Finland

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This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 65°N 027°E

Republic of Finland
 
Suomen tasavalta (Finnish) Republiken Finland (Swedish)

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: Maamme (Finnish) Vårt land (Swedish)
Our Land

Location of Finland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital and largest city Official languages Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E

 

Finnish (90.0%) Swedish (5.4%)

Recognised regional languages Demonym

Sami (0.03%)

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Finnish Finn Parliamentary republic[1] Sauli Niinistö Jyrki Katainen (NCP) Eero Heinäluoma (SDP) Eduskunta

Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament Legislature

Independence - Autonomy
within Russia

29 March 1809

- Independence
from Soviet Russia

6 December 1917

- First recognized
by Soviet Russia

4 January 1918

Area - Total 338,424 km2 (64th) 130,596 sq mi - Water (%) 10 Population - 2012 estimate - 2000 census - Density 5,421,827[2] (112th) 5,180,000 16/km2 (201st) 41/sq mi GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2000) 2011 estimate $195.723 billion[3] $36,236[3] 2011 estimate $266.553 billion[3] $49,349[3] 26.9 low HDI (2013) 0.892[4]

very high · 21st Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Euro (€) (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) d.m.yyyy right +358 FI

 

.fi .ax a

a.

The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states. The .ax domain is reserved for the autonomous province of the Åland Islands.

Finland (

i

/ˈfɪnlənd/;

Finnish: Suomi (help·info); Swedish: Finland), officially the Republic of Finland,[5] is

a Nordic country situated in theFennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. An estimated 5.4 million people live in Finland, with the majority concentrated in its southern regions.[6] In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Politically, it is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital of Helsinki, local governments in 336 municipalities[7][8] and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. About one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (consisting of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other larger cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti and Kuopio. From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution. This prompted the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which was followed by a civil war where the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" were defeated by the proconservative "Whites" with support from the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a monarchy in the country, Finland became a republic. Finland's experience of World War II involved three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944) against the Soviet Union; and the Lapland War (1944–1945) against Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1969, the European Union in 1995 and the eurozone at its inception in 1999. During this time, it built an extensive welfare state.

5 World War II 2.6 Cold War 2. remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. Thereafter.2 Swedish era 2. According to some measures.7 Recent history 3 Geography o o o o  3. [9][10] Finland has the best educational system in Europe and has recently been ranked as one of the world's most peaceful andeconomically competitive countries. such that today.6 Foreign relations 4.1 Prehistory 2.4 Civil war and early independence 2.3 Regions 3. It has also been ranked as one of the world's countries with the highest quality of life. with a nominal per-capita income of over $49.4 Cabinet 4. economic development was rapid.3 Parliament 4.000 (2011).2 Concept 2 History o o o o o o o  2.1 Etymology 1.5 Law 4.Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation.[3] Finland is one of the world's wealthiest nations.4 Administrative divisions 4 Politics o o o o o o o 4.7 Social security .[11][12][13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and concept of Finland o o  1.1 Constitution 4.2 Climate 3.1 Biodiversity 3.2 President 4.3 Russian Empire era 2.

o  4.5 Music 7.3 Visual arts 7.2 Transport 5.9 Public holidays 7.8 Cuisine 7.3 Industry 5.1 Energy 5.6 Cinema 7.10 Sports 8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Etymology and concept of Finland .5 Tourism 6 Demographics o o o o  6.4 Television 7.2 Literature 7.1 Education and science 7.1 Languages 6.8 Armed forces 5 Economy o o o o o  5.4 Public policy 5.7 Media and communications 7.4 Society 7 Culture o o o o o o o o o o      7.2 Religion 6.3 Health 6.

[15] [edit]Suomi The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins. Latin homo) has been suggested.[16] [edit]Concept In the 12th and 13th centuries. It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates from the 13th century. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper.Astuvansalmi rock paintings atSaimaa. What the term . this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively.) In the 15th century. meaning "land". Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape). The oldest date from 3000 to 2500 BCE. when the archipelago was seen as belonging to Åbo (Turku). Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). and parallels between saame (Sami. (Medieval politics concerned tribes such as the Finns. the term "Finland" mostly referred to the area around Åbo (Turku). being borrowed as *ćoma. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages). a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn. the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. possibly even including Åland. but these theories are now considered outdated. but which could also sometimes be collectively referred to as "Österland" (compare Norrland). "Finland" became a common name for the whole land area to the east of the Bothnian Sea. Gothic guma. while the other parts of the country were called Tavastia and Karelia. but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē. in the Baltic Sea. with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still being sometimes excluded until later. and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland. The third was found in Gotland. the Tavastians and the Karelians more than geographical boundaries. [edit]Etymology [edit]Finland The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. a region that later became known as Finland Proper.

The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning. if only in name. which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest. The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. Queen Christina named Per Brahe the Younger as Governor General of Finland. as a strategy to meet the claims of the Russian tsar.[18] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. Russia and Norway. and a little part of Västerbotten County. A sort of establishment for Finland as a unity. [17] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers.which the Russians proposed. to be administratively included in "New Finland" in 1812. using stone tools. The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea and the Finnish part of the realm had the same representation in the parliament as the western part had. The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. In 1637.which the Swedish proposed in the peace negotiations . came when John III of Sweden called his duchy as the "grand duchy of Finland" (about 1580).[19] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The boundary between the new Grand Duchy of Finland and the remaining part of Sweden could have been drawn along the river Kemijoki. There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland.actually refers to can vary between sources. The boundary.at least after the tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in 1721 and 1743. also the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact. thereby including the Finnish-speaking part of the Torne Valley . What was signed over to Russia in 1809 was not so much a "Finland" as six counties. [edit]History Main article: History of Finland [edit]Prehistory Main article: History of Finland#Prehistory According to archaeological evidence. The artifactsthe first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia. Åland. and Ostrobothnia (other parts of Sweden had also hadgovernor generals). was a compromise. Åland. called "Old Finland".[20] Even with the introduction of agriculture. which was the boundary between Västerbotten County and Österbotten County (Ostrobothnia) at the time . the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded. During the 1st . which later became what the concept of Finland came to stand for .or along the river Kalix. hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy.

during which about one-third of the Finnish population died. Swedish-speaking settlers arrived at the coastal regions during the medieval time. Dark green: Sweden proper. as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. administration and education. Other greens:Swedish dominions and possessions.[21] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom.[22] In the 16th century. clergy and localcourts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas. The first university in Finland.[23] and a devastating plague a few years later. early Finnish was spoken at least in agricultural settlements of Southern Finland. the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism.millennium AD.[23] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. was established in 1640. wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces. Swedish kings established their rule in the Northern Crusades from the 12th century until 1249.Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility. During the Protestant Reformation. Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry. Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. [edit]Russian Empire era Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland . In the 17th century. The Royal Academy of Turku. wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–21) and the Lesser Wrath(1742–43). In the 18th century. Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–97. whereas Sámi-speaking populations occupied most parts of the country.[citation needed] [edit]Swedish era The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.

On 29 March 1809. controlled by social democrats. it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. In 1811 Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. passed the so- . The parliament. However. and investment rose in following decades. Economic and political development was rapid. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835. Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence and Finnish Civil War After the 1917 February Revolution.[24] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain. Desire for independence gained ground. since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. in practice. From the 1860s onwards. For example. having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War. first among radical liberals[25] and socialists. the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. [edit]Civil war and early independence Soviet approval of Finland's independence (in Russian). a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennomanmovement grew. During the Russian era. mainly by Social Democrats. the Finnish language began to gain recognition. making it one of the worst famines in European history. the universal suffrage was. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations. the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned. The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population.[24] In 1906. virtually meaningless. and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia. Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.

[27] After the war. were highly antagonized. The government started to disarm the Russian forces inPohjanmaa. The Whites. who were supported by Imperial Germany.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Governmentand by the right-wing parties in Finland. which the social democrats considered illegal. the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917. After a brief flirtation with monarchy. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by theTreaty of Tartu in 1920. since the right to do so had been stripped from the Russians by the Power Act. the right-wing parties and the social democratic party. and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. in which right-wing parties won a slim majority. Germany's relations with democratic Finland cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power. and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. the population was 3 million.[24] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki.called Power Act[26] to give the highest authority to parliament.[28] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany.[citation needed] The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew. but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa. increasing the proportion of capital-owning population. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force. Suddenly. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs. On 27 January 1918. prevailed over the Reds. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the antiCommunist Lapua Movement. Finland became a presidential republic. tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps.[citation needed] New elections were conducted. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war. In 1917. with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland. as radical communists took power in Russia. The civil war and activist expeditions into the Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. [edit]World War II .

however at a loss of about 93. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and retained its independence.[29] The siege of Leningrad resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's inhabitants. including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and icefree Liinakhamari(Liinahamari). Salla andPetsamo. Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland.[citation needed] . the German army besieged Leningrad. and in theContinuation War of 1941–1944. whether they should be said to have helped in the siege or refused to help is controversial. by proportion the third-highest loss rate in World War II. the USSR's second largest city.000 km2 (149. Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia. As a result of the two wars. fled these areas. some 400.000 soldiers killed. Finland reached an armistice with the Soviet Union. For 872 days. which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity.Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and theContinuation War in 1944. following Operation Barbarossa. when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill.000 persons. Almost the whole population. The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations.[30]Finnish troops controlled some of the areas around the city but refused to attack or let Germans use those areas for attack. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II During World War II. Finland covered an area of approximately 385. restraints and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956. in which Germany had invaded the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45.000 sq mi) before the handover.

Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank. half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas. with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970.[32] The 1952 Summer Olympicsbrought international visitors. However. and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. Urho Kekkonen.[32] When baby-boomers entered the workforce. Finland—poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil)—continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. . the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence.[32] The new jobs in manufacturing. in apparent deference to Soviet desires. the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations. such as theUnited Kingdom. the eighth president of Finland.Finland rejected Marshall aid. the economy did not generate jobs fast enough. Even after the reparations had been paid off.5 in 1973.[citation needed] [edit]Cold War In 1950. and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden. For example. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.[31] Establishing trade with the Western powers. services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns.5 in 1947 to 1.

president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.[citation needed] Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions. which explains the widespread support that proSoviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. Finland remained a Western European market economy. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era. Officially claiming to be neutral. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the German press. although Finland did not fully join. In politics.[citation needed] [edit]Recent history .[citation needed] In the 1970s and 1980s. which was crucial for his continued popularity. the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. a banking crisis. The depression bottomed out in 1993. Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union. and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonenagainst his opponents. Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977. and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world.Kalevi Sorsa was a long-time prime minister of Finland during the 1970s and 80s. In 1981. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets.

[edit]Geography .42 births per 1. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999.7 years. in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. Finland is one of the oldest countries. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. Finland is expected to struggle with demographics.[33] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old.[32] With a median age of 42. one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins. without further reforms or much higher immigration. instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone. As a preparation for this date. or a fertility rate of 1.000 population. the euro. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them. in 2002. Finland changed the common side of its coins. Finland joined the European Union in 1995. Like most European countries. The Finnish markka was replaced by the euro in 2002.Finland introduced the currency of theEurozone. Like other Nordic countries. In 2007. and the Eurozone in 1999. Three different designs (one for €2 coin. even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries.8. The population is aging with the birth rate at 10. Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s.

is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway.12 acreExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{". .324 metres (4.000 islands.) Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland. Of world capitals. and longitudes 20° and 32° E. The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland. Saimaa.160 kilometres (720 mi).316 m (4. The distance from the southernmost—Hanko—to the northernmost point in the country—Nuorgam—is 1. Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland.S. Much of the geography of Finland is explained by the Ice Age. List of lakes in Finland. is the fourth largest in Europe. only Reykjavík lies more to the north than Helsinki. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared to the rest of Europe.318 ft). the Halti at 1. and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N. (See also Atlas of Finland.344 ft). Its largest lake. List of national parks of Finland. {{{u}}}) and 179. U.[34]. Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands —about 188. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland isRidnitsohkka at 1. directly adjacent to Halti.Detailed map of Finland. Its highest point. Finland is one of the world's northernmost countries.000 lakes (larger than 500 m2/0.

Finland's national bird. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil.The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. spruce. The most common type of rock isgranite. Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world. In the extreme north of Finland. central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. On the southwestern coast. Finland is rising from the sea. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers. Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. .7 sq mi) annually. where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. The forest consists of pine. where land steadily rises about 1 cm a year. covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. According to the WWF.[36] Forest covers 86% of the country's area. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Finland is shared between the Arctic. As a result. The Whooper Swan. Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. terrain in Finland is rising due to thepostglacial rebound. [edit]Biodiversity Main article: Fauna of Finland Phytogeographically. Montane Birch forests are common. south of the Helsinki– Rauma line. birch and other species. Gleysols and peat bogsoccupy poorly drained areas. near the tree line and Arctic Ocean. forests are characterized by mixed forests. the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2. with little arable land. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. that are more typical in the Baltic region. The landscape is covered mostly (75% of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens. visible wherever there is no soil cover. the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery.[35] Relatively speaking. running northwest to southeast.[37] the largest forested area in Europe. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand.

Three of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan. the whole of . See also: Climate of Finland The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasiancontinent's coastal zone. 248 breeding bird species. Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. and the European Eagle-owl. The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal. wolverine and elk. a large European swan and the national bird of Finland. gray wolf.The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity. black-plumaged member of the grouse family. Common Chaffinch and Redwing. a large.[40] [edit]Climate Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland. In the Köppen climate classification. the Capercaillie. one of only three lake seal species in the world. many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. the northern pike. and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland.[39]Of some seventy species of freshwater fish. down to only 300 seals today. over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation. Similarly. [citation needed] Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal). There are at least sixty native mammalian species. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. perch and others are plentiful.[38] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler.

[42] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions. the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland. only two to three months. the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer. Lapland. showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate.[43] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F).[41] Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt. the warmest days of July can reach 35 °C (95 °F). the winters are long and cold.[41] Winters of southern Finland (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C/32 °F) are usually about 100 days long. The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. Within the country. the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. Even in the most temperate regions of the south. while the summers are relatively warm but short.[42] Pyhä-Luosto National Park. and the snow typically covers the land from about late November to mid-April. At Finland's northernmost point. such as Alaska. and in the inland. Siberia and southern Greenland. particularly in Lapland. The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). Summers in the north are quite short. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude.[41] No part of Finland has Arctic tundra. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C/50 °F) in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September. but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C(77 °F) during heat waves.[41] . In northern Finland.

forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. in addition.Åland was designated a seventh region. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education.[44] Coat of In Arm English s In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administr ative Map . The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region. [edit]Regions Finland consists of 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. Currently. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland (the läänis). the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Historically. each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour. Regions represent dialectal. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils. each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish.Lake Pielinen seen from a hill in Koli National Park. which is the responsibility of regional councils. each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. In addition. agriculture. cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces. regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland. areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. fisheries. Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland in 2010. which were abolished. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region.

Mellersta Central Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Kokkola aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Lapland Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Vaasa Western and Central Northern Ostrobothnia .agency Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovanie mi Lapland Norra Northern PohjoisOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Oulu Northern Finland Kainuu Kainuu Kajanalan d Kajaani Northern Finland North Karelia PohjoisKarjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland Northern PohjoisSavo Savonia Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland Southern Savonia EteläSavo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland Södra Southern EteläOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Seinäjoki aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Keski.

Finland Kainuu North Karelia Pirkanm Pirkanma Birkaland Tampere a aa Western and Central Finland Northern Savonia Southern Savonia Central Finland KeskiSuomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskyl ä Western and Central Finland Southern Ostrobothnia Satakunt Satakunt Satakunda a a Pori SouthWestern Finland Ostrobothnia Pirkanmaa Finland Varsinais Egentliga -Suomi Finland Proper Turku SouthWestern Finland Satakunta Central Ostrobothnia South Karelia EteläKarjala Södra Karelen Lappeenr Southern anta Finland Central Finland Päijänne Tavastia PäijätHäme Päijänne Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland Finland Proper South Karelia Tavastia Proper KantaHäme Egentliga Hämeenl Southern Tavastland inna Finland Päijänne Tavastia Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa Kymenla Kymenla Kymmene akso dalen akso Kotka Southern Finland Kymenlaakso .

Municipalities of Finland.Åland Ahvenan Islands[45 maa ] Åland Marieha mn Åland Åland Islands The region of Eastern Uusimaa was consolidated with Uusimaa on 1 January 2011.[7][8] and most have fewer than 6. and other revenue. which may also call themselves towns or cities. The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities. and Historical provinces of Finland A steam boat on Lake Päijänne leavingJyväskylä.[46] [edit]Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland. Sub-regions of Finland. There are 336 municipalities.000 residents. They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax. the capital of Central Finland.[citation needed] Helsinki Cathedral. Regions of Finland. . People often identify with their municipality. state subsidies.

The figures are as of 28 February 2013. two intermediate levels are defined. In the Kainuu region. . there is a pilot project underway with regional elections.Vantaa. Sami people have a semiautonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). e. The capital region – comprising Helsinki. The Tammerkoski rapids in the inland city of Tampere.g. common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities. the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun). The land area is given in km². In the following chart. The autonomous province of Åland has a permanent democratically elected regional council. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council.In addition to municipalities. Espoo and Kauniainen – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. Municipalities co-operate in seventy subregions and nineteen regions. However. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. not just in the built-up area.

17 135.75 Oulu 191.75 2.51 Tampere 217.26 824.832.77 Vantaa 205.67 734.653 238. City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Helsinki 605.03 414.410.86 Espoo 257.Municipalities (thin borders) and regions(thick borders) of Finland (2009).237 1.91 .767 525.461 312.523 213.546 245.61 Turku 180.37 862.

333 834.24 34.558.5 Hämeenlinna 67.36 50.187 2.88 Lahti 103.229 1.597.17 Kuopio 105.76 37. List of Finnish municipalities by population.381.331 2.84 Vaasa 65. .170.39 65.07 Kouvola 87.05 764.City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Jyväskylä 133.687 1.81 348.433.785.391 1.76 31.33 Further information: List of Finnish municipalities.99 114.14 Pori 83.15 Lappeenranta 72.577 1.768 188.06 99.91 Joensuu 74. List of Finnish municipalities by area. and Former municipalities of Finland [edit]Politics The Parliament of Finland's main building.187 135.

J.or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. municipal.Martti Ahtisaari (1994– 2000). E. but under the 2000 constitution. and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). Mannerheim (1944–1946). and even further under its 2012 amendment. Relander (1925–1931). one. K. The constitution in its current form came into force on 1 March 2000. Finland was formerly considered a semi-presidential parliamentary system. he took office on 1 March 2012. Paasikivi (1946–1956). Svinhufvud (1931– 1937). L. P. non-executive position. G. Ståhlberg (1919–1925). and some appointive powers. The former presidents were K. and the prime minister is the country's most powerful politician. Finland is a parliamentary democracy.Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland [edit]Constitution The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. and in European Union elections. Direct. [edit]President According to the Constitution. Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994). E.Risto Ryti (1940–1944). the President of Finland is the head of state. and was amended on 1 March 2012. including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with thecabinet.[1] The position still does entail some powers. some decree powers. K. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary. Kyösti Kallio (1937–1940). the presidency became largely a ceremonial. Urho Kekkonen (1956–1982). being the head of the armed forces. J. [edit]Parliament Finland This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Finland . and presidential elections. C. The current president is Sauli Niinistö.

It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws. the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union). and their combined vote has totalled about 65 –80% of all . These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. the National Coalition Party (conservatives) and the Social Democrats. The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies. The speaker is currently Eero Heinäluoma (Social Democrats).State[show] Executive[show] Legislative[show] Judiciary[show] Elections[show] Divisions[show] Political parties[show] Foreign Policy[show]  Other countries  Atlas Politics portal    V T E The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises supreme legislative authority. Its acts are not subject to judicial review. and override presidential vetoes. the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament'sconstitutional law committee.[49] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906. dismiss the cabinet.

5 4. when this action was the sole prerogative of the president. the True Finns achieved exceptional success. such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War. was reached in the 2011 elections.0 7.1 Green League 10 -5 5. and the rise of the Green party and its predecessor since 1983. the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberal party and its predecessors from 1906 to about 1980.[50] The autonomous province of Åland. the Communists were a strong fourth party. For a few decades after 1944. although the parliament was dissolved several times under the pre-2000 constitution.Åland Centre was the largest party. elects one member to the parliament.5 19. This procedure has never been used. increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats.votes. Their lowest common total of MPs.0 20. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council. which forms a federacy with Finland.4 Social Democratic Party 42 -3 21. there have been some long-term trends. After the parliamentary elections on 17 April 2011.3 Swedish People's Party 9 0 4. and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties.5 15. In the 2011 elections. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation.) The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime minister endorsed by the President.1 True Finns 39 +34 19. and in the 2011 elections. However.8 Left Alliance 14 -2 7.3 . the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes National Coalition Party 44 −6 22.0 8. who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland.0 19. the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another. 121. and thus surpassing the Centre Party.1 Centre Party 35 -16 17.

there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration.Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes Christian Democrats 6 -1 3. the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Council of State). hovrätt). The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus. and consists of him or her. of other ministers. Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus. As a rule. [51] The cabinet exercises most executive powers. and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus. regional appellate courts (hovioikeus. In addition to the regular courts. in some cases. högsta domstolen). [edit]Cabinet After parliamentary elections. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence. although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957). Each minister heads his or her ministry. has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. After the prime minister. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on.4 a Province of Åland's representative. civil law or Roman law.5 0. förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus.0 Others 1a 0 0. [edit]Law Main article: Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. As no one party ever dominates the parliament. as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament. tingsrätt).0 4. or. högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). and of the Chancellor of Justice. the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament. . The current prime minister is Jyrki Katainen (National Coalition Party). Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense.

Finland has a very low number of corruption charges. Also.[55] According to GRECO in 2007 corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better. notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe. economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished. Some crime types are above average. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians.[56] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008.[53] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe. .[54][dubious – discuss] Today.[54][verification needed] For instance. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption. which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s. [edit]Foreign relations Ahtisaari receives his Noble prize. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the Members of Parliament. Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance.Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions.[verification needed] In 2008.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent.

According to some social historians. the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens. but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development. the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing. when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence.[58] Finland was considered a cooperative model state. one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents. the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government.Finland is represented in the European Parliament and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. Finns and non-citizens. but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.[59] [edit]Social security Main article: Social security in Finland Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems.[57] In 2008. president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. except that the president has no role in EU affairs. Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries.[60] [edit]Armed forces .[59] This was reversed in the 2000s.[citation needed] Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II. but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back. Main article: Foreign relations of Finland According to the 2012 constitution. and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.

The standard readiness strength is 34. Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel). Alternative non-military service for men is possible. as is voluntary military service for women (currently approximately 500 annually).700 people in uniform.000 reservists. of which 25% are professional soldiers. and a large reserve. under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service. Finnish defence expenditure is around the sixth highest in the EU.The Hamina-class fast-attack craft FNSHanko of the Finnish Navy.[61] Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia. armed mostly with ground weaponry. [citation needed] An F-18 of the Finnish Air Force. currently serving conscripts. but are careful to avoid politics.6% of the GDP. A universal male conscription is in place. Finland's official policy states that the 350.[62] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1.[63] . are a sufficient deterrent. The armed forces favour partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO. A Leopard 2A4 main battle tank of theFinnish Army on Independence Day. WEU and the EU.4–1.

the navy and the air force. one of the highest rates in Europe.[64] The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Ari Puheloinen). Finland's largest company. and troops serve around the world in UN. followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%.Belgium or the UK. who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command. Residents claim around 80% homeland defence willingness. Germany.Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular. NATO and EU peacekeeping missions. has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally. a mobile phone game developed in Finland. Primary production is 2. [edit]Economy Headquarters of Nokia.[65] With respect to foreign . The branches of the military are the army. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%.9%. Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland and Helsinki Stock Exchange Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France. Angry Birds.

However. where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters. Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp. 1998–2009. but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. In a 2004 OECD comparison.[60] . United States.[67] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude. because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. Trade policy is managed by the European Union. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. United Kingdom. high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. making summer droughts a constant threat. Sweden. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. the key economic sector is manufacturing. In response to the climate. but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water. and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. The country lies between latitudes 60°N and 70°N. Netherlands and China. Russia.trade. machinery.[citation needed] The largest trade flows are with Germany. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient. except for agriculture. and has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frosts. Irrigation was generally not necessary. Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to develop fertility. and international trade is a third of GDP.1%). The largest industries[66] are electronics (22%). Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries. paper factories. Finland's real-terms GDP growth. vehicles and other engineered metal products (21. farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops. forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%). Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Forestry.

Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.[71] . In 1984 the government published the Forest 2000 plan. the government has long played a leading role in forestry. [60] Private sector employees amount to 1. 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth.1 euros in 2004. Germany and France.Aleksanterinkatu. while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses.[71] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999.[69] In 2006. making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products. a commercial street in Helsinki. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US.[68] As of 2008 average purchasing poweradjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy. As in agriculture. drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year. out of which around a third with tertiary education. sponsoring technical improvements. regulating tree cutting.[70] The female employment rate is high.8 million. Sweden. Forests play a key role in the country's economy. and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25.

[74] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007. The average size is 2. out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro. [73] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominant future liability. transport about 3000 euro.4 million households reside in Finland. high quality products. the EU single market and theSchengen Area. Finland is part of the Eurozone (dark blue).8% in early 2008.[75] In 2007.5% (2009) Internet connection at home. 74% of households had a car. 40% of households consist of a single person.[76] Home ownership rate is 60%. The employment rate was 68% and the unemployment rate was 6. and spending on well-being. though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany. food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2500 euro. 2.4 million other vehicles.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person. There are 2. The average total household consumption was 20.[78] According to Invest in Finland. As of 2006. the average household savings rate was −3.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income. 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons. The average residential property without land costs 1. and recreation and culture at around 2000 euro.[77] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83.1 persons.6 euro per sq metre.Graphical depiction of Finland's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. Residential buildings total 1. private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables.000 euro.5 million cars and 0.[79] [edit]Energy .187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8. a typical level in Europe.[72] 18% of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61.

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed around 2014, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor. [80]

See also: Nordic energy market and Nuclear power in Finland Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe andNord Pool Spot exchanges, which have provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[81] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[82][83] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood.[citation needed] About 10–15% of the electricity is produced byhydropower,[84] which is little compared to more mountainous Sweden or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy forms (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) made high 30.5% compared to the EU average 10.3% in final energy consumption.[85] Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[86] one research reactor at the Otaniemi campus, and the fifthAREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—is currently scheduled to be operational by 2014.[80] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They might be causing an increase in energy prices, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[87] Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.

[edit]Transport

Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.

Main article: Transport in Finland The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is Finland's largest and busiest airport.

The state-owned VR Group operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with almost 15 million passengers in 2011. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[88] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro[citation needed] in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[89] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg'sFinlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world,[citation needed] has also been served by a helicopter line.

[edit]Industry
Main article: Economy of Finland Finland was rapidly industrialized after the Second World War, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan or the UK in the beginning of 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland (Ahlstrom, M-real,UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste Oil), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry) and information technology (e.g. Rovio, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for

Finland's performance was next to Germany. contract enforcement (7th).[94] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive. legal framework.[90] [edit]Public policy See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model.export is still more prominent than in Western Europe. and research and development landscape. except for agricultural products. A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception.[97] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy. especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%). business closure (5th). The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it. The unionization rate is high (70%). and significantly higher than most European countries. technology infrastructure. though in Finland immigration is relatively new.[92] Finland is rated the least corrupted country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[96] and 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. public support for industry development. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–08 Finland ranked third in the world. thus making Finland more vulnerable to global economic trends.[95] In both indicators. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low. only four EU15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK. According to the OECD. and other markets in Europe. although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. [91] Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. Finland has clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment.[67][91] [edit]Tourism . This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th). human capital.[92] While the manufacturing sector is thriving.[91] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century.[91] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries. Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). postal. tax payment (83rd) and low worker hardship (127th).[93] The 2007 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Finland 17th most competitive. the OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements.[clarification needed] Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe. [92] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured. Ireland. Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit report released in September 2011.

[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus. Above the Arctic Circle. Finnish tourism grossed over €6. rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. winter and spring. Tallinn. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing. including Helsinki. hiking. fishing. or even months. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival.Now lying within Helsinki. Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis. [edit]Demographics Main article: Demographics of Finland . Elk and hare are common game in Finland. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna. in the heart of summer. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. Stockholm and Travemünde. lake cruises. Main article: Tourism in Finland In 2005. in midwinter. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to theglobalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. however hunting is also popular. the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 37 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. there is a polar night. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests. with no sunset even at midnight. living in the northern Lapland region. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions. golf. Turku. At Finland's northernmost point.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year. fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind. play a significant role in the local tourism industry. and correspondingly. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region. yachting. midnight sun in the summer. kayaking among many others. a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks. is seen regularly in the fall. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands.

372.400.Population of Finland.445.478 5.943.600 832.100 2. Other cities with population over 100.100 1.4%. The largest cities in Finland are those of the Greater Helsinkimetropolitan area—Helsinki.147.336 4.655.000 are Tampere. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country.900 2. Finland has an average population density of 16 inhabitants per square kilometre.000 663.768.695.600 1.462. Turku.900 705.803 4.375. Finland Swedish. a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation. Estonia and Sweden. 1750–2010 year population 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Sources: [98] [99] 421.222 4.617 4.778 4.500 491.Jyväskylä and Lahti.900 1. and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland. among the lowest in the European Union. they become citizens.115 5. Also Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are recognized in the constitution.500 1.181.746.700 1. .800 2.177.100 561.400 3.276 The population of Finland is currently about 5. The Sami language is an official language in northern Lapland.700 3.998.000.636. The share of foreign citizens in Finland is 3.380. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country.700 863.060.[100] Most of them are from Russia.029. The Nordiclanguages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts. Oulu.600 3.800 2.598. Espoo and Vantaa.300 1.[100] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland. [101] [edit]Languages Main articles: Finnish language.446.787.[6] This is the third-lowest population density of any European country. behind those of Norway and Iceland.

to some extent.[110] The best-known foreign languages are English (63%). Estonian (0. German (18%). English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead). French and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age. English and Arabic (see Languages of Finland). The Finnish Sign Language is used as a first language by 4. Finnish is closely related to Karelian andEstonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian. and French (3%). in Lapland.2% 0. although studied only a little in the schools.[105] Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5.[102] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages.[109] Immigrant languages include Russian (1.0% . About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. numbering around 7.000 people. German. Inari Sami and Skolt Sami.[104] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami.1%).000 people.[102] To the north. Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) are protected by the constitution.[107] Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until 1920s. [edit]Religion Main article: Religion in Finland Religion in Finland[111] Evangelical Finnish No Lutheran year Orthodox Other religious Church of Church affiliation Finland 1900 98.000–6.000[103] and recognized as an indigenous people.7% 0.4% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns).6%).000–5. Somali. The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin.[106][not in citation given] who usually also speak Finnish.1% 1. A third foreign language may be studied in upper secondary school or university (at 16 years of age or over).[108] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami. Norwegian and. are the Sami people. some schools may offer other options). Swedish is the native language of 5. Danish are mutually intelligible with Swedish and are thus understood by a significant minority.The native language of 90% of the population is Finnish.

3% 1.2% 2000 85.1% 12.8% 1980 90.3% 1.7% 0.8% 1.1% 1.9% 10.0% 1.1% 1.1% 0.4%[112] Petäjävesi Old Church is an old wooden Lutheran church and a UNESCO World Heritage site.8% 1990 87. .1% 1.1% 2012 76.1% 1.5% 20.5% 2.2% 14.5% 2011 77.2% 1.7% 7.1% 0.1950 95.7% 2005 83.

weddings and funerals.1 million (or 76. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world. and legal conditions that affect women's lives.[112] and nearly all funerals are Christian.[122] [edit]Society Finnish family life is centred on the nuclear family[dubious – discuss][citation needed]. economic. although its share of the country's population has declined in recent years. accounting for 20.[124] The group reached this conclusion after examining the health.[117] In the same survey. as are the Muslim. France and New Zealand. including UK.[120][121] In April 2012.[119] About 18. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools. Relations with the extended family are often rather distant and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans. educational. or life force". Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1. 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force". A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries.[115] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll.5%). A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1. Approximately 4. Finnish women were the first in . the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies. Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being.6% by taxation. and 31% "moderately religious". Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller.[123] After examining the position of women around the world. slightly behind top-ranked Sweden and just ahead of the United States.1%[113] of the population. has no religious affiliation. 8% consider themselves "highly religious". 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious". [111] The second largest group. 75. However. The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two.9% of health care is funded directly by households and 76.[116] According to ISSP survey data (2008). [edit]Health Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men.Turku Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. God. was one of the best places in which a woman could live.4%[112] at the end of 2012) adherents are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.0% were confirmed in 2011 at the age of 15. tribes or similar structures [dubious – discuss][citation needed] . The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 2% of its members attend church services weekly. the Washington-based Population Crisis Committee reported in 1988 that Finland.[118] There are 307 residents for each doctor. Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute.1%).[114] In 2012. and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit. 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".3% of Finnish children were baptized and 83. According to UNICEF.

[60] In a number of areas. such as child care and elementary school teaching. Finland was the first nation in the world to give full suffrage (the right to vote and to run for office) to all adult citizens. including women. but also to bring males into fields traditionally believed to belong to the women's sphere.Europe to gain the franchise. Another aim was for women to occupy a more equal share of decision-making positions.[125] In 1906. In the late 1980s. they made up about 48% of the work force. and. In the 1980s. women had made notable legislative gains that brought them closer to full equality with men. the number of women studying at the university level. Finnish women were as well educated as their male counterparts. Efforts were undertaken not only to place women in occupations dominated by males. Most striking was the disparity in wages. about 75% of adult women worked outside the home. Although women made up just under half the work force and had a tradition of working outside the home. rather than protection for women. for example. which since World War II had come to provide them with substantial assistance in the area of childbearing and child-rearing. and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the membership of the Eduskunta (parliament) and held several ministerial posts.[60] The Equality Law that went into effect in 1987 committed the country to achieving full equality for women. In addition to an expanding welfare system. they earned only about two-thirds of the wages paid to men. The emphasis was to be equality for everyone.[60] Finland ranks second in the Global Gender Gap Report 2012.[126] Finland has general elections every fourth year. there was a timetable listing specific goals to be achieved during the remainder of the twentieth century. the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved. in some cases. was slightly ahead of the number of men. [edit]Culture . however.

Main article: Culture of Finland [edit]Education and science Auditorium in Aalto University's main building. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. graduates may either enter the workforce directly. After lower secondary school.[127] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7. many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries. today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK). Seminaarinmäki Campus of the University of Jyväskylä. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools. Trade schools prepare for professions. designed by Alvar Aalto. or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). . Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level.Mikael Agricola. designed by Alvar Aalto.

Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries. one of the lowest in OECD. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making. civic and workers' institutes. In 2005. two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-orienteduniversities.[130] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons.[134] [edit]Literature Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation. neural networks. low-temperature physics.801 patents were filed in Finland. United States (38%) and Japan (37%). 1. genetic technology and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact. [128] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world. . while in advanced programs it is 7. Forest improvement. materials research. vocational course centres. still below OECD average 16. brain research. Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics. and folk high schools. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish. the Finnish national epic.[132] Finland had a long tradition of adult education. In tertiary education. such as secondary evening schools. Helsinki University is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year. study centres.3%.[60] Finland is highly productive in scientific research.[131] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields. Adult education appeared in a number of forms. similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%).5%. Originating in Denmark in the nineteenth century. notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala. environmental sciences.Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education. biotechnology. such as the national poetJohan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius. with educational and financial assistance provided by the state.[133] In 2007.[129] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree. folk high schools became common throughout the region.

Kari Hotakainen. The Second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought. the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson is the most translated Finnish writer.After Finland became independent. characterized by Väinö Linna. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. [edit]Television Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons. while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia Prize. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939. about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV showJackass). Sofi Oksanen and Jari Tervo. [edit]Visual arts The National Museum of Finland. Besides Kalevala and Waltari. remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. textilesand glassware. Ilkka Remes.[citation needed] [edit]Music . is also famous for his work in furniture. who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland. most famously the Finnishspeaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. located in central Helsinki. See also: List of Finnish architects Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna. Alvar Aalto. there was a rise of modernist writers. illustrates Finnish history from prehistoric times to the present day. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen.

and many of Finland's importantcomposers are still alive. In 1899 he composedFinlandia. The same word sometimes refers tolavlu or vuelie songs. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread. Kaija Saariaho. Sweden and Norway. Main articles: Music of Finland.The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). Soile Isokoski. [edit]Pop . Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country). Today. Osmo Vänskä. Olli Mustonen. Finnish rock. as comprised in the Kalevala. the Sami. Tarja Turunen and Linda Lampenius. Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. The people of northern Finland. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila. Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Leif Segerstam. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen. such as Magnus Lindberg. less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. a significant figure in the history of classical music. Finland has a very lively classical music scene. Finland's national anthem. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. and has become a part of popular music. and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphonyKullervo. Pekka Kuusisto. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades. and Sami music [edit]Classical Much of the Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics. Finnish classical music has existed for only about a hundred years. are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. though this is technically incorrect.

HIM's 2005 albumDark Light went gold in the United States. Sentenced. Around 1964. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s.Stratovarius and Waltari. the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged. During the decade. some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. During the early 1960s. Finland hosted the competition in 2007. Korpiklaani. a style of Argentine music. Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the hit American hard rock group Guns N' Roses among others. Impaled Nazarene. Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. tango. meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. During the late 1960s and 1970s. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music. is also popular. etc. resulting in further development of the local rock scene. .Perttu Kivilaakso ofApocalyptica.[135] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. Sonata Arctica. dance music acts. Beatlemania arrived in Finland. playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal. Children of Bodom. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. jazz musicians. This was also the fate of the rock and roll groupHurriganes. hip hop performers. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands.

there are around 200 newspapers. Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin. including the newspaper Aamulehti.100 professional magazines. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines. Worldwide. the commerce-orientedTaloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen. 2.[139] . List of newspapers in Finland. 67 commercial radio stations.[136] [edit]Media and communications Linus Torvalds. spend the most time reading newspapers.[edit]Cinema Main article: Cinema of Finland See also: List of Finnish films In the film industry.000[138] making it the largest). tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world. Around twelve feature films are made each year. 320 popular magazines. three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels. the Finnishsoftware engineer best known for creating the popular open-source operating system Linux. the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat. Mauritz Stiller.[137] Today. See also: Telecommunications in Finland. Each year. [136] Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (its circulation of 412. notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki. and Television in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights. around 12. Finns.000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold. along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese.

[143] [edit]Cuisine Main article: Finnish cuisine Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Finland's public broadcasting station. All TV channels are broadcast digitally.YLE. Butter.[142] In October 2009.[140] Finland had around 1. Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabitper-second beginning July 2010. often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi). both terrestrially and on cable. Around 79% of the population use the Internet. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier).52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1.[141] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Value-added services are rare.000 inhabitants. is spread over the hot pastries before eating. YLE is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. Sauteéd Reindeer is a popular dish in Lapland and is usually eaten with Lingonberry . operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.

Fish andmeat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country. Midsummer Day (St. but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations.Epiphany.[citation needed] Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. cloudberries. Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. red meat consumption has risen. and more fish and poultry. Easter. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking. and sea buckthorn).Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking. Pentecost.Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food. while secular holidays include May Day and the Independence Day. [citation needed] Christian holidays include Christmas. New Year's Day and Midsummer. John's Day) and All Saints' Day. New Year's Day. Ascension Day. barley. According to the statistics. [edit]Sports . drink or in various recipes. while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. oats) and berries (such as bilberries. Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. lingonberries. [edit]Public holidays A midsummer bonfire (kokko) inMäntsälä.

came second in the medal count. . while still an autonomous Grand Duchywithin the Russian Empire. five European championships and 24 world records. Finland. The team has won two world championship titles (1995 & 2011) titles and five Olympic medals. great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen. a nation then of only 3. At the 1924 Summer Olympics. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals.[145] Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908. athletics. Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics.[144] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita. Paavo Nurmi at the 1920 Summer Olympics. For over 100 years. with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. In the 1920s and 1930s. resembling baseball. Pesäpallo. Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time.Finland's men's national ice hockey teamis ranked as one of the best in the world.2 million people. cross-country skiing. is the national sport of Finland. At the 1912 Summer Olympics. Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. ski jumping and Formula One. Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. although the most popular sports in terms of spectators are ice hockey. five world championships.

ice hockey players Jari Kurri. and Saku Koivu. football players Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball. running. Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä. ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. [show]    V T E International rankings of Finland [edit]See also Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Finland portal     Outline of Finland Index of Finland-related articles Bibliography of Finland Outline of Finland . and four-time World Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen. Teemu Selänne. gymnast Heikki Savolainen. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics. cycling and skiing. Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen. Eero Mäntyranta. For a more comprehensive list. [edit]International rankings The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg. see International rankings of Finland.In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi. alpine skiers Kalle Palander and Tanja Poutiainen. some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola and Lasse Virén. Nordic walking. The 1952 Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. rower Pertti Karppinen. cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen.

^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press. and not by its president. International Monetary Fund. he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semipresidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p. 3. and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval.2012" (in Finnish). revised 2008).         [edit]Notes Finnish Models of Public Transport Index of Finland-related articles Fire fighting in Finland Football in Finland Gun politics in Finland Kansallisbiografia List of bands from Finland List of Finns Protected areas of Finland 1. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30. in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union.95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'. it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter. ^ a b c d e "Finland"." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". Retrieved 17 October 2012. Population Register Centre. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further. Retrieved 2012-04-18. First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. 2. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister. . According to the Finnish Constitution.09.

2010-06-14.fi 17.1787/20755120-table1. ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). and "Northern Sami:Suoma dásseváldi" in Sami. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. 6. 14. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 9. University of Oulu.doi:10. A Newsweek study of health. 5. 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva Gummerus Kirjapaino . "Republiken Finland" in Swedish. Newsweek. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". Finland (in English)". and politics ranks the globe's top nations. 16. Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. Retrieved 16 September 2012. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". 7.org. Retrieved 5 November 2010.org. Local Finland. 1980–2010".no. Retrieved 2007-06-11. 13. ^ a b "Kuusi kuntaa katoaa kartalta". or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish. ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk".WorldAudit.com. ^ "Republic of Finland". United Nations.oulu. ^ "The Failed States Index 2008". Newsweek. ^ a b "Local Finland—Front page". ^ a b "KUNTIEN ASUKASLUVUT AAKKOSJÄRJESTYKSESSÄ". United Nations. economy. 2010. People. 10. Retrieved 1 January 2011.fi. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. 2010-08-16. Retrieved 1 January 2010. E24. 31 August 2012. 12. Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^ "The World's Best Countries. Legislation only recognizes the short name. Prosperity. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". 11. kotikielenseura. is the long protocol name. Retrieved 2010-08-26. YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2011-03-06. 2010. culture and environment in the north. Fundforpeace. ^ "National Archives Service. ^ Herkules. OECD iLibrary. Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological Conference. Population Register Centre. 15. 8. Retrieved 201002-04.4. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". 31 December 2010. August 2010". Retrieved 2010-08-26. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2011-03-06. education.com. material. Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. which is however not defined by law. and "Human Development Index trends.

Federal Research Division. "History of Finland. ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. Stat. Finland chronology".18. ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". ^ The Finnish Civil War. Retrieved 24 June 2008. Basic Books. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 24. muutos ja nykypäivä. "From slash-and-burn fields to postindustrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure". Helsingin Sanomat 32.org. Zenith Imprint. ^ Dr. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities. GlobalHealthFacts. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-12-11. p. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic. ^ Finland 1917–2007 (2007-02-20). Retrieved 24 June 2008. ^ a b "Finland and the Swedish Empire". 1941–44: 900 days of terror". "The siege of Leningrad.com. Stat. Rauli. ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 27. . Retrieved 24 June 2008.33. 20. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. 34. ^ Mickelsson.fi. 29. 28. ^ Timothy Snyder (2010). Vastapaino 2007. Federal Research Division. Retrieved 2013-04-04. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland. Suomen puolueet—Historia. University of Minnesota Press. World Bank 25. p. ISBN 0-465-00239-0 31. 33.fi. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Environment and Natural Resources". 21. 23. ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland. ^ David Glantz (2001). Library of Congress. 1993 22. ^ a b c d Finland 1917–2007 (last updated 2007-12-05). ISBN 0-7603-0941-8 30. ^ "Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ThisisFinland — "Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives". ^ Finland. Europe-cities. 26. 19. page 67. ^ "Median Age (Years)". Retrieved 2010-08-26."Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers".173.

^ "Tervetuloa aluehallintoviraston verkkosivuille!" (in Finnish). trends and conservation status. Retrieved 3 December 2012.2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). ^ The Parliament: Parliament Elected Speakers 50. 47. Cambridge. 36. 46. ^ "SOS: Save our seals". ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Finnish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 3 December 2012. Retrieved 2007-01-22. State Provincial Office." Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 October 2009. Paavo. Population Register Center of Finland. ^ "Finland. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Ministry of Finance. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. ^ Finland is the most forested country in Europe. 40. Retrieved 9 March 2011. "Pohjoiset alueet / yleiskuvaus" (in Finnish). (BirdLife Conservation Series No. ^ "Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä" (in Finnish). BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates. ^ "Finland’s Northern Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities for Agriculture". Retrieved 3 December 2012. 12). Retrieved 16 January 2013. 45. 42. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 28. Retrieved 2008-05-23. ^ "Trends in sea level variability". Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. this is Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland).fi 38. ^ "Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking". 2004-08-24. 2011. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. pp. ^ The role that the regional councils serve on Mainland Finland are on the Åland Islands handled by the autonomous Government of Åland. Oulu University Library (2000). ^ "BirdLife Finland". 1–4. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 48. Land Survey of Finland. ^ a b Havas. UK. ^ The source for historical information on party support isthe Finnish Wikipedia's article on the parliament . 39. forest.35. Retrieved 30 December 2010. Finnish Institute of Marine Research. 37.2. 44. ^ a b c d "Finland's climate". 49. 41. 43. Finland.

^ Women's voluntary service (in Finnish) 62. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 21. Retrieved 2009-05-10. ^ Vaalijohtaja: Vaalirahoituslain rikkominen melko yleistäYLE 15. ^ Policing corruption. Hyvinvointipalvelut eivät paranna sijoitusta". Section 93. Risto Penttilä. International Perspectives. 61. 54. Gustav.2008 56. 64. ^ a b "Finland's foreign policy idea" ("Suomen ulkopolitiikan idea"). ^ a b c d e f g Text from PD source: US Library of Congress: A Country Study: Finland. 58. Statistics Finland 69.A74 1990. . The Nobel Foundation. Theme I. GRECO 3–7. 63. International Institute of Administrative Sciences 55. ^ "The Burden of Crime in the EU. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "Finland in Figures—National Accounts". but the third when conscription is accounted. ^ a b Finland Economy 2004. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005" (PDF). Library of Congress Call Number DL1012 . 65. ^ Tehdyn työtunnin hinta 23–27 euroa. ^ Jane's World Armies: Finland. For update: "Finland—Defence Industry (Finland). ^ Hägglund. ^ Työvoimakustannukset puuttuvat puolustusmenoista. ^ The Finnish Wikipedia's article on Motion of no confidence 52. ^ Evaluation Report on Finland on Incriminations. Statistics Finland (in Finnish): Eurostat ranking is sixth. full article by subscription. 67. Retrieved 2010-08-26.2007 57. 2008-06-09. ^ Finnish constitution.5. Retrieved 200704-26.51.org. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2008". ^ "Finland in Figures—Manufacturing". Leijona ja kyyhky. Defence Industry Country Overview: Summary". ^ "Suomalaisten tulot Euroopan keskitasoa. 59. Statistics Finland. 60. 66.fi. Nobelprize.12. s. ^ a b The History of Corruption in Central Government By Seppo Tiihonen. 2008. Statistics Finland. Tilastokeskus. 53. OECD 68.

ec. 1970-01-01. "Own-account worker households' consumption has grown most in 2001–2006". Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "Retail growth best in Finland for five years". "Total energy consumption". Helsinkitimes. ^ Energy consumption (2007-12-12).fi. "Statistics Finland". 71. see the Invest in Finland website.eu 82.net. 79. ^ "Energy Consumption in 2001" (PDF). 200812-03. 83. ^ Energy consumption (2007-12-12). ^ "Small enterprises grow faster than the big ones". ^ "Metsävastaa: Vattenkraft" (in (Swedish)). 2010-11-20. ^ "Ikääntymisen taloudelliset vaikutukset ja niihin varautuminen" (PDF). 76. ^ Households’ consumption (2007-12-19). 73. 2007.org. Tilastokeskus. 21 December [dead link] 2011. ^ a b The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal. Oecd. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Cia. 75. Retrieved 12 April 2012. Retrieved 2011-0306. Metsavastaa. "Statistics Finland: Transport and Tourism". ^ a b "Olkiluoto 3 nuke start-up delayed until 2014". energy. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ Finland in Figures. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-08-26.fi.eu. 81. ^ "Europe's Energy Portal". Tilastokeskus. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ Electricity prices—industrial users.europa. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 74. Retrieved 2011-02-17. Stat.fi 77. 87. Iltalehti. ^ "OECD recommends Finland to do more to help older people stay in work". Retrieved 2011-03-06.fi. "Statistics Finland: Labour Market".fi. ^ (Finnish) Taloussanomat. ^ Finland in Figures (last updated 2012-0-26). 85. For updates.fi. by Niels Finn Christiansen 72. Statistics Finland. Stat.fi. ^ "CIA Factbook: Public Debt". 80.70. ^ "Päästökaupasta voi tulla miljardilasku teollisuudelle". Retrieved 2010-08-26. 86. 78. 200804-11.fi. . Retrieved 2007-01-22. eurostat.gov. Tilastokeskus. YLE. 84.

World Bank 98. Retrieved 2008-10-08. . liikennevirasto. 103. ^ "Singapore Tops IT Competitiveness in Asia Pacific. Bengt Holmström. Heritage. ^ a b c "Finland economy". the Sami population living in Finland was 7. ^ "World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007".org. 27 September 2011. ^ "Väestö kielen mukaan 1980–2011". ^ According to the Finnish Population Registry Centre and the Finnish Sami parliament. 94. Annual report 2008. 2012-03-16. 100. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. 3 Worldwide".88. Retrieved 2007-06-11.3. Retrieved 2010-08-26. For year 2009 update: Finnish Railway Statistics 2010. ^ Transport and communications ministry—Rail. 2007-03-23. Statistics Finland. Hans Tson Söderström. Ranks No. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2012-04-14.[1] 102.ch. Vantaa: Finavia. Seppo Honkapohja. Retrieved 2012-03-16. Statistics Finland. See Regional division of Sami people in Finland by age in 2003 (in Finnish). Statistics Finland.371 in 2003. ^ "Kilpailuvirasto. 89. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12. 2005-10-17. 101.org.fi 90. kun lapsi syntyy Suomessa eikä voi saada minkään vieraan valtion kansalaisuutta. Juhana Vartiainen 92. For subsequent years when available: Finnish Railway Statistics. ^ "Airport operations". 91.fi. ^ Syntymäpaikan perusteella lapsi saa Suomen kansalaisuuden silloin. World Economic Forum. Imd. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 93. 2009-03-17.2007)". 96. Transparency. Retrieved 2012-12-12.fi". Sixten Korkman. ^ a b "Population (Foreigners in Finland)". ^ a b [dead link] "Population according to language". Kilpailuvirasto. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012 -. Retrieved 2012-04-14. ^ a b c d The Nordic Model by Torben M.Results". 95. Andersen. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "Väkiluku sukupuolen mukaan 1750 – 2006 (Excel) (23. 99. 97. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Doing Business Report 2008. ^ Economy Rankings.

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121. . ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". 124. Research. ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF). Virtual Finland.C. 2007-11-15. ^ Hope. 130. 20. Powerless and Pregnant". OECD 132. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2012-04-07.fi". 128. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2010: University of Helsinki". 136. Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Department for Communication and Culture / Unit for Promotion and Publications / Embassy and Consulates General of Finland in China.fi. No. ^ a b "Media moves".pdf 126.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. ^ "Summary sheets on education systems in Europe". Population Briefing Paper. "'National scandal' of 11 stillbirths a day means Britain has one of worst survival rates". Retrieved 19 November 2012.The Wall Street Journal. 135. ^ Shah. "A country that innovates". ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland. Eurydice.org. 127. (Washington D.weforum. Tilastokeskus. 2009-12-08. 125. 2012. but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 133. in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). 129. Daily Mail (London). ^ Kari Sipilä. ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage. 122. Archived fromthe original on 2011-07-07. "Guns N' Roses Can Agree on at Least One Thing: This Finnish Saxophonist Rocks". Retrieved 2007-0214. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Jenny (2011-04-14). 123. 1988. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 134. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote (in 1893). ^ "Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor. Neil (15 April 2012). ^ "Patents with numbers—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish).fi.: Population Crisis Committee). World Economic Forum. ^http://www3. 131.fi. ^ "World Happiness report". Research. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Scientific publication—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). ^ "Tilastokeskus.

World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. Yale University. Retrieved 2011-03-06.ch . www. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 138. ^ 2010 Freedom of the Press Survey (retrieved 4 May 2011). pp.org.fi (2012-01-03). Yale University. ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". Columbia University and World Economic Forum (2006) 151. 147. 153.137. Foreign Policy November/December 2006. ^ Measuring Globalisation. ^ Tässä ovat Suomen suosituimmat lajit | Urheilu. 2007-08-31.ch 154.imd. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA).imd. 142. ^ IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Scoreboard 2006. 143. 144. ^ "Coming Soon". ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007". 145. ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life (Statistics Finland). Iltalehti. Heritage. ^ The Global Top 20. 139. ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". Heritage.org. 141. ^ "Circulation Statistics". Retrieved on 2012-06-09. ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). 74– 81 148. pp. 140. Retrieved 2007-09-04. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 2009-10-14. The Global Top 20. ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". 52–60 149. ^ "2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE" (PDF). The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). ^ [2] 146. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". Retrieved 19 November 2012. YLE. ^ a b The World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2012. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2011-0306. 152. Foreign Policy May/June 2005. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2011-0306. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 150. www. ^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index.

^ "Technological achievement statistics – countries compared". ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008. 158. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Results & Findings. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2010". Institute for Economics & Peace 165. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Volume 1: Analysis. [dead link] [dead link] 161.org. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2007) pisa. ^ "PISA 2003 – Learning for Tomorrow's World" (PDF).155. Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World. ^ Finland. ^ Persistently high corruption in low-income countries amounts to an “ongoing humanitarian disaster”. ^ "Human Development Report 2006" (PDF). Global Peace Index. ^ Methodology. Institute for Economics & Peace 166. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 201103-06. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". ^ "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). Global Peace Index. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. Organisation for economic co-operation and development 159. 172. 171.org.org . ^ Pisa 2006. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2003". Retrieved 2011-03-06. Save the Children. ^ 2008 Methodology. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". weforum. 162. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006. Rsf. Rsf. Transparency International 169.org 157. 160. 164.org. ^ Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action. ^ Messages From Pisa 2000. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9 170. Rsf. Transparency International 167. NationMaster. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Results & Findings. 156. Save the Children. Transparency International 168.oecd. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 163.

Chris.org. Pirinen. ISSN 1096-2905). The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6).org 175. Jason. a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3). . World Economic Forum. William R. and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1). 174.    Lewis. ^ a b "World Audit Democracy". Listen. Singleton. Lavery. Matti.173. Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. Eino. Jaakko. The History of Finland.weforum.weforum. Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9). 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4. Eloise and Paananen. Jutikkala. weforum. The Global Competitiveness Report 2006. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). Klinge. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939– 1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6). Max. Finland. Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann.  Swallow. there's music from the forest. ^ http://www. A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Allen F. [edit]Further reading  Chew. Jakobson. Pauri. Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1). Worldaudit. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway. Subrenat. Jean-Jacques.org/issues/global-information-technology/gitr-2012data-platform 176. Greenwood Press. Retrieved 201103-06.    Rusama. Fred. Kauko.  Engle.  Trotter. Deborah. Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X). Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ http://www.      Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1). ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report – Finland" (PDF). Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8).org/reports/global-information-technology-report2013/ 177. Richard D. ^ Table 1: Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2005 comparisons.

Government  This is Finland.[edit]External links Find more about Finland at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Overviews and data       Finland entry at The World Factbook Finland at the Open Directory Project Finland profile from the BBC News. the official English-language online portal (administered by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs). The largest groups by native language 2001 and 2011 (Statistics Finland). Finland (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries Government Publications). .   Finland Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members (CIA Publications). Key Development Forecasts for Finland from International Futures. Population in Finland 1750–2010 Appendix figure 2.

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