
edition; Jaypee brother publication, 2008.
BT Basavanthappa. The text book of Nursing administration, 2 nd
edition; Jaypee brother publication, 2008.
Neelam Kumari. The text book of management of nursing service
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KP Neeraja Text book of nursing education; Jaypee brothers medical
publishers (p) ltd New Delhi; 2007

MRS. Dr. Ratna Philip. M.Sc (N), Ph.D.,