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This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 65°N 027°E

Republic of Finland
 
Suomen tasavalta (Finnish) Republiken Finland (Swedish)


Coat of arms

Anthem: Maamme (Finnish) Vårt land (Swedish)
Our Land

Location of Finland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital and largest city Official languages Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E

 

Finnish (90.0%) Swedish (5.4%)

Recognised regional languages Demonym

Sami (0.03%)

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Finnish Finn Parliamentary republic[1] Sauli Niinistö Jyrki Katainen (NCP) Eero Heinäluoma (SDP) Eduskunta

Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament Legislature

Independence - Autonomy
within Russia

29 March 1809

- Independence
from Soviet Russia

6 December 1917

- First recognized
by Soviet Russia

4 January 1918

Area - Total 338,424 km2 (64th) 130,596 sq mi - Water (%) 10 Population - 2012 estimate - 2000 census - Density 5,421,827[2] (112th) 5,180,000 16/km2 (201st) 41/sq mi GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2000) 2011 estimate $195.723 billion[3] $36,236[3] 2011 estimate $266.553 billion[3] $49,349[3] 26.9 low HDI (2013) 0.892[4]

very high · 21st Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Euro (€) (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) d.m.yyyy right +358 FI

 

.fi .ax a


The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states. The .ax domain is reserved for the autonomous province of the Åland Islands.

Finland (



Finnish: Suomi (help·info); Swedish: Finland), officially the Republic of Finland,[5] is

a Nordic country situated in theFennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. An estimated 5.4 million people live in Finland, with the majority concentrated in its southern regions.[6] In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Politically, it is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital of Helsinki, local governments in 336 municipalities[7][8] and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. About one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (consisting of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other larger cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti and Kuopio. From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution. This prompted the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which was followed by a civil war where the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" were defeated by the proconservative "Whites" with support from the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a monarchy in the country, Finland became a republic. Finland's experience of World War II involved three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944) against the Soviet Union; and the Lapland War (1944–1945) against Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1969, the European Union in 1995 and the eurozone at its inception in 1999. During this time, it built an extensive welfare state.

[11][12][13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and concept of Finland o o  1.2 Swedish era 2.5 World War II 2.2 Climate 3.4 Cabinet 4.4 Administrative divisions 4 Politics o o o o o o o 4.3 Parliament 4.3 Regions 3. with a nominal per-capita income of over $49.1 Prehistory 2.1 Constitution 4. economic development was rapid.Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation.000 (2011). According to some measures.4 Civil war and early independence 2. [9][10] Finland has the best educational system in Europe and has recently been ranked as one of the world's most peaceful andeconomically competitive countries. such that today.3 Russian Empire era 2.2 President 4. It has also been ranked as one of the world's countries with the highest quality of life.1 Etymology 1. Thereafter.5 Law 4.[3] Finland is one of the world's wealthiest nations.1 Biodiversity 3.6 Foreign relations 4.7 Social security .6 Cold War 2. remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.2 Concept 2 History o o o o o o o  2.7 Recent history 3 Geography o o o o  3.

1 Languages 6.4 Public policy 5.5 Music 7.9 Public holidays 7.2 Transport 5.3 Health 6.1 Energy 5.10 Sports 8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Etymology and concept of Finland .8 Cuisine 7.8 Armed forces 5 Economy o o o o o  5.4 Television 7.2 Religion 6.1 Education and science 7.o  4.4 Society 7 Culture o o o o o o o o o o      7.3 Visual arts 7.3 Industry 5.5 Tourism 6 Demographics o o o o  6.2 Literature 7.6 Cinema 7.7 Media and communications 7.

Alternatively. the term "Finland" mostly referred to the area around Åbo (Turku). a region that later became known as Finland Proper. (Medieval politics concerned tribes such as the Finns. this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian.[15] [edit]Suomi The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins. possibly even including Åland. but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē. and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland. Gothic guma. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape). while the other parts of the country were called Tavastia and Karelia. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates from the 13th century. a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn. when the archipelago was seen as belonging to Åbo (Turku).[16] [edit]Concept In the 12th and 13th centuries. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages). The third was found in Gotland.) In the 15th century. but these theories are now considered outdated. in the Baltic Sea. with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still being sometimes excluded until later. the Tavastians and the Karelians more than geographical boundaries. The oldest date from 3000 to 2500 BCE. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper. being borrowed as *ćoma. Latin homo) has been suggested. meaning "land". [edit]Etymology [edit]Finland The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. "Finland" became a common name for the whole land area to the east of the Bothnian Sea. What the term . and parallels between saame (Sami. the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. but which could also sometimes be collectively referred to as "Österland" (compare Norrland).Astuvansalmi rock paintings atSaimaa.

to be administratively included in "New Finland" in 1812. as a strategy to meet the claims of the Russian least after the tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in 1721 and 1743. The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea and the Finnish part of the realm had the same representation in the parliament as the western part had. and Ostrobothnia (other parts of Sweden had also hadgovernor generals).actually refers to can vary between sources. which was the boundary between Västerbotten County and Österbotten County (Ostrobothnia) at the time .or along the river Kalix. There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland. thereby including the Finnish-speaking part of the Torne Valley . using stone tools.[19] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The boundary between the new Grand Duchy of Finland and the remaining part of Sweden could have been drawn along the river Kemijoki.which the Russians proposed. Russia and Norway. also the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact. What was signed over to Russia in 1809 was not so much a "Finland" as six counties.[18] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded. came when John III of Sweden called his duchy as the "grand duchy of Finland" (about 1580). During the 1st . which later became what the concept of Finland came to stand for . which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest. Åland. The boundary. The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning.[20] Even with the introduction of agriculture. if only in name. was a compromise. In 1637. [17] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers.which the Swedish proposed in the peace negotiations . The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. [edit]History Main article: History of Finland [edit]Prehistory Main article: History of Finland#Prehistory According to archaeological evidence. hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy. and a little part of Västerbotten County. A sort of establishment for Finland as a unity. Queen Christina named Per Brahe the Younger as Governor General of Finland. Åland. The artifactsthe first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia. The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. called "Old Finland".

was established in 1640. early Finnish was spoken at least in agricultural settlements of Southern Finland. Swedish-speaking settlers arrived at the coastal regions during the medieval time.[21] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom.[23] and a devastating plague a few years later. administration and education. In the 18th century. Other greens:Swedish dominions and possessions. Swedish kings established their rule in the Northern Crusades from the 12th century until 1249. During the Protestant Reformation. Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry. as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. In the 17th century.Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility.[citation needed] [edit]Swedish era The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. The first university in Finland. Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces.[22] In the 16th century. the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. whereas Sámi-speaking populations occupied most parts of the country. Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–97. Dark green: Sweden proper. wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–21) and the Lesser Wrath(1742–43). clergy and localcourts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.[23] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. The Royal Academy of Turku. during which about one-third of the Finnish population died.millennium AD. [edit]Russian Empire era Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland .

first among radical liberals[25] and socialists. having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War. During the Russian era. [edit]Civil war and early independence Soviet approval of Finland's independence (in Russian). since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. mainly by Social Democrats. However.On 29 March 1809. Desire for independence gained ground. From the 1860s onwards. passed the so- . The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations. in practice.[24] In 1906. The parliament. For example. In 1811 Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. and investment rose in following decades. a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennomanmovement grew. The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia. Economic and political development was rapid. making it one of the worst famines in European history. the universal suffrage was. virtually meaningless. Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917. controlled by social democrats. Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence and Finnish Civil War After the 1917 February Revolution. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835.[24] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain. the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned. it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. the Finnish language began to gain recognition. universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy.

The Finnish–Russian border was determined by theTreaty of Tartu in 1920. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Governmentand by the right-wing parties in Finland. On 27 January 1918. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. The Whites. the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. who were supported by Imperial Germany. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier. since the right to do so had been stripped from the Russians by the Power Act.[27] After the war.[28] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki. with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917.[citation needed] The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew. the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the antiCommunist Lapua Movement. prevailed over the Reds.[24] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force. After a brief flirtation with monarchy. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. the right-wing parties and the social democratic party. tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps. which the social democrats considered illegal. were highly antagonized. in which right-wing parties won a slim majority. where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. [edit]World War II . but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa. Germany's relations with democratic Finland cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power.called Power Act[26] to give the highest authority to parliament. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs. and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. Finland became a presidential republic. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. The government started to disarm the Russian forces inPohjanmaa. the population was 3 million. The civil war and activist expeditions into the Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. In 1917. and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. Suddenly. as radical communists took power in Russia.[citation needed] New elections were conducted.

Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and retained its independence.[citation needed] . After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill.000 soldiers killed. Almost the whole population. Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia. As a result of the two wars.[29] The siege of Leningrad resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's inhabitants. Finland covered an area of approximately 385. The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations. in which Germany had invaded the Soviet Union. which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity.000 persons. and in theContinuation War of 1941–1944. some 400.Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and theContinuation War in 1944. when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. whether they should be said to have helped in the siege or refused to help is controversial. following Operation Barbarossa. For 872 days. restraints and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland. the USSR's second largest city. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II During World War II. Salla andPetsamo.000 km2 (149. by proportion the third-highest loss rate in World War II. fled these areas. including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and icefree Liinakhamari(Liinahamari). Finland reached an armistice with the Soviet Union.000 sq mi) before the handover. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956. the German army besieged Leningrad. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45. however at a loss of about 93.[30]Finnish troops controlled some of the areas around the city but refused to attack or let Germans use those areas for attack.

Finland—poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil)—continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade. half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas. the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence. Urho Kekkonen.Finland rejected Marshall aid.5 in 1973. with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970.[31] Establishing trade with the Western powers. the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations. However.[32] The 1952 Summer Olympicsbrought international visitors. Even after the reparations had been paid off. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank. . services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. For example. and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden.[32] The new jobs in manufacturing. in apparent deference to Soviet desires. such as theUnited Kingdom.5 in 1947 to 1. and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.[citation needed] [edit]Cold War In 1950. the economy did not generate jobs fast enough. the eighth president of Finland. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3.[32] When baby-boomers entered the workforce.

The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. The depression bottomed out in 1993. president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.[citation needed] Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions. Officially claiming to be neutral. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the German press. Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era.[citation needed] In the 1970s and 1980s. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on. and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. which was crucial for his continued popularity. Finland remained a Western European market economy. In politics. Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. a banking crisis. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonenagainst his opponents. Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977.Kalevi Sorsa was a long-time prime minister of Finland during the 1970s and 80s. and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets.[citation needed] [edit]Recent history . In 1981. although Finland did not fully join. there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. which explains the widespread support that proSoviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.

7 years. one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins.Finland introduced the currency of theEurozone.[33] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. Finland is one of the oldest countries. this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them. The population is aging with the birth rate at 10. even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries. As a preparation for this date.[32] With a median age of 42. in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. Finland changed the common side of its coins. The Finnish markka was replaced by the euro in 2002. the euro.000 population. or a fertility rate of 1. Finland joined the European Union in 1995. Like other Nordic countries. Finland is expected to struggle with demographics. without further reforms or much higher immigration. Three different designs (one for €2 coin.8. Like most European countries.42 births per 1. Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999. [edit]Geography . In 2007. in 2002. and the Eurozone in 1999. instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone.

Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. Its largest lake. and longitudes 20° and 32° E. Saimaa. Much of the geography of Finland is explained by the Ice Age. List of national parks of Finland. (See also Atlas of Finland. is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland.000 lakes (larger than 500 m2/0.000 islands. and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N.) Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland. U.12 acreExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{".S. Finland is one of the world's northernmost countries. List of lakes in Finland.344 ft). is the fourth largest in Europe.Detailed map of Finland. Its highest point. {{{u}}}) and 179.316 m (4. the Halti at 1. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland isRidnitsohkka at 1. . The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared to the rest of Europe.160 kilometres (720 mi). The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland. The distance from the southernmost—Hanko—to the northernmost point in the country—Nuorgam—is 1. only Reykjavík lies more to the north than Helsinki.[34].324 metres (4. Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands —about 188. directly adjacent to Halti. Of world capitals.318 ft).

The Whooper Swan. Finland's national bird.[35] Relatively speaking. with little arable land. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand. Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world. Gleysols and peat bogsoccupy poorly drained areas. that are more typical in the Baltic region. where land steadily rises about 1 cm a year. The landscape is covered mostly (75% of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens. . covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin.The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers. running northwest to southeast. Montane Birch forests are common. Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. The most common type of rock isgranite.[37] the largest forested area in Europe. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga. central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. south of the Helsinki– Rauma line. Finland is rising from the sea. In the extreme north of Finland. birch and other species.7 sq mi) annually. near the tree line and Arctic Ocean. visible wherever there is no soil cover. Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil.[36] Forest covers 86% of the country's area. According to the WWF. As a result. the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery. forests are characterized by mixed forests. [edit]Biodiversity Main article: Fauna of Finland Phytogeographically. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. terrain in Finland is rising due to thepostglacial rebound. Finland is shared between the Arctic. On the southwestern coast. spruce. The forest consists of pine.

Common Chaffinch and Redwing. Three of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan. exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland. 248 breeding bird species. [citation needed] Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal).[40] [edit]Climate Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland.The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. the Capercaillie. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity. wolverine and elk. over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today. black-plumaged member of the grouse family. Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. See also: Climate of Finland The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasiancontinent's coastal zone.[39]Of some seventy species of freshwater fish. Similarly.[38] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler. and the European Eagle-owl. perch and others are plentiful. The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal. gray wolf. a large European swan and the national bird of Finland. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. a large. the whole of . and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. There are at least sixty native mammalian species. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation. one of only three lake seal species in the world. the northern pike. down to only 300 seals today. In the Köppen climate classification.

particularly in Lapland. In northern Finland. only two to three months. showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C(77 °F) during heat waves. Siberia and southern Greenland. the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north.[42] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions.[41] No part of Finland has Arctic tundra.[41] Winters of southern Finland (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C/32 °F) are usually about 100 days long. At Finland's northernmost point. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C/50 °F) in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September.[41] . but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland. Within the country. the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F). and in the inland.[42] Pyhä-Luosto National Park. Lapland.[43] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels.[41] Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt. Even in the most temperate regions of the south. the warmest days of July can reach 35 °C (95 °F). and the snow typically covers the land from about late November to mid-April. such as Alaska. the winters are long and cold. The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer. while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. Summers in the north are quite short. while the summers are relatively warm but short. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude.

Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland in 2010. Currently. areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately.Åland was designated a seventh region. which is the responsibility of regional councils. [edit]Regions Finland consists of 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation. Regions represent dialectal. in addition. which were abolished. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region. Historically.Lake Pielinen seen from a hill in Koli National Park.[44] Coat of In Arm English s In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administr ative Map . Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils. each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour. which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. In addition. agriculture. the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. fisheries. cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland (the läänis). each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish.

agency Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovanie mi Lapland Norra Northern PohjoisOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Oulu Northern Finland Kainuu Kainuu Kajanalan d Kajaani Northern Finland North Karelia PohjoisKarjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland Northern PohjoisSavo Savonia Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland Southern Savonia EteläSavo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland Södra Southern EteläOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Seinäjoki aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Keski.Mellersta Central Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Kokkola aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Lapland Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Vaasa Western and Central Northern Ostrobothnia .

Finland Kainuu North Karelia Pirkanm Pirkanma Birkaland Tampere a aa Western and Central Finland Northern Savonia Southern Savonia Central Finland KeskiSuomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskyl ä Western and Central Finland Southern Ostrobothnia Satakunt Satakunt Satakunda a a Pori SouthWestern Finland Ostrobothnia Pirkanmaa Finland Varsinais Egentliga -Suomi Finland Proper Turku SouthWestern Finland Satakunta Central Ostrobothnia South Karelia EteläKarjala Södra Karelen Lappeenr Southern anta Finland Central Finland Päijänne Tavastia PäijätHäme Päijänne Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland Finland Proper South Karelia Tavastia Proper KantaHäme Egentliga Hämeenl Southern Tavastland inna Finland Päijänne Tavastia Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa Kymenla Kymenla Kymmene akso dalen akso Kotka Southern Finland Kymenlaakso .

Regions of Finland. state subsidies. They account for half of public spending.Åland Ahvenan Islands[45 maa ] Åland Marieha mn Åland Åland Islands The region of Eastern Uusimaa was consolidated with Uusimaa on 1 January 2011. The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities. People often identify with their municipality. and other revenue. which may also call themselves towns or cities. the capital of Central Finland. Spending is financed by municipal income tax. Municipalities of Finland. There are 336 municipalities.[7][8] and most have fewer than 6. .[citation needed] Helsinki Cathedral.[46] [edit]Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland.000 residents. and Historical provinces of Finland A steam boat on Lake Päijänne leavingJyväskylä. Sub-regions of Finland.

two intermediate levels are defined.In addition to municipalities. . The capital region – comprising Helsinki. e. Espoo and Kauniainen – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities. there is a pilot project underway with regional elections. In the Kainuu region. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. not just in the built-up area. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. The figures are as of 28 February 2013.g. The Tammerkoski rapids in the inland city of Tampere. The autonomous province of Åland has a permanent democratically elected regional council. and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). Sami people have a semiautonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. However. In the following chart. the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun). The land area is given in km².Vantaa. Municipalities co-operate in seventy subregions and nineteen regions.

410.37 862.75 Oulu 191.86 Espoo 257.653 238.67 734.75 2.17 135.237 1.Municipalities (thin borders) and regions(thick borders) of Finland (2009).546 245.523 213.461 312.91 .26 824. City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Helsinki 605.77 Vantaa 205.767 525.03 414.832.61 Turku 180.51 Tampere 217.

391 1.577 1.88 Lahti 103.05 764.06 99.768 188.84 Vaasa 65.170.597.687 1.229 1.5 Hämeenlinna 67. . and Former municipalities of Finland [edit]Politics The Parliament of Finland's main building.558.187 135.39 65.76 31.91 Joensuu 74.76 37.187 2.15 Lappeenranta 72.433.17 Kuopio 105. List of Finnish municipalities by population.14 Pori 83.33 Further information: List of Finnish municipalities.99 114.24 34.07 Kouvola 87.81 348.36 50.City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Jyväskylä 133.333 834.331 2.785.381. List of Finnish municipalities by area.

or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. and presidential elections. [edit]President According to the Constitution. P. one. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary. and was amended on 1 March 2012. including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with thecabinet. [edit]Parliament Finland This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Finland . Ståhlberg (1919–1925). non-executive position. and some appointive powers. and the prime minister is the country's most powerful politician. The current president is Sauli Niinistö. K. C. being the head of the armed forces.Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland [edit]Constitution The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. The former presidents were K. The constitution in its current form came into force on 1 March 2000. Urho Kekkonen (1956–1982). he took office on 1 March 2012. Finland is a parliamentary democracy.Martti Ahtisaari (1994– 2000). J. L. K. but under the 2000 constitution.[1] The position still does entail some powers. Paasikivi (1946–1956). Kyösti Kallio (1937–1940). Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994). J. E. the presidency became largely a ceremonial. G. the President of Finland is the head of state. and even further under its 2012 amendment. Finland was formerly considered a semi-presidential parliamentary system. Svinhufvud (1931– 1937).Risto Ryti (1940–1944). Relander (1925–1931). E. Mannerheim (1944–1946). and in European Union elections. municipal. some decree powers. and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). Direct.

The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies. The speaker is currently Eero Heinäluoma (Social Democrats). and their combined vote has totalled about 65 –80% of all . Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. dismiss the cabinet.State[show] Executive[show] Legislative[show] Judiciary[show] Elections[show] Divisions[show] Political parties[show] Foreign Policy[show]  Other countries  Atlas Politics portal    V T E The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises supreme legislative authority. and override presidential vetoes. the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union). Its acts are not subject to judicial review. the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament'sconstitutional law committee. the National Coalition Party (conservatives) and the Social Democrats. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws. These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support.[49] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906.

the True Finns achieved exceptional success.0 20. and in the 2011 elections. elects one member to the parliament. and thus surpassing the Centre Party. Their lowest common total of MPs. For a few decades after 1944.Åland Centre was the largest party.5 19.5 4. After the parliamentary elections on 17 April 2011. there have been some long-term trends. which forms a federacy with Finland. the Communists were a strong fourth party.8 Left Alliance 14 -2 7.[50] The autonomous province of Åland. In the 2011 elections. the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberal party and its predecessors from 1906 to about 1980. This procedure has never been used.3 Swedish People's Party 9 0 4. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council. increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats.0 8.1 True Finns 39 +34 19.5 15. the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes National Coalition Party 44 −6 22. who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. However. the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation. 121.3 .) The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime minister endorsed by the President. such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War.votes.1 Centre Party 35 -16 17. when this action was the sole prerogative of the president. and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties.1 Green League 10 -5 5. was reached in the 2011 elections.0 7. although the parliament was dissolved several times under the pre-2000 constitution. and the rise of the Green party and its predecessor since 1983.4 Social Democratic Party 42 -3 21.0 19.

civil law or Roman law. [edit]Law Main article: Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. Each minister heads his or her ministry. tingsrätt). högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). hovrätt). or. . Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus. [edit]Cabinet After parliamentary elections. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus. In addition to the regular courts. which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.5 0. förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus. as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament. and of the Chancellor of Justice. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence. högsta domstolen). in some cases.0 Others 1a 0 0. regional appellate courts (hovioikeus.0 4. Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense. and consists of him or her. As a rule. of other ministers. After the prime minister. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Council of State). As no one party ever dominates the parliament. The current prime minister is Jyrki Katainen (National Coalition Party). and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on.Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes Christian Democrats 6 -1 3. there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration.4 a Province of Åland's representative. the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus. although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957). [51] The cabinet exercises most executive powers.

[verification needed] In 2008. Some crime types are above average. Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance.[56] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008.Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions.[54][dubious – discuss] Today. which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s.[55] According to GRECO in 2007 corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better. Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent. Also.[53] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe. . Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the Members of Parliament. economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians. [edit]Foreign relations Ahtisaari receives his Noble prize.[54][verification needed] For instance. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Finland has a very low number of corruption charges. Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe.

when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence. one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents. Main article: Foreign relations of Finland According to the 2012 constitution. the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.[59] [edit]Social security Main article: Social security in Finland Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems.Finland is represented in the European Parliament and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back.[60] [edit]Armed forces .[58] Finland was considered a cooperative model state. but could intervene benevolently on their behalf. except that the president has no role in EU affairs. Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries. According to some social historians. president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens.[57] In 2008.[citation needed] Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II. Finns and non-citizens. and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy. but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.[59] This was reversed in the 2000s.

as is voluntary military service for women (currently approximately 500 annually). currently serving conscripts. [citation needed] An F-18 of the Finnish Air Force.000 reservists. Alternative non-military service for men is possible. Finnish defence expenditure is around the sixth highest in the EU.The Hamina-class fast-attack craft FNSHanko of the Finnish Navy.4–1. WEU and the EU. are a sufficient deterrent.[63] . but are careful to avoid politics. Finland's official policy states that the 350. Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel).6% of the GDP. The standard readiness strength is 34. under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service. and a large reserve.[62] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1. A universal male conscription is in place. of which 25% are professional soldiers. A Leopard 2A4 main battle tank of theFinnish Army on Independence Day. armed mostly with ground weaponry. The armed forces favour partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO.[61] Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia.700 people in uniform.

Belgium or the UK. the navy and the air force.[64] The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Ari Puheloinen). The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness. NATO and EU peacekeeping missions. Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland and Helsinki Stock Exchange Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France. [edit]Economy Headquarters of Nokia. Finland's largest company.9%. and troops serve around the world in UN.[65] With respect to foreign . Residents claim around 80% homeland defence willingness. followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. Angry Birds. a mobile phone game developed in Finland. Primary production is 2. The branches of the military are the army. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%. one of the highest rates in Europe. Germany.Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular. who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command. has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.

United States. Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. Trade policy is managed by the European Union. and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops. In a 2004 OECD comparison. vehicles and other engineered metal products (21. forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%). Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. and international trade is a third of GDP. However. high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. machinery.[67] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Forestry. United Kingdom. and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate. The country lies between latitudes 60°N and 70°N. and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to develop fertility. Sweden. and has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frosts. Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude. but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Netherlands and China. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient.[citation needed] The largest trade flows are with Germany.1%).[60] . Russia. Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. making summer droughts a constant threat. Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp. Finland's real-terms GDP growth. except for agriculture. paper factories. 1998–2009. Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries. The largest industries[66] are electronics (22%). In response to the climate. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water. where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade the key economic sector is manufacturing. Irrigation was generally not necessary.

and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries. making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries. a commercial street in Helsinki.[69] In 2006.8 million. sponsoring technical improvements. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year. while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses.[71] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999. As in agriculture. regulating tree cutting. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products.1 euros in 2004. Germany and France. Forests play a key role in the country's economy. [60] Private sector employees amount to 1. In 1984 the government published the Forest 2000 plan. the government has long played a leading role in forestry. drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. out of which around a third with tertiary education. Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.[71] . 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth. Sweden.Aleksanterinkatu.[68] As of 2008 average purchasing poweradjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy.[70] The female employment rate is high.

and recreation and culture at around 2000 euro. The employment rate was 68% and the unemployment rate was 6.1 persons. and spending on well-being. The average size is 2. The average total household consumption was 20.[77] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83. 40% of households consist of a single person. 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons. As of 2006. a typical level in Europe.5 million cars and 0.8% in early 2008.6 euro per sq metre. out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro.[72] 18% of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61.4 million other vehicles. high quality products. Residential buildings total 1.[79] [edit]Energy . There are 2.[78] According to Invest in Finland.Graphical depiction of Finland's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. 2.[75] In 2007.5% (2009) Internet connection at home. the average household savings rate was −3. Finland is part of the Eurozone (dark blue). private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables. The average residential property without land costs 1.4 million households reside in Finland.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person.000 euro. though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany. food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2500 euro. [73] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominant future liability.187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8.[74] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007. the EU single market and theSchengen Area. transport about 3000 euro. 74% of households had a car.[76] Home ownership rate is 60%.

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed around 2014, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor. [80]

See also: Nordic energy market and Nuclear power in Finland Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe andNord Pool Spot exchanges, which have provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[81] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[82][83] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood.[citation needed] About 10–15% of the electricity is produced byhydropower,[84] which is little compared to more mountainous Sweden or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy forms (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) made high 30.5% compared to the EU average 10.3% in final energy consumption.[85] Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[86] one research reactor at the Otaniemi campus, and the fifthAREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—is currently scheduled to be operational by 2014.[80] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They might be causing an increase in energy prices, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[87] Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.


Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.

Main article: Transport in Finland The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is Finland's largest and busiest airport.

The state-owned VR Group operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with almost 15 million passengers in 2011. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[88] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro[citation needed] in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[89] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg'sFinlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world,[citation needed] has also been served by a helicopter line.

Main article: Economy of Finland Finland was rapidly industrialized after the Second World War, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan or the UK in the beginning of 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland (Ahlstrom, M-real,UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste Oil), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry) and information technology (e.g. Rovio, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for

[91] Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%). postal.[92] While the manufacturing sector is thriving. legal framework. tax payment (83rd) and low worker hardship (127th). though in Finland immigration is relatively new. business closure (5th). thus making Finland more vulnerable to global economic trends. the OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements. [92] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low. in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union. contract enforcement (7th). Finland's performance was next to Germany. According to the OECD.[91] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries. and significantly higher than most European countries. A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception.export is still more prominent than in Western Europe. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–08 Finland ranked third in the world. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. Ireland.[clarification needed] Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe. only four EU15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK. This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th).[95] In both indicators. Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit report released in September 2011. Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark).[67][91] [edit]Tourism . and research and development landscape. The unionization rate is high (70%).[93] The 2007 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Finland 17th most competitive. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy.[97] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. technology infrastructure. and other markets in Europe. Finland has clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment.[92] Finland is rated the least corrupted country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[96] and 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. except for agricultural products.[94] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive. although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. human capital.[90] [edit]Public policy See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. public support for industry development.[91] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century. The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it.

Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region. Stockholm and Travemünde. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 37 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. At Finland's northernmost point. play a significant role in the local tourism industry. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands. or even months.[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests. there is a polar night. hiking. yachting. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions. Main article: Tourism in Finland In 2005. winter and spring. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. kayaking among many others. Finnish tourism grossed over €6. in midwinter. living in the northern Lapland region. with no sunset even at midnight. lake cruises. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. however hunting is also popular. fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind. [edit]Demographics Main article: Demographics of Finland . Tallinn. in the heart of summer. Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis. and correspondingly. rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. midnight sun in the summer. Turku. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to theglobalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna. a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks. Above the Arctic Circle. golf. fishing.Now lying within Helsinki. is seen regularly in the fall. including Helsinki.

445.600 3.177. Espoo and Vantaa.900 2.478 5. a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.803 4. Estonia and Sweden. and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.700 3.900 705.060.998. The largest cities in Finland are those of the Greater Helsinkimetropolitan area—Helsinki.[100] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship.700 863.100 1. behind those of Norway and Iceland.655.500 1. Also Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are recognized in the constitution.500 491.[6] This is the third-lowest population density of any European country.380. Finland has an average population density of 16 inhabitants per square kilometre.600 832.768.375.[100] Most of them are from Russia.446. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country.222 4.462. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland.Population of Finland.943.300 1.400.276 The population of Finland is currently about 5.100 561.372. 1750–2010 year population 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Sources: [98] [99] 421. they become citizens.695. The share of foreign citizens in Finland is 3.100 2.900 1.598. among the lowest in the European Union.115 5.000 663.778 4.600 1. Turku.617 4. Other cities with population over 100.800 2. Finland Swedish.800 2.746. The Nordiclanguages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts. [101] [edit]Languages Main articles: Finnish language. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country. .147. The Sami language is an official language in northern Lapland.4%.029.700 1.336 4.Jyväskylä and Lahti.636. Oulu.181.000 are Tampere.787.400 3.000.

Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) are protected by the constitution. The Finnish Sign Language is used as a first language by 4. Norwegian and.7% 0. to some extent.000–5. German (18%). Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. some schools may offer other options).1% 1.000 people.[110] The best-known foreign languages are English (63%). Finnish is closely related to Karelian andEstonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian.[108] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami. Estonian (0. A third foreign language may be studied in upper secondary school or university (at 16 years of age or over).6%).000[103] and recognized as an indigenous people.[104] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami.[109] Immigrant languages include Russian (1. Somali. French and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age.0% . Danish are mutually intelligible with Swedish and are thus understood by a significant minority. Swedish is the native language of 5.[107] Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until 1920s.1%).The native language of 90% of the population is Finnish.000–6. and French (3%). [edit]Religion Main article: Religion in Finland Religion in Finland[111] Evangelical Finnish No Lutheran year Orthodox Other religious Church of Church affiliation Finland 1900 98.[102] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages. English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead).4% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns). in Lapland.[105] Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5.[102] To the north. English and Arabic (see Languages of Finland). although studied only a little in the schools.[106][not in citation given] who usually also speak Finnish. are the Sami people.2% 0.000 people. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. German. numbering around 7.

.5% 2011 77.1% 12.2% 1.1% 1.5% 2.5% 20.3% 1.7% 2005 83.8% 1.1% 1.2% 14.1% 1.2% 2000 85.7% 0.3% 1.1% 0.1% 2012 76.0% 1.8% 1980 90.4%[112] Petäjävesi Old Church is an old wooden Lutheran church and a UNESCO World Heritage site.7% 7.8% 1990 87.1% 0.9% 10.1% 1.1950 95.

and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit.Turku Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. 75.3% of Finnish children were baptized and 83. 8% consider themselves "highly religious".[120][121] In April 2012. 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".[114] In 2012. Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1.1 million (or 76. weddings and funerals. was one of the best places in which a woman could live. and legal conditions that affect women's lives.[124] The group reached this conclusion after examining the health.0% were confirmed in 2011 at the age of 15. as are the Muslim. The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 2% of its members attend church services weekly.[115] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller. According to UNICEF. Finnish women were the first in .[123] After examining the position of women around the world. Approximately 4. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools.[118] There are 307 residents for each doctor. slightly behind top-ranked Sweden and just ahead of the United States. 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious". [111] The second largest group.[116] According to ISSP survey data (2008). The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two. including UK. Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute. and 31% "moderately religious".[122] [edit]Society Finnish family life is centred on the nuclear family[dubious – discuss][citation needed].[117] In the same survey. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world. the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies. 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God". God. tribes or similar structures [dubious – discuss][citation needed] .[112] and nearly all funerals are Christian. accounting for 20. the Washington-based Population Crisis Committee reported in 1988 that Finland. or life force".[119] About 18.1%[113] of the population. However. economic. Relations with the extended family are often rather distant and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans.4%[112] at the end of 2012) adherents are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. France and New Zealand. has no religious affiliation. Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being. A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries. although its share of the country's population has declined in recent years.9% of health care is funded directly by households and 76. A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1.1%).6% by taxation. [edit]Health Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men. educational.5%).

In the late 1980s. women had made notable legislative gains that brought them closer to full equality with men. Most striking was the disparity in wages.[125] In 1906. there was a timetable listing specific goals to be achieved during the remainder of the twentieth century. In addition to an expanding welfare system. in some cases. for example. The emphasis was to be equality for everyone. including women.[60] The Equality Law that went into effect in 1987 committed the country to achieving full equality for women. the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved.Europe to gain the franchise. Efforts were undertaken not only to place women in occupations dominated by males. however. the number of women studying at the university level. [edit]Culture . which since World War II had come to provide them with substantial assistance in the area of childbearing and child-rearing. but also to bring males into fields traditionally believed to belong to the women's sphere. and. they made up about 48% of the work force.[126] Finland has general elections every fourth year. Another aim was for women to occupy a more equal share of decision-making positions. Finland was the first nation in the world to give full suffrage (the right to vote and to run for office) to all adult citizens. and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the membership of the Eduskunta (parliament) and held several ministerial posts. Finnish women were as well educated as their male counterparts. was slightly ahead of the number of men. such as child care and elementary school teaching. Although women made up just under half the work force and had a tradition of working outside the home. they earned only about two-thirds of the wages paid to men. rather than protection for women. In the 1980s.[60] Finland ranks second in the Global Gender Gap Report 2012. [60] In a number of areas. about 75% of adult women worked outside the home.

[127] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. designed by Alvar Aalto. Seminaarinmäki Campus of the University of Jyväskylä. designed by Alvar Aalto. or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK). graduates may either enter the workforce directly. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools. Most schools are managed by municipal officials.Mikael Agricola. Main article: Culture of Finland [edit]Education and science Auditorium in Aalto University's main building. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. . After lower secondary school. Trade schools prepare for professions. Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.

Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish. Helsinki University is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010. and folk high schools. neural networks.[132] Finland had a long tradition of adult education.[60] Finland is highly productive in scientific research. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala. In tertiary education. folk high schools became common throughout the region.Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education. two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-orienteduniversities.5%. biotechnology. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making. such as the national poetJohan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius. similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%). Originating in Denmark in the nineteenth century. [128] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world. study centres. 1.[133] In 2007. while in advanced programs it is 7. and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year. brain research.[130] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments. In 2005. Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics.[134] [edit]Literature Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation. still below OECD average 16. United States (38%) and Japan (37%). civic and workers' institutes.3%. low-temperature physics. Forest improvement. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. environmental sciences. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino. vocational course centres. . such as secondary evening schools. materials research. Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.[129] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree. one of the lowest in OECD. the Finnish national epic. genetic technology and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. Adult education appeared in a number of forms. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish. but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. with educational and financial assistance provided by the state.801 patents were filed in Finland.[131] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields.

Alvar Aalto. there was a rise of modernist writers. The Second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought. located in central Helsinki. who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939. [edit]Visual arts The National Museum of Finland.[citation needed] [edit]Music . while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia Prize. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen. Besides Kalevala and Waltari. See also: List of Finnish architects Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Kari Hotakainen. illustrates Finnish history from prehistoric times to the present day. about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV showJackass). the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson is the most translated Finnish writer. [edit]Television Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons.After Finland became independent. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna. Ilkka Remes. is also famous for his work in furniture. characterized by Väinö Linna. Sofi Oksanen and Jari Tervo. remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. most famously the Finnishspeaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. textilesand glassware. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen.

The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. [edit]Pop . though this is technically incorrect. Today. Pekka Kuusisto. Osmo Vänskä. the Sami. and has become a part of popular music. Finland's national anthem. The people of northern Finland. a significant figure in the history of classical music. The same word sometimes refers tolavlu or vuelie songs. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila. Finnish rock. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen. and Sami music [edit]Classical Much of the Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics. and many of Finland's importantcomposers are still alive. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades. Main articles: Music of Finland. such as Magnus Lindberg. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread. Finland has a very lively classical music scene. are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Leif Segerstam. Tarja Turunen and Linda Lampenius. Olli Mustonen. Kaija Saariaho. Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. Soile Isokoski. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. as comprised in the Kalevala. In 1899 he composedFinlandia. Sweden and Norway. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphonyKullervo.The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. Finnish classical music has existed for only about a hundred years. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs. Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country).

resulting in further development of the local rock scene. Around 1964. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music. HIM's 2005 albumDark Light went gold in the United States. During the decade. Impaled Nazarene. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. Sentenced. jazz musicians.Stratovarius and Waltari. playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. is also popular. tango. hip hop performers. Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis. Sonata Arctica. meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. etc. Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands. dance music acts. HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s. After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. . some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. This was also the fate of the rock and roll groupHurriganes. Korpiklaani. the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged. a style of Argentine music.Perttu Kivilaakso ofApocalyptica. Children of Bodom. Beatlemania arrived in Finland. During the early 1960s. Finland hosted the competition in 2007. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the hit American hard rock group Guns N' Roses among others. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager.[135] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. During the late 1960s and 1970s.

000[138] making it the largest). there are around 200 newspapers. [136] Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (its circulation of 412. tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti.000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold.[136] [edit]Media and communications Linus Torvalds. 320 popular magazines. the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat.[137] Today. Finns. along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese. around 12.100 professional magazines. List of newspapers in Finland. the Finnishsoftware engineer best known for creating the popular open-source operating system Linux. Each year. Worldwide. 67 commercial radio stations. Mauritz Stiller. notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki. including the newspaper Aamulehti.[139] . Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world. the commerce-orientedTaloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen. See also: Telecommunications in Finland. spend the most time reading newspapers. Around twelve feature films are made each year. Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin. three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels. 2. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines.[edit]Cinema Main article: Cinema of Finland See also: List of Finnish films In the film industry. and Television in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights.

both terrestrially and on cable. Butter.[143] [edit]Cuisine Main article: Finnish cuisine Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi).[140] Finland had around 1. Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabitper-second beginning July 2010.[142] In October 2009. Finland's public broadcasting station.000 inhabitants. is spread over the hot pastries before eating.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1.YLE. All TV channels are broadcast digitally. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). Value-added services are rare. YLE is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. Sauteéd Reindeer is a popular dish in Lapland and is usually eaten with Lingonberry .[141] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Around 79% of the population use the Internet. operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.

New Year's Day. drink or in various recipes.Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking. lingonberries. Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. [citation needed] Christian holidays include Christmas. [edit]Public holidays A midsummer bonfire (kokko) inMäntsälä. Pentecost. oats) and berries (such as bilberries. and more fish and poultry. red meat consumption has risen. Easter.Epiphany. while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. barley. New Year's Day and Midsummer. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking. but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations.[citation needed] Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye. Ascension Day. According to the statistics. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. and sea buckthorn). Christmas is the most extensively celebrated and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. [edit]Sports . but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century.Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food. Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. Midsummer Day (St. Fish andmeat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country. cloudberries. John's Day) and All Saints' Day. while secular holidays include May Day and the Independence Day.

although the most popular sports in terms of spectators are ice hockey.[144] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita. In the 1920s and 1930s.[145] Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908. Pesäpallo. while still an autonomous Grand Duchywithin the Russian Empire. five European championships and 24 world records.2 million people. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time. with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. resembling baseball. At the 1924 Summer Olympics. Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II. cross-country skiing. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals. Paavo Nurmi at the 1920 Summer Olympics. athletics. five world championships. is the national sport of Finland. For over 100 years. . great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen. Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics. At the 1912 Summer Olympics.Finland's men's national ice hockey teamis ranked as one of the best in the world. a nation then of only 3. Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. The team has won two world championship titles (1995 & 2011) titles and five Olympic medals. Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. came second in the medal count. Finland. ski jumping and Formula One.

Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen. gymnast Heikki Savolainen. [edit]International rankings The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball. and Saku Koivu. cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics. Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä.In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi. some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola and Lasse Virén. cycling and skiing. and four-time World Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen. For a more comprehensive list. alpine skiers Kalle Palander and Tanja Poutiainen. see International rankings of Finland. rower Pertti Karppinen. The 1952 Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. running. [show]    V T E International rankings of Finland [edit]See also Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Finland portal     Outline of Finland Index of Finland-related articles Bibliography of Finland Outline of Finland . Teemu Selänne. football players Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. Eero Mäntyranta. Nordic walking. Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg. ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen. ice hockey players Jari Kurri.

^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30. the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval. in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. Retrieved 17 October 2012. and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. .95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'. ^ a b c d e "Finland".09. First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. According to the Finnish Constitution. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further. he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semipresidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p. Retrieved 2012-04-18. revised 2008).2012" (in Finnish). and not by its president.         [edit]Notes Finnish Models of Public Transport Index of Finland-related articles Fire fighting in Finland Football in Finland Gun politics in Finland Kansallisbiografia List of bands from Finland List of Finns Protected areas of Finland 1. 3. International Monetary Fund." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". ^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic. it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister. 2. Population Register Centre.

Newsweek. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Prosperity. 14. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 31 August 2012. ^ a b "Local Finland—Front page". which is however not defined by law. Retrieved 16 September 2012. August 2010". ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk". 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. 12. kotikielenseura. Retrieved ^ "The Failed States Index 2008". OECD iLibrary. Retrieved 1 January A Newsweek study of health. "Republiken Finland" in Swedish. and "Northern Sami:Suoma dásseváldi" in Sami. education. 8. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD".com. People. culture and environment in the Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. Newsweek.WorldAudit. 11. 10. 7. and politics ranks the globe's top nations. Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". 13. E24.doi:10. Finland (in English)". ^ a b "KUNTIEN ASUKASLUVUT AAKKOSJÄRJESTYKSESSÄ". 2010-09-09. 2010. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". Retrieved 7 November 16. 5. YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). ^ "National Archives Service. or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish.1787/20755120-table1. is the long protocol 17. Legislation only recognizes the short name. Local Finland. Population Register Centre. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 201002-04. Retrieved 2007-01-22. United Nations. 2010-06-14. United Nations. Retrieved 2007-06-11. and "Human Development Index trends. material. 1980–2010". ^ a b "Kuusi kuntaa katoaa kartalta". Fundforpeace. Retrieved 5 November 15. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". ^ "The World's Best Countries. 6. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva Gummerus Kirjapaino . economy. ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). 31 December 2010. 9. Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological Conference. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. 2010-08-16. ^ Herkules. ^ "Republic of Finland".oulu. University of Oulu.

20. . ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval 24. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ Dr. Zenith Imprint. Basic Books. Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 June 2008. Retrieved 2013-04-04. ThisisFinland — "Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives". 34. ^ Finland. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 27. Finland chronology". ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". ^ "Statistics Finland. ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. GlobalHealthFacts. ^ Finland 1917–2007 (2007-02-20). 28. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities.173. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland. ISBN 0-7603-0941-8 30. 21. Federal Research Division. Library of ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland. muutos ja nykypäivä. Suomen puolueet— "The siege of Leningrad.33. World Bank 25. 1941–44: 900 days of terror"."Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers". ^ Timothy Snyder (2010). Helsingin Sanomat 32.Federal Research Division. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic. 1993 22. page 67. ^ a b "Finland and the Swedish Empire".org. Retrieved 24 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2013-03-22. University of Minnesota Press. Stat. ^ "Median Age (Years)". 33.18. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 26. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Environment and Natural Resources". ^ David Glantz (2001). ISBN 0-465-00239-0 31. Europe-cities. "History of Finland. ^ The Finnish Civil War. "From slash-and-burn fields to postindustrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure". ^ a b c d Finland 1917–2007 (last updated 2007-12-05). ^ Mickelsson. Vastapaino 2007. Stat. Retrieved 24 June 2008. p. Rauli. 23. p. 29. 19.

trends and conservation status. ^ a b c d "Finland's climate". ^ "Finland. 12). Finnish Institute of Marine Research.2. Population Register Center of Finland. 22 October 2009. ^ "Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking". Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 47.35. ^ a b Havas. ^ "SOS: Save our seals". 39. ^ "Finland’s Northern Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities for Agriculture". Retrieved 3 December 2012. ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Land Survey of Finland. 48. ^ The source for historical information on party support isthe Finnish Wikipedia's article on the parliament . forest. ^ "Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä" (in Finnish). Finnish Meteorological Institute. ^ The role that the regional councils serve on Mainland Finland are on the Åland Islands handled by the autonomous Government of Åland. Retrieved 9 June 2012. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. ^ The Parliament: Parliament Elected Speakers 50. 36. State Provincial Office. 49. Retrieved 9 March 2011. Paavo. Retrieved 3 December 2012. BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates." Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 42. this is Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). pp. Retrieved 30 December 38. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 43. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 28. ^ "BirdLife Finland". 41. Retrieved 16 January 2013. Ministry of Finance. Finland. 46. ^ Finland is the most forested country in Europe. 2011. Cambridge. 2004-08-24. 45. 1–4. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. UK. 40. 44. ^ "Trends in sea level variability". Retrieved 2007-01-22. "Pohjoiset alueet / yleiskuvaus" (in Finnish).2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). 37. ^ "Tervetuloa aluehallintoviraston verkkosivuille!" (in Finnish). Oulu University Library (2000).

63. OECD 68. ^ a b The History of Corruption in Central Government By Seppo Tiihonen.2008 56. . ^ "Finland in Figures—National Accounts".2007 57. Statistics Finland 69. 67. Tilastokeskus. ^ "The Burden of Crime in the EU. Section 93. International Perspectives. 60. Theme I. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005" (PDF). 2008. GRECO 3–7. Nobelprize. ^ Työvoimakustannukset puuttuvat puolustusmenoista. ^ Evaluation Report on Finland on Incriminations. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ Tehdyn työtunnin hinta 23–27 euroa. 2008-06-09. ^ Policing corruption. full article by subscription.A74 1990. ^ a b c d e f g Text from PD source: US Library of Congress: A Country Study: Finland. but the third when conscription is accounted. ^ Jane's World Armies: Finland. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2008". 64. Statistics Finland (in Finnish): Eurostat ranking is Library of Congress Call Number DL1012 . Retrieved 2007-04-26.12. ^ Women's voluntary service (in Finnish) 62. ^ "Finland in Figures—Manufacturing". 59. ^ Hägglund.51. ^ Finnish constitution. Hyvinvointipalvelut eivät paranna sijoitusta". 61. For update: "Finland—Defence Industry (Finland). 53. Retrieved 2009-05-10. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 21. Gustav. ^ a b Finland Economy 2004. Statistics Finland. 54. ^ "Suomalaisten tulot Euroopan keskitasoa. ^ Vaalijohtaja: Vaalirahoituslain rikkominen melko yleistäYLE 15. 66. Risto Penttilä. ^ a b "Finland's foreign policy idea" ("Suomen ulkopolitiikan idea"). International Institute of Administrative Sciences 55. Statistics Finland. Leijona ja kyyhky. Defence Industry Country Overview: Summary". s. Retrieved 200704-26. The Nobel Foundation. 58. ^ The Finnish Wikipedia's article on Motion of no confidence 52.

200804-11. 84. 85. ^ Energy consumption (2007-12-12). ^ "CIA Factbook: Public Debt". Helsinkitimes. 21 December [dead link] Retrieved ^ "Metsävastaa: Vattenkraft" (in (Swedish)). 81. YLE. 73. 80. ^ Households’ consumption (2007-12-19). 83. Retrieved 77. 71.70. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 2010-11-20. Stat. energy. Metsavastaa. 76. 86. ^ Electricity prices—industrial users. Retrieved 2011-02-17. "Statistics Finland: Labour Market". ^ "Retail growth best in Finland for five years". eurostat. "Total energy consumption".gov. Retrieved 12 April 2012. ^ "Ikääntymisen taloudelliset vaikutukset ja niihin varautuminen" (PDF). "Statistics Finland". Retrieved 2010-08-26. 2007. ^ "OECD recommends Finland to do more to help older people stay in work". Iltalehti. see the Invest in Finland website. 200812-03. 82. ^ (Finnish) Taloussanomat. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "Energy Consumption in 2001" (PDF). For updates. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2011-0306. Tilastokeskus. by Niels Finn Christiansen 72. ^ Finland in Figures. Retrieved 2007-01-22. . "Own-account worker households' consumption has grown most in 2001–2006".net. ^ Energy consumption (2007-12-12). ^ "Päästökaupasta voi tulla miljardilasku teollisuudelle". 74. Statistics Finland. ^ "Europe's Energy Portal".fi. ^ a b "Olkiluoto 3 nuke start-up delayed until 2014".fi. 75. Retrieved 2010-08-26. "Statistics Finland: Transport and Tourism". ^ "Small enterprises grow faster than the big ones".eu. ^ Finland in Figures (last updated 2012-0-26).fi. Cia.europa. ^ a b The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal. Oecd. Retrieved 1970-01-01. Stat. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Tilastokeskus.

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109. The Lancet. 2011. U. See Geonames. Publication: October 2010. 17 § and 121 §" (PDF). 110. ^ "The Constitution of Finland. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004". Statistics Finland.2. Statistics Fieldwork: January– February 2010. ^ See Kalo Finnish Romani language 107. 111. Produced by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.2013 a b c 113. 117. ^ 112. "The Church in Finland today". 120. ^ "Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count?". ^ "Finland in Figures". Department for Communications and Culture. Statistics – Population structure. _elamassa_2011. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 119. ^ "Health (2004)". ^ "Special Eurobarometer Biotechnology" (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-0111. Retrieved 2007-01-22.FINLEX Data Bank. Retrieved 2011-12-06. 105. 108. ^http://tampub. Retrieved 2011-12-06. 2009-09-17. ^ Salla Korpela (May 2005). p. ^ a b Population structure Statistics Finland Lutheran church member statistics evl. Stat. ^ "Finland Life expectancy at birth—Demographics". Department of State. 2004-09-15. Retrieved 2007-09-04.uta. The Tatars".de 106. Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). ^ "National Minorities of Finland.104.Unknown parameter|section= ignored (help) 115. 2006-12-31. ^ Unofficial names for Finland in Sami languages are: Suopma (Northern Sami). 116. ^ "The population of Finland in 2006". Retrieved 2012-04-12. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-16. ^ "Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken —Teckenspråken i Finland" (in (Swedish)). Statistics Finland. Statistics Finland. Forum.pdf?sequence=1 118. Retrieved 2010-02-04.S.hunturk. ^ "Language according to age and gender by region 2011". Indexmundi. Retrieved 2007-09-04. Finland Promotion Board.

Population Briefing Paper. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Neil (15 April 2012). 136. ^ "Summary sheets on education systems in Europe".fi". 127. 122. (Washington D. ^ Kari Sipilä. 134. 128. ^ "Patents with numbers—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). ^ "Tilastokeskus. 124. ^ "Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor.: Population Crisis Committee). 133. ^ Shah. "'National scandal' of 11 stillbirths a day means Britain has one of worst survival rates". 130. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2010: University of Helsinki". 125. ^ Hope.The Wall Street Journal. Eurydice. Retrieved 2012-04-07. "Guns N' Roses Can Agree on at Least One Thing: This Finnish Saxophonist Rocks".weforum. Archived fromthe original on 2011-07-07. 2009-12-08. Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Department for Communication and Culture / Unit for Promotion and Publications / Embassy and Consulates General of Finland in China. 20. Retrieved 19 November Research. ^http://www3. Powerless and Pregnant". ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland).org. 2007-11-15. . 131. World Economic Forum.pdf 126. Jenny (2011-04-14). ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF). ^ a b "Media moves".fi. 129. Daily Mail (London). Research. ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland. "A country that innovates". No. Retrieved 2011-03-06. but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919. Retrieved 2007-01-22. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote (in 1893). Virtual Finland. ^ "Scientific publication—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). 135. Retrieved 2007-0214. 123.121. Retrieved 2010-08-26. in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). Retrieved 2010-02-04. ^ "World Happiness report". OECD 132.C. ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage. 1988.

Foreign Policy November/December 2006. 147. pp. Yale University. 138. Columbia University and World Economic Forum (2006) 151. Retrieved 2007-12-22.137. ^ IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Scoreboard 2006. ^ Measuring Globalisation. www. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). Retrieved 19 November 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ [2] 146. 144. YLE. Retrieved 25 July 2009. World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life (Statistics Finland). ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". Yale University. 139. 2009-10-14. ^ The Global Top 20.imd. ^ 2010 Freedom of the Press Survey (retrieved 4 May 2011). ^ a b The World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2012. 142. 52–60 149. Heritage. Retrieved 154. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". ^ "Circulation Statistics". ^ Tässä ovat Suomen suosituimmat lajit | Urheilu. Retrieved 2009-10-16. Retrieved on 2012-06-09. 141. ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007".org.imd. 2007-08-31. 152. Foreign Policy. The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). Retrieved 2011-03-06. 150. 140. 74– 81 148. Foreign Policy May/June 2005. 143. ^ "2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE" (PDF). ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). 145. www. ^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index. The Global Top (2012-01-03). Retrieved 2007-09-04. Statistics Finland. ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". Heritage. ^ "Coming Soon". Retrieved 2011-0306. . 153.

Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World. Institute for Economics & Peace 166. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". 163. ^ "PISA 2003 – Learning for Tomorrow's World" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme (2007) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9 170. Results & Findings. Save the Children. Retrieved 201103-06. 156. Volume 1: Analysis. Transparency International 167.155. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 162. Rsf. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. ^ Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Human Development Report 2006" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. ^ Finland. 171. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006. 172. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2010". Results & 157. ^ Messages From Pisa 2000. Global Peace Index. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2007) pisa. ^ 2008 Methodology. Archived from the original on ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2003". ^ Methodology. weforum. ^ Persistently high corruption in low-income countries amounts to an “ongoing humanitarian disaster”. Transparency International 169. World Economic Forum. 164. ^ Pisa 2006.oecd. Institute for Economics & Peace 165. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008. Rsf. 160. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Technological achievement statistics – countries compared". [dead link] [dead link] Retrieved 2011-03-06. Global Peace Index. Retrieved . 158. Transparency International 168. Rsf. ^ "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Retrieved 2011-03-06. Save the Children. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Retrieved 2011-03-06. Organisation for economic co-operation and development 159.

. Finland. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway. Listen. Jason. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939– 1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6). Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8). Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X).  Swallow. ^ http://www. Kauko. Worldaudit. Greenwood Press. A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1). Singleton. a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3). Jakobson. Klinge. The History of Finland. weforum. Deborah. The Global Competitiveness Report 2006. Chris. Max. Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann. Pirinen. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report – Finland" (PDF). The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Jaakko. Richard D. there's music from the forest. Fred. Jutikkala. Retrieved 201103-06. ^ Table 1: Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2005 177. 174. World Economic Forum. Allen 176. Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9).weforum. 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4. [edit]Further reading  Chew. ISSN 1096-2905). and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). Eloise and Paananen.  Trotter.173.    Lewis.      Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1). Subrenat. A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1). Lavery. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6). ^ a b "World Audit Democracy". Matti. Jean-Jacques. ^ 175. William R. Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations.    Rusama. Pauri.  Engle.

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