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This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 65°N 027°E

Republic of Finland
 
Suomen tasavalta (Finnish) Republiken Finland (Swedish)


Coat of arms

Anthem: Maamme (Finnish) Vårt land (Swedish)
Our Land

Location of Finland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital and largest city Official languages Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E

 

Finnish (90.0%) Swedish (5.4%)

Recognised regional languages Demonym

Sami (0.03%)

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Finnish Finn Parliamentary republic[1] Sauli Niinistö Jyrki Katainen (NCP) Eero Heinäluoma (SDP) Eduskunta

Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament Legislature

Independence - Autonomy
within Russia

29 March 1809

- Independence
from Soviet Russia

6 December 1917

- First recognized
by Soviet Russia

4 January 1918

Area - Total 338,424 km2 (64th) 130,596 sq mi - Water (%) 10 Population - 2012 estimate - 2000 census - Density 5,421,827[2] (112th) 5,180,000 16/km2 (201st) 41/sq mi GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2000) 2011 estimate $195.723 billion[3] $36,236[3] 2011 estimate $266.553 billion[3] $49,349[3] 26.9 low HDI (2013) 0.892[4]

very high · 21st Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Euro (€) (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) d.m.yyyy right +358 FI

 

.fi .ax a


The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states. The .ax domain is reserved for the autonomous province of the Åland Islands.

Finland (



Finnish: Suomi (help·info); Swedish: Finland), officially the Republic of Finland,[5] is

a Nordic country situated in theFennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. An estimated 5.4 million people live in Finland, with the majority concentrated in its southern regions.[6] In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Politically, it is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital of Helsinki, local governments in 336 municipalities[7][8] and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. About one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (consisting of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other larger cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti and Kuopio. From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution. This prompted the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which was followed by a civil war where the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" were defeated by the proconservative "Whites" with support from the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a monarchy in the country, Finland became a republic. Finland's experience of World War II involved three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944) against the Soviet Union; and the Lapland War (1944–1945) against Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1969, the European Union in 1995 and the eurozone at its inception in 1999. During this time, it built an extensive welfare state.

6 Cold War 2.4 Administrative divisions 4 Politics o o o o o o o 4.7 Social security .2 President 4.5 Law 4.5 World War II 2. with a nominal per-capita income of over $49.3 Russian Empire era 2. According to some measures.7 Recent history 3 Geography o o o o  3.2 Concept 2 History o o o o o o o  2. Thereafter.1 Prehistory 2.3 Parliament 4.2 Climate 3.1 Constitution 4.6 Foreign relations 4.4 Civil war and early independence 2.[11][12][13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and concept of Finland o o  1.1 Biodiversity 3.3 Regions 3. such that today. It has also been ranked as one of the world's countries with the highest quality of life. economic development was rapid. remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.[3] Finland is one of the world's wealthiest nations.4 Cabinet 4.2 Swedish era 2.000 (2011).1 Etymology 1. [9][10] Finland has the best educational system in Europe and has recently been ranked as one of the world's most peaceful andeconomically competitive countries.Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation.

8 Armed forces 5 Economy o o o o o  5.5 Music 7.3 Visual arts 7.5 Tourism 6 Demographics o o o o  6.7 Media and communications 7.3 Health 6.2 Literature 7.2 Religion 6.8 Cuisine 7.1 Languages 6.o  4.6 Cinema 7.1 Energy 5.4 Television 7.9 Public holidays 7.1 Education and science 7.4 Society 7 Culture o o o o o o o o o o      7.10 Sports 8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Etymology and concept of Finland .4 Public policy 5.2 Transport 5.3 Industry 5.

Alternatively. a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn. [edit]Etymology [edit]Finland The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper. in the Baltic Sea. while the other parts of the country were called Tavastia and Karelia. but these theories are now considered outdated. Latin homo) has been suggested.) In the 15th century. a region that later became known as Finland Proper. when the archipelago was seen as belonging to Åbo (Turku). The third was found in Gotland. and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland. What the term . (Medieval politics concerned tribes such as the Finns. meaning "land". the Tavastians and the Karelians more than geographical boundaries. "Finland" became a common name for the whole land area to the east of the Bothnian Sea. Gothic guma.[15] [edit]Suomi The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins. The oldest date from 3000 to 2500 BCE. and parallels between saame (Sami. but which could also sometimes be collectively referred to as "Österland" (compare Norrland).[16] [edit]Concept In the 12th and 13th centuries. the term "Finland" mostly referred to the area around Åbo (Turku).Astuvansalmi rock paintings atSaimaa. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages). with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still being sometimes excluded until later. being borrowed as *ćoma. but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē. the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape). possibly even including Åland. this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates from the 13th century.

the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded.[19] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. Queen Christina named Per Brahe the Younger as Governor General of Finland. also the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact. if only in name. Russia and Norway. which later became what the concept of Finland came to stand for . During the 1st .at least after the tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in 1721 and 1743. The boundary. called "Old Finland". to be administratively included in "New Finland" in 1812. What was signed over to Russia in 1809 was not so much a "Finland" as six counties. The artifactsthe first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia. was a compromise.which the Swedish proposed in the peace negotiations . The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. and a little part of Västerbotten County.[20] Even with the introduction of agriculture. which was the boundary between Västerbotten County and Österbotten County (Ostrobothnia) at the time .or along the river Kalix. In 1637. came when John III of Sweden called his duchy as the "grand duchy of Finland" (about 1580). hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy. which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest. There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland. using stone tools.actually refers to can vary between sources. as a strategy to meet the claims of the Russian tsar. [edit]History Main article: History of Finland [edit]Prehistory Main article: History of Finland#Prehistory According to archaeological evidence. thereby including the Finnish-speaking part of the Torne Valley .[18] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. A sort of establishment for Finland as a unity. The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning.which the Russians proposed. Åland. and Ostrobothnia (other parts of Sweden had also hadgovernor generals). The boundary between the new Grand Duchy of Finland and the remaining part of Sweden could have been drawn along the river Kemijoki. The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. Åland. The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea and the Finnish part of the realm had the same representation in the parliament as the western part had. [17] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers.

In the 17th century. as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. whereas Sámi-speaking populations occupied most parts of the country.[22] In the 16th century.[21] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom. Swedish-speaking settlers arrived at the coastal regions during the medieval time. Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry. early Finnish was spoken at least in agricultural settlements of Southern Finland. the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism.millennium AD.[23] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. In the 18th century. clergy and localcourts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas. The Royal Academy of Turku. during which about one-third of the Finnish population died. Swedish kings established their rule in the Northern Crusades from the 12th century until 1249. [edit]Russian Empire era Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland . Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–97. administration and education. Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. was established in 1640.[23] and a devastating plague a few years later. During the Protestant Reformation. The first university in Finland.[citation needed] [edit]Swedish era The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–21) and the Lesser Wrath(1742–43). Other greens:Swedish dominions and possessions.Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility. wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces. Dark green: Sweden proper.

Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835. Economic and political development was rapid. a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennomanmovement grew. Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917. In 1811 Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War. the universal suffrage was. and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. Desire for independence gained ground. From the 1860s onwards.[24] In 1906. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations. the Finnish language began to gain recognition. The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population. mainly by Social Democrats. and investment rose in following decades. universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. controlled by social democrats. [edit]Civil war and early independence Soviet approval of Finland's independence (in Russian). For example.On 29 March 1809. During the Russian era.[24] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain. virtually meaningless. in practice. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia. it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned. first among radical liberals[25] and socialists. The parliament. Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence and Finnish Civil War After the 1917 February Revolution. However. making it one of the worst famines in European history. passed the so- . since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament.

This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. After a brief flirtation with monarchy. The Whites. increasing the proportion of capital-owning population. Finland became a presidential republic. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by theTreaty of Tartu in 1920. the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland. In 1917.[24] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force. tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps. Germany's relations with democratic Finland cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power. where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki. who were supported by Imperial Germany.called Power Act[26] to give the highest authority to parliament. in which right-wing parties won a slim majority. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the antiCommunist Lapua Movement. the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. which the social democrats considered illegal.[28] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. prevailed over the Reds. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs. but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Governmentand by the right-wing parties in Finland.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France.[citation needed] The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew. with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. The government started to disarm the Russian forces inPohjanmaa. the population was 3 million.[citation needed] New elections were conducted. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.[27] After the war. since the right to do so had been stripped from the Russians by the Power Act. On 27 January 1918. were highly antagonized. The civil war and activist expeditions into the Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. as radical communists took power in Russia. [edit]World War II . and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. the right-wing parties and the social democratic party. the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. Suddenly.

000 km2 (149.000 soldiers killed. Salla andPetsamo.000 persons.[30]Finnish troops controlled some of the areas around the city but refused to attack or let Germans use those areas for attack.Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and theContinuation War in 1944. the USSR's second largest city. The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations. Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia. fled these areas. Finland covered an area of approximately 385. After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill. when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and retained its independence. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956. Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland. which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity. Finland reached an armistice with the Soviet Union. whether they should be said to have helped in the siege or refused to help is controversial. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II During World War II. in which Germany had invaded the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45. the German army besieged Leningrad. As a result of the two wars.000 sq mi) before the handover. by proportion the third-highest loss rate in World War II. following Operation Barbarossa.[citation needed] . and in theContinuation War of 1941–1944. some 400.[29] The siege of Leningrad resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's inhabitants. including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and icefree Liinakhamari(Liinahamari). restraints and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. Almost the whole population. however at a loss of about 93. For 872 days.

in apparent deference to Soviet desires.[32] The new jobs in manufacturing. the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations. . and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence. services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas.[31] Establishing trade with the Western powers. with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970.5 in 1947 to 1.[citation needed] [edit]Cold War In 1950. Urho Kekkonen. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank. the eighth president of Finland. Even after the reparations had been paid off.[32] The 1952 Summer Olympicsbrought international visitors. and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden. For example.5 in 1973. However. the economy did not generate jobs fast enough.[32] When baby-boomers entered the workforce.Finland rejected Marshall aid. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. Finland—poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil)—continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade. such as theUnited Kingdom.

Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977. In 1981. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship. Officially claiming to be neutral. Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets. The depression bottomed out in 1993. there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet.[citation needed] In the 1970s and 1980s.[citation needed] [edit]Recent history .[citation needed] Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions. and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years. which explains the widespread support that proSoviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics.Kalevi Sorsa was a long-time prime minister of Finland during the 1970s and 80s. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union. a banking crisis. the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. although Finland did not fully join. In politics. Finland remained a Western European market economy. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the German press. Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on. and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonenagainst his opponents. which was crucial for his continued popularity.

Finland introduced the currency of theEurozone. Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s.[32] With a median age of 42.42 births per 1. one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins. even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries. Finland is expected to struggle with demographics. Finland joined the European Union in 1995. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. Finland changed the common side of its coins. without further reforms or much higher immigration.8. or a fertility rate of 1. In 2007. and the Eurozone in 1999.000 population. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999. in 2002.[33] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. Like most European countries.7 years. in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. [edit]Geography . The population is aging with the birth rate at 10. the euro. instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone. The Finnish markka was replaced by the euro in 2002. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. Three different designs (one for €2 coin. As a preparation for this date. this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them. Like other Nordic countries. Finland is one of the oldest countries.

) Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland. . List of national parks of Finland. is the fourth largest in Europe. The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland. and longitudes 20° and 32° E.316 m (4.12 acreExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{".Detailed map of Finland. The distance from the southernmost—Hanko—to the northernmost point in the country—Nuorgam—is 1. is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway.324 metres (4. only Reykjavík lies more to the north than Helsinki.318 ft). The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland. Much of the geography of Finland is explained by the Ice Age. Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands —about 188. Finland is one of the world's northernmost countries. Of world capitals. Saimaa. Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. {{{u}}}) and 179. Its highest point.[34]. (See also Atlas of Finland. and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N. directly adjacent to Halti.344 ft).S. the Halti at 1. Its largest lake.000 islands. U. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland isRidnitsohkka at 1.160 kilometres (720 mi). The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared to the rest of Europe. List of lakes in Finland.000 lakes (larger than 500 m2/0.

Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers. Gleysols and peat bogsoccupy poorly drained areas.The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. that are more typical in the Baltic region. On the southwestern coast. In the extreme north of Finland. According to the WWF. Finland's national bird. terrain in Finland is rising due to thepostglacial rebound. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery. [edit]Biodiversity Main article: Fauna of Finland Phytogeographically. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand. running northwest to southeast. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. near the tree line and Arctic Ocean.[37] the largest forested area in Europe. where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. The Whooper Swan. covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin.[35] Relatively speaking. . birch and other species. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia. Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. visible wherever there is no soil cover. Montane Birch forests are common. The forest consists of pine. As a result. Finland is rising from the sea. The landscape is covered mostly (75% of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens.7 sq mi) annually. where land steadily rises about 1 cm a year. Finland is shared between the Arctic. spruce.[36] Forest covers 86% of the country's area. with little arable land. The most common type of rock isgranite. the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga. forests are characterized by mixed forests. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil. Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world. central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2. south of the Helsinki– Rauma line.

Three of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan. See also: Climate of Finland The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasiancontinent's coastal zone. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. Similarly. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity.[39]Of some seventy species of freshwater fish. exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland. black-plumaged member of the grouse family. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation. 248 breeding bird species. and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna.[40] [edit]Climate Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland.The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. There are at least sixty native mammalian species. In the Köppen climate classification. gray wolf. the northern pike. The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal. a large European swan and the national bird of Finland. a large. over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today. and the European Eagle-owl. wolverine and elk.[38] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler. one of only three lake seal species in the world. Common Chaffinch and Redwing. the whole of . [citation needed] Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal). perch and others are plentiful. the Capercaillie. down to only 300 seals today. many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.

[43] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters.[41] No part of Finland has Arctic tundra. the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F). the winters are long and cold. particularly in Lapland. Summers in the north are quite short. The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. Within the country. Even in the most temperate regions of the south. Lapland. while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.[42] Pyhä-Luosto National Park.[42] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions. and the snow typically covers the land from about late November to mid-April. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. At Finland's northernmost point. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude. while the summers are relatively warm but short. but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C(77 °F) during heat waves.[41] Winters of southern Finland (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C/32 °F) are usually about 100 days long. the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north. the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. only two to three months. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C/50 °F) in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September. In northern Finland. such as Alaska. the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer. and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F).[41] .[41] Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt. and in the inland. Siberia and southern Greenland. but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland. the warmest days of July can reach 35 °C (95 °F).

regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland. forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland (the läänis). [edit]Regions Finland consists of 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. In addition. which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. Historically. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region. Currently. each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils. in addition.Lake Pielinen seen from a hill in Koli National Park. Regions represent dialectal.[44] Coat of In Arm English s In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administr ative Map . each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. fisheries. the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland in 2010. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation. which is the responsibility of regional councils. cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces.Åland was designated a seventh region. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. which were abolished. agriculture. the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education.

Mellersta Central Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Kokkola aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Lapland Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Vaasa Western and Central Northern Ostrobothnia .agency Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovanie mi Lapland Norra Northern PohjoisOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Oulu Northern Finland Kainuu Kainuu Kajanalan d Kajaani Northern Finland North Karelia PohjoisKarjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland Northern PohjoisSavo Savonia Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland Southern Savonia EteläSavo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland Södra Southern EteläOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Seinäjoki aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Keski.

Finland Kainuu North Karelia Pirkanm Pirkanma Birkaland Tampere a aa Western and Central Finland Northern Savonia Southern Savonia Central Finland KeskiSuomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskyl ä Western and Central Finland Southern Ostrobothnia Satakunt Satakunt Satakunda a a Pori SouthWestern Finland Ostrobothnia Pirkanmaa Finland Varsinais Egentliga -Suomi Finland Proper Turku SouthWestern Finland Satakunta Central Ostrobothnia South Karelia EteläKarjala Södra Karelen Lappeenr Southern anta Finland Central Finland Päijänne Tavastia PäijätHäme Päijänne Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland Finland Proper South Karelia Tavastia Proper KantaHäme Egentliga Hämeenl Southern Tavastland inna Finland Päijänne Tavastia Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa Kymenla Kymenla Kymmene akso dalen akso Kotka Southern Finland Kymenlaakso .

[46] [edit]Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland.[7][8] and most have fewer than 6. Spending is financed by municipal income tax. state subsidies. and Historical provinces of Finland A steam boat on Lake Päijänne leavingJyväskylä. and other revenue. Regions of Finland. which may also call themselves towns or cities. Sub-regions of Finland. the capital of Central Finland.[citation needed] Helsinki Cathedral.000 residents. There are 336 municipalities. People often identify with their municipality.Åland Ahvenan Islands[45 maa ] Åland Marieha mn Åland Åland Islands The region of Eastern Uusimaa was consolidated with Uusimaa on 1 January 2011. . The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities. They account for half of public spending. Municipalities of Finland.

. e. Sami people have a semiautonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. Municipalities co-operate in seventy subregions and nineteen regions.Vantaa. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. The Tammerkoski rapids in the inland city of Tampere. common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities.In addition to municipalities. However. The capital region – comprising Helsinki. and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun). there is a pilot project underway with regional elections. The autonomous province of Åland has a permanent democratically elected regional council. The figures are as of 28 February 2013. not just in the built-up area. The land area is given in km². two intermediate levels are defined.g. In the following chart. Espoo and Kauniainen – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. In the Kainuu region. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers.

77 Vantaa 205.86 Espoo 257.653 238.410.17 135.Municipalities (thin borders) and regions(thick borders) of Finland (2009).546 245. City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Helsinki 605.523 213.67 734.26 824.767 525.61 Turku 180.75 Oulu 191.37 862.832.51 Tampere 217.237 1.75 2.461 312.03 414.91 .

76 37.91 Joensuu 74.381.76 31.81 348.333 834.597. .39 65.24 34.City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Jyväskylä 133.99 114.88 Lahti 103.187 2.433.15 Lappeenranta 72.187 135.5 Hämeenlinna 67.391 1.577 1. and Former municipalities of Finland [edit]Politics The Parliament of Finland's main building.558.768 188.33 Further information: List of Finnish municipalities.331 2.36 50.84 Vaasa 65.785.229 1.05 764.170. List of Finnish municipalities by population.17 Kuopio 105.14 Pori 83.687 1. List of Finnish municipalities by area.07 Kouvola 87.06 99.

Risto Ryti (1940–1944). and in European Union elections. The current president is Sauli Niinistö. Urho Kekkonen (1956–1982). and even further under its 2012 amendment. Svinhufvud (1931– 1937). C. K. the President of Finland is the head of state. G. J. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary. Mannerheim (1944–1946). one. Finland was formerly considered a semi-presidential parliamentary system. and presidential elections. including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with thecabinet.[1] The position still does entail some powers. The former presidents were K. Paasikivi (1946–1956). K. Kyösti Kallio (1937–1940). Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994). and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). and was amended on 1 March 2012. Finland is a parliamentary democracy. Direct. Ståhlberg (1919–1925). but under the 2000 constitution. E. P. he took office on 1 March 2012. and some appointive powers. some decree powers. E. Relander (1925–1931). J. being the head of the armed forces. and the prime minister is the country's most powerful politician.Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland [edit]Constitution The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. [edit]President According to the Constitution. municipal. The constitution in its current form came into force on 1 March 2000. [edit]Parliament Finland This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Finland .Martti Ahtisaari (1994– 2000).or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. L. non-executive position. the presidency became largely a ceremonial.

the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament'sconstitutional law committee. Its acts are not subject to judicial review. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws. the National Coalition Party (conservatives) and the Social Democrats. the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union).State[show] Executive[show] Legislative[show] Judiciary[show] Elections[show] Divisions[show] Political parties[show] Foreign Policy[show]  Other countries  Atlas Politics portal    V T E The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises supreme legislative authority. The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies.[49] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906. These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support. and override presidential vetoes. The speaker is currently Eero Heinäluoma (Social Democrats). Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. and their combined vote has totalled about 65 –80% of all . dismiss the cabinet.

) The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime minister endorsed by the President. was reached in the 2011 elections. and the rise of the Green party and its predecessor since 1983. when this action was the sole prerogative of the president. Their lowest common total of MPs. However. the True Finns achieved exceptional success.1 Centre Party 35 -16 17. For a few decades after 1944.5 4.0 8. This procedure has never been used.0 19. 121.0 20.1 Green League 10 -5 5.Åland Centre was the largest party.0 7. the Communists were a strong fourth party.4 Social Democratic Party 42 -3 21.3 .[50] The autonomous province of Åland. although the parliament was dissolved several times under the pre-2000 constitution. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation. which forms a federacy with Finland.votes. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council. and thus surpassing the Centre Party.8 Left Alliance 14 -2 7. there have been some long-term trends. and in the 2011 elections. In the 2011 elections. elects one member to the parliament. After the parliamentary elections on 17 April 2011. increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats. who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes National Coalition Party 44 −6 22.5 19. such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War.5 15. and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties.3 Swedish People's Party 9 0 4.1 True Finns 39 +34 19. the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another. the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberal party and its predecessors from 1906 to about 1980.

the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. After the prime minister.5 0. Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense. and of the Chancellor of Justice. the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Council of State). [51] The cabinet exercises most executive powers. In addition to the regular courts. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus. The current prime minister is Jyrki Katainen (National Coalition Party).0 Others 1a 0 0. and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus. förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus. of other ministers. . and consists of him or her. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence. as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament. Each minister heads his or her ministry. which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. regional appellate courts (hovioikeus. [edit]Law Main article: Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland. högsta domstolen). or. in some cases. As a rule. Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957). tingsrätt). högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). [edit]Cabinet After parliamentary elections. civil law or Roman law. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus. hovrätt).Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes Christian Democrats 6 -1 3. As no one party ever dominates the parliament.4 a Province of Åland's representative.0 4. and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration.

[edit]Foreign relations Ahtisaari receives his Noble prize. Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent.Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions. which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s. economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the Members of Parliament. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. .[verification needed] In 2008. Finland has a very low number of corruption charges. notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance.[54][verification needed] For instance.[56] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008.[54][dubious – discuss] Today. Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe.[55] According to GRECO in 2007 corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better.[53] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption. Some crime types are above average. Also.

Main article: Foreign relations of Finland According to the 2012 constitution. when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence. the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government.Finland is represented in the European Parliament and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. According to some social historians. the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens. Finns and non-citizens.[citation needed] Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II. one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents. but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world.[59] [edit]Social security Main article: Social security in Finland Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back.[57] In 2008. Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries. the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing. but could intervene benevolently on their behalf. except that the president has no role in EU affairs. president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[59] This was reversed in the 2000s. but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.[58] Finland was considered a cooperative model state. and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.[60] [edit]Armed forces .

Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel). of which 25% are professional soldiers.[61] Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia.4–1. armed mostly with ground weaponry. A universal male conscription is in place.000 reservists. currently serving conscripts. Alternative non-military service for men is possible. The armed forces favour partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO. The standard readiness strength is 34. are a sufficient deterrent. as is voluntary military service for women (currently approximately 500 annually). WEU and the EU. Finland's official policy states that the 350. but are careful to avoid politics. [citation needed] An F-18 of the Finnish Air Force.6% of the GDP. A Leopard 2A4 main battle tank of theFinnish Army on Independence Day. Finnish defence expenditure is around the sixth highest in the EU.[63] .The Hamina-class fast-attack craft FNSHanko of the Finnish Navy. and a large reserve.700 people in uniform.[62] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1. under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service.

[65] With respect to foreign . followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness. [edit]Economy Headquarters of Nokia. Germany.Belgium or the UK. Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland and Helsinki Stock Exchange Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France. Primary production is 2. the navy and the air force. and troops serve around the world in UN. who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command.Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular. The branches of the military are the army.[64] The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Ari Puheloinen). has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.9%. a mobile phone game developed in Finland. Finland's largest company. one of the highest rates in Europe. Residents claim around 80% homeland defence willingness. Angry Birds. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%. NATO and EU peacekeeping missions.

Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops. Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Sweden. Irrigation was generally not necessary. and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. United Kingdom. and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents.[67] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Russia. Forestry. but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water. In response to the climate. In a 2004 OECD comparison. except for agriculture. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. However. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate. but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. vehicles and other engineered metal products (21. Finland's real-terms GDP growth. The country lies between latitudes 60°N and 70°N. Trade policy is managed by the European Union. machinery. The largest industries[66] are electronics (22%). and international trade is a third of GDP. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. 1998–2009. and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to develop fertility. and has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frosts. the key economic sector is manufacturing. forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%).[citation needed] The largest trade flows are with where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient. high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. Netherlands and China. United States. Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp. Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.[60] . making summer droughts a constant threat. Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude.1%). paper factories.

In 1984 the government published the Forest 2000 plan. Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits. sponsoring technical improvements. Forests play a key role in the country's economy. As in agriculture. a commercial street in Helsinki. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25. Germany and France.[68] As of 2008 average purchasing poweradjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.1 euros in 2004.[71] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999.[69] In 2006. 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth.Aleksanterinkatu. [60] Private sector employees amount to 1. while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses. making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries. the government has long played a leading role in forestry.[70] The female employment rate is high. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products.[71] . drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.8 million. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year. out of which around a third with tertiary education. and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries. Sweden. regulating tree cutting.

Finland is part of the Eurozone (dark blue).[78] According to Invest in Finland. and recreation and culture at around 2000 euro. The employment rate was 68% and the unemployment rate was 6. 74% of households had a car. private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income. [73] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominant future liability.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person.[72] 18% of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61. As of 2006. a typical level in Europe. 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons. and spending on well-being.[74] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007.000 euro.5% (2009) Internet connection at home.[79] [edit]Energy .[77] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83.1 persons. though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany. food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2500 euro.Graphical depiction of Finland's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. high quality products.5 million cars and 0. the average household savings rate was −3.4 million households reside in Finland. 2. The average residential property without land costs 1. Residential buildings total 1. The average size is 2.8% in early 2008. transport about 3000 euro.6 euro per sq metre.4 million other vehicles. The average total household consumption was 20.[75] In 2007. There are 2.[76] Home ownership rate is 60%. the EU single market and theSchengen Area.187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8. 40% of households consist of a single person. out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro.

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed around 2014, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor. [80]

See also: Nordic energy market and Nuclear power in Finland Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe andNord Pool Spot exchanges, which have provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[81] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[82][83] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood.[citation needed] About 10–15% of the electricity is produced byhydropower,[84] which is little compared to more mountainous Sweden or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy forms (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) made high 30.5% compared to the EU average 10.3% in final energy consumption.[85] Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[86] one research reactor at the Otaniemi campus, and the fifthAREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—is currently scheduled to be operational by 2014.[80] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They might be causing an increase in energy prices, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[87] Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.


Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.

Main article: Transport in Finland The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is Finland's largest and busiest airport.

The state-owned VR Group operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with almost 15 million passengers in 2011. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[88] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro[citation needed] in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[89] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg'sFinlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world,[citation needed] has also been served by a helicopter line.

Main article: Economy of Finland Finland was rapidly industrialized after the Second World War, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan or the UK in the beginning of 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland (Ahlstrom, M-real,UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste Oil), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry) and information technology (e.g. Rovio, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for

This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th). Finland has clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment. contract enforcement (7th). According to the OECD.[67][91] [edit]Tourism . and other markets in Europe. and significantly higher than most European countries.[95] In both indicators. tax payment (83rd) and low worker hardship (127th).[93] The 2007 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Finland 17th most competitive. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–08 Finland ranked third in the world.[92] Finland is rated the least corrupted country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[96] and 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. human capital. [91] Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. technology infrastructure.[97] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. Ireland.[94] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive. though in Finland immigration is relatively new.[92] While the manufacturing sector is thriving. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy.[clarification needed] Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe. except for agricultural products.[91] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries.export is still more prominent than in Western Europe.[91] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century. Finland's performance was next to Germany. postal. [92] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured. especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%). thus making Finland more vulnerable to global economic trends. the OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements. The unionization rate is high (70%). Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit report released in September 2011. public support for industry development. only four EU15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK. Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). The level of protection in commodity trade has been low. business closure (5th). although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. and research and development landscape. legal framework. in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union. The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it.[90] [edit]Public policy See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model.

[edit]Demographics Main article: Demographics of Finland . golf. Tallinn. in midwinter. fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind. Turku. play a significant role in the local tourism industry. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. and correspondingly. rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. including Helsinki. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region.[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. living in the northern Lapland region. Above the Arctic Circle. however hunting is also popular. fishing.Now lying within Helsinki. Stockholm and Travemünde. is seen regularly in the fall. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus. At Finland's northernmost point. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna. kayaking among many others. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. with no sunset even at midnight. midnight sun in the summer. winter and spring. Main article: Tourism in Finland In 2005. a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks. Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis. in the heart of summer. or even months. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year. yachting. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions. the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. there is a polar night. Finnish tourism grossed over €6. lake cruises. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 37 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. hiking. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to theglobalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests.

500 491. The largest cities in Finland are those of the Greater Helsinkimetropolitan area—Helsinki.900 1.500 1. [101] [edit]Languages Main articles: Finnish language.Population of Finland.800 2. .181.787.000 are Tampere.375. among the lowest in the European Union.336 4.372.695. 1750–2010 year population 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Sources: [98] [99] 421.380. The share of foreign citizens in Finland is 3.[100] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship.000.600 3. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country.462. Also Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are recognized in the constitution. Other cities with population over 100.4%.803 4.445.276 The population of Finland is currently about 5. Oulu.147. and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.617 4.400.100 561. Finland has an average population density of 16 inhabitants per square kilometre. they become citizens.100 2.636.478 5.115 5.700 1.943. a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.900 705.000 663. behind those of Norway and Iceland.800 2.600 832.060.400 3.998. Turku. Estonia and Sweden. Finland Swedish. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland.600 1.[100] Most of them are from Russia. The Nordiclanguages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts.900 2.100 1.029.768.598.655. The Sami language is an official language in northern Lapland.446.Jyväskylä and Lahti.222 4.[6] This is the third-lowest population density of any European country.700 3.778 4.177.700 863.300 1.746. Espoo and Vantaa.

Somali. some schools may offer other options).[110] The best-known foreign languages are English (63%). in Lapland. English and Arabic (see Languages of Finland).The native language of 90% of the population is Finnish.000[103] and recognized as an indigenous people. German (18%). and French (3%). Norwegian and. Finnish is closely related to Karelian andEstonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian. numbering around 7. Swedish is the native language of 5.000–5.[107] Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until 1920s.000 people.[108] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue.[104] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami. to some extent. Danish are mutually intelligible with Swedish and are thus understood by a significant minority. although studied only a little in the schools. English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead).000 people. French and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age. Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) are protected by the constitution.0% . German. are the Sami people.[109] Immigrant languages include Russian (1. Estonian (0. [edit]Religion Main article: Religion in Finland Religion in Finland[111] Evangelical Finnish No Lutheran year Orthodox Other religious Church of Church affiliation Finland 1900 98.[106][not in citation given] who usually also speak Finnish.000–6.4% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns).2% 0.1% 1. A third foreign language may be studied in upper secondary school or university (at 16 years of age or over).[105] Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5.6%). The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin.[102] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages.7% 0.1%).[102] To the north. The Finnish Sign Language is used as a first language by 4.

7% 2005 83.1% 1.5% 2.1% 0.1% 2012 76.3% 1.2% 2000 85.4%[112] Petäjävesi Old Church is an old wooden Lutheran church and a UNESCO World Heritage site.1% 1.7% 0.8% 1990 87.0% 1.2% 1.8% 1. .1% 0.9% 10.2% 14.1% 12.5% 2011 77.8% 1980 90.1% 1.1% 1.5% 20.7% 7.1950 95.3% 1.

Relations with the extended family are often rather distant and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans.9% of health care is funded directly by households and 76.1%[113] of the population. Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being. The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two.[120][121] In April 2012. as are the Muslim. 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".5%). accounting for 20. including UK.[118] There are 307 residents for each doctor. 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".[122] [edit]Society Finnish family life is centred on the nuclear family[dubious – discuss][citation needed]. However.6% by taxation.0% were confirmed in 2011 at the age of 15. 8% consider themselves "highly religious". The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 2% of its members attend church services weekly. slightly behind top-ranked Sweden and just ahead of the United States.[123] After examining the position of women around the world. Approximately 4.4%[112] at the end of 2012) adherents are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. 75.[117] In the same survey. educational.[116] According to ISSP survey data (2008). weddings and funerals. God. A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1. [edit]Health Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men.[124] The group reached this conclusion after examining the health. economic. tribes or similar structures [dubious – discuss][citation needed] . Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1. has no religious affiliation. A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries. the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies. although its share of the country's population has declined in recent years. or life force". Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute.[112] and nearly all funerals are Christian. was one of the best places in which a woman could live. and legal conditions that affect women's lives. and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit. France and New Zealand. According to UNICEF. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world. [111] The second largest group.Turku Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.1 million (or 76. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools.1%). and 31% "moderately religious". 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious".[114] In 2012. Finnish women were the first in . Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller.[115] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll.[119] About 18.3% of Finnish children were baptized and 83. the Washington-based Population Crisis Committee reported in 1988 that Finland.

but also to bring males into fields traditionally believed to belong to the women's sphere. which since World War II had come to provide them with substantial assistance in the area of childbearing and child-rearing. however. women had made notable legislative gains that brought them closer to full equality with men. they earned only about two-thirds of the wages paid to men. Efforts were undertaken not only to place women in occupations dominated by males. including women.Europe to gain the franchise. Although women made up just under half the work force and had a tradition of working outside the home. they made up about 48% of the work force. and. In addition to an expanding welfare system. [60] In a number of areas. in some cases. In the 1980s. Finland was the first nation in the world to give full suffrage (the right to vote and to run for office) to all adult citizens. and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the membership of the Eduskunta (parliament) and held several ministerial posts.[60] Finland ranks second in the Global Gender Gap Report 2012. rather than protection for women. about 75% of adult women worked outside the home. the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved. The emphasis was to be equality for everyone. was slightly ahead of the number of men. Another aim was for women to occupy a more equal share of decision-making positions. Finnish women were as well educated as their male counterparts. for example.[125] In 1906. Most striking was the disparity in wages.[60] The Equality Law that went into effect in 1987 committed the country to achieving full equality for women. such as child care and elementary school teaching. In the late 1980s. the number of women studying at the university level. [edit]Culture .[126] Finland has general elections every fourth year. there was a timetable listing specific goals to be achieved during the remainder of the twentieth century.

graduates may either enter the workforce directly. Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. After lower secondary school. Seminaarinmäki Campus of the University of Jyväskylä. designed by Alvar Aalto. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools. or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). . Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years.Mikael Agricola. designed by Alvar Aalto. Main article: Culture of Finland [edit]Education and science Auditorium in Aalto University's main building. Trade schools prepare for professions. many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries. today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK). The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board.[127] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7.

but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish.3%. one of the lowest in OECD. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish. United States (38%) and Japan (37%). folk high schools became common throughout the region.[134] [edit]Literature Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation. while in advanced programs it is 7. such as secondary evening schools. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. and folk high schools.[60] Finland is highly productive in scientific research. still below OECD average 16. genetic technology and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.[129] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree. Originating in Denmark in the nineteenth century. vocational course centres. such as the national poetJohan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius. brain research. Adult education appeared in a number of forms.[132] Finland had a long tradition of adult education. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits.[130] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments. Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics. materials research. [128] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala.[133] In 2007. study centres. the Finnish national epic. biotechnology. two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-orienteduniversities.801 patents were filed in Finland. Helsinki University is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. low-temperature physics. and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year. In 2005. environmental sciences. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making. . 1. similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%). Forest improvement. In tertiary education. civic and workers' institutes.[131] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields. neural networks. notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino.5%. with educational and financial assistance provided by the state. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education.

[citation needed] [edit]Music . the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson is the most translated Finnish writer. about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV showJackass).After Finland became independent. who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland. located in central Helsinki. there was a rise of modernist writers. Ilkka Remes. Sofi Oksanen and Jari Tervo. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna. Besides Kalevala and Waltari. remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. most famously the Finnishspeaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. textilesand glassware. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen. See also: List of Finnish architects Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia Prize. characterized by Väinö Linna. is also famous for his work in furniture. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. [edit]Television Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons. illustrates Finnish history from prehistoric times to the present day. Kari Hotakainen. [edit]Visual arts The National Museum of Finland. Alvar Aalto. The Second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought.

Finnish classical music has existed for only about a hundred years. as comprised in the Kalevala. Kaija Saariaho. The people of northern Finland. less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. Olli Mustonen. Tarja Turunen and Linda Lampenius. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread. Finnish rock. Today. Soile Isokoski. which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. Finland's national anthem. a significant figure in the history of classical music. and many of Finland's importantcomposers are still alive. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila. Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Leif Segerstam. are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. [edit]Pop . such as Magnus Lindberg. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs. Pekka Kuusisto.The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades. In 1899 he composedFinlandia. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen. and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphonyKullervo. The same word sometimes refers tolavlu or vuelie songs. and has become a part of popular music. though this is technically incorrect. Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. Main articles: Music of Finland. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. the Sami. Finland has a very lively classical music scene. Osmo Vänskä. Sweden and Norway. and Sami music [edit]Classical Much of the Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics. Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country).

Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. is also popular. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s. meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Korpiklaani. a style of Argentine music. Sonata Arctica. Around 1964. During the late 1960s and 1970s. . Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the hit American hard rock group Guns N' Roses among others. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. Children of Bodom. HIM's 2005 albumDark Light went gold in the United States. Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis. playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. Beatlemania arrived in Finland. etc. Finland hosted the competition in 2007. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands. Sentenced. This was also the fate of the rock and roll groupHurriganes. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal. tango. jazz musicians.Stratovarius and Waltari. hip hop performers. Impaled Nazarene.[135] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged. some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. resulting in further development of the local rock scene. After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. During the decade. dance music acts. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager.Perttu Kivilaakso ofApocalyptica. During the early 1960s.

notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki. tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese. See also: Telecommunications in Finland. 2.[137] Today. there are around 200 newspapers.[139] . 67 commercial radio stations. Worldwide. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines.100 professional magazines. the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat. spend the most time reading newspapers.000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold. 320 popular magazines. Each year. Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin.000[138] making it the largest). [136] Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (its circulation of 412. the Finnishsoftware engineer best known for creating the popular open-source operating system Linux.[136] [edit]Media and communications Linus Torvalds. Around twelve feature films are made each year. Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world. List of newspapers in Finland.[edit]Cinema Main article: Cinema of Finland See also: List of Finnish films In the film industry. Mauritz Stiller. the commerce-orientedTaloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen. including the newspaper Aamulehti. around 12. and Television in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights. three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels. Finns.

[141] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Value-added services are rare. YLE is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. All TV channels are broadcast digitally.[142] In October 2009. both terrestrially and on cable. Finland's public broadcasting station. Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabitper-second beginning July 2010.000 inhabitants. is spread over the hot pastries before eating. Sauteéd Reindeer is a popular dish in Lapland and is usually eaten with Lingonberry .[140] Finland had around 1. Around 79% of the population use the Internet.[143] [edit]Cuisine Main article: Finnish cuisine Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1. often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi).YLE. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). Butter. operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.

cloudberries. but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations. Midsummer Day (St. lingonberries. [citation needed] Christian holidays include Christmas. Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. and sea buckthorn). while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. John's Day) and All Saints' Day. and more fish and poultry.Epiphany. [edit]Sports . but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. Fish andmeat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country.Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking. while secular holidays include May Day and the Independence Day. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. drink or in various recipes. red meat consumption has risen. oats) and berries (such as bilberries. Pentecost. barley.[citation needed] Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye. Easter. Ascension Day. New Year's Day and Midsummer. [edit]Public holidays A midsummer bonfire (kokko) inMäntsälä. New Year's Day.Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food. According to the statistics.

Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II. while still an autonomous Grand Duchywithin the Russian Empire. Paavo Nurmi at the 1920 Summer Olympics. with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. At the 1924 Summer Olympics. Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics. five world championships. The team has won two world championship titles (1995 & 2011) titles and five Olympic medals. In the 1920s and 1930s. a nation then of only 3. . Finland. For over 100 years.Finland's men's national ice hockey teamis ranked as one of the best in the world.[144] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita. Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. five European championships and 24 world records. Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. At the 1912 Summer Olympics. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time. resembling baseball. ski jumping and Formula One. cross-country skiing. came second in the medal count. although the most popular sports in terms of spectators are ice hockey. great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen.[145] Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908. is the national sport of Finland.2 million people. athletics. Pesäpallo.

alpine skiers Kalle Palander and Tanja Poutiainen. Eero Mäntyranta. gymnast Heikki Savolainen. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. Nordic walking. For a more comprehensive list. cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen. see International rankings of Finland. Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä. football players Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä. rower Pertti Karppinen. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball. Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg. ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen. some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola and Lasse Virén.In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi. and four-time World Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen. The 1952 Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. Teemu Selänne. [show]    V T E International rankings of Finland [edit]See also Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Finland portal     Outline of Finland Index of Finland-related articles Bibliography of Finland Outline of Finland . and Saku Koivu. running. ice hockey players Jari Kurri. Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen. [edit]International rankings The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. cycling and skiing. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics.

revised 2008). Population Register Centre. Retrieved 17 October 2012.95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'. the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval. and not by its president. First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. International Monetary Fund. in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. According to the Finnish Constitution. . ^ a b c d e "Finland". he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semipresidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 3. ^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)".         [edit]Notes Finnish Models of Public Transport Index of Finland-related articles Fire fighting in Finland Football in Finland Gun politics in Finland Kansallisbiografia List of bands from Finland List of Finns Protected areas of Finland 1. 2. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30.2012" (in Finnish).09. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister. it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter. and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further.

8. 2010-09-09. 12. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". kotikielenseura. August 2010". Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. Retrieved 7 November 2010. ^ "The World's Best Countries. material. 13. Retrieved 2007-06-11. ^ a b "KUNTIEN ASUKASLUVUT AAKKOSJÄRJESTYKSESSÄ". Retrieved 2011-03-06. 2010. University of Oulu. Newsweek. A Newsweek study of health. ^ a b "Kuusi kuntaa katoaa kartalta". ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk".4. 9. United Nations. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". 15. ^ "The Failed States Index 2008". Retrieved 201002-04. ^ Herkules. YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 1 January 2011. 2010-06-14. 7. and "Human Development Index trends. Retrieved 1 January 2010. OECD iLibrary. ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). Fundforpeace. 16. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Newsweek. 31 August 2012.WorldAudit.doi:10. 14. 10.oulu. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. Population Register Centre. 1980–2010". Legislation only recognizes the short name. 2010. E24. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva Gummerus Kirjapaino . and "Northern Sami:Suoma dásseváldi" in People. 31 December 2010. 2010-08-16. which is however not defined by law. Retrieved 2010-08-26. and politics ranks the globe's top nations. ^ a b "Local Finland—Front page". Retrieved 2007-01-22. Prosperity. is the long protocol ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". ^ "Republic of Finland". Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Local Finland. economy. United Nations. 5. culture and environment in the north.1787/20755120-table1. Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. "Republiken Finland" in or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". ^ "National Archives Service. Finland (in English)". 6. 17. Retrieved 16 September 2012.

page 67. 29. Retrieved 24 June 2008. p. Retrieved 24 June 2008. "From slash-and-burn fields to postindustrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure". Basic Books. p. Library of Congress. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 27. ThisisFinland — "Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives". 19. Federal Research Division. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Retrieved 2008-12-11.Federal Research Division. ^ a b "Finland and the Swedish Empire". Helsingin Sanomat 32. Rauli. ISBN 0-465-00239-0 31. 20. ^ Finland 1917–2007 (2007-02-20).18. Environment and Natural Resources"."Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers". Retrieved 2013-03-22. Stat. 24. . GlobalHealthFacts. ^ Dr. Library of Congress. ^ "Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2010-08-26. "The siege of Leningrad. ^ Finland. 34. Retrieved 2013-04-04. ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. ^ The Finnish Civil War. 26. Finland chronology". "History of Finland. ^ "Median Age (Years)".com. Vastapaino 2007. 23. Retrieved 24 June 2008. Europe-cities. ^ a b c d Finland 1917–2007 (last updated 2007-12-05). Stat. Zenith Imprint. ^ Mickelsson.33. ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland. ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia. 33. Suomen puolueet—Historia. 21. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities. World Bank 25.173. ISBN 0-7603-0941-8 30. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". University of Minnesota Press. muutos ja nykypäivä. ^ David Glantz (2001).fi. 28. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 1941–44: 900 days of terror". ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic. 1993 ^ Timothy Snyder (2010).org.

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Retrieved 106. Department for Communications and Culture. 114. Retrieved Statistics – Population structure. Department of State. Indexmundi. . Retrieved 27 March 2012. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 119. See Geonames. Publication: October 2010. ^http://tampub. Retrieved 2011-12-06. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004". Fieldwork: January– February 2010.pdf?sequence=1 118. _elamassa_2011. Stat. ^ "Special Eurobarometer Biotechnology" (PDF). ^ "The Constitution of Finland. 117. 111. 116.104. Retrieved 2007-09-04.S. Statistics Finland. ^ "Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count?".fi 1.FINLEX Data Bank. Produced by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 120. Retrieved 2007-09-04. "The Church in Finland today". Statistics 204. Finland Promotion Board. Statistics Finland. 2004-09-15. ^ Unofficial names for Finland in Sami languages are: Suopma (Northern Sami). 109. ^ See Kalo Finnish Romani language 107. 17 § and 121 §" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-12. ^ "Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken —Teckenspråken i Finland" (in (Swedish)). ^ "Health (2004)". ^ 112. 105. U. 2011. 108. ^ "Language according to age and gender by region 2011".Unknown parameter|section= ignored (help) 115. 2009-09-17. ^ "Finland Life expectancy at birth—Demographics".uta. 2006-12-31. The Tatars". ^ "Finland in Figures". 110.hunturk. ^ "The population of Finland in 2006".2013 a b c 113. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2011-0111. Retrieved 2011-12-06. ^ "National Minorities of Finland. Forum. Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). Statistics Finland. The Lancet. ^ a b Population structure Statistics Finland Lutheran church member statistics evl. ^ Salla Korpela (May 2005).

123. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 2012. 1988. ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland. 127. ^ Neil (15 April 2012).weforum. Research. 2009-12-08. "Guns N' Roses Can Agree on at Least One Thing: This Finnish Saxophonist Rocks".". Retrieved 19 November 2012. Daily Mail (London). . 122. Powerless and Pregnant". 129. 125. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.121. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2010: University of Helsinki".org.The Wall Street Journal.pdf 126. 2007-11-15. (Washington D. World Economic Forum. Research. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". Archived fromthe original on 2011-07-07. ^ Kari Sipilä.: Population Crisis Committee). Eurydice. 128. Retrieved 2007-0214. ^ Jenny (2011-04-14). in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). 133. 131. 124. ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage. ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF).org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012. Tilastokeskus. Retrieved 2007-01-22. but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ Hope. 135. Retrieved 2012-04-07. OECD ^ a b "Media moves". Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "Summary sheets on education systems in Europe". ^ "Patents with numbers—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). ^ "World Happiness report". ^ "Tilastokeskus. 136. "'National scandal' of 11 stillbirths a day means Britain has one of worst survival rates". Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Department for Communication and Culture / Unit for Promotion and Publications / Embassy and Consulates General of Finland in China. ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). "A country that innovates". 130. No. Virtual Finland. Retrieved 2010-02-04. ^ "Scientific publication—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote (in 1893). ^ "Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor. Population Briefing Paper. 134.

^ Tässä ovat Suomen suosituimmat lajit | Urheilu. 74– 81 148. ^ [2] 146. Retrieved on 2012-06-09. 139. Yale University. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). Retrieved 19 November 2012. 142. Heritage. 52–60 149. 153. ^ "Circulation Statistics". Retrieved 2011-0306. 145. Heritage. 2009-10-14. www. Foreign Policy May/June 2005. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE" (PDF). 138. ^ Measuring Globalisation. ^ IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Scoreboard 2006. 152.imd. Foreign Policy. Iltalehti. ^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index. 140. YLE. 141. 143. pp. ^ 2010 Freedom of the Press Survey (retrieved 4 May 2011). (2012-01-03).org.137. Foreign Policy November/December 2006. World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. The Global Top 20. Retrieved 2007-09-04.imd. ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". ^ a b The World Competitiveness Scoreboard 154. ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-0306. Retrieved 2007-12-22. Statistics Finland. 150. www. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 144. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". ^ "Coming Soon". ^ The Global Top 20. Columbia University and World Economic Forum (2006) 151. ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007". Retrieved 2011-03-06. pp. Yale University. Retrieved 2009-10-16. ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life (Statistics Finland).ch . The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy).

Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2003". United Nations Development Programme. ^ "Human Development Report 2006" (PDF). [dead link] [dead link] 161.oecd. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006. Institute for Economics & Peace 166. NationMaster. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Save the Children. Transparency International 167. 172. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. Global Peace Index. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 164. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Transparency International 168. ^ "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). 156. ^ Messages From Pisa 2000. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". 163. Organisation for economic co-operation and development 159. ^ Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action. Volume 1: Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ Pisa 2006. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World. Rsf. 162. 171. Retrieved 2011-03-06. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9 170. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2010".org 157. Transparency International 169. Global Peace . Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. World Economic Forum. Institute for Economics & Peace 165. ^ "Technological achievement statistics – countries compared". ^ "Reporters Without Borders". ^ Methodology. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2007) pisa. ^ 2008 Methodology. Results & Findings. weforum. Results & ^ "PISA 2003 – Learning for Tomorrow's World" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-06. Save the Children. 160. Rsf. ^ Finland.155. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008. 158. Retrieved 201103-06. ^ Persistently high corruption in low-income countries amounts to an “ongoing humanitarian disaster”.

 Swallow. .  Trotter. Retrieved 201103-06. Singleton. ISSN 1096-2905). Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1). The History of Finland.weforum.    Lewis. Jean-Jacques.      Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1). Klinge. ^ http://www. a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3). ^ http://www. Finland. and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4. Pirinen. there's music from the forest. The Global Competitiveness Report 2006. 174. Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann. Matti.173. A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Jakobson. ^ Table 1: Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2005 comparisons. Jaakko. Eloise and Paananen. [edit]Further reading  Chew. Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8).org 175. Worldaudit. Pauri.    Rusama. Subrenat. Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9). Greenwood Press. Fred. William R. Deborah. Jutikkala. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X). A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939– 1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6). Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway.  Engle. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report – Finland" (PDF). Allen 177. Lavery. Chris. weforum. The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6). A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1). Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Max. Richard D. ^ a b "World Audit Democracy".weforum. Eino. 176. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). Kauko.

Government  This is Finland. the official English-language online portal (administered by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs). . Population in Finland 1750–2010 Appendix figure 2.   Finland Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members (CIA Publications). Finland (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries Government Publications). Key Development Forecasts for Finland from International Futures.[edit]External links Find more about Finland at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Overviews and data       Finland entry at The World Factbook Finland at the Open Directory Project Finland profile from the BBC News. The largest groups by native language 2001 and 2011 (Statistics Finland).

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