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This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 65°N 027°E

Republic of Finland
 
Suomen tasavalta (Finnish) Republiken Finland (Swedish)


Coat of arms

Anthem: Maamme (Finnish) Vårt land (Swedish)
Our Land

Location of Finland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital and largest city Official languages Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E

 

Finnish (90.0%) Swedish (5.4%)

Recognised regional languages Demonym

Sami (0.03%)

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Finnish Finn Parliamentary republic[1] Sauli Niinistö Jyrki Katainen (NCP) Eero Heinäluoma (SDP) Eduskunta

Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament Legislature

Independence - Autonomy
within Russia

29 March 1809

- Independence
from Soviet Russia

6 December 1917

- First recognized
by Soviet Russia

4 January 1918

Area - Total 338,424 km2 (64th) 130,596 sq mi - Water (%) 10 Population - 2012 estimate - 2000 census - Density 5,421,827[2] (112th) 5,180,000 16/km2 (201st) 41/sq mi GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2000) 2011 estimate $195.723 billion[3] $36,236[3] 2011 estimate $266.553 billion[3] $49,349[3] 26.9 low HDI (2013) 0.892[4]

very high · 21st Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Euro (€) (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) d.m.yyyy right +358 FI

 

.fi .ax a


The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states. The .ax domain is reserved for the autonomous province of the Åland Islands.

Finland (



Finnish: Suomi (help·info); Swedish: Finland), officially the Republic of Finland,[5] is

a Nordic country situated in theFennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. An estimated 5.4 million people live in Finland, with the majority concentrated in its southern regions.[6] In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Politically, it is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital of Helsinki, local governments in 336 municipalities[7][8] and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. About one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (consisting of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other larger cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti and Kuopio. From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution. This prompted the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which was followed by a civil war where the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" were defeated by the proconservative "Whites" with support from the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a monarchy in the country, Finland became a republic. Finland's experience of World War II involved three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944) against the Soviet Union; and the Lapland War (1944–1945) against Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1969, the European Union in 1995 and the eurozone at its inception in 1999. During this time, it built an extensive welfare state.

7 Social security .6 Cold War 2. [9][10] Finland has the best educational system in Europe and has recently been ranked as one of the world's most peaceful andeconomically competitive countries.1 Constitution 4.[11][12][13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and concept of Finland o o  1.5 Law 4.4 Civil war and early independence 2. Thereafter.6 Foreign relations 4.[3] Finland is one of the world's wealthiest nations. such that today.2 Concept 2 History o o o o o o o  2.1 Biodiversity 3. with a nominal per-capita income of over $49.1 Prehistory 2.3 Regions 3.7 Recent history 3 Geography o o o o  3.4 Administrative divisions 4 Politics o o o o o o o 4.5 World War II 2.000 (2011).Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation.4 Cabinet 4.1 Etymology 1. It has also been ranked as one of the world's countries with the highest quality of life. remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.2 Climate 3.2 Swedish era 2.3 Russian Empire era 2.2 President 4.3 Parliament 4. economic development was rapid. According to some measures.

5 Tourism 6 Demographics o o o o  6.8 Cuisine 7.1 Education and science 7.o  4.5 Music 7.1 Languages 6.3 Health 6.4 Public policy 5.8 Armed forces 5 Economy o o o o o  5.9 Public holidays 7.2 Literature 7.3 Visual arts 7.3 Industry 5.7 Media and communications 7.1 Energy 5.2 Religion 6.10 Sports 8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Etymology and concept of Finland .4 Television 7.6 Cinema 7.2 Transport 5.4 Society 7 Culture o o o o o o o o o o      7.

and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland. [edit]Etymology [edit]Finland The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. a region that later became known as Finland Proper. The third was found in Gotland. this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). Alternatively. possibly even including Åland. the term "Finland" mostly referred to the area around Åbo (Turku). It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates from the 13th century.Astuvansalmi rock paintings atSaimaa. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper. What the term . Latin homo) has been suggested. a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn. but these theories are now considered outdated.[16] [edit]Concept In the 12th and 13th centuries. The oldest date from 3000 to 2500 BCE. while the other parts of the country were called Tavastia and Karelia. the Tavastians and the Karelians more than geographical boundaries. the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. and parallels between saame (Sami. (Medieval politics concerned tribes such as the Finns. meaning "land". but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē. but which could also sometimes be collectively referred to as "Österland" (compare Norrland). Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape).) In the 15th century. Gothic guma.[15] [edit]Suomi The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins. "Finland" became a common name for the whole land area to the east of the Bothnian Sea. when the archipelago was seen as belonging to Åbo (Turku). being borrowed as *ćoma. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages). in the Baltic Sea. with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still being sometimes excluded until later.

The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions.or along the river Kalix. The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning. as a strategy to meet the claims of the Russian tsar. hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy. The boundary between the new Grand Duchy of Finland and the remaining part of Sweden could have been drawn along the river Kemijoki.[20] Even with the introduction of agriculture. to be administratively included in "New Finland" in 1812. if only in name. the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded. came when John III of Sweden called his duchy as the "grand duchy of Finland" (about 1580). which was the boundary between Västerbotten County and Österbotten County (Ostrobothnia) at the time . was a compromise. The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea and the Finnish part of the realm had the same representation in the parliament as the western part had. Russia and Norway. which later became what the concept of Finland came to stand for . A sort of establishment for Finland as a unity. [edit]History Main article: History of Finland [edit]Prehistory Main article: History of Finland#Prehistory According to archaeological evidence. thereby including the Finnish-speaking part of the Torne Valley . Queen Christina named Per Brahe the Younger as Governor General of Finland. During the 1st .which the Russians proposed. Åland. which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest. The boundary. The artifactsthe first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia.[18] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE when the Comb Ceramic culture was least after the tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in 1721 and 1743. What was signed over to Russia in 1809 was not so much a "Finland" as six counties. and a little part of Västerbotten County.[19] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. and Ostrobothnia (other parts of Sweden had also hadgovernor generals). [17] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers. There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland.actually refers to can vary between sources. Åland. In 1637. called "Old Finland". also the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact.which the Swedish proposed in the peace negotiations . The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. using stone tools.

In the 17th century. Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–97. Other greens:Swedish dominions and possessions.[23] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. whereas Sámi-speaking populations occupied most parts of the country. as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates.millennium AD. The Royal Academy of Turku.[citation needed] [edit]Swedish era The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. In the 18th century.Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility. during which about one-third of the Finnish population died. the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. early Finnish was spoken at least in agricultural settlements of Southern Finland. Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry. [edit]Russian Empire era Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland . clergy and localcourts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.[23] and a devastating plague a few years later. wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces. was established in 1640. wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–21) and the Lesser Wrath(1742–43).[21] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom. During the Protestant Reformation. Dark green: Sweden proper. Swedish-speaking settlers arrived at the coastal regions during the medieval time.[22] In the 16th century. administration and education. Swedish kings established their rule in the Northern Crusades from the 12th century until 1249. The first university in Finland.

For example. virtually meaningless. and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. Desire for independence gained ground.On 29 March 1809. in practice. the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations. the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. During the Russian era. mainly by Social Democrats. controlled by social democrats. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia. Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence and Finnish Civil War After the 1917 February Revolution.[24] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain. passed the so- . The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population. universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland.[24] In 1906. However. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835. From the 1860s onwards. first among radical liberals[25] and socialists. the Finnish language began to gain recognition. making it one of the worst famines in European history. since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. The parliament. a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennomanmovement grew. Economic and political development was rapid. and investment rose in following decades. having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War. the universal suffrage was. In 1811 Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. [edit]Civil war and early independence Soviet approval of Finland's independence (in Russian). it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.

Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war. and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. The civil war and activist expeditions into the Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. were highly antagonized. the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland. largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.[citation needed] New elections were conducted. the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917. in which right-wing parties won a slim majority.[27] After the war. tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps. Suddenly.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs. and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. Germany's relations with democratic Finland cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power. The government started to disarm the Russian forces inPohjanmaa.[citation needed] The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the antiCommunist Lapua Movement. the population was 3 million. increasing the proportion of capital-owning population. the right-wing parties and the social democratic party. the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. since the right to do so had been stripped from the Russians by the Power Act. with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. who were supported by Imperial Germany.[24] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France. but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa. prevailed over the Reds. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. The Whites. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier. After a brief flirtation with monarchy.[28] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. which the social democrats considered illegal. as radical communists took power in Russia. Finland became a presidential republic. [edit]World War II . The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.called Power Act[26] to give the highest authority to parliament. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by theTreaty of Tartu in 1920. In 1917. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force. where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. On 27 January 1918. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Governmentand by the right-wing parties in Finland.

Salla andPetsamo. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45. in which Germany had invaded the Soviet Union. Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland. fled these areas. After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.000 sq mi) before the handover. the USSR's second largest city.000 km2 (149. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II During World War II.[29] The siege of Leningrad resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's inhabitants. some 400. As a result of the two wars.Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and theContinuation War in 1944. For 872 days.000 persons. by proportion the third-highest loss rate in World War II. the German army besieged Leningrad.000 soldiers killed. following Operation Barbarossa. Almost the whole population. whether they should be said to have helped in the siege or refused to help is controversial. restraints and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940.[citation needed] . Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia. including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and icefree Liinakhamari(Liinahamari). when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. and in theContinuation War of 1941–1944. Finland covered an area of approximately 385. which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and retained its independence. Finland reached an armistice with the Soviet Union. The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations.[30]Finnish troops controlled some of the areas around the city but refused to attack or let Germans use those areas for attack. however at a loss of about 93.

. half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas. and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden. the eighth president of Finland. the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations.[32] The 1952 Summer Olympicsbrought international visitors. Urho Kekkonen.[31] Establishing trade with the Western powers. the economy did not generate jobs fast enough.5 in 1947 to 1. Finland—poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil)—continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade. with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970.[32] When baby-boomers entered the workforce.5 in 1973. services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence. in apparent deference to Soviet desires. For example. Even after the reparations had been paid off. and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one.[citation needed] [edit]Cold War In 1950. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3. such as theUnited Kingdom. However. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.Finland rejected Marshall aid.[32] The new jobs in manufacturing.

Finland remained a Western European market economy. which was crucial for his continued popularity. president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years. Despite close relations with the Soviet Union. Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977. and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years.[citation needed] In the 1970s and 1980s. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the German press. the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. although Finland did not fully join. Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on. which explains the widespread support that proSoviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland.Kalevi Sorsa was a long-time prime minister of Finland during the 1970s and 80s. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonenagainst his opponents. there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet.[citation needed] Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions. Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. Officially claiming to be neutral.[citation needed] [edit]Recent history . In politics. a banking crisis. In 1981. The depression bottomed out in 1993.

000 population. the euro. Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s. even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries. Finland joined the European Union in 1995.42 births per 1.[32] With a median age of 42. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins. The population is aging with the birth rate at 10. Finland is one of the oldest countries.Finland introduced the currency of theEurozone. or a fertility rate of 1. As a preparation for this date. [edit]Geography . in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. Finland is expected to struggle with demographics. Finland changed the common side of its coins. Three different designs (one for €2 coin. The Finnish markka was replaced by the euro in 2002. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. In 2007. instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone. Like most European countries. Like other Nordic countries.7 years.[33] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. in 2002. this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them.8. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999. without further reforms or much higher immigration. and the Eurozone in 1999.

directly adjacent to Halti. . Its largest lake. Of world capitals. Finland is one of the world's northernmost countries.318 ft). Saimaa. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared to the rest of Europe. U. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland isRidnitsohkka at 1.Detailed map of Finland. the Halti at 1.000 islands. Much of the geography of Finland is explained by the Ice Age.160 kilometres (720 mi).344 ft). and longitudes 20° and 32° E. {{{u}}}) and 179. Its highest point. The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland.316 m (4. List of lakes in Finland. Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands —about 188.12 acreExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{". (See also Atlas of Finland. and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N. Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland.[34]. The distance from the southernmost—Hanko—to the northernmost point in the country—Nuorgam—is 1. only Reykjavík lies more to the north than Helsinki. is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway.) Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland.324 metres (4.000 lakes (larger than 500 m2/0. is the fourth largest in Europe.S. List of national parks of Finland.

terrain in Finland is rising due to thepostglacial rebound. covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. with little arable land. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand. south of the Helsinki– Rauma line. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia. central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil. where land steadily rises about 1 cm a year. Finland is rising from the sea. . near the tree line and Arctic Ocean. that are more typical in the Baltic region. Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world. the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga. In the extreme north of Finland. The forest consists of pine. As a result. visible wherever there is no soil cover. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. The landscape is covered mostly (75% of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens. Finland's national bird. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers.[37] the largest forested area in Europe.7 sq mi) annually.The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. birch and other species. Finland is shared between the Arctic. [edit]Biodiversity Main article: Fauna of Finland Phytogeographically. On the southwestern coast. spruce. Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. Montane Birch forests are common. The Whooper Swan.[36] Forest covers 86% of the country's area. the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2. Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. running northwest to southeast. forests are characterized by mixed forests. The most common type of rock isgranite.[35] Relatively speaking. Gleysols and peat bogsoccupy poorly drained areas. According to the WWF.

a large European swan and the national bird of Finland. the Capercaillie. many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago.[38] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler. down to only 300 seals today.The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. gray wolf. See also: Climate of Finland The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasiancontinent's coastal zone. and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. Three of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan.[39]Of some seventy species of freshwater fish. [citation needed] Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal). The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity. The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal. Common Chaffinch and Redwing. 248 breeding bird species. over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today. perch and others are plentiful. the northern pike.[40] [edit]Climate Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland. In the Köppen climate classification. and the European Eagle-owl. black-plumaged member of the grouse family. There are at least sixty native mammalian species. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. one of only three lake seal species in the world. Similarly. exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland. Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. a large. the whole of . wolverine and elk. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation.

The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F).[42] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C/50 °F) in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September. and the snow typically covers the land from about late November to mid-April.[41] No part of Finland has Arctic tundra. while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry. but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland. In northern Finland. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude. Siberia and southern Greenland. and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. At Finland's northernmost point.[41] Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt. the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. Lapland. only two to three months. Even in the most temperate regions of the south.Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. particularly in Lapland. the warmest days of July can reach 35 °C (95 °F). the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer.[41] . but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C(77 °F) during heat waves. Summers in the north are quite short. showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. while the summers are relatively warm but short.[43] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F). Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. the winters are long and cold.[41] Winters of southern Finland (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C/32 °F) are usually about 100 days long. the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north. such as Alaska. Within the country. and in the inland.[42] Pyhä-Luosto National Park.

which is the responsibility of regional councils. Historically. forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. [edit]Regions Finland consists of 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland. Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland in 2010. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.Lake Pielinen seen from a hill in Koli National Park. cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces. the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour.Åland was designated a seventh region. Currently. which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation. Regions represent dialectal. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education.[44] Coat of In Arm English s In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administr ative Map . which were abolished. the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland (the läänis). In addition. agriculture. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils. in addition. each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish. fisheries.

Mellersta Central Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Kokkola aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Lapland Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Vaasa Western and Central Northern Ostrobothnia .agency Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovanie mi Lapland Norra Northern PohjoisOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Oulu Northern Finland Kainuu Kainuu Kajanalan d Kajaani Northern Finland North Karelia PohjoisKarjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland Northern PohjoisSavo Savonia Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland Southern Savonia EteläSavo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland Södra Southern EteläOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Seinäjoki aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Keski.

Finland Kainuu North Karelia Pirkanm Pirkanma Birkaland Tampere a aa Western and Central Finland Northern Savonia Southern Savonia Central Finland KeskiSuomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskyl ä Western and Central Finland Southern Ostrobothnia Satakunt Satakunt Satakunda a a Pori SouthWestern Finland Ostrobothnia Pirkanmaa Finland Varsinais Egentliga -Suomi Finland Proper Turku SouthWestern Finland Satakunta Central Ostrobothnia South Karelia EteläKarjala Södra Karelen Lappeenr Southern anta Finland Central Finland Päijänne Tavastia PäijätHäme Päijänne Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland Finland Proper South Karelia Tavastia Proper KantaHäme Egentliga Hämeenl Southern Tavastland inna Finland Päijänne Tavastia Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa Kymenla Kymenla Kymmene akso dalen akso Kotka Southern Finland Kymenlaakso .

and other revenue. and Historical provinces of Finland A steam boat on Lake Päijänne leavingJyväskylä. People often identify with their municipality.Åland Ahvenan Islands[45 maa ] Åland Marieha mn Åland Åland Islands The region of Eastern Uusimaa was consolidated with Uusimaa on 1 January 2011.[citation needed] Helsinki Cathedral.[7][8] and most have fewer than 6.[46] [edit]Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland. Regions of Finland.000 residents. state subsidies. They account for half of public spending. Sub-regions of Finland. the capital of Central Finland. which may also call themselves towns or cities. . The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities. Municipalities of Finland. There are 336 municipalities. Spending is financed by municipal income tax.

These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. Sami people have a semiautonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. . In the Kainuu region. not just in the built-up area.In addition to municipalities.g. there is a pilot project underway with regional elections. In the following chart. The land area is given in km². and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). The capital region – comprising Helsinki. The figures are as of 28 February 2013. e. common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. Espoo and Kauniainen – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. two intermediate levels are defined. The autonomous province of Åland has a permanent democratically elected regional council. the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun). Municipalities co-operate in seventy subregions and nineteen regions. The Tammerkoski rapids in the inland city of Tampere.Vantaa. However.

91 .546 245.Municipalities (thin borders) and regions(thick borders) of Finland (2009).523 213.61 Turku 180. City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Helsinki 605.237 1.75 Oulu 191.77 Vantaa 205.75 2.767 525.51 Tampere 217.410.653 238.461 312.03 414.67 734.37 862.832.17 135.26 824.86 Espoo 257.

229 1.91 Joensuu 74.76 31.577 1.381. List of Finnish municipalities by area.768 188.558.07 Kouvola 87.15 Lappeenranta 72.331 2.187 135.36 50.88 Lahti 103.05 764.City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Jyväskylä 133. List of Finnish municipalities by population.187 2.06 99.17 Kuopio 105.333 834.84 Vaasa 65.76 37.785. .391 1.39 65.81 348.170.687 1.24 34.14 Pori 83. and Former municipalities of Finland [edit]Politics The Parliament of Finland's main building.597.433.5 Hämeenlinna 67.99 114.33 Further information: List of Finnish municipalities.

he took office on 1 March 2012. including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with thecabinet. but under the 2000 constitution. and some appointive powers. The former presidents were K.Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland [edit]Constitution The Constitution of Finland defines the political system.or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. the President of Finland is the head of state. Finland was formerly considered a semi-presidential parliamentary system. C.Risto Ryti (1940–1944). and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). G. one. non-executive position. and presidential elections. J. being the head of the armed forces. and was amended on 1 March 2012. J. The constitution in its current form came into force on 1 March 2000. Kyösti Kallio (1937–1940). the presidency became largely a ceremonial.[1] The position still does entail some powers. [edit]President According to the Constitution. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary. Ståhlberg (1919–1925). [edit]Parliament Finland This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Finland . K. municipal. and even further under its 2012 amendment. Finland is a parliamentary democracy. Mannerheim (1944–1946). E.Martti Ahtisaari (1994– 2000). Svinhufvud (1931– 1937). Relander (1925–1931). and the prime minister is the country's most powerful politician. Direct. some decree powers. and in European Union elections. P. The current president is Sauli Niinistö. Paasikivi (1946–1956). K. E. Urho Kekkonen (1956–1982). Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994). L.

It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws. the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union).[49] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906.State[show] Executive[show] Legislative[show] Judiciary[show] Elections[show] Divisions[show] Political parties[show] Foreign Policy[show]  Other countries  Atlas Politics portal    V T E The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises supreme legislative authority. dismiss the cabinet. The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies. The speaker is currently Eero Heinäluoma (Social Democrats). and override presidential vetoes. These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. Its acts are not subject to judicial review. and their combined vote has totalled about 65 –80% of all . the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament'sconstitutional law committee. the National Coalition Party (conservatives) and the Social Democrats.

) The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime minister endorsed by the President. 121.0 7.[50] The autonomous province of Åland. who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War. the Communists were a strong fourth party.3 Swedish People's Party 9 0 4. This procedure has never been used. which forms a federacy with Finland. Their lowest common total of MPs. the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another. In the 2011 elections.5 15. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council. and thus surpassing the Centre Party. when this action was the sole prerogative of the president.votes. elects one member to the parliament. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation.Åland Centre was the largest party. there have been some long-term trends.1 Centre Party 35 -16 17. increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats. and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties.3 .5 19. and the rise of the Green party and its predecessor since 1983. although the parliament was dissolved several times under the pre-2000 constitution. the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes National Coalition Party 44 −6 22. and in the 2011 elections. the True Finns achieved exceptional success. For a few decades after 1944.1 Green League 10 -5 5. was reached in the 2011 elections. the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberal party and its predecessors from 1906 to about 1980. After the parliamentary elections on 17 April 2011. However.0 8.8 Left Alliance 14 -2 7.0 19.4 Social Democratic Party 42 -3 21.5 4.0 20.1 True Finns 39 +34 19.

There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. civil law or Roman law. After the prime minister. which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament. of other ministers. högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). As a rule. . Each minister heads his or her ministry.5 0. förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus. has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. [edit]Law Main article: Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland.0 4. tingsrätt). and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. hovrätt). as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament. in some cases. As no one party ever dominates the parliament. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus. [51] The cabinet exercises most executive powers. there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence. högsta domstolen). Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense. or. the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. The current prime minister is Jyrki Katainen (National Coalition Party). and consists of him or her.0 Others 1a 0 0. [edit]Cabinet After parliamentary elections. regional appellate courts (hovioikeus. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus. the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Council of State). although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957). the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. and of the Chancellor of Justice. Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions.4 a Province of Åland's representative. In addition to the regular courts. and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus.Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes Christian Democrats 6 -1 3.

[edit]Foreign relations Ahtisaari receives his Noble prize.[56] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008. Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption.[55] According to GRECO in 2007 corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians.[53] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the Members of Parliament. Also. . which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s.[54][dubious – discuss] Today. Finland has a very low number of corruption charges. notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe. Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe.[verification needed] In 2008. Some crime types are above average.[54][verification needed] For instance.Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions. economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished.

Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries. but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. but could intervene benevolently on their behalf.[citation needed] Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II.[59] This was reversed in the 2000s.[59] [edit]Social security Main article: Social security in Finland Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems.[60] [edit]Armed forces .Finland is represented in the European Parliament and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. According to some social historians. Main article: Foreign relations of Finland According to the 2012 constitution. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back.[58] Finland was considered a cooperative model state. but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development. when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence. and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy. the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. except that the president has no role in EU affairs. one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents. the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing. president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Finns and non-citizens.[57] In 2008. the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens.

700 people in uniform. Finland's official policy states that the 350. The standard readiness strength is 34.4–1.[62] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1.6% of the GDP. [citation needed] An F-18 of the Finnish Air Force. Alternative non-military service for men is possible. A universal male conscription is in place. currently serving conscripts. under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service. and a large reserve. A Leopard 2A4 main battle tank of theFinnish Army on Independence Day.The Hamina-class fast-attack craft FNSHanko of the Finnish Navy. armed mostly with ground weaponry. as is voluntary military service for women (currently approximately 500 annually). The armed forces favour partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO. of which 25% are professional soldiers. but are careful to avoid politics. Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel).[61] Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia. are a sufficient deterrent. WEU and the EU.000 reservists.[63] . Finnish defence expenditure is around the sixth highest in the EU.

Finland's largest company. NATO and EU peacekeeping missions.Belgium or the UK.[65] With respect to foreign . [edit]Economy Headquarters of Nokia. and troops serve around the world in UN. a mobile phone game developed in Finland. has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally. one of the highest rates in Europe. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%. followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness.[64] The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Ari Puheloinen). The branches of the military are the army. Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland and Helsinki Stock Exchange Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France.9%.Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular. Residents claim around 80% homeland defence willingness. Primary production is 2. the navy and the air force. who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command. Angry Birds. Germany.

In a 2004 OECD comparison. Annual precipitation is usually sufficient. Irrigation was generally not necessary. and international trade is a third of GDP. Netherlands and China. and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to develop fertility. Finland's real-terms GDP growth.[citation needed] The largest trade flows are with Germany. Trade policy is managed by the European Union. Sweden.[67] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Forestry. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp. where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters.[60] . farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops. except for agriculture. vehicles and other engineered metal products (21. The largest industries[66] are electronics (22%). high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. However. paper forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%). The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. In response to the climate. because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate. Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude. United Kingdom. but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months.1%). Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. The country lies between latitudes 60°N and 70°N. and has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frosts. United States. and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. Russia. Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. making summer droughts a constant threat. Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries. but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water. 1998–2009. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy. the key economic sector is manufacturing. machinery.

In 1984 the government published the Forest 2000 plan. Sweden. 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth.[70] The female employment rate is high. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US. while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses. As in agriculture. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25.Aleksanterinkatu. a commercial street in Helsinki. sponsoring technical improvements.[69] In 2006. making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.[68] As of 2008 average purchasing poweradjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy.1 euros in 2004. [60] Private sector employees amount to 1.[71] . and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries. drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Forests play a key role in the country's economy. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year. Germany and France.[71] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999. regulating tree cutting. Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.8 million. out of which around a third with tertiary education. the government has long played a leading role in forestry.

The average size is 2.[76] Home ownership rate is 60%. though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany.[75] In 2007.[77] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83. Finland is part of the Eurozone (dark blue). 74% of households had a car. and spending on well-being.[78] According to Invest in Finland. high quality products.[72] 18% of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61. There are 2. 2. food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2500 euro.[74] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007. the average household savings rate was −3. 40% of households consist of a single person. The average residential property without land costs 1. a typical level in Europe.8% in early 2008. The average total household consumption was 20. 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons.187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8.Graphical depiction of Finland's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.1 persons. As of 2006.4 million other vehicles. transport about 3000 euro.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person.5 million cars and 0. and recreation and culture at around 2000 euro. out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro.4 million households reside in Finland.5% (2009) Internet connection at home.6 euro per sq metre. [73] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominant future liability. the EU single market and theSchengen Area. The employment rate was 68% and the unemployment rate was 6. private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables. Residential buildings total 1.[79] [edit]Energy .000 euro.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income.

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed around 2014, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor. [80]

See also: Nordic energy market and Nuclear power in Finland Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe andNord Pool Spot exchanges, which have provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[81] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[82][83] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood.[citation needed] About 10–15% of the electricity is produced byhydropower,[84] which is little compared to more mountainous Sweden or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy forms (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) made high 30.5% compared to the EU average 10.3% in final energy consumption.[85] Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[86] one research reactor at the Otaniemi campus, and the fifthAREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—is currently scheduled to be operational by 2014.[80] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They might be causing an increase in energy prices, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[87] Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.


Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.

Main article: Transport in Finland The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is Finland's largest and busiest airport.

The state-owned VR Group operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with almost 15 million passengers in 2011. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[88] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro[citation needed] in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[89] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg'sFinlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world,[citation needed] has also been served by a helicopter line.

Main article: Economy of Finland Finland was rapidly industrialized after the Second World War, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan or the UK in the beginning of 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland (Ahlstrom, M-real,UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste Oil), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry) and information technology (e.g. Rovio, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for

The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it.[92] While the manufacturing sector is thriving. Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. [92] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured.[90] [edit]Public policy See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–08 Finland ranked third in the world. postal.[clarification needed] Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe. in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union.[93] The 2007 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Finland 17th most competitive. and research and development landscape.[67][91] [edit]Tourism . The level of protection in commodity trade has been low.[91] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries. especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%).[94] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive. Finland has clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment. and significantly higher than most European countries. Finland's performance was next to Germany. except for agricultural products. public support for industry development. According to the OECD.[92] Finland is rated the least corrupted country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[96] and 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index.[91] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century. the OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements. Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit report released in September 2011. although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. tax payment (83rd) and low worker hardship (127th). business closure (5th). legal framework. technology infrastructure. This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th). The unionization rate is high (70%). only four EU15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK. and other markets in Europe. though in Finland immigration is relatively new. [91] Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy. thus making Finland more vulnerable to global economic trends. contract enforcement (7th).[95] In both indicators. Ireland.[97] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level. human capital.export is still more prominent than in Western Europe.

The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests. living in the northern Lapland region. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands. fishing. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. yachting. Above the Arctic Circle. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus. the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. Tallinn. [edit]Demographics Main article: Demographics of Finland . including Helsinki. or even months. kayaking among many others. in the heart of summer. is seen regularly in the fall. in midwinter. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. with no sunset even at midnight. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna. golf. winter and spring. Stockholm and Travemünde. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. play a significant role in the local tourism industry. midnight sun in the summer. and correspondingly.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year. Main article: Tourism in Finland In 2005. Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region. rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. hiking. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 37 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. At Finland's northernmost point. lake cruises. fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind. however hunting is also popular. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to theglobalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks.Now lying within Helsinki. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions. Finnish tourism grossed over €6. Turku. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing.[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. there is a polar night.

[101] [edit]Languages Main articles: Finnish language.400 3.617 4.372.Jyväskylä and Lahti.[100] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship.100 561.500 1.[100] Most of them are from Russia.800 2.060.Population of Finland. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland. and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.181. a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation.900 1.768.115 5.000 are Tampere. The largest cities in Finland are those of the Greater Helsinkimetropolitan area—Helsinki. .300 1.380. Also Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are recognized in the constitution.400.000.787.900 2.655.746.029. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country.100 2.100 1. Finland has an average population density of 16 inhabitants per square kilometre. they become citizens.598. 1750–2010 year population 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Sources: [98] [99] 421.276 The population of Finland is currently about 5. Espoo and Vantaa. Finland Swedish.500 491.943.4%. The share of foreign citizens in Finland is 3.700 863.000 663. Estonia and Sweden.[6] This is the third-lowest population density of any European country.177.600 3.147. Turku.445.478 5. behind those of Norway and Iceland.695. Other cities with population over 100. The Nordiclanguages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts.600 1.700 3.462.446. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country.375.998. among the lowest in the European Union.700 1. Oulu.778 4.900 705. The Sami language is an official language in northern Lapland.336 4.222 4.800 2.600 832.636.803 4.

Somali.[108] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami. [edit]Religion Main article: Religion in Finland Religion in Finland[111] Evangelical Finnish No Lutheran year Orthodox Other religious Church of Church affiliation Finland 1900 98.000–5.000 people.[104] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami. English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead). German (18%).1% 1.[105] Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5. Norwegian and.[102] To the north.[102] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages.[109] Immigrant languages include Russian (1. Estonian (0. German.000[103] and recognized as an indigenous people. in Lapland. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. French and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age. some schools may offer other options).The native language of 90% of the population is Finnish. numbering around 7.2% 0. A third foreign language may be studied in upper secondary school or university (at 16 years of age or over). and French (3%).0% . The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. Swedish is the native language of 5.000–6. although studied only a little in the schools.[107] Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until 1920s.[110] The best-known foreign languages are English (63%).4% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns). Inari Sami and Skolt Sami.000 people. Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) are protected by the constitution.6%). Finnish is closely related to Karelian andEstonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian. Danish are mutually intelligible with Swedish and are thus understood by a significant minority. English and Arabic (see Languages of Finland).1%). are the Sami people.[106][not in citation given] who usually also speak Finnish. to some extent. The Finnish Sign Language is used as a first language by 4.7% 0.

5% 2.7% 0.2% 1.3% 1.1% 0.1% 2012 76.1% 12. .1% 1.8% 1990 87.2% 2000 85.3% 1.8% 1980 90.1950 95.8% 1.4%[112] Petäjävesi Old Church is an old wooden Lutheran church and a UNESCO World Heritage site.5% 20.7% 7.1% 0.1% 1.2% 14.1% 1.0% 1.7% 2005 83.9% 10.5% 2011 77.1% 1.

[123] After examining the position of women around the world.[116] According to ISSP survey data (2008). accounting for 20. slightly behind top-ranked Sweden and just ahead of the United States. tribes or similar structures [dubious – discuss][citation needed] . or life force". A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1.0% were confirmed in 2011 at the age of 15.[122] [edit]Society Finnish family life is centred on the nuclear family[dubious – discuss][citation needed]. 75. including UK. Finnish women were the first in . The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world. economic. although its share of the country's population has declined in recent years. Relations with the extended family are often rather distant and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans.1 million (or 76. weddings and funerals.[124] The group reached this conclusion after examining the health. France and New Zealand. educational. The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 2% of its members attend church services weekly.[118] There are 307 residents for each doctor.5%). God. Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1. has no religious affiliation. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools. Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute.1%).[119] About 18.3% of Finnish children were baptized and 83. was one of the best places in which a woman could live. and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit.Turku Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two.1%[113] of the population.6% by taxation. 8% consider themselves "highly religious".[112] and nearly all funerals are Christian. as are the Muslim. Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being. 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God". and legal conditions that affect women's lives. 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious". A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries. the Washington-based Population Crisis Committee reported in 1988 that Finland. Approximately 4.[115] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll. 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".[120][121] In April 2012.9% of health care is funded directly by households and 76. the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies.4%[112] at the end of 2012) adherents are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller.[114] In 2012. However.[117] In the same survey. and 31% "moderately religious". [111] The second largest group. According to UNICEF. [edit]Health Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men.

Finnish women were as well educated as their male counterparts. Efforts were undertaken not only to place women in occupations dominated by males. they earned only about two-thirds of the wages paid to men. The emphasis was to be equality for everyone.[60] The Equality Law that went into effect in 1987 committed the country to achieving full equality for women. for example. In the 1980s.[125] In 1906. such as child care and elementary school teaching. Another aim was for women to occupy a more equal share of decision-making positions. but also to bring males into fields traditionally believed to belong to the women's sphere. [60] In a number of areas. and. including women. rather than protection for women. women had made notable legislative gains that brought them closer to full equality with men. Most striking was the disparity in wages. was slightly ahead of the number of men. they made up about 48% of the work force. there was a timetable listing specific goals to be achieved during the remainder of the twentieth century. in some cases. Although women made up just under half the work force and had a tradition of working outside the home. about 75% of adult women worked outside the home.[126] Finland has general elections every fourth year. In addition to an expanding welfare system. which since World War II had come to provide them with substantial assistance in the area of childbearing and child-rearing. In the late 1980s. and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the membership of the Eduskunta (parliament) and held several ministerial posts.[60] Finland ranks second in the Global Gender Gap Report 2012. however. [edit]Culture .Europe to gain the franchise. the number of women studying at the university level. the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved. Finland was the first nation in the world to give full suffrage (the right to vote and to run for office) to all adult citizens.

. Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools).Mikael Agricola. Seminaarinmäki Campus of the University of Jyväskylä.[127] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7. Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries. designed by Alvar Aalto. today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK). graduates may either enter the workforce directly. Most schools are managed by municipal officials. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools. Trade schools prepare for professions. designed by Alvar Aalto. Main article: Culture of Finland [edit]Education and science Auditorium in Aalto University's main building. After lower secondary school.

[60] Finland is highly productive in scientific research. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits.801 patents were filed in Finland. biotechnology. neural networks. notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino.[131] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields. while in advanced programs it is 7. In 2005. one of the lowest in OECD.Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education.[129] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making. Adult education appeared in a number of forms. the Finnish national epic. Helsinki University is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010. Forest improvement.5%. still below OECD average 16. and folk high schools. environmental sciences. 1.[133] In 2007. with educational and financial assistance provided by the state. genetic technology and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact. United States (38%) and Japan (37%). In tertiary education. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. . such as secondary evening schools. such as the national poetJohan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius.[132] Finland had a long tradition of adult education. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution.[134] [edit]Literature Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish. two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-orienteduniversities.3%. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish. vocational course centres. similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%). civic and workers' institutes. brain research. study centres. and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year. but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries. folk high schools became common throughout the region. low-temperature physics. materials research.[130] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala. [128] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world. Originating in Denmark in the nineteenth century. Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics.

Ilkka Remes. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. See also: List of Finnish architects Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Kari Hotakainen. textilesand glassware. illustrates Finnish history from prehistoric times to the present day. remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Sofi Oksanen and Jari Tervo. most famously the Finnishspeaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. [edit]Television Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons. The Second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought. characterized by Väinö Linna.After Finland became independent. [edit]Visual arts The National Museum of Finland. Besides Kalevala and Waltari. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939. there was a rise of modernist writers. about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV showJackass). located in central Helsinki. is also famous for his work in furniture.[citation needed] [edit]Music . Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen. who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland. while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia Prize. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna. Alvar Aalto. the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson is the most translated Finnish writer.

as comprised in the Kalevala. Main articles: Music of Finland. though this is technically incorrect. In 1899 he composedFinlandia. Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country). [edit]Pop . Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. Finnish classical music has existed for only about a hundred years.The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). Kaija Saariaho. and Sami music [edit]Classical Much of the Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila. The people of northern Finland. and has become a part of popular music. are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. Osmo Vänskä. and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphonyKullervo. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. a significant figure in the history of classical music. Pekka Kuusisto. Sweden and Norway. Soile Isokoski. The same word sometimes refers tolavlu or vuelie songs. such as Magnus Lindberg. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. and many of Finland's importantcomposers are still alive. Finland has a very lively classical music scene. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. Finland's national anthem. Finnish rock. the Sami. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs. Tarja Turunen and Linda Lampenius. Olli Mustonen. Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Leif Segerstam. Today.

Children of Bodom. This was also the fate of the rock and roll groupHurriganes. During the late 1960s and 1970s. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music. Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis.Perttu Kivilaakso ofApocalyptica. is also popular. Around 1964. Beatlemania arrived in Finland. hip hop performers. After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. Impaled Nazarene. the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged. Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. dance music acts. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal. playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. HIM's 2005 albumDark Light went gold in the United States. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands. etc. During the decade. meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager. Korpiklaani.[135] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. Sonata Arctica. Finland hosted the competition in 2007. resulting in further development of the local rock scene. jazz musicians.Stratovarius and Waltari. During the early 1960s. . Sentenced. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the hit American hard rock group Guns N' Roses among others. a style of Argentine music. HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s. tango.

notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki. [136] Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (its circulation of 412. See also: Telecommunications in Finland. 67 commercial radio stations.[136] [edit]Media and communications Linus Torvalds.000[138] making it the largest). Around twelve feature films are made each year. Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world.[edit]Cinema Main article: Cinema of Finland See also: List of Finnish films In the film industry. Each year. including the newspaper Aamulehti. and Television in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights. spend the most time reading newspapers. Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin. 320 popular magazines. the Finnishsoftware engineer best known for creating the popular open-source operating system Linux. along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese. tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. Worldwide.100 professional magazines. 2.000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold. List of newspapers in Finland. the commerce-orientedTaloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen. around 12. Finns. Mauritz Stiller. the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines. three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels. there are around 200 newspapers.[137] Today.[139] .

[141] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabitper-second beginning July 2010.YLE. is spread over the hot pastries before eating. All TV channels are broadcast digitally.000 inhabitants. often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi). Value-added services are rare.[143] [edit]Cuisine Main article: Finnish cuisine Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages. YLE is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. Butter.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1. Around 79% of the population use the Internet.[140] Finland had around 1.[142] In October 2009. Finland's public broadcasting station. both terrestrially and on cable. Sauteéd Reindeer is a popular dish in Lapland and is usually eaten with Lingonberry .

Easter. but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. oats) and berries (such as bilberries. and more fish and poultry. and sea buckthorn). Pentecost.Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking. drink or in various recipes. but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations. Fish andmeat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country. lingonberries. while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. red meat consumption has risen. John's Day) and All Saints' Day. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking. [edit]Sports . New Year's Day. [edit]Public holidays A midsummer bonfire (kokko) inMäntsälä. New Year's Day and Midsummer. [citation needed] Christian holidays include Christmas. Ascension Day.Epiphany. barley.[citation needed] Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye. cloudberries. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. while secular holidays include May Day and the Independence Day. Midsummer Day (St. Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament.Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food. Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. According to the statistics.

For over 100 years. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals. five world championships. At the 1924 Summer Olympics.[144] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita. came second in the medal count. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time. At the 1912 Summer Olympics. although the most popular sports in terms of spectators are ice hockey. ski jumping and Formula One. while still an autonomous Grand Duchywithin the Russian Empire.Finland's men's national ice hockey teamis ranked as one of the best in the world. Finland. Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II. Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. is the national sport of Finland. a nation then of only 3. cross-country skiing. athletics. Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen. five European championships and 24 world records.[145] Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908. Paavo Nurmi at the 1920 Summer Olympics.2 million people. resembling baseball. Pesäpallo. Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. The team has won two world championship titles (1995 & 2011) titles and five Olympic medals. In the 1920s and 1930s. with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics. .

cycling and skiing. ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen.In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi. and four-time World Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics. and Saku Koivu. The 1952 Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen. gymnast Heikki Savolainen. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball. For a more comprehensive list. alpine skiers Kalle Palander and Tanja Poutiainen. football players Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä. see International rankings of Finland. Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä. [show]    V T E International rankings of Finland [edit]See also Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Finland portal     Outline of Finland Index of Finland-related articles Bibliography of Finland Outline of Finland . rower Pertti Karppinen. Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. Eero Mäntyranta. Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen. Nordic walking. running. some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola and Lasse Virén. [edit]International rankings The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. ice hockey players Jari Kurri. Teemu Selänne.

^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". 3. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30.         [edit]Notes Finnish Models of Public Transport Index of Finland-related articles Fire fighting in Finland Football in Finland Gun politics in Finland Kansallisbiografia List of bands from Finland List of Finns Protected areas of Finland 1. Population Register Centre. ^ a b c d e "Finland". Retrieved 17 October 2012. 2. revised 2008).95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'. it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further. International Monetary Fund. and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. . In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press. First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. Retrieved 2012-04-18. in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. According to the Finnish Constitution.09. and not by its president. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister.2012" (in Finnish). the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval. he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semipresidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p.

Prosperity. 31 August 2012. Population Register Centre. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index".org. ^ "The Failed States Index 2008". ^ a b "KUNTIEN ASUKASLUVUT AAKKOSJÄRJESTYKSESSÄ". August 2010".fi. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". 1980–2010". 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-26.WorldAudit. 15. United Nations. 2010. Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. which is however not defined by law. 13. is the long protocol name. ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). E24. Finland (in English)". 16. Newsweek. 2010-09-09. ^ Herkules. Local Finland. kotikielenseura. "Republiken Finland" in Swedish.4. 2010-06-14. ^ "National Archives Service.1787/20755120-table1. culture and environment in the north. ^ "The World's Best Countries. 8.doi:10. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". 11. material. 5. 12. Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological Conference. 31 December 2010. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. Retrieved 1 January 2011. or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish. ^ a b "Local Finland—Front page". Retrieved 2007-01-22. 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva Gummerus Kirjapaino . Retrieved 2007-06-11. YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). Fundforpeace. 9. education. 10. Retrieved 1 January 2010. and "Human Development Index trends. economy. ^ a b "Kuusi kuntaa katoaa kartalta". Legislation only recognizes the short name. 14. People. Retrieved 17. 6. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. and "Northern Sami:Suoma dásseváldi" in Sami. Retrieved 7 November 2010. ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk".com. United Nations. OECD iLibrary. Retrieved University of Oulu. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 2010-08-16. A Newsweek study of health. Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities.oulu. and politics ranks the globe's top nations. ^ "Republic of Finland". Retrieved 16 September 2012. Retrieved 2010-08-26.

20. 21. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland. Europe-cities. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2013-03-22. Library of Congress. ^ Dr. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities. "The siege of Leningrad. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Rauli. ThisisFinland — "Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives". ^ "Statistics Finland. Federal Research Division. ^ The Finnish Civil War. ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. ^ Finland 1917–2007 (2007-02-20). 1941–44: 900 days of terror". ^ a b c d Finland 1917–2007 (last updated 2007-12-05). p. 29. . ^ Mickelsson. Vastapaino 2007. ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". 24. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic. ^ Finland. Library of Congress. 26. muutos ja nykypäivä. ISBN 0-465-00239-0 31. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 28. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 19. ^ "Median Age (Years)". Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland. Finland chronology". ^ a b "Finland and the Swedish Empire". Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 27. Stat.18. ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia. Environment and Natural Resources".173.Federal Research Division. ^ Timothy Snyder (2010). University of Minnesota Press. p. Zenith Imprint. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 1993 22. Basic Books. World Bank 25. "From slash-and-burn fields to postindustrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure". Stat. Suomen puolueet—Historia. "History of Finland. Helsingin Sanomat 32. Retrieved 24 June 2008. page 67."Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers". Retrieved 2013-04-04. ISBN 0-7603-0941-8 30. ^ David Glantz (2001).

Retrieved 9 June 2012. Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^ "Finland. Ministry of Finance. ^ Finland is the most forested country in Europe. Population Register Center of Finland. Retrieved 3 December 2012.2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). ^ a b c d "Finland's climate". 49. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge. ^ The role that the regional councils serve on Mainland Finland are on the Åland Islands handled by the autonomous Government of Åland. 12). Retrieved 16 January 2013. ^ "Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking". 36. 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. Finnish Meteorological Institute." Encyclopædia Britannica. 1–4. ^ "Finland’s Northern Conditions: Challenges and Opportunities for Agriculture". this is Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). 48. ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Oulu University Library (2000). ^ "SOS: Save our seals". ^ "BirdLife Finland". 46. Retrieved 3 December 2012. Retrieved 38. 39. trends and conservation status. UK. 44. ^ "Tervetuloa aluehallintoviraston verkkosivuille!" (in Finnish). ^ a b Havas. ^ "Trends in sea level variability". forest.35. ^ The Parliament: Parliament Elected Speakers 50. ^ The source for historical information on party support isthe Finnish Wikipedia's article on the parliament . 43. pp. ^ "Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä" (in Finnish). 2004-08-24. 40. Land Survey of Finland. "Pohjoiset alueet / yleiskuvaus" (in Finnish). (BirdLife Conservation Series No. BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates. Paavo. 45. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Finnish Institute of Marine Research. 37. Finland.2. 42. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 28. 47. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 41. Retrieved 3 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2010. State Provincial Office. 22 October 2009.

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85. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "Small enterprises grow faster than the big ones". ^ "Ikääntymisen taloudelliset vaikutukset ja niihin varautuminen" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-26. 83. ^ "Päästökaupasta voi tulla miljardilasku teollisuudelle". ^ Households’ consumption (2007-12-19). Iltalehti. YLE. 79. . Retrieved Metsavastaa. ^ "Energy Consumption in 2001" (PDF). see the Invest in Finland website. Helsinkitimes. 74. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Statistics Stat. 86. 2010-11-20. Tilastokeskus.europa. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 200812-03. Retrieved ^ "CIA Factbook: Public Debt". Retrieved 2010-08-26. Cia. 200804-11. ^ Energy consumption (2007-12-12).fi ^ Electricity prices—industrial users. "Total energy consumption". energy. ^ Finland in Figures (last updated 2012-0-26). eurostat. ^ a b "Olkiluoto 3 nuke start-up delayed until 2014". ^ (Finnish) Taloussanomat. "Statistics Finland: Labour Market". 84. Oecd. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 73. "Own-account worker households' consumption has grown most in 2001–2006". Retrieved 2011-02-17. Tilastokeskus. 80. Retrieved 2011-0306. 2007. ^ "Metsävastaa: Vattenkraft" (in (Swedish)). "Statistics Finland: Transport and Tourism". 81. by Niels Finn Christiansen 72. Retrieved ^ a b The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal. Tilastokeskus. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ "OECD recommends Finland to do more to help older people stay in work". ^ Finland in Figures. 87. ^ Energy consumption (2007-12-12). Retrieved 2010-08-26. Retrieved 12 April 2012. "Statistics Finland". For updates. Stat. ^ "Retail growth best in Finland for five years". ^ "Europe's Energy Portal". 21 December [dead link] 2011.

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Retrieved 2007-01-22. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Retrieved 1.uta. ^ "The Constitution of Finland. . ^ "Special Eurobarometer Biotechnology" (PDF). ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004".2. ^ "National Minorities of Finland. 2011. Retrieved 2011-0111. The Tatars". 114. 110. Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^http://tampub. ^ "The population of Finland in 2006". Statistics – Population structure. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 116. 17 § and 121 §" (PDF). p. ^ 112. Stat. U. See Geonames. ^ Unofficial names for Finland in Sami languages are: Suopma (Northern Sami). Retrieved 2012-04-12. 111. ^ "Finland Life expectancy at birth—Demographics". Retrieved 2011-12-06. ^ a b Population structure Statistics Finland Lutheran church member statistics evl. Produced by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Statistics Finland. Statistics Finland. Finland Promotion Board. Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). Forum. ^ Salla Korpela (May 2005). ^ "Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken —Teckenspråken i Finland" (in (Swedish)). Retrieved 2007-09-04. Publication: October 2010. 2004-09-15.104. Fieldwork: January– February 2010. 106. ^ "Health (2004)". 204. "The Church in Finland today". ^ "Finland in Figures". ^ "Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count?". 108. a b c 113.hunturk. Indexmundi. Statistics Finland. 109.pdf?sequence=1 118. ^ "Language according to age and gender by region 2011". ^ See Kalo Finnish Romani language 107. Statistics Finland.FINLEX Data Bank.Unknown parameter|section= ignored (help) 115. Department for Communications and Culture. The Lancet. 119. 120. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-09-04.

OECD 132. Jenny (2011-04-14). ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage. Archived fromthe original on 2011-07-07. Neil (15 April 2012). Powerless and Pregnant".org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012. "A country that innovates". ^ ^ "Tilastokeskus. ^ "World Happiness report". Population Briefing Paper. Retrieved 2010-02-04. . ^ "Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor. 131. 127. ^ "Patents with numbers—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish).: Population Crisis Committee).pdf 126. ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland.121. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 2009-12-08. ^ "Summary sheets on education systems in Europe". Tilastokeskus. 2012. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2010: University of Helsinki". 134. Retrieved 2010-08-26. (Washington D. 136. 128. World Economic Forum. 123. 122. Retrieved 2007-0214. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote (in 1893). ^ Kari Sipilä. 133. Retrieved 2010-02-04. No. Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Department for Communication and Culture / Unit for Promotion and Publications / Embassy and Consulates General of Finland in China. 20. ^http://www3.The Wall Street Journal. 125. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". ^ "Scientific publication—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). 135. 2007-11-15. 124. "'National scandal' of 11 stillbirths a day means Britain has one of worst survival rates".C. ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). ^ Shah.weforum. Research. ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^ a b "Media moves". Retrieved 2012-04-07. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Eurydice. "Guns N' Roses Can Agree on at Least One Thing: This Finnish Saxophonist Rocks". Virtual Finland. Research. UNICEF Innocenti Research". but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919. in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). Daily Mail (London).fi. 1988.

139. YLE. Retrieved . Iltalehti. ^ Tässä ovat Suomen suosituimmat lajit | Urheilu.imd. pp. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). Yale Columbia University and World Economic Forum (2006) 151. 152. Statistics ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation".137. ^ "Circulation Statistics". ^ 2010 Freedom of the Press Survey (retrieved 4 May 2011). ^ The Global Top 20. Foreign Policy. Heritage. www. 2007-08-31. Retrieved 25 July 2009. Retrieved 2007-09-04. ^ IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Scoreboard 2006. ^ "Coming Soon". ^ a b The World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2012. ^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index. Retrieved 2011-0306. ^ "2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE" (PDF). ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". 147. pp. Heritage. ^ [2] 146. Retrieved 2009-10-16. ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007". The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). Yale University. ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life (Statistics Finland). 138. World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. 140.imd. ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). Retrieved on 2012-06-09. The Global Top 20. Retrieved 2011-0306. Foreign Policy November/December 2006. 142. (2012-01-03).ch 154. ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". Retrieved 2011-03-06. 52–60 149. 153. ^ Measuring Globalisation. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 74– 81 148. Retrieved 2011-03-06. www. 145. Foreign Policy May/June 2005. 143. 144. 150. 141.

Global Peace Index. ^ 2008 Methodology. Transparency International 169. ^ Messages From Pisa 2000. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Rsf. 156. 160. Retrieved 2011-03-06. weforum. Global Peace Index. ^ "PISA 2003 – Learning for Tomorrow's World" (PDF). [dead link] [dead link] 161. Institute for Economics & Peace 165. United Nations Development Retrieved 2011-03-06. 171. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008. ^ Methodology. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". Transparency International 168. 162. ^ "Technological achievement statistics – countries compared". Save the Children. Volume 1: 157. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2007) pisa. Organisation for economic co-operation and development 159. Institute for Economics & Peace 166. Retrieved 172. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006.155. Results & Findings. ^ Pisa 2006. Results & ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2003".oecd. ^ "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). Rsf. Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World. 164. NationMaster. ^ "Human Development Report 2006" (PDF). ^ Persistently high corruption in low-income countries amounts to an “ongoing humanitarian disaster”. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". World Economic Forum. Transparency International 167. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Retrieved 201103-06. ^ Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action. ^ Finland. Save the Children. . United Nations Development Programme (2007) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9 170. 158. Rsf. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2010".

^ http://www. Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3). Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann. ISSN 1096-2905). Jutikkala. William R. Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8). ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report – Finland" (PDF). weforum. . 175. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Max.weforum. Lavery. Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9). Finland. Kauko. Greenwood Press.  Trotter. 176. Fred. there's music from the forest. Jean-Jacques. Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X). Jaakko.    Lewis. 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4.    Rusama. Singleton. Eloise and Paananen. Richard D. Matti. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939– 1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6). Listen.173. ^ http://www. 174. Allen F. Worldaudit. The History of Finland. The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6).weforum. Chris. ^ Table 1: Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2005 comparisons. Klinge. Eino.  Engle. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Jakobson. Retrieved 201103-06. Pauri. World Economic Forum. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). ^ a b "World Audit Democracy". The Global Competitiveness Report 2006. Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in 177. [edit]Further reading  Chew.      Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1). A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Subrenat.  Swallow. and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1). A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1).

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