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# Halliday, Resnick, Walker: Chapter 10

Rotational Dynamics I
Recall: Kinematics deals with the concepts/terminology needed to describe motion. Dynamics deals with the effect that forces have on motion. We have been discussing rotational kinematics. We now discuss rotational dynamics. Now we will discuss the forces that give rise to motion (and the resulting motion).

Start by considering pure rotational motion about a fixed axis i.e. an axis that does not 2 move.

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker -- 10.6: Kinetic Energy of Rotation]

## Kinetic Energy of Rotation

Consider an object rotating about a fixed axis. Every point on the object travels in a circle in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Consider the objects kinetic energy:

K = m1v1 + m2 v2 + m3v3 + L
1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2

K = Recall: vi = ri 2 2 1 1 K = 2 mi vi = 2 mi ( ri ) =

1 2

mi vi
1 2

( m r )
2 i i

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker -- 10.6: Kinetic Energy of Rotation]

## Kinetic Energy of Rotation

Consider an object rotating about a fixed axis.

K = mi vi =
1 2 2

1 2

(mr )
2 i i

I = mi ri 2
2

## For continuous mass distributions:*

I = r dm
For a body rotating about a fixed axis:

K = I
1 2

* This is shown for completeness; you will not be responsible for this.

Rotational Dynamics I
Example:
A rigid body consists of two particles of mass m connected by a rod of length L and negligible mass. (a) Determine the moment of inertia about an axis through the center of mass, perpendicular to the rod. (b) Determine the moment of inertia about an axis through the left end, perpendicular to the rod.

Rotational Dynamics I
Example:
Four masses (of mass m0) sit at the corners of a square (having sides of length L).

Determine the moment of inertia about an axis through the center of the square, perpendicular to its plane (i.e. an axis through point O in the figure).

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Consider a force F acting on a point mass constrained to move in a circle.

The force can be resolved into two components (1) the radial component Fr=|F| cos (2) the tangential component Ft=|F| sin Ft gives rise to tangential acceleration; the tangential acceleration is related to the angular acceleration: at = r

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Torque and Angular Acceleration

Newtons 2nd Law: Ft = mat at = r Ft = m r Multiply both sides by r rFt = m r2 definition: torque, = r Ft = r |F| sin Notice: I = mr2 moment of inertia for a particle moving in a circle

Result: = I
Torque gives rise to angular acceleration.

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Torque and Angular Acceleration

Result:

where = r |F| sin and I=mr2 Note: (1) We identify counterclockwise torques as positive and clockwise torques as negative. (2) The unit of torque* is Newton x meter. (3) must be expressed in radians/s2.
*This is the same as the unit for energy, however the quantities are not related.

=I

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Torque and Angular Acceleration

Recall: Angular velocity and angular acceleration are vectors. The direction associated with these quantities is parallel to the axis of rotation the direction is determined by the right hand rule. Example: angular velocity The fingers curl around the record and point in the direction it is moving; the extended thumb points in the direction of .

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Torque and Angular Acceleration

We have = I where = r Ft = r |F| sin Notice: If we write

## =rxF (1) || = r |F| sin

(2) direction perpendicular to F and r Note: This is consistent with the definition of angular acceleration. Result:

= I where = r x F

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

Result: where

## We considered a force F acting on a point mass constrained to move in a circle.

=I = r x F and I = mr2

Now consider a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis: Break the body up into a collection of point masses. The internal forces and, hence, internal torques cancel due to Newtons 3rd law we need only consider the external torques.

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Torque and Angular Acceleration

Now consider a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis: We need only consider the external torques 2 = m r i i i i i

Result: where

i = ri x Fi and I = i mi ri2

ii = I

## sum of external torques on a rigid body = moment of inertia x angular acceleration

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker 10.8, 9: Newtons Second Law for Rotation]

## Torque and Angular Acceleration Result: ii = I

The angular acceleration is largest when the (net) torque = r x F is largest. Example: opening a door F || r = 0 F does nothing toward opening the door

| |= |r||F|sin The most effective way to open the door is to push perpendicular to the door and far from the hinge.

Rotational Dynamics I
Example:
Compute the torque (magnitude and direction) about point O due to the force F |F|=16.0N; the rod has length 4.00m (a)

(b)

(c)

Rotational Dynamics I
[Halliday, Resnick, Walker -- 10.6: Kinetic Energy of Rotation]

## Comparison: Translation and Rotation

Translation Rotation

K = I
1 2

K = mv
1 2

F = ma

= I

Note the similarity between the rotational and linear equations. In particular, moment of inertia is analogous to mass mass = measure of translational inertia of an object moment of inertia = measure of rotational inertia of an object relative to some fixed axis of rotation