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INTRODUCTION:

Climate change is the principle challenge that human being have to face in this
century. The rising fossil fuel uses and changes in land uses are emitting greenhouse
gases continuously into the earths atmosphere. A rise in these gases has caused a rise in
the amount of heat from the sun withheld in the Earth’s atmosphere, heat that would
normally be radiated back into space. This increase in heat has led to the greenhouse
effect, resulting in climate change. The main characteristics of climate change are
increasing in average global temperature (global warming); changes in cloud cover and
precipitation particularly over land; melting of ice caps and glaciers and reduced snow
cover; and in ocean temperatures and ocean acidity – due to seawater absorbing heat and
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Because of such climatic changes there will many disasters arising. The effects of
climate variation impacts on all forms of agriculture and vegetation . it also causes
changes in the rainfall intensity, over heat during summer in some regions of the world
etc. Because of such changes there will be hurricanes , storms also occurring. These
causes greater economic impact which will be affecting the growth of the nation to a
greater extent. So this should be predicted to avoid in order to prevent people from effects
caused due to irregular disasters.
This urges the necessity of establishing a Weather, Climate
and Earth-System Prediction Project to increase the capacity of disaster-risk reduction
managers and environmental policy makers to make sound decisions to minimize and
adapt to the societal, economic and environmental vulnerabilities arising from high-
impact weather and climate.
There are many prediction tools available among that one is
artificial neural network. In this work we have realised and implemented a neural network in
order to investigate and simulate the relationship between CO2 emissions and some variables
taken from national and provincial Italian statistics. The artificial intelligence application used in
here gives us the possibility to have a new forecasting model to study the earth temperature
increasing due to climate change. This represents a danger for the environment but also for the
whole economy. The proposed neural network use them to estimate theCO2 in the past, present
and future. The variables have been chosen according to their connection with solid fuels, oil,
natural gas, electricity consumptions, gross domestic produce and resident population.
We are also having awareness about the CO2 emissions impact
related to natural gas, oil, solid fuels and electricity by taking in consideration the weighted
average of the aggregated consumptions in macro-categories. The model thus created allows us
to make an analysis of sensitivity in order to calculate the impact of each input parameter of the
neural network on the total emission. Such kind of CO2 estimation model can be used to check
out the efficiency of the energetic policies adopted by each country in order to reach Kyoto
targets. In this expert system energy sources have been mainly processed in the corresponding
CO2 equivalent tones by using emission factors.
Another tool mainly used for predicting the climate change is
genetic programming(GP), by using this various programs can be written using softwares are to
cross over and best fitting results are obtained.
Thus using such kind of prediction tools the irregular
climatic change over the countries can be calculated and they could be saved from
disasters .