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This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 65°N 027°E

Republic of Finland
 
Suomen tasavalta (Finnish) Republiken Finland (Swedish)


Coat of arms

Anthem: Maamme (Finnish) Vårt land (Swedish)
Our Land

Location of Finland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital and largest city Official languages Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E

 

Finnish (90.0%) Swedish (5.4%)

Recognised regional languages Demonym

Sami (0.03%)

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Finnish Finn Parliamentary republic[1] Sauli Niinistö Jyrki Katainen (NCP) Eero Heinäluoma (SDP) Eduskunta

Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament Legislature

Independence - Autonomy
within Russia

29 March 1809

- Independence
from Soviet Russia

6 December 1917

- First recognized
by Soviet Russia

4 January 1918

Area - Total 338,424 km2 (64th) 130,596 sq mi - Water (%) 10 Population - 2012 estimate - 2000 census - Density 5,421,827[2] (112th) 5,180,000 16/km2 (201st) 41/sq mi GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2000) 2011 estimate $195.723 billion[3] $36,236[3] 2011 estimate $266.553 billion[3] $49,349[3] 26.9 low HDI (2013) 0.892[4]

very high · 21st Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Euro (€) (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) d.m.yyyy right +358 FI

 

.fi .ax a


The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states. The .ax domain is reserved for the autonomous province of the Åland Islands.

Finland (



Finnish: Suomi (help·info); Swedish: Finland), officially the Republic of Finland,[5] is

a Nordic country situated in theFennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. An estimated 5.4 million people live in Finland, with the majority concentrated in its southern regions.[6] In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Politically, it is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital of Helsinki, local governments in 336 municipalities[7][8] and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. About one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (consisting of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other larger cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti and Kuopio. From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution. This prompted the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which was followed by a civil war where the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" were defeated by the proconservative "Whites" with support from the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a monarchy in the country, Finland became a republic. Finland's experience of World War II involved three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944) against the Soviet Union; and the Lapland War (1944–1945) against Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1969, the European Union in 1995 and the eurozone at its inception in 1999. During this time, it built an extensive welfare state.

2 Swedish era 2.[11][12][13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and concept of Finland o o  1.3 Parliament 4. remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.3 Regions 3.7 Social security . [9][10] Finland has the best educational system in Europe and has recently been ranked as one of the world's most peaceful andeconomically competitive countries. economic development was rapid.2 Climate 3.5 World War II 2.[3] Finland is one of the world's wealthiest nations.1 Biodiversity 3. such that today. with a nominal per-capita income of over $49.000 (2011).4 Cabinet 4.3 Russian Empire era 2.2 Concept 2 History o o o o o o o  2.6 Foreign relations 4.6 Cold War 2. According to some measures.5 Law 4.4 Civil war and early independence 2.7 Recent history 3 Geography o o o o  3. It has also been ranked as one of the world's countries with the highest quality of life.1 Prehistory 2.4 Administrative divisions 4 Politics o o o o o o o 4.1 Constitution 4.Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation. Thereafter.2 President 4.1 Etymology 1.

4 Society 7 Culture o o o o o o o o o o      7.8 Cuisine 7.2 Transport 5.3 Visual arts 7.3 Health 6.9 Public holidays 7.10 Sports 8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Etymology and concept of Finland .1 Languages 6.8 Armed forces 5 Economy o o o o o  5.2 Religion 6.6 Cinema 7.4 Public policy 5.2 Literature 7.5 Music 7.3 Industry 5.7 Media and communications 7.o  4.1 Energy 5.5 Tourism 6 Demographics o o o o  6.4 Television 7.1 Education and science 7.

and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper. the Tavastians and the Karelians more than geographical boundaries. [edit]Etymology [edit]Finland The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. in the Baltic Sea. a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn. The oldest date from 3000 to 2500 BCE. but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape). a region that later became known as Finland Proper. while the other parts of the country were called Tavastia and Karelia. Latin homo) has been suggested. meaning "land". Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). but which could also sometimes be collectively referred to as "Österland" (compare Norrland). Alternatively. possibly even including Åland.Astuvansalmi rock paintings atSaimaa. the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. being borrowed as *ćoma.) In the 15th century. this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. but these theories are now considered outdated. (Medieval politics concerned tribes such as the Finns. It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates from the 13th century.[15] [edit]Suomi The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins. What the term . "Finland" became a common name for the whole land area to the east of the Bothnian Sea. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages). Gothic guma. the term "Finland" mostly referred to the area around Åbo (Turku). when the archipelago was seen as belonging to Åbo (Turku). with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still being sometimes excluded until later. and parallels between saame (Sami.[16] [edit]Concept In the 12th and 13th centuries. The third was found in Gotland.

In 1637. called "Old Finland".[18] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. Åland. [edit]History Main article: History of Finland [edit]Prehistory Main article: History of Finland#Prehistory According to archaeological evidence. the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded. Åland. also the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact. The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea and the Finnish part of the realm had the same representation in the parliament as the western part had. The boundary.[19] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. During the 1st .or along the river Kalix. [17] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers. as a strategy to meet the claims of the Russian tsar. hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy. to be administratively included in "New Finland" in 1812. which later became what the concept of Finland came to stand for . which was the boundary between Västerbotten County and Österbotten County (Ostrobothnia) at the time . The boundary between the new Grand Duchy of Finland and the remaining part of Sweden could have been drawn along the river Kemijoki. The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. came when John III of Sweden called his duchy as the "grand duchy of Finland" (about 1580). and a little part of Västerbotten County.which the Russians proposed. What was signed over to Russia in 1809 was not so much a "Finland" as six counties. and Ostrobothnia (other parts of Sweden had also hadgovernor generals). The artifactsthe first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia. The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning. using stone tools. was a compromise. thereby including the Finnish-speaking part of the Torne Valley . The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. Queen Christina named Per Brahe the Younger as Governor General of Finland.which the Swedish proposed in the peace negotiations .at least after the tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in 1721 and 1743. A sort of establishment for Finland as a unity. if only in name. which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest.[20] Even with the introduction of agriculture. There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland.actually refers to can vary between sources. Russia and Norway.

Swedish-speaking settlers arrived at the coastal regions during the medieval time.[23] and a devastating plague a few years later.[22] In the 16th century. The Royal Academy of Turku. whereas Sámi-speaking populations occupied most parts of the country. as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry. early Finnish was spoken at least in agricultural settlements of Southern Finland. Dark green: Sweden proper. was established in 1640.millennium AD. Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. During the Protestant Reformation. clergy and localcourts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.[23] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. during which about one-third of the Finnish population died.Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility. wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–21) and the Lesser Wrath(1742–43). Other greens:Swedish dominions and possessions. Swedish kings established their rule in the Northern Crusades from the 12th century until 1249. Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–97. the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. In the 17th century.[21] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom. The first university in Finland.[citation needed] [edit]Swedish era The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. administration and education. [edit]Russian Empire era Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland . In the 18th century. wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces.

having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War.On 29 March 1809. passed the so- . [edit]Civil war and early independence Soviet approval of Finland's independence (in Russian).[24] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain. a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennomanmovement grew. The parliament. virtually meaningless. in practice. it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. the Finnish language began to gain recognition. and investment rose in following decades. since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. mainly by Social Democrats. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia. universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. For example. In 1811 Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. Economic and political development was rapid. controlled by social democrats. The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population. From the 1860s onwards. the universal suffrage was. the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835.[24] In 1906. Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence and Finnish Civil War After the 1917 February Revolution. Desire for independence gained ground. first among radical liberals[25] and socialists. During the Russian era. Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917. the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. However. making it one of the worst famines in European history.

The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.[27] After the war. On 27 January 1918.called Power Act[26] to give the highest authority to parliament. the right-wing parties and the social democratic party.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. in which right-wing parties won a slim majority. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Governmentand by the right-wing parties in Finland. tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war.[28] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. the population was 3 million.[citation needed] New elections were conducted.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force. largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. Suddenly.[citation needed] The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew. who were supported by Imperial Germany. After a brief flirtation with monarchy. the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917. Finland became a presidential republic. The Whites. In 1917. the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland. but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa.[24] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry. which the social democrats considered illegal. the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. [edit]World War II . as radical communists took power in Russia. Germany's relations with democratic Finland cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power. since the right to do so had been stripped from the Russians by the Power Act. The government started to disarm the Russian forces inPohjanmaa. where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. increasing the proportion of capital-owning population. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by theTreaty of Tartu in 1920. The civil war and activist expeditions into the Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. prevailed over the Reds. and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the antiCommunist Lapua Movement. were highly antagonized.

the German army besieged Leningrad. As a result of the two wars. when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity.000 km2 (149.000 persons.[29] The siege of Leningrad resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's inhabitants. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45. For 872 days. however at a loss of about 93.000 sq mi) before the handover.000 soldiers killed. Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland. Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia. Finland covered an area of approximately 385. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II During World War II. whether they should be said to have helped in the siege or refused to help is controversial.[30]Finnish troops controlled some of the areas around the city but refused to attack or let Germans use those areas for attack. After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill. the USSR's second largest city. fled these areas. and in theContinuation War of 1941–1944. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and retained its independence. including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and icefree Liinakhamari(Liinahamari). Finland reached an armistice with the Soviet Union.[citation needed] . restraints and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. following Operation Barbarossa. Salla andPetsamo. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956. in which Germany had invaded the Soviet Union. by proportion the third-highest loss rate in World War II. The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations. some 400.Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and theContinuation War in 1944. Almost the whole population.

in apparent deference to Soviet desires. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas.[32] The 1952 Summer Olympicsbrought international visitors.5 in 1947 to 1. the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations. the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence. Even after the reparations had been paid off. For example. the economy did not generate jobs fast enough.[citation needed] [edit]Cold War In 1950. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970. However. the eighth president of Finland. services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. Urho Kekkonen.[32] The new jobs in manufacturing. and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden. such as theUnited Kingdom.Finland rejected Marshall aid.[32] When baby-boomers entered the workforce.5 in 1973.[31] Establishing trade with the Western powers. . Finland—poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil)—continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.

The depression bottomed out in 1993. and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. which was crucial for his continued popularity. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonenagainst his opponents. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets.[citation needed] Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions. and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. In politics. Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977. Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union. which explains the widespread support that proSoviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship. a banking crisis. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era.Kalevi Sorsa was a long-time prime minister of Finland during the 1970s and 80s. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the German press.[citation needed] [edit]Recent history .[citation needed] In the 1970s and 1980s. Finland remained a Western European market economy. Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years. Officially claiming to be neutral. In 1981. although Finland did not fully join. there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet.

Finland changed the common side of its coins. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. The Finnish markka was replaced by the euro in 2002. without further reforms or much higher immigration. in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. As a preparation for this date. the euro. Finland joined the European Union in 1995.7 years. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999. The population is aging with the birth rate at 10.[32] With a median age of 42. Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s.Finland introduced the currency of theEurozone. in 2002. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. In 2007. instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone. one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins.[33] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them. Three different designs (one for €2 coin. Like other Nordic countries.42 births per 1. Like most European countries. even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries. [edit]Geography .8. Finland is one of the oldest countries. Finland is expected to struggle with demographics. and the Eurozone in 1999.000 population. or a fertility rate of 1.

.316 m (4.[34]. Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands —about 188. List of national parks of Finland.160 kilometres (720 mi). Saimaa. Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains.) Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland.318 ft).324 metres (4. Its largest lake. directly adjacent to Halti. {{{u}}}) and 179. Of world capitals. the Halti at 1. The distance from the southernmost—Hanko—to the northernmost point in the country—Nuorgam—is 1.344 ft). is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway. only Reykjavík lies more to the north than Helsinki. and longitudes 20° and 32° E. Finland is one of the world's northernmost countries. U.12 acreExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{".Detailed map of Finland. (See also Atlas of Finland. is the fourth largest in Europe. The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland. List of lakes in Finland. Much of the geography of Finland is explained by the Ice Age.000 lakes (larger than 500 m2/0. Its highest point. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland isRidnitsohkka at 1. and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N.000 islands. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland.S. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared to the rest of Europe.

It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery. covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. As a result. Finland is shared between the Arctic. Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands.The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. that are more typical in the Baltic region. where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. According to the WWF. The Whooper Swan. near the tree line and Arctic Ocean.7 sq mi) annually. spruce. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. In the extreme north of Finland. running northwest to southeast. [edit]Biodiversity Main article: Fauna of Finland Phytogeographically.[35] Relatively speaking. with little arable land. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland.[37] the largest forested area in Europe. Finland's national bird. terrain in Finland is rising due to thepostglacial rebound. visible wherever there is no soil cover. forests are characterized by mixed forests. The most common type of rock isgranite.[36] Forest covers 86% of the country's area. where land steadily rises about 1 cm a year. south of the Helsinki– Rauma line. central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga. Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world. birch and other species. Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. . The landscape is covered mostly (75% of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens. Montane Birch forests are common. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil. The forest consists of pine. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers. the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2. On the southwestern coast. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia. Gleysols and peat bogsoccupy poorly drained areas. Finland is rising from the sea.

and the European Eagle-owl. many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. a large European swan and the national bird of Finland. [citation needed] Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal). 248 breeding bird species. over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. gray wolf. one of only three lake seal species in the world. a large. See also: Climate of Finland The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasiancontinent's coastal zone. down to only 300 seals today. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation.[40] [edit]Climate Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland.The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal.[39]Of some seventy species of freshwater fish. exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland. and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. the northern pike. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity. Three of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan. perch and others are plentiful. the Capercaillie. black-plumaged member of the grouse family.[38] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler. The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal. Common Chaffinch and Redwing. Similarly. the whole of . In the Köppen climate classification. Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species. wolverine and elk.

particularly in Lapland.[41] Winters of southern Finland (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C/32 °F) are usually about 100 days long. but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland. Even in the most temperate regions of the south.Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. and the snow typically covers the land from about late November to mid-April. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C/50 °F) in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September. Lapland. only two to three months. the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F). while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude.[41] No part of Finland has Arctic tundra.[43] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C(77 °F) during heat waves. the winters are long and cold.[42] Pyhä-Luosto National Park. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. At Finland's northernmost point. In northern Finland. the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north. and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer.[41] Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt. Within the country.[42] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions. such as Alaska.[41] . The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. Siberia and southern Greenland. while the summers are relatively warm but short. the warmest days of July can reach 35 °C (95 °F). Summers in the north are quite short. and in the inland.

Currently. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland (the läänis). In addition. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. agriculture. which is the responsibility of regional councils. which were abolished. each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland in 2010. areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region. fisheries.Åland was designated a seventh region. in addition. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils. [edit]Regions Finland consists of 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish. Regions represent dialectal. Historically. regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland. forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces. each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour. which were purely administrative divisions of the central government.[44] Coat of In Arm English s In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administr ative Map . In addition to inter-municipal cooperation.Lake Pielinen seen from a hill in Koli National Park.

agency Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovanie mi Lapland Norra Northern PohjoisOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Oulu Northern Finland Kainuu Kainuu Kajanalan d Kajaani Northern Finland North Karelia PohjoisKarjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland Northern PohjoisSavo Savonia Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland Southern Savonia EteläSavo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland Södra Southern EteläOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Seinäjoki aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Keski.Mellersta Central Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Kokkola aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Lapland Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Vaasa Western and Central Northern Ostrobothnia .

Finland Kainuu North Karelia Pirkanm Pirkanma Birkaland Tampere a aa Western and Central Finland Northern Savonia Southern Savonia Central Finland KeskiSuomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskyl ä Western and Central Finland Southern Ostrobothnia Satakunt Satakunt Satakunda a a Pori SouthWestern Finland Ostrobothnia Pirkanmaa Finland Varsinais Egentliga -Suomi Finland Proper Turku SouthWestern Finland Satakunta Central Ostrobothnia South Karelia EteläKarjala Södra Karelen Lappeenr Southern anta Finland Central Finland Päijänne Tavastia PäijätHäme Päijänne Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland Finland Proper South Karelia Tavastia Proper KantaHäme Egentliga Hämeenl Southern Tavastland inna Finland Päijänne Tavastia Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa Kymenla Kymenla Kymmene akso dalen akso Kotka Southern Finland Kymenlaakso .

Regions of Finland. . Spending is financed by municipal income tax. Sub-regions of Finland. The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities. the capital of Central Finland.Åland Ahvenan Islands[45 maa ] Åland Marieha mn Åland Åland Islands The region of Eastern Uusimaa was consolidated with Uusimaa on 1 January 2011. and Historical provinces of Finland A steam boat on Lake Päijänne leavingJyväskylä.000 residents. which may also call themselves towns or cities.[7][8] and most have fewer than 6. Municipalities of Finland.[citation needed] Helsinki Cathedral. People often identify with their municipality. state subsidies. and other revenue. There are 336 municipalities. They account for half of public spending.[46] [edit]Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland.

not just in the built-up area. The land area is given in km². Municipalities co-operate in seventy subregions and nineteen regions. The figures are as of 28 February 2013. . These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. two intermediate levels are defined.g. However. and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area).Vantaa. Espoo and Kauniainen – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. there is a pilot project underway with regional elections.In addition to municipalities. Sami people have a semiautonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. In the following chart. the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun). e. The Tammerkoski rapids in the inland city of Tampere. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities. In the Kainuu region. The capital region – comprising Helsinki. The autonomous province of Åland has a permanent democratically elected regional council.

17 135.653 238.237 1. City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Helsinki 605.Municipalities (thin borders) and regions(thick borders) of Finland (2009).767 525.61 Turku 180.410.75 2.91 .75 Oulu 191.51 Tampere 217.03 414.77 Vantaa 205.461 312.67 734.832.523 213.546 245.37 862.86 Espoo 257.26 824.

. List of Finnish municipalities by area.687 1.05 764.187 135. and Former municipalities of Finland [edit]Politics The Parliament of Finland's main building.81 348.14 Pori 83.84 Vaasa 65.768 188.5 Hämeenlinna 67.99 114.33 Further information: List of Finnish municipalities.187 2.170.785.577 1.558.17 Kuopio 105.229 1.391 1.15 Lappeenranta 72.76 31.76 37.City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Jyväskylä 133.333 834. List of Finnish municipalities by population.88 Lahti 103.36 50.91 Joensuu 74.39 65.597.06 99.381.433.24 34.331 2.07 Kouvola 87.

being the head of the armed forces.[1] The position still does entail some powers. and some appointive powers. non-executive position. K. J. Finland was formerly considered a semi-presidential parliamentary system. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary. P. Mannerheim (1944–1946). The current president is Sauli Niinistö.Risto Ryti (1940–1944). the President of Finland is the head of state. and the prime minister is the country's most powerful politician. [edit]Parliament Finland This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Finland . including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with thecabinet. Direct.or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. one. The former presidents were K. and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). [edit]President According to the Constitution. and presidential elections. municipal. K. the presidency became largely a ceremonial. G. Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994). Ståhlberg (1919–1925). and even further under its 2012 amendment. and was amended on 1 March 2012. some decree powers. and in European Union elections. Paasikivi (1946–1956). Relander (1925–1931). The constitution in its current form came into force on 1 March 2000. E. Finland is a parliamentary democracy. Svinhufvud (1931– 1937). J. E. Urho Kekkonen (1956–1982). he took office on 1 March 2012. L.Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland [edit]Constitution The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. but under the 2000 constitution. Kyösti Kallio (1937–1940).Martti Ahtisaari (1994– 2000). C.

the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union). The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. dismiss the cabinet. the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament'sconstitutional law committee. the National Coalition Party (conservatives) and the Social Democrats. The speaker is currently Eero Heinäluoma (Social Democrats). Its acts are not subject to judicial review. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws.[49] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906. These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support. and override presidential vetoes. and their combined vote has totalled about 65 –80% of all .State[show] Executive[show] Legislative[show] Judiciary[show] Elections[show] Divisions[show] Political parties[show] Foreign Policy[show]  Other countries  Atlas Politics portal    V T E The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises supreme legislative authority.

the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.5 19.) The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime minister endorsed by the President. After the parliamentary elections on 17 April 2011.3 Swedish People's Party 9 0 4. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council. and the rise of the Green party and its predecessor since 1983. the True Finns achieved exceptional success.8 Left Alliance 14 -2 7.3 . Their lowest common total of MPs. such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War. the Communists were a strong fourth party. and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties. For a few decades after 1944. This procedure has never been used.5 4.0 19. when this action was the sole prerogative of the president. and thus surpassing the Centre Party.5 15. increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats. there have been some long-term trends. elects one member to the parliament. However. 121.4 Social Democratic Party 42 -3 21.1 True Finns 39 +34 19.0 8. who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. which forms a federacy with Finland.1 Centre Party 35 -16 17. In the 2011 elections. the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberal party and its predecessors from 1906 to about 1980.votes.1 Green League 10 -5 5. and in the 2011 elections. the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes National Coalition Party 44 −6 22.[50] The autonomous province of Åland.Åland Centre was the largest party. although the parliament was dissolved several times under the pre-2000 constitution. was reached in the 2011 elections.0 7.0 20. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation.

0 4. has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. After the prime minister.5 0. and of the Chancellor of Justice. . The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus. of other ministers. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland. the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus.4 a Province of Åland's representative. regional appellate courts (hovioikeus. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence. or. As no one party ever dominates the parliament. and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus. [edit]Law Main article: Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. civil law or Roman law. hovrätt). Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense. förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus. and consists of him or her. [edit]Cabinet After parliamentary elections. The current prime minister is Jyrki Katainen (National Coalition Party). högsta domstolen).0 Others 1a 0 0. Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. [51] The cabinet exercises most executive powers.Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes Christian Democrats 6 -1 3. tingsrätt). and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. In addition to the regular courts. Each minister heads his or her ministry. högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957). As a rule. the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Council of State). in some cases. the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament. there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration.

[53] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. Some crime types are above average. Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption.[55] According to GRECO in 2007 corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better. notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context.[verification needed] In 2008. . Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent. Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe.[56] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008.[54][dubious – discuss] Today. economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished. Finland has a very low number of corruption charges. [edit]Foreign relations Ahtisaari receives his Noble prize.[54][verification needed] For instance. Also. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s.Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the Members of Parliament.

Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back. and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy. Finns and non-citizens.[59] [edit]Social security Main article: Social security in Finland Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems. but could intervene benevolently on their behalf. but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development. the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens.Finland is represented in the European Parliament and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[59] This was reversed in the 2000s. except that the president has no role in EU affairs.[58] Finland was considered a cooperative model state.[60] [edit]Armed forces .[citation needed] Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II. Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries. one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents. the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence.[57] In 2008. Main article: Foreign relations of Finland According to the 2012 constitution. the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing. According to some social historians. but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world.

but are careful to avoid politics. A Leopard 2A4 main battle tank of theFinnish Army on Independence Day.The Hamina-class fast-attack craft FNSHanko of the Finnish Navy. Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel).4–1. of which 25% are professional soldiers. are a sufficient deterrent.[63] . under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service. armed mostly with ground weaponry. A universal male conscription is in place. as is voluntary military service for women (currently approximately 500 annually).[61] Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia. and a large reserve.000 reservists. Finnish defence expenditure is around the sixth highest in the EU. WEU and the EU. The armed forces favour partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO. Finland's official policy states that the 350. Alternative non-military service for men is possible. [citation needed] An F-18 of the Finnish Air Force.[62] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1. currently serving conscripts.6% of the GDP.700 people in uniform. The standard readiness strength is 34.

9%. The branches of the military are the army. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness. Primary production is 2. Germany. Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland and Helsinki Stock Exchange Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France. who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command. Finland's largest company. and troops serve around the world in UN. Residents claim around 80% homeland defence willingness.[64] The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Ari Puheloinen). a mobile phone game developed in Finland. [edit]Economy Headquarters of Nokia. the navy and the air force.[65] With respect to foreign . has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular. followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. Angry Birds.Belgium or the UK. one of the highest rates in Europe. NATO and EU peacekeeping missions. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%.

farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops.1%). and has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frosts. In response to the climate. and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. Trade policy is managed by the European Union. the key economic sector is manufacturing. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy. machinery. and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to develop fertility. United Kingdom. where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters. The country lies between latitudes 60°N and 70°N.[60] . and international trade is a third of GDP. Sweden. forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%). Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp. because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate. Irrigation was generally not necessary. but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. In a 2004 OECD comparison. Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European[67] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. United States. Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude. 1998–2009. except for agriculture. The largest industries[66] are electronics (22%). Annual precipitation is usually sufficient.[citation needed] The largest trade flows are with Germany. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water. Finland's real-terms GDP growth. Forestry. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. vehicles and other engineered metal products (21. and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. paper factories. making summer droughts a constant threat. Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Netherlands and China. However. Russia.

Aleksanterinkatu.[70] The female employment rate is high. As in agriculture. while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses. Sweden. the government has long played a leading role in forestry. Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits. regulating tree cutting.[69] In 2006.1 euros in 2004. [60] Private sector employees amount to 1. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year. 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth.[71] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25. sponsoring technical improvements. making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.[71] .8 million. out of which around a third with tertiary education. a commercial street in Helsinki. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US. Germany and France. Forests play a key role in the country's economy.[68] As of 2008 average purchasing poweradjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy. In 1984 the government published the Forest 2000 plan. drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.

[72] 18% of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61. private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables.8% in early 2008. Residential buildings total 1.[76] Home ownership rate is 60%. 74% of households had a car.[78] According to Invest in Finland.5% (2009) Internet connection at home.[77] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83.4 million households reside in Finland. 40% of households consist of a single person.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income. food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2500 euro.[79] [edit]Energy . The average size is 2. high quality products. The average residential property without land costs 1.[75] In 2007. There are 2. a typical level in Europe. As of 2006. [73] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominant future liability.6 euro per sq metre. Finland is part of the Eurozone (dark blue). The average total household consumption was 20.187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8.5 million cars and 0. the EU single market and theSchengen Area. the average household savings rate was −3.000 euro. The employment rate was 68% and the unemployment rate was 6.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person. and recreation and culture at around 2000 euro. out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro.4 million other vehicles. and spending on well-being.Graphical depiction of Finland's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.1 persons. though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany. transport about 3000 euro. 2.[74] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007. 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons.

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed around 2014, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor. [80]

See also: Nordic energy market and Nuclear power in Finland Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe andNord Pool Spot exchanges, which have provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[81] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[82][83] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood.[citation needed] About 10–15% of the electricity is produced byhydropower,[84] which is little compared to more mountainous Sweden or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy forms (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) made high 30.5% compared to the EU average 10.3% in final energy consumption.[85] Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[86] one research reactor at the Otaniemi campus, and the fifthAREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—is currently scheduled to be operational by 2014.[80] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They might be causing an increase in energy prices, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[87] Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.


Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.

Main article: Transport in Finland The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is Finland's largest and busiest airport.

The state-owned VR Group operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with almost 15 million passengers in 2011. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[88] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro[citation needed] in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[89] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg'sFinlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world,[citation needed] has also been served by a helicopter line.

Main article: Economy of Finland Finland was rapidly industrialized after the Second World War, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan or the UK in the beginning of 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland (Ahlstrom, M-real,UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste Oil), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry) and information technology (e.g. Rovio, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for

[95] In both indicators. This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th). Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union.[67][91] [edit]Tourism . business closure (5th). [92] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured. According to the OECD. contract enforcement (7th).[92] Finland is rated the least corrupted country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[96] and 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. only four EU15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK.[90] [edit]Public policy See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. postal.[91] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century.export is still more prominent than in Western Europe.[91] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries. Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit report released in September 2011. [91] Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. tax payment (83rd) and low worker hardship (127th). Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark).[97] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. public support for industry development. A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception.[94] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive.[clarification needed] Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe. Ireland. Finland has clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment. the OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements. except for agricultural products.[93] The 2007 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Finland 17th most competitive. thus making Finland more vulnerable to global economic trends. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy. and significantly higher than most European countries. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–08 Finland ranked third in the world. although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. technology infrastructure. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low. Finland's performance was next to Germany.[92] While the manufacturing sector is thriving. The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it. human capital. legal framework. though in Finland immigration is relatively new. especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%). and other markets in Europe. The unionization rate is high (70%). and research and development landscape.

including Helsinki. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 37 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. lake cruises. Main article: Tourism in Finland In 2005. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna. golf. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to theglobalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. Tallinn. in the heart of summer. a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks. is seen regularly in the fall. Finnish tourism grossed over €6. kayaking among many others. hiking. rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year.Now lying within Helsinki.[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. in midwinter. or even months. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. and correspondingly. [edit]Demographics Main article: Demographics of Finland . living in the northern Lapland region. midnight sun in the summer. Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis. there is a polar night. yachting. Stockholm and Travemünde. winter and spring. Above the Arctic Circle. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus. with no sunset even at midnight. fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests. Turku. the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions. play a significant role in the local tourism industry. however hunting is also popular. fishing. At Finland's northernmost point.

Estonia and Sweden.768.803 4. Also Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are recognized in the constitution.600 1.336 4. The share of foreign citizens in Finland is 3. Oulu.177.462.029.372.998.060.Population of Finland.445.900 705.700 1.500 491. [101] [edit]Languages Main articles: Finnish language. The Nordiclanguages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts.276 The population of Finland is currently about 5.100 561. Turku.400 3.787.746.181.500 1.600 3.375. Finland has an average population density of 16 inhabitants per square kilometre.100 1. they become citizens.617 4.4%.778 4. The largest cities in Finland are those of the Greater Helsinkimetropolitan area—Helsinki.900 2.400. Espoo and Vantaa.147. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland. behind those of Norway and Iceland.000 663.695.[6] This is the third-lowest population density of any European country.380. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country.[100] Most of them are from Russia.598.478 5.943.000 are Tampere.600 832. The Sami language is an official language in northern Lapland.100 2. 1750–2010 year population 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Sources: [98] [99] 421. among the lowest in the European Union.700 3. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country. Other cities with population over 100. . a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.636.800 2. and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.[100] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship.800 2.115 5.300 1.000.222 4.900 1. Finland Swedish.Jyväskylä and Lahti.655.446.700 863.

Norwegian and. French and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age.[110] The best-known foreign languages are English (63%). in Lapland. Swedish is the native language of 5. Danish are mutually intelligible with Swedish and are thus understood by a significant minority. are the Sami people.000 people. Finnish is closely related to Karelian andEstonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian. English and Arabic (see Languages of Finland). The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin.The native language of 90% of the population is Finnish. Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. The Finnish Sign Language is used as a first language by 4.[106][not in citation given] who usually also speak Finnish. numbering around 7.0% .1%).000–6.1% 1. to some extent. English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead).[104] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami. German.000 people. and French (3%). [edit]Religion Main article: Religion in Finland Religion in Finland[111] Evangelical Finnish No Lutheran year Orthodox Other religious Church of Church affiliation Finland 1900 98. although studied only a little in the schools.6%). A third foreign language may be studied in upper secondary school or university (at 16 years of age or over). Estonian (0.[109] Immigrant languages include Russian (1.000[103] and recognized as an indigenous people.7% 0.000–5. Somali. German (18%). some schools may offer other options).[107] Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until 1920s.4% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns).[108] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami.[102] To the north.[102] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages.2% 0. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue.[105] Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5. Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) are protected by the constitution.

5% 2011 77.9% 10.1% 2012 76.8% 1990 87.3% 1.3% 1.1% 1.1% 1.4%[112] Petäjävesi Old Church is an old wooden Lutheran church and a UNESCO World Heritage site.1% 12.2% 14.5% 2.1% 1.1% 0.8% 1980 90.2% 1. .7% 0.5% 20.7% 2005 83.1950 95.1% 1.0% 1.2% 2000 85.8% 1.7% 7.1% 0.

8% consider themselves "highly religious". 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious".[114] In 2012. A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries.[112] and nearly all funerals are Christian.0% were confirmed in 2011 at the age of 15.[115] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll.[119] About 18. or life force".Turku Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.[118] There are 307 residents for each doctor.1%[113] of the population. educational. However. and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit.[117] In the same survey.5%). economic. and 31% "moderately religious". 75. although its share of the country's population has declined in recent years. accounting for 20.1%). slightly behind top-ranked Sweden and just ahead of the United States. has no religious affiliation. tribes or similar structures [dubious – discuss][citation needed] . A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world.6% by taxation. [111] The second largest group. Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute. was one of the best places in which a woman could live.[120][121] In April 2012. the Washington-based Population Crisis Committee reported in 1988 that Finland.3% of Finnish children were baptized and 83.9% of health care is funded directly by households and 76. as are the Muslim. The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 2% of its members attend church services weekly.4%[112] at the end of 2012) adherents are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Relations with the extended family are often rather distant and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans. Approximately 4.[122] [edit]Society Finnish family life is centred on the nuclear family[dubious – discuss][citation needed]. Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller. France and New Zealand. 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God". the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies. The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two.[116] According to ISSP survey data (2008).[123] After examining the position of women around the world. including UK. Finnish women were the first in . Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1. and legal conditions that affect women's lives. 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force". [edit]Health Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men. According to UNICEF. God.1 million (or 76. weddings and funerals. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools.[124] The group reached this conclusion after examining the health.

and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the membership of the Eduskunta (parliament) and held several ministerial posts. there was a timetable listing specific goals to be achieved during the remainder of the twentieth century. was slightly ahead of the number of men.[125] In 1906. and. In the 1980s. Finland was the first nation in the world to give full suffrage (the right to vote and to run for office) to all adult citizens. such as child care and elementary school teaching. about 75% of adult women worked outside the home. Another aim was for women to occupy a more equal share of decision-making positions. however. Most striking was the disparity in wages. [60] In a number of areas.[60] The Equality Law that went into effect in 1987 committed the country to achieving full equality for women. rather than protection for women. they earned only about two-thirds of the wages paid to men. Although women made up just under half the work force and had a tradition of working outside the home. women had made notable legislative gains that brought them closer to full equality with men. Efforts were undertaken not only to place women in occupations dominated by males. in some cases.Europe to gain the franchise. In addition to an expanding welfare system. for example. the number of women studying at the university level. Finnish women were as well educated as their male counterparts. they made up about 48% of the work force. In the late 1980s.[60] Finland ranks second in the Global Gender Gap Report 2012. The emphasis was to be equality for everyone. but also to bring males into fields traditionally believed to belong to the women's sphere. the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved. which since World War II had come to provide them with substantial assistance in the area of childbearing and child-rearing. [edit]Culture .[126] Finland has general elections every fourth year. including women.

designed by Alvar Aalto. . Seminaarinmäki Campus of the University of Jyväskylä. or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK).Mikael Agricola. many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries. After lower secondary school. Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. designed by Alvar Aalto. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools. graduates may either enter the workforce directly. Main article: Culture of Finland [edit]Education and science Auditorium in Aalto University's main building.[127] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7. Trade schools prepare for professions.

and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year. low-temperature physics. civic and workers' institutes. Originating in Denmark in the nineteenth century. Helsinki University is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. vocational course centres. still below OECD average 16.[134] [edit]Literature Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. biotechnology. notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino.Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education. genetic technology and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact. environmental sciences. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making. such as secondary evening schools. and folk high schools.[131] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education.5%. In tertiary education. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons.801 patents were filed in Finland.[60] Finland is highly productive in scientific research.[130] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments. . folk high schools became common throughout the region. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. materials research. study centres. 1. one of the lowest in OECD.[129] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree. [128] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world. two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-orienteduniversities. Forest improvement.3%. the Finnish national epic. while in advanced programs it is 7. with educational and financial assistance provided by the state. In 2005.[133] In 2007. such as the national poetJohan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius. United States (38%) and Japan (37%). Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish. Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries. similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%). This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala. neural networks. brain research. Adult education appeared in a number of forms. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish.[132] Finland had a long tradition of adult education.

is also famous for his work in furniture. most famously the Finnishspeaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. Alvar Aalto. [edit]Television Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons. remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. See also: List of Finnish architects Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Sofi Oksanen and Jari Tervo. textilesand glassware. [edit]Visual arts The National Museum of Finland. The Second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939. illustrates Finnish history from prehistoric times to the present day. characterized by Väinö Linna. the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson is the most translated Finnish writer. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna. located in central Helsinki. Besides Kalevala and Waltari. who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland. about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV showJackass). Kari Hotakainen. there was a rise of modernist writers. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia Prize.[citation needed] [edit]Music . Ilkka Remes. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen.After Finland became independent.

though this is technically incorrect. Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Leif Segerstam. Olli Mustonen. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen. Finland's national anthem. The people of northern Finland. Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. a significant figure in the history of classical music. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread. Osmo Vänskä. Soile Isokoski. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. Pekka Kuusisto. Kaija Saariaho. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. such as Magnus Lindberg. In 1899 he composedFinlandia. [edit]Pop . and has become a part of popular music. and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphonyKullervo. Tarja Turunen and Linda Lampenius. as comprised in the Kalevala. and Sami music [edit]Classical Much of the Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics. are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country). the Sami. Finnish classical music has existed for only about a hundred years. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila. and many of Finland's importantcomposers are still alive. Finland has a very lively classical music scene. which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. Today. The same word sometimes refers tolavlu or vuelie songs. less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs. Sweden and Norway.The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). Finnish rock. Main articles: Music of Finland.

Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis. Korpiklaani. jazz musicians. During the decade. playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. Sonata Arctica. Finland hosted the competition in 2007. . HIM's 2005 albumDark Light went gold in the United States. Sentenced. meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. During the early 1960s. hip hop performers.[135] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. Children of Bodom. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal. the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged. is also popular. Around 1964. etc. some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music. Beatlemania arrived in Finland. tango. This was also the fate of the rock and roll groupHurriganes. Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands. During the late 1960s and 1970s. a style of Argentine music. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the hit American hard rock group Guns N' Roses among others. resulting in further development of the local rock scene. Impaled Nazarene. dance music acts.Stratovarius and Waltari. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager.Perttu Kivilaakso ofApocalyptica.

[edit]Cinema Main article: Cinema of Finland See also: List of Finnish films In the film industry. Each year.[136] [edit]Media and communications Linus Torvalds. the commerce-orientedTaloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen.100 professional magazines. 2. 67 commercial radio stations. spend the most time reading newspapers. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines. including the newspaper Aamulehti. three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels.000[138] making it the largest).[137] Today.[139] . [136] Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (its circulation of 412. 320 popular magazines. Worldwide. List of newspapers in Finland. the Finnishsoftware engineer best known for creating the popular open-source operating system Linux. tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. there are around 200 newspapers. and Television in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights. Around twelve feature films are made each year. Mauritz Stiller. the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat. Finns. See also: Telecommunications in Finland. along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese.000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold. notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki. around 12. Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin. Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world.

both terrestrially and on cable. Sauteéd Reindeer is a popular dish in Lapland and is usually eaten with Lingonberry .[143] [edit]Cuisine Main article: Finnish cuisine Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabitper-second beginning July 2010. All TV channels are broadcast digitally. operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.[141] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Finland's public broadcasting station. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). is spread over the hot pastries before eating.[142] In October 2009.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1. Around 79% of the population use the Internet. Value-added services are rare. YLE is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters.000 inhabitants.YLE. often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi).[140] Finland had around 1. Butter.

and sea buckthorn). New Year's Day. while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. Midsummer Day (St.[citation needed] Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye. [edit]Sports . [edit]Public holidays A midsummer bonfire (kokko) inMäntsälä. Easter. Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. barley. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking.Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking. New Year's Day and Midsummer. Ascension Day. oats) and berries (such as bilberries. Pentecost. and more fish and poultry. John's Day) and All Saints' Day. but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations. lingonberries. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. Fish andmeat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. According to the statistics. red meat consumption has risen. [citation needed] Christian holidays include Christmas.Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food. but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. drink or in various recipes. Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. while secular holidays include May Day and the Independence Day.Epiphany. cloudberries.

Finland. with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. For over 100 years. Paavo Nurmi at the 1920 Summer Olympics. . ski jumping and Formula One. while still an autonomous Grand Duchywithin the Russian Empire.[144] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita. great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen. is the national sport of Finland. Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. In the 1920s and 1930s. The team has won two world championship titles (1995 & 2011) titles and five Olympic medals. five European championships and 24 world records. athletics. five world championships. cross-country skiing. Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. Pesäpallo. resembling baseball. a nation then of only 3. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals.Finland's men's national ice hockey teamis ranked as one of the best in the world. although the most popular sports in terms of spectators are ice hockey.2 million people. came second in the medal count.[145] Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908. At the 1924 Summer Olympics. At the 1912 Summer Olympics. Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time. Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics.

Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen. and Saku Koivu. Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä. Teemu Selänne. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics. alpine skiers Kalle Palander and Tanja Poutiainen. and four-time World Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen. [edit]International rankings The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola and Lasse Virén. [show]    V T E International rankings of Finland [edit]See also Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Finland portal     Outline of Finland Index of Finland-related articles Bibliography of Finland Outline of Finland . The 1952 Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen. gymnast Heikki Savolainen. see International rankings of Finland. For a more comprehensive list. cycling and skiing. running.In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball. ice hockey players Jari Kurri. Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg. football players Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä. Eero Mäntyranta. rower Pertti Karppinen. Nordic walking. cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen.

the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval. . Retrieved 2012-04-18. Population Register Centre. revised 2008). and not by its president." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further. he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semipresidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p. 3.         [edit]Notes Finnish Models of Public Transport Index of Finland-related articles Fire fighting in Finland Football in Finland Gun politics in Finland Kansallisbiografia List of bands from Finland List of Finns Protected areas of Finland 1. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press. and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire.09. it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter. ^ a b c d e "Finland". ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30.2012" (in Finnish). 2. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister. ^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic.95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'. According to the Finnish Constitution. in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 October 2012.

31 December 2010. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". Retrieved 1 January 2011.1787/20755120-table1. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 8. YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). Fundforpeace. Local Finland. University of Oulu. 14. 2010-06-14. ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk". Legislation only recognizes the short name. ^ "The World's Best ^ "Human Development Report 2010". 6. Retrieved 16 September 2012. E24. ^ "Republic of Finland". Prosperity. People. 16. Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities.4. 10. ^ "National Archives Service. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. Retrieved Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. culture and environment in the north.oulu. ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). and "Human Development Index trends. A Newsweek study of health. Retrieved 2011-03-06. is the long protocol name. kotikielenseura. Retrieved 7 November 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 9. United Nations. Newsweek. 12. 2010. 15. education. ^ Herkules. Retrieved 2010-08-26. and politics ranks the globe's top nations. ^ "The Failed States Index 2008". 2010. and "Northern Sami:Suoma dásseváldi" in Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological Conference. which is however not defined by law. ^ a b "Kuusi kuntaa katoaa kartalta". 5.WorldAudit. 2010-08-16. Newsweek. 7. or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish. OECD iLibrary. 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva Gummerus Kirjapaino . Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". ^ a b "KUNTIEN ASUKASLUVUT AAKKOSJÄRJESTYKSESSÄ". Retrieved 5 November 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-06. United Nations. 31 August 2012. Population Register Centre. 13. August 2010". Finland (in English)". Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ a b "Local Finland—Front page". ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". material. 2010-09-09. 1980–2010" 17. Retrieved 2007-01-22. "Republiken Finland" in Swedish.

^ Finland. Vastapaino 2007. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ David Glantz (2001). ISBN 0-465-00239-0 31.33. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Library of Congress. Helsingin Sanomat 32. Federal Research Division. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 20. "History of Finland. 33. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 24. 34. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland. 1993 22. Retrieved Basic Books. ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". Europe-cities. University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 23. World Bank 25. page 67. ThisisFinland — "Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives". muutos ja nykypäivä. ^ "Statistics Finland. ^ a b "Finland and the Swedish Empire". ^ a b c d Finland 1917–2007 (last updated 2007-12-05). ^ The Finnish Civil War. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 27. ^ Finland 1917–2007 (2007-02-20). Rauli. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic. "The siege of Leningrad. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ISBN 0-7603-0941-8 30. 29. . ^ Dr. p. Retrieved 24 June 2008. p. Suomen puolueet—Historia. Stat. Finland chronology". Stat. 26. Retrieved 2008-12-11. "From slash-and-burn fields to postindustrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure".Federal Research Division. ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland."Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers". ^ Timothy Snyder (2010) ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. 28. 21. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities. ^ Mickelsson. ^ "Median Age (Years)". Library of Congress. Environment and Natural Resources". Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.173. Zenith Imprint. 1941–44: 900 days of terror". ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia. 19.

48. ^ The source for historical information on party support isthe Finnish Wikipedia's article on the parliament . ^ "Finland. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 40. pp. Retrieved 3 December 2012. State Provincial Office. ^ The role that the regional councils serve on Mainland Finland are on the Åland Islands handled by the autonomous Government of Åland. 41. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 28. Land Survey of Finland." Encyclopædia Britannica. Oulu University Library (2000). Population Register Center of Finland. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 36. Ministry of Finance. ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Finland.2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). 42. ^ "Tervetuloa aluehallintoviraston verkkosivuille!" (in Finnish). 37. 12). 47. 45. 2004-08-24. Retrieved 9 June 2012. ^ "SOS: Save our seals". 46. Paavo. Finnish Institute of Marine Research. UK. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Retrieved 2008-05-23. Retrieved 3 December 2012. ^ "Finland’s Northern Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities for Agriculture". Retrieved 9 March 2011. BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Retrieved 3 December 2012. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. this is Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Retrieved 30 December 2010.2. 22 October 2009. 44.35. 39. ^ "Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking". ^ a b c d "Finland's climate". Finnish Meteorological Institute. ^ Finland is the most forested country in Europe. ^ "Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä" (in Finnish). ^ "BirdLife Finland".fi 38. ^ "Trends in sea level variability". 1–4. trends and conservation status. forest. 43. ^ The Parliament: Parliament Elected Speakers 50. Cambridge. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 2011. "Pohjoiset alueet / yleiskuvaus" (in Finnish). 49. ^ a b Havas.

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ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Virtual Finland. 133. ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 130. 131. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Archived fromthe original on 2011-07-07. 2012. ^ a b "Media moves". New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote (in 1893).org/docs/". ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-04. Jenny (2011-04-14). 1988. ^ "Scientific publication—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). Powerless and Pregnant". Population Briefing Paper. 2009-12-08. 136. Retrieved 2012-04-07. ^ Kari Sipilä.The Wall Street Journal. but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919. . Research. "'National scandal' of 11 stillbirths a day means Britain has one of worst survival rates". ^ "Tilastokeskus. Research. "A country that innovates". Retrieved 2010-02-04.weforum. 125. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". 134. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2010: University of Helsinki". Neil (15 April 2012). in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage. 2007-11-15. Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Department for Communication and Culture / Unit for Promotion and Publications / Embassy and Consulates General of Finland in China. 20. ^ "World Happiness report". ^ "Patents with numbers—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish).fi. No. OECD 132. 122.: Population Crisis Committee). ^ Hope. 127. 123. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 129.121. (Washington D. Retrieved 2007-0214. Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^ "Summary sheets on education systems in Europe". World Economic Forum. ^ "Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor. Daily Mail (London). 124. 128. Eurydice. 126. "Guns N' Roses Can Agree on at Least One Thing: This Finnish Saxophonist Rocks". ^ Shah. ^http://www3.

^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Yale University. ^ IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Scoreboard 2006. Retrieved 2011-0306. ^ [2] 146. Retrieved 2009-10-16. ^ "Coming Soon". 139. ^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance . 143. 141. ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". pp. 52–60 Retrieved 25 July 2009. 147. Retrieved on 2012-06-09. ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007". Retrieved Heritage. ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". Yale University. The Global Top 20. Statistics Finland. 142. 2007-08-31. 140. Foreign Policy May/June 2005. 152. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2007-12-22. ^ "Circulation Statistics". pp. ^ Tässä ovat Suomen suosituimmat lajit | Urheilu. Columbia University and World Economic Forum (2006) 151. www. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 145. The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life (Statistics Finland). ^ 2010 Freedom of the Press Survey (retrieved 4 May 2011). 150. ^ a b The World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2012. Iltalehti. YLE. 138. ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF).imd. Foreign Policy November/December 2006. www.137. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). ^ The Global Top 20. Heritage. 153. 74– 81 (2012-01-03).imd. ^ Measuring Globalisation. Foreign Policy. ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. ^ "2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE" (PDF).ch 154. 144.

oecd. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006. 171. ^ "Human Development Report 2006" (PDF). Transparency International 168. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Results & Findings. Save the Children. 163. ^ Messages From Pisa 2000. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2010". Transparency International 167. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2003". The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. Organisation for economic co-operation and development 159. 156. Transparency International 169. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008. Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World. [dead link] [dead link] 161. ^ Finland. 157. ^ Persistently high corruption in low-income countries amounts to an “ongoing humanitarian disaster”.org. Retrieved 201103-06. NationMaster. weforum. World Economic Forum. 162. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Save the Children. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Global Peace Index. Institute for Economics & Peace 166. ^ "Technological achievement statistics – countries compared". United Nations Development Programme. Global Peace Index. 158. ^ "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). Retrieved . ^ 2008 Methodology. Rsf. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action. Rsf. Institute for Economics & Peace 165. Retrieved 2011-03-06. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9 170. 164. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2007) pisa. ^ Methodology. Retrieved Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "PISA 2003 – Learning for Tomorrow's World" (PDF). Rsf. Results & Findings.155. Volume 1: Analysis. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". ^ Pisa 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. 160.

Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway. Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann. ^ http://www. ^ Table 1: Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2005 comparisons.  Trotter. Jutikkala. and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9). 174.  Engle. Greenwood Press.  Swallow.weforum. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939– 1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6). ISSN 1096-2905). 177. a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3). Chris. Jakobson. weforum. Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. Deborah. The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6). William R. Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8). ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report – Finland" (PDF). Eloise and Paananen.weforum. Jean-Jacques. ^ a b "World Audit Democracy". Lavery. Klinge. A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Fred. Richard D. Retrieved 201103-06. ^ http://www. Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X). Jaakko. The History of Finland. 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4. Max. Pauri. . Subrenat. Jason. A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1). there's music from the forest. Retrieved 2011-03-06. World Economic Forum. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Pirinen. The Global Competitiveness Report 2006. Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1). Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). [edit]Further reading  Chew. Finland. 175. Eino. Listen.173. Allen F. Matti.      Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1).    Lewis.    176.

Key Development Forecasts for Finland from International Futures. Finland (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries Government Publications). Government  This is Finland. .[edit]External links Find more about Finland at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Overviews and data       Finland entry at The World Factbook Finland at the Open Directory Project Finland profile from the BBC News.   Finland Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members (CIA Publications). the official English-language online portal (administered by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs). Population in Finland 1750–2010 Appendix figure 2. The largest groups by native language 2001 and 2011 (Statistics Finland).

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