Finland History | Finland | Sweden


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This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Finland (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 65°N 027°E

Republic of Finland
 
Suomen tasavalta (Finnish) Republiken Finland (Swedish)


Coat of arms

Anthem: Maamme (Finnish) Vårt land (Swedish)
Our Land

Location of Finland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital and largest city Official languages Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E

 

Finnish (90.0%) Swedish (5.4%)

Recognised regional languages Demonym

Sami (0.03%)

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Finnish Finn Parliamentary republic[1] Sauli Niinistö Jyrki Katainen (NCP) Eero Heinäluoma (SDP) Eduskunta

Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament Legislature

Independence - Autonomy
within Russia

29 March 1809

- Independence
from Soviet Russia

6 December 1917

- First recognized
by Soviet Russia

4 January 1918

Area - Total 338,424 km2 (64th) 130,596 sq mi - Water (%) 10 Population - 2012 estimate - 2000 census - Density 5,421,827[2] (112th) 5,180,000 16/km2 (201st) 41/sq mi GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2000) 2011 estimate $195.723 billion[3] $36,236[3] 2011 estimate $266.553 billion[3] $49,349[3] 26.9 low HDI (2013) 0.892[4]

very high · 21st Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Euro (€) (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) d.m.yyyy right +358 FI

 

.fi .ax a


The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with otherEuropean Union member states. The .ax domain is reserved for the autonomous province of the Åland Islands.

Finland (



Finnish: Suomi (help·info); Swedish: Finland), officially the Republic of Finland,[5] is

a Nordic country situated in theFennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. An estimated 5.4 million people live in Finland, with the majority concentrated in its southern regions.[6] In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Politically, it is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital of Helsinki, local governments in 336 municipalities[7][8] and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. About one million residents live in the Greater Helsinki area (consisting of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Vantaa) and a third of the country's GDP is produced there. Other larger cities include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti and Kuopio. From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution. This prompted the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which was followed by a civil war where the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" were defeated by the proconservative "Whites" with support from the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a monarchy in the country, Finland became a republic. Finland's experience of World War II involved three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–1940) and Continuation War (1941–1944) against the Soviet Union; and the Lapland War (1944–1945) against Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1969, the European Union in 1995 and the eurozone at its inception in 1999. During this time, it built an extensive welfare state.

remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.7 Social security .Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation.1 Constitution 4.1 Etymology 1.1 Biodiversity 3. with a nominal per-capita income of over $49.6 Foreign relations 4.7 Recent history 3 Geography o o o o  3.3 Russian Empire era 2.2 Climate 3.4 Cabinet 4.1 Prehistory 2.4 Civil war and early independence 2. Thereafter.5 Law 4.[3] Finland is one of the world's wealthiest nations.6 Cold War 2.3 Parliament 4.000 (2011). economic development was rapid.2 Concept 2 History o o o o o o o  2.[11][12][13][14] Contents [hide]  1 Etymology and concept of Finland o o  1. According to some measures. such that today. [9][10] Finland has the best educational system in Europe and has recently been ranked as one of the world's most peaceful andeconomically competitive countries.4 Administrative divisions 4 Politics o o o o o o o 4. It has also been ranked as one of the world's countries with the highest quality of life.2 Swedish era 2.3 Regions 3.5 World War II 2.2 President 4.

3 Industry 5.1 Education and science 7.9 Public holidays 7.5 Music 7.3 Visual arts 7.4 Society 7 Culture o o o o o o o o o o      7.7 Media and communications 7.5 Tourism 6 Demographics o o o o  6.3 Health 6.8 Armed forces 5 Economy o o o o o  5.1 Languages 6.2 Literature 7.8 Cuisine 7.2 Religion 6.2 Transport 5.10 Sports 8 International rankings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Etymology and concept of Finland .1 Energy 5.o  4.4 Public policy 5.6 Cinema 7.4 Television 7.

and parallels between saame (Sami. (Medieval politics concerned tribes such as the Finns. "Finland" became a common name for the whole land area to the east of the Bothnian Sea.) In the 15th century. a region that later became known as Finland Proper. possibly even including Åland. when the archipelago was seen as belonging to Åbo (Turku). Gothic guma. this name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. the Tavastians and the Karelians more than geographical boundaries. The oldest date from 3000 to 2500 BCE. but a candidate for a cognate is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē. the term "Finland" mostly referred to the area around Åbo (Turku). being borrowed as *ćoma. while the other parts of the country were called Tavastia and Karelia. What the term . Latin homo) has been suggested. It has the inscription finlandi (G 319) and dates from the 13th century. Alternatively. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Proper. but which could also sometimes be collectively referred to as "Österland" (compare Norrland). a Finno-Ugric people in Lapland) and Häme (a province in the inland) were drawn. [edit]Etymology [edit]Finland The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. meaning "land".Astuvansalmi rock paintings atSaimaa. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish (the Finnic languages). in the Baltic Sea. and later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland. but these theories are now considered outdated. The third was found in Gotland. with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still being sometimes excluded until later. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti (U 582). the Indo-European word *gʰm-on "man" (cf. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape).[16] [edit]Concept In the 12th and 13th centuries.[15] [edit]Suomi The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins.

and Ostrobothnia (other parts of Sweden had also hadgovernor generals). as a strategy to meet the claims of the Russian tsar. also the boundaries to the east and the north were not exact.which the Russians proposed.actually refers to can vary between sources. using stone tools. There is no consensus on when Uralic languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland.or along the river Kalix. was a compromise. and a little part of Västerbotten County. The least after the tsar Alexander I of Russia permitted the parts of Finland located to the east of the Kymi Riverwhich were conquered by Russia in 1721 and 1743.[18] The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. [edit]History Main article: History of Finland [edit]Prehistory Main article: History of Finland#Prehistory According to archaeological evidence. to be administratively included in "New Finland" in 1812. Russia and Norway. A sort of establishment for Finland as a unity. In 1637. which followed the Torne River and the Muonio River to the fells Saana and Halti in the northwest. the area now comprising Finland was settled at the latest around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice sheet of the last ice age receded. came when John III of Sweden called his duchy as the "grand duchy of Finland" (about 1580). Åland. The term became part of the title of the King of Sweden but had little practical meaning. which later became what the concept of Finland came to stand for . [17] The earliest people were hunter-gatherers.[20] Even with the introduction of agriculture. thereby including the Finnish-speaking part of the Torne Valley . hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy. Åland.which the Swedish proposed in the peace negotiations . if only in name. The artifactsthe first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in Estonia. The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. During the 1st . called "Old Finland". Queen Christina named Per Brahe the Younger as Governor General of Finland.[19] The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. What was signed over to Russia in 1809 was not so much a "Finland" as six counties. which was the boundary between Västerbotten County and Österbotten County (Ostrobothnia) at the time . The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE–1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. The boundary between the new Grand Duchy of Finland and the remaining part of Sweden could have been drawn along the river Kemijoki. The Finnish land area had the same standing as the area to the west of the Bothnian Sea and the Finnish part of the realm had the same representation in the parliament as the western part had.

Dark green: Sweden proper. clergy and localcourts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas. the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism.[citation needed] [edit]Swedish era The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. In the 18th century.Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility. Swedish kings established their rule in the Northern Crusades from the 12th century until 1249. [edit]Russian Empire era Main article: Grand Duchy of Finland See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland . Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. The first university in Finland. administration and education.[21] The area of present-day Finland became a fully consolidated part of the Swedish kingdom. Finland suffered a severe famine in 1696–97. as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Swedish-speaking settlers arrived at the coastal regions during the medieval time. whereas Sámi-speaking populations occupied most parts of the country. early Finnish was spoken at least in agricultural settlements of Southern Finland.millennium AD. during which about one-third of the Finnish population died.[23] By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. Other greens:Swedish dominions and possessions. The Royal Academy of Turku.[22] In the 16th century. wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces. In the 17th century. wars known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–21) and the Lesser Wrath(1742–43). During the Protestant Reformation. was established in 1640.[23] and a devastating plague a few years later. Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry.

a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennomanmovement grew. in practice. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic – the Kalevala – in 1835. Economic and political development was rapid. the universal suffrage was.On 29 March 1809. and the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. Main articles: Finnish Declaration of Independence and Finnish Civil War After the 1917 February Revolution. the Finnish language began to gain recognition. making it one of the worst famines in European history. the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. During the Russian era. For example. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations. passed the so- . Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.[24] The GDP per capita was still half of that of the United States and a third of that of Britain. [edit]Civil war and early independence Soviet approval of Finland's independence (in Russian). it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War. since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. controlled by social democrats. universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. first among radical liberals[25] and socialists. and investment rose in following decades. From the 1860s onwards. virtually meaningless. the position of Finland as part of the Russian Empire was questioned. The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15% of the population. However.[24] In 1906. mainly by Social Democrats. The parliament. In 1811 Alexander I incorporated Russian Vyborg province into the Grand Duchy of Finland. Desire for independence gained ground. Since the head of state was the Czar of Russia.

Finland became a presidential republic. The Provisional Government dissolved the parliament by force. with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. as radical communists took power in Russia. Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Law of a few months earlier. the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland. and the Social Democratic Party staged a coup. [edit]World War II . In 1917. Suddenly. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. which the social democrats considered illegal. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Governmentand by the right-wing parties in Finland. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs. The civil war and activist expeditions into the Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense.[24] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war. Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament (and thus the ensuing elections) were extralegal. since the right to do so had been stripped from the Russians by the Power Act.[not in citation given] The latter succeeded in controlling southern Finland and Helsinki. were highly antagonized. After a brief flirtation with monarchy. who were supported by Imperial Germany. Germany's relations with democratic Finland cooled also after the Nazis' rise to power. increasing the proportion of capital-owning population. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by theTreaty of Tartu in 1920. where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. The government started to disarm the Russian forces inPohjanmaa. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the antiCommunist Lapua Movement. but the white government continued in exile from Vaasa.called Power Act[26] to give the highest authority to parliament.[27] After the war. the right-wing parties and the social democratic party. the population was 3 million.[citation needed] The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew.[28] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. in which right-wing parties won a slim majority. The Whites.[citation needed] New elections were conducted. the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December 1917.[citation needed] Army officers were trained in France. prevailed over the Reds. and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps. On 27 January 1918.

however at a loss of about 93. The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations. restraints and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial concessions begun in the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940.Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and theContinuation War in 1944. Finland reached an armistice with the Soviet Union. in which Germany had invaded the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45. After fighting a major Soviet offensive in June/July 1944 to a standstill. fled these areas. the German army besieged Leningrad. Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–1940 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland. Salla andPetsamo. by proportion the third-highest loss rate in World War II. when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. which amounted to 10% of its land area and 20% of its industrial capacity. and in theContinuation War of 1941–1944. Finland was forced to cede most of Finnish Karelia. including the ports of Vyborg (Viipuri) and icefree Liinakhamari(Liinahamari).000 soldiers killed. following Operation Barbarossa.[30]Finnish troops controlled some of the areas around the city but refused to attack or let Germans use those areas for attack. As a result of the two wars. whether they should be said to have helped in the siege or refused to help is controversial. For 872 days. Almost the whole population. some 400.000 km2 (149. the USSR's second largest city. Finland covered an area of approximately 385.000 persons. Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II During World War II. Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and retained its independence.[29] The siege of Leningrad resulted in the deaths of some one million of the city's inhabitants.[citation needed] . The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.000 sq mi) before the handover.

such as theUnited Kingdom. the eighth president of Finland. half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank. Even after the reparations had been paid off.[32] The 1952 Summer Olympicsbrought international visitors. the Valmet corporation was founded to create materials for war reparations. with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970. the United States provided secret development aid and helped the still non-communist Social Democratic Party in hopes of preserving Finland's independence. the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. . and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden.Finland rejected Marshall aid. Urho Kekkonen. and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one.5 in 1973. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3.[31] Establishing trade with the Western powers.[32] When baby-boomers entered the workforce. Finland—poor in certain resources necessary for an industrialized nation (such as iron and oil)—continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade.[citation needed] [edit]Cold War In 1950.[32] The new jobs in manufacturing.5 in 1947 to 1. services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. the economy did not generate jobs fast enough. However. For example. in apparent deference to Soviet desires.

The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship. the collapse of its largest single trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era.[citation needed] In the 1970s and 1980s. Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets. In politics. Finland remained a Western European market economy. which was crucial for his continued popularity.Kalevi Sorsa was a long-time prime minister of Finland during the 1970s and 80s. which explains the widespread support that proSoviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could be interpreted as anti-Soviet. Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union.[citation needed] [edit]Recent history . Despite close relations with the Soviet Union. This was extensively exploited by president Urho Kekkonenagainst his opponents. Cooperation and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandization" by the German press. The depression bottomed out in 1993. Officially claiming to be neutral. a banking crisis.[citation needed] Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions. although Finland did not fully join. In 1981. Finland also negotiated with the EEC (a predecessor of the European Union) a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977. and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. president Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years.

Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s. even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries. in 2002. in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries. Finland joined the European Union in 1995.42 births per 1. In 2007. Finland changed the common side of its coins. this is why the first euro coins from Finland have the year 1999 on them.8. without further reforms or much higher immigration. Like other Nordic countries. one for €1 coin and one for the other six coins) were selected for the Finnish coins. the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 1999. the euro.7 years.Finland introduced the currency of theEurozone. [edit]Geography . The population is aging with the birth rate at 10. or a fertility rate of 1.[33] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. instead of 2002 like some of the other countries of the Eurozone. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. Like most European countries. Three different designs (one for €2 coin. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. Finland is expected to struggle with demographics. As a preparation for this date. The Finnish markka was replaced by the euro in 2002.[32] With a median age of 42.000 population. and the Eurozone in 1999. Finland is one of the oldest countries.

U. only Reykjavík lies more to the north than Helsinki. (See also Atlas of Finland.000 lakes (larger than 500 m2/0. Its largest lake. The glaciers were thicker and lasted longer in Fennoscandia compared to the rest of Europe. Its highest point. Finland is one of the world's northernmost countries.Detailed map of Finland. and longitudes 20° and 32° E. is the fourth largest in Europe.) Main article: Geography of Finland See also: List of cities and towns in Finland. The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland. Saimaa.[34]. directly adjacent to Halti.316 m (4. The distance from the southernmost—Hanko—to the northernmost point in the country—Nuorgam—is 1. . List of national parks of Finland. Much of the geography of Finland is explained by the Ice Age. the Halti at 1. The highest mountain whose peak is entirely in Finland isRidnitsohkka at 1. List of lakes in Finland. is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway. Their eroding effects have left the Finnish landscape mostly flat with few hills and fewer mountains. Of world capitals. and Environmental issues in Finland Lying approximately between latitudes 60° and 70° N. {{{u}}}) and 179.12 acreExpression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{".324 metres (4.S. Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands —about 188. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland.000 islands.318 ft).344 ft).160 kilometres (720 mi).

[edit]Biodiversity Main article: Fauna of Finland Phytogeographically. south of the Helsinki– Rauma line. The Whooper Swan. Finland's national bird. In the extreme north of Finland. terrain in Finland is rising due to thepostglacial rebound. The landscape is covered mostly (75% of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens. where land steadily rises about 1 cm a year. that are more typical in the Baltic region. As a result.[35] Relatively speaking. Among the biggest of these are the three Salpausselkä ridges that run across southern Finland. Having been compressed under the enormous weight of the glaciers. . The most common type of rock isgranite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery. the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga. According to the WWF.[37] the largest forested area in Europe. spruce. The forest consists of pine. central European and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands.The retreating glaciers have left the land with morainic deposits in formations of eskers. These are ridges of stratified gravel and sand. forests are characterized by mixed forests. the old sea bottom turns little by little into dry land: the surface area of the country is expanding by about 7 square kilometres (2. with little arable land. birch and other species. Finland is shared between the Arctic.[36] Forest covers 86% of the country's area. Gleysols and peat bogsoccupy poorly drained areas. near the tree line and Arctic Ocean. where the ancient edge of the glacier once lay. running northwest to southeast. Taiga covers most of Finland from northern regions of southern provinces to the north of Lapland. visible wherever there is no soil cover. Montane Birch forests are common. Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world. Finland is rising from the sea.7 sq mi) annually. Podzol profile development is seen in most forest soils except where drainage is poor. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil. covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. On the southwestern coast. The effect is strongest around the Gulf of Bothnia.

[38] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler.[39]Of some seventy species of freshwater fish. a large. Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today. gray wolf.The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. In the Köppen climate classification. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity. many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. black-plumaged member of the grouse family. Three of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan. There are at least sixty native mammalian species. The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal. exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland. the northern pike. perch and others are plentiful. one of only three lake seal species in the world.[40] [edit]Climate Repovesi National Park in southeastern Finland. Common Chaffinch and Redwing. wolverine and elk. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation. a large European swan and the national bird of Finland. the Capercaillie. and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. See also: Climate of Finland The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasiancontinent's coastal zone. the whole of . Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts. [citation needed] Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Finland are the brown bear (the national animal). Similarly. 248 breeding bird species. down to only 300 seals today. and the European Eagle-owl.

the temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north. the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F).Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. the winters are long and cold. In northern Finland. Lapland. and the snow typically covers the land from about late November to mid-April.[41] No part of Finland has Arctic tundra.[41] Winters of southern Finland (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C/32 °F) are usually about 100 days long.[43] A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. At Finland's northernmost point. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. Within the country. Siberia and southern Greenland. Summers in the north are quite short. particularly in Lapland. but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland.[41] . but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C(77 °F) during heat waves. and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer. and in the inland.[42] The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C/50 °F) in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September. such as Alaska. showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May.[42] Pyhä-Luosto National Park.[41] Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt. the warmest days of July can reach 35 °C (95 °F). The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). Even in the most temperate regions of the south. while the summers are relatively warm but short. only two to three months. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude. while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.

each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population. agriculture. Currently. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region. Six Regional State Administrative Agencies were created by the state of Finland in 2010. areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils.Åland was designated a seventh region. Historically. the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Regions represent dialectal.Lake Pielinen seen from a hill in Koli National Park. cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces. in addition.[44] Coat of In Arm English s In Finnish In Swedish Capital Regional state administr ative Map . each region has a state Employment and Economic Development Centre which is responsible for the local administration of labour. [edit]Regions Finland consists of 19 regions called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish. which were abolished. In addition to inter-municipal cooperation. which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. each of them responsible for one of the regions called alue in Finnish and region in Swedish. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland. which is the responsibility of regional councils. forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. The regions are governed by regional councils which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. In addition. the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. fisheries. These take over some of the tasks of the earlier Provinces of Finland (the läänis).

agency Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovanie mi Lapland Norra Northern PohjoisOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Oulu Northern Finland Kainuu Kainuu Kajanalan d Kajaani Northern Finland North Karelia PohjoisKarjala Norra Karelen Joensuu Eastern Finland Northern PohjoisSavo Savonia Norra Savolax Kuopio Eastern Finland Southern Savonia EteläSavo Södra Savolax Mikkeli Eastern Finland Södra Southern EteläOstrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Seinäjoki aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Keski.Mellersta Central Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte Kokkola aa n hnia Western and Central Finland Lapland Ostrobot Pohjanm Österbotte aa n hnia Vaasa Western and Central Northern Ostrobothnia .

Finland Kainuu North Karelia Pirkanm Pirkanma Birkaland Tampere a aa Western and Central Finland Northern Savonia Southern Savonia Central Finland KeskiSuomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskyl ä Western and Central Finland Southern Ostrobothnia Satakunt Satakunt Satakunda a a Pori SouthWestern Finland Ostrobothnia Pirkanmaa Finland Varsinais Egentliga -Suomi Finland Proper Turku SouthWestern Finland Satakunta Central Ostrobothnia South Karelia EteläKarjala Södra Karelen Lappeenr Southern anta Finland Central Finland Päijänne Tavastia PäijätHäme Päijänne Tavastland Lahti Southern Finland Finland Proper South Karelia Tavastia Proper KantaHäme Egentliga Hämeenl Southern Tavastland inna Finland Päijänne Tavastia Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki Southern Finland Tavastia Proper Uusimaa Kymenla Kymenla Kymmene akso dalen akso Kotka Southern Finland Kymenlaakso .

Spending is financed by municipal income tax.[46] [edit]Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative divisions of Finland. the capital of Central Finland. which may also call themselves towns or cities. . People often identify with their municipality. Sub-regions of Finland.Åland Ahvenan Islands[45 maa ] Åland Marieha mn Åland Åland Islands The region of Eastern Uusimaa was consolidated with Uusimaa on 1 January 2011.000 residents. and other revenue. state subsidies. The fundamental administrative divisions of the country are the municipalities. Regions of Finland. Municipalities of Finland. There are 336 municipalities. They account for half of public spending. and Historical provinces of Finland A steam boat on Lake Päijänne leavingJyväskylä.[citation needed] Helsinki Cathedral.[7][8] and most have fewer than 6.

The figures are as of 28 February 2013. there is a pilot project underway with regional elections. The land area is given in km². The capital region – comprising Helsinki. the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun).g. Municipalities co-operate in seventy subregions and nineteen regions. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. However. Sami people have a semiautonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers.Vantaa. common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities. Espoo and Kauniainen – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. . two intermediate levels are defined. e.In addition to municipalities. The Tammerkoski rapids in the inland city of Tampere. In the Kainuu region. In the following chart. The autonomous province of Åland has a permanent democratically elected regional council. and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). not just in the built-up area.

546 245.17 135.75 Oulu 191.410.75 2.461 312.832.67 734.86 Espoo 257.237 1.61 Turku 180.523 213.767 525. City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Helsinki 605.37 862.91 .26 824.51 Tampere 217.03 414.77 Vantaa 205.Municipalities (thin borders) and regions(thick borders) of Finland (2009).653 238.

05 764.187 2.14 Pori 83.24 34.687 1. .15 Lappeenranta 72.88 Lahti 103.39 65.170.33 Further information: List of Finnish municipalities.785.06 99.433.577 1.81 348.91 Joensuu 74.City Population[47] Land area[48] Density Jyväskylä 133. List of Finnish municipalities by area.333 834.07 Kouvola 87.229 1.558.187 135.391 1. List of Finnish municipalities by population.331 2.76 37.17 Kuopio 105.99 114.76 31.768 188.5 Hämeenlinna 67.84 Vaasa 65.381. and Former municipalities of Finland [edit]Politics The Parliament of Finland's main building.597.36 50.

K. Kyösti Kallio (1937–1940). The current president is Sauli Niinistö. Paasikivi (1946–1956).[1] The position still does entail some powers. P. The former presidents were K. Direct. Relander (1925–1931). and some appointive powers. some decree powers. J. but under the 2000 constitution. one. J. the presidency became largely a ceremonial. G. including responsibility for foreign policy (excluding affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with thecabinet.Martti Ahtisaari (1994– 2000). Mauno Koivisto (1982–1994). municipal. the President of Finland is the head of state. and in European Union elections. he took office on 1 March 2012. E. [edit]President According to the Constitution. Urho Kekkonen (1956–1982).Risto Ryti (1940–1944). and Tarja Halonen (2000–2012). and even further under its 2012 amendment. and presidential elections.Main article: Politics of Finland See also: List of political parties in Finland and Human rights in Finland [edit]Constitution The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. Finland was formerly considered a semi-presidential parliamentary system. Svinhufvud (1931– 1937). Ståhlberg (1919–1925). C. and was amended on 1 March 2012. E. non-executive position. The constitution in its current form came into force on 1 March 2000. being the head of the armed forces. K.or two-stage elections are used to elect the president for a term of six years and for a maximum of two consecutive terms. L. Citizens can run and vote in parliamentary. [edit]Parliament Finland This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Finland . and the prime minister is the country's most powerful politician. Finland is a parliamentary democracy. Mannerheim (1944–1946).

[49] Since universal suffrage was introduced in 1906. These parties have enjoyed approximately equal support. and override presidential vetoes. The parliament is elected for a term of four years using the proportional D'Hondt method within a number of multi-seat constituencies. the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union). The speaker is currently Eero Heinäluoma (Social Democrats). and their combined vote has totalled about 65 –80% of all .State[show] Executive[show] Legislative[show] Judiciary[show] Elections[show] Divisions[show] Political parties[show] Foreign Policy[show]  Other countries  Atlas Politics portal    V T E The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises supreme legislative authority. It may alter the constitution and ordinary laws. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. the constitutionality of new laws is assessed by the parliament'sconstitutional law committee. the National Coalition Party (conservatives) and the Social Democrats. dismiss the cabinet. Its acts are not subject to judicial review.

0 8. was reached in the 2011 elections. and in the 2011 elections. there have been some long-term trends.Åland Centre was the largest party. the True Finns achieved exceptional success.votes.4 Social Democratic Party 42 -3 21.1 Centre Party 35 -16 17. (The province also holds elections for its own permanent regional council. although the parliament was dissolved several times under the pre-2000 constitution. Their lowest common total of MPs. the relative strengths of the parties have commonly varied only slightly from one election to another.0 20. such as the rise and fall of the Communists during the Cold War. After the parliamentary elections on 17 April 2011.) The Parliament can be dissolved by a recommendation of the Prime minister endorsed by the President. However. This procedure has never been used. when this action was the sole prerogative of the president. Due to the electoral system of proportional representation. and the rise of the Green party and its predecessor since 1983.[50] The autonomous province of Åland. the steady decline into insignificance of the Liberal party and its predecessors from 1906 to about 1980. elects one member to the parliament. who traditionally joins the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. In the 2011 elections. and thus surpassing the Centre Party. and the relative reluctance of voters to switch their support between parties.1 True Finns 39 +34 19. which forms a federacy with Finland.5 4.3 Swedish People's Party 9 0 4. the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes National Coalition Party 44 −6 22. 121.5 15.0 7. For a few decades after 1944.1 Green League 10 -5 5.3 .5 19. the Communists were a strong fourth party. increasing its representation from 5 to 39 seats.0 19.8 Left Alliance 14 -2 7.

[51] The cabinet exercises most executive powers. tingsrätt). As no one party ever dominates the parliament. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts (hallinto-oikeus. förvaltningsdomstol) and the Supreme Administrative Court (korkein hallinto-oikeus. In addition to the regular courts. After the prime minister. or.0 4. in some cases. the post of prime minister goes to the leader of the biggest party and that of the minister of finance to the leader of the second biggest. although this rarely happens (the last time in 1957). Finnish cabinets are multi-party coalitions. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking officeholders. as the parties represented in the cabinet usually make up a majority in the parliament. högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). hovrätt). the parties negotiate among themselves on forming a new cabinet (the Finnish Council of State). and consists of him or her.0 Others 1a 0 0. the most powerful minister is the minister of finance. regional appellate courts (hovioikeus. As a rule. The cabinet can be dismissed by a parliamentary vote of no confidence. has responsibility for a subset of a ministry's policy. The current prime minister is Jyrki Katainen (National Coalition Party). . Each minister heads his or her ministry. there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland. civil law or Roman law. [edit]Law Main article: Judicial system of Finland The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense. högsta domstolen). [edit]Cabinet After parliamentary elections.5 0. and originates most of the bills that the parliament then debates and votes on. and of the Chancellor of Justice. which then has to be approved by a simple majority vote in the parliament.4 a Province of Åland's representative. of other ministers.Party Seats Net gain/loss % of seats % of votes Christian Democrats 6 -1 3. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (käräjäoikeus. and the Supreme Court (korkein oikeus.

[54][verification needed] For instance. Also. Finland has a very low number of corruption charges. which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s. Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe. economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished.[verification needed] In 2008.[55] According to GRECO in 2007 corruption should be taken into account in the Finnish system of election funds better. Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance.[53] A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offenses such as speeding. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians.[52] The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context.[56] A scandal revolving around campaign finance of the 2007 parliamentary elections broke out in spring 2008.[54][dubious – discuss] Today. Some crime types are above average. .Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions. notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe. [edit]Foreign relations Ahtisaari receives his Noble prize. Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent. Finland has successfully fought against government corruption. Nine Ministers of Government submitted incomplete funding reports and even more of the Members of Parliament.

one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents. Main article: Foreign relations of Finland According to the 2012 constitution.[57] In 2008. but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world.[citation needed] Created almost entirely during the first three decades after World War II. the president (currently Sauli Niinistö) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. Finns and non-citizens. and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy. the basis of this belief was a relatively benign history that had allowed the gradual emergence of a free and independent peasantry in the Nordic countries and had curtailed the dominance of the nobility and the subsequent formation of a powerful right wing.[58] Finland was considered a cooperative model state. the social security system was an outgrowth of the traditional Nordic belief that the state was not inherently hostile to the well-being of its citizens. Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries. president Martti Ahtisaari was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back.[59] This was reversed in the 2000s. but could intervene benevolently on their behalf. According to some social historians.[59] [edit]Social security Main article: Social security in Finland Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems.Finland is represented in the European Parliament and has been a member of the European Union since 1995. except that the president has no role in EU affairs. when Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defence.[60] [edit]Armed forces . but not harsh enough to bar the country from following their path of social development.

The armed forces favour partnerships with Western institutions such as NATO. Alternative non-military service for men is possible.The Hamina-class fast-attack craft FNSHanko of the Finnish Navy. Finland's official policy states that the 350.[62] Finland's defence budget equals about €2 billion or about 1. currently serving conscripts. A universal male conscription is in place. are a sufficient deterrent.700 people in uniform. as is voluntary military service for women (currently approximately 500 annually). but are careful to avoid politics. A Leopard 2A4 main battle tank of theFinnish Army on Independence Day.[63] . of which 25% are professional soldiers. and a large reserve. armed mostly with ground weaponry. Main articles: Finnish Defence Forces and Military history of Finland See also: List of wars involving Finland The Finnish Defence Forces consist of a cadre of professional soldiers (mainly officers and technical personnel). Finnish defence expenditure is around the sixth highest in the EU.000 reservists.4–1. The standard readiness strength is 34. under which all male Finnish nationals above 18 years of age serve for 6 to 12 months of armed service or 12 months of civilian (non-armed) service.[61] Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia.6% of the GDP. WEU and the EU. [citation needed] An F-18 of the Finnish Air Force.

Finland's largest company.[64] The armed forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently General Ari Puheloinen). The branches of the military are the army. The border guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required for defence readiness. Germany.Belgium or the UK.Voluntary post-conscription overseas peacekeeping service is popular. a mobile phone game developed in Finland. Angry Birds. who is directly subordinate to the president in matters related to military command. followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%.[65] With respect to foreign . one of the highest rates in Europe. has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally. Residents claim around 80% homeland defence willingness. [edit]Economy Headquarters of Nokia. NATO and EU peacekeeping missions. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%.9%. the navy and the air force. and troops serve around the world in UN. Main article: Economy of Finland See also: List of companies of Finland and Helsinki Stock Exchange Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France. Primary production is 2.

but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water. and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralize excess acid and to develop fertility. forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%). Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge. Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. but it occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. United States. where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters. Finland's real-terms GDP growth. and has severe winters and relatively short growing seasons that are sometimes interrupted by frosts. Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp. Irrigation was generally not necessary. and they have cultivated south-facing slopes as well as richer bottomlands to ensure production even in years with summer frosts. Netherlands and China. Forestry. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. machinery. and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 3 billion euros annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. The European Union makes 60% of the total trade. However. Russia. Trade policy is managed by the European Union. farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops. 1998–2009. paper factories. high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland.[67] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Sweden. making summer droughts a constant threat. United Kingdom. Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries. The largest industries[66] are electronics (22%). In a 2004 OECD comparison. In response to the climate.[60] . the key economic sector is manufacturing. The country lies between latitudes 60°N and 70°N. and international trade is a third of GDP. because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate. Annual precipitation is usually except for agriculture. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP.1%).[citation needed] The largest trade flows are with Germany. Finland is highly integrated in the global economy. vehicles and other engineered metal products (21.

Sweden.1 euros in 2004. out of which around a third with tertiary education. Germany and France.8 million. Forests play a key role in the country's economy. while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3% per year. regulating tree cutting.[71] The proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD in 1999. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions is higher than in the US. a commercial street in Helsinki. 62% of the workforce worked for enterprises with less than 250 employees and they accounted for 49% of total business turnover and had the strongest rate of growth. the government has long played a leading role in forestry. As in agriculture.Aleksanterinkatu. The average cost of a private sector employee per hour was 25.[70] The female employment rate is high. Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits. and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries. [60] Private sector employees amount to 1. drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. In 1984 the government published the Forest 2000 plan.[71] . sponsoring technical improvements. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products. making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.[69] In 2006.[68] As of 2008 average purchasing poweradjusted income levels are similar to those of Italy.

74% of households had a car. 2. and spending on well-being.[74] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32% of GDP in 2007.[76] Home ownership rate is 60%.5% (2009) Internet connection at home. food and beverages excluding alcoholic beverages at around 2500 euro. The average size is 2.2 million and the average residential space is 38 m2 per person.8 and household debt 101% of annual disposable income. high quality products. The average total household consumption was 20.[78] According to Invest in Finland.[72] 18% of residents are outside the job market at the age of 50 and less than a third are working at the age of 61. and recreation and culture at around 2000 euro. the average household savings rate was −3.6 euro per sq metre. a typical level in Europe. Residential buildings total 1. As of 2006.1 persons.187 euro per sq metre and residential land 8.[79] [edit]Energy . out of which housing consisted of about 5500 euro. Finland is part of the Eurozone (dark blue).000 euro. 32% two persons and 28% three or more persons.4 million other vehicles.8% in early 2008. the EU single market and theSchengen Area.[77] Around 92% have a mobile phone and 83.Graphical depiction of Finland's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. though Finland is much better prepared than countries such as France or Germany.5 million cars and 0. private consumption grew by 3% in 2006 and consumer trends included durables. [73] Unfunded pensions and other promises such as health insurances are a dominant future liability.[75] In 2007. The employment rate was 68% and the unemployment rate was 6. transport about 3000 euro.4 million households reside in Finland. There are 2. 40% of households consist of a single person. The average residential property without land costs 1.

The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed around 2014, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor. [80]

See also: Nordic energy market and Nuclear power in Finland Anyone can enter the free and largely privately owned financial and physical Nordic energy markets traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe andNord Pool Spot exchanges, which have provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. As of 2007, Finland has roughly the lowest industrial electricity prices in the EU-15 (equal to France).[81] In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. This means that the energy consumption per capita is around 7.2 tons of oil equivalent per year. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption, a relatively high figure reflecting Finland's industries.[82][83] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood.[citation needed] About 10–15% of the electricity is produced byhydropower,[84] which is little compared to more mountainous Sweden or Norway. In 2008, renewable energy forms (mainly hydropower and various forms of wood energy) made high 30.5% compared to the EU average 10.3% in final energy consumption.[85] Finland has four privately owned nuclear reactors producing 18% of the country's energy,[86] one research reactor at the Otaniemi campus, and the fifthAREVA-Siemens-built reactor—the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry—is currently scheduled to be operational by 2014.[80] A varying amount (5–17%) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They might be causing an increase in energy prices, amplified by the aging and soon decommissioned production capacity.[87] Energy companies are about to increase nuclear power production, as in July 2010 the Finnish parliament granted permits for additional two new reactors.


Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeer, cause several thousand traffic accidents every year.

Main article: Transport in Finland The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro.

Icebreakers enable shipping even during severe winters.

Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is Finland's largest and busiest airport.

The state-owned VR Group operates a railway network serving all major cities.

The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with almost 15 million passengers in 2011. Oulu Airport is the second largest and around 25 airports have scheduled passenger services.[88] The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair, Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle (i.e. the shortest and most efficient) routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Despite low population density, the Government spends annually around 350 million euro[citation needed] in maintaining 5,865 kilometres (3,644 mi) of railway tracks. Rail transport is handled by state owned VR Group, which has 5% passenger market share (out of which 80% are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25% cargo market share.[89] Since 12 December 2010, Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg'sFinlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Journey from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg takes only three and a half hours. The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port after completion in 2008 and others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn and Stockholm. The Helsinki–Tallinn route, one of the busiest passenger sea routes in the world,[citation needed] has also been served by a helicopter line.

Main article: Economy of Finland Finland was rapidly industrialized after the Second World War, achieving GDP per capita levels equal to that of Japan or the UK in the beginning of 1970s. Initially, most development was based on two broad groups of export-led industries, the "metal industry" (metalliteollisuus) and "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus). The "metal industry" includes shipbuilding, metalworking, the car industry, engineered products such as motors and electronics, and production of metals (steel, copper and chromium). The world's biggest cruise ships are built in Finnish shipyards. The "forest industry" (metsäteollisuus) includes forestry, timber, pulp and paper, and is a logical development based on Finland's extensive forest resources (77% of the area is covered by forest, most of it in renewable use). In the pulp and paper industry, many of the largest companies are based in Finland (Ahlstrom, M-real,UPM). However, the Finnish economy has diversified, with expansion into fields such as electronics (e.g. Nokia), metrology (Vaisala), transport fuels (Neste Oil), chemicals (Kemira), engineering consulting (Pöyry) and information technology (e.g. Rovio, known for Angry Birds), and is no longer dominated by the two sectors of metal and forest industry. Likewise, the structure has changed, with the service sector growing, with manufacturing reducing in importance; agriculture is only a minor part. Despite this, production for

tax payment (83rd) and low worker hardship (127th). and significantly higher than most European countries. only four EU15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK.[91] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century.[90] [edit]Public policy See also: Nordic model Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model. Finland's performance was next to Germany. human capital.[92] Finland is rated the least corrupted country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index[96] and 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index.[97] Finnish law forces all workers to obey the national contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession and seniority level.[94] The World Economic Forum 2008 index ranked Finland the 6th most competitive. Finland has clinched the second place after the United States on Benchmarking IT Industry Competitiveness 2011 which scored on 6 key indicators: overall business environment. According to the OECD. Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy.export is still more prominent than in Western Europe. Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. [91] Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas. the OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements. especially in the middle class (AKAVA—80%). postal. and research and development landscape.[92] While the manufacturing sector is thriving. Based on the Economist Intelligence Unit report released in September 2011. Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). The unionization rate is high (70%). although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. though in Finland immigration is relatively new. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low. [92] Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honoured. and other markets in Europe. in practice by being a member of a relevant trade union. except for agricultural products.[91] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries. legal framework.[93] The 2007 IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook ranked Finland 17th most competitive.[95] In both indicators. business closure (5th). Ireland. A lack of a national agreement in an industry is considered an exception. This indicates exceptional ease in cross-border trading (5th). The agreement becomes universally enforceable provided that more than 50% of the employees support it. In the Business competitiveness index 2007–08 Finland ranked third in the world. contract enforcement (7th). public support for industry development.[clarification needed] Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and 9th in Europe. thus making Finland more vulnerable to global economic trends. technology infrastructure.[67][91] [edit]Tourism .

is seen regularly in the fall. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions. Stockholm and Travemünde. kayaking among many others. rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of avifauna.Now lying within Helsinki. Turku. golf. with no sunset even at midnight. fishing. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities.7 billion with a 5% increase from the previous year. At Finland's northernmost point. including Helsinki.[citation needed] There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. in the heart of summer. Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing. yachting. Elk and hare are common game in Finland. a period when the sun does not rise for days or weeks. and correspondingly. lake cruises. fluorescence in the high atmosphere due to solar wind. midnight sun in the summer. Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 37 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. Tallinn. Lapland is so far north that the Aurora Borealis. Main article: Tourism in Finland In 2005. or even months. play a significant role in the local tourism industry. The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests. the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. winter and spring. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to theglobalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. however hunting is also popular. hiking. Above the Arctic Circle. Finnish tourism grossed over €6. in midwinter. living in the northern Lapland region. [edit]Demographics Main article: Demographics of Finland . there is a polar night. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus.

4%. Finland Swedish.998. If they are born in Finland and cannot get citizenship of any other country.400.060.800 2.336 4.177.[6] This is the third-lowest population density of any European country. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country.778 4.276 The population of Finland is currently about 5.[100] Most of them are from Russia.746.000 663.100 561.700 3.700 1.446.655. Espoo and Vantaa.803 4.636.462.375.100 1. Also Finnish Romani and Finnish Sign Language are recognized in the constitution.768. The largest cities in Finland are those of the Greater Helsinkimetropolitan area—Helsinki.445.617 4. The Sami language is an official language in northern Lapland. and Languages of Finland Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of Finland.500 1.[100] The children of foreigners are not automatically given Finnish citizenship.598.900 705. among the lowest in the European Union.600 3. Finland has an average population density of 16 inhabitants per square kilometre. Other cities with population over 100. The share of foreign citizens in Finland is The Nordiclanguages and Karelian are also specially treated in some contexts.000. behind those of Norway and Iceland.147.222 4. Turku.100 2. Oulu.787.Jyväskylä and Lahti.115 5.700 863. Finnish predominates nationwide while Swedish is spoken in some coastal areas in the west and south and in the autonomous region of Åland.695.000 are Tampere.400 3.900 1.600 832.500 491.900 2.600 1. .478 5.800 2.372.943. 1750–2010 year population 1750 1760 1770 1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Sources: [98] [99] 421. Estonia and Sweden.300 1. a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanisation. they become citizens.Population of Finland. [101] [edit]Languages Main articles: Finnish language.

[107] Tatar language is spoken by a Finnish Tatar minority of about 800 people who moved to Finland mainly during the Russian rule from the 1870s until 1920s.000 people. Finnish is closely related to Karelian andEstonian and more remotely to the Sami languages and Hungarian. Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. The Finnish Sign Language is used as a first language by 4. Swedish is the native language of 5. German (18%). to some extent. [edit]Religion Main article: Religion in Finland Religion in Finland[111] Evangelical Finnish No Lutheran year Orthodox Other religious Church of Church affiliation Finland 1900 98. The language is one of only four official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. some schools may offer other options).1%).000 people.The native language of 90% of the population is Finnish. English is studied by most pupils as a compulsory subject from the third or fifth grade (at 9 or 11 years of age respectively) in the comprehensive school (in some schools other languages can be chosen instead). Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) are protected by the constitution.0% . numbering around 7.2% 0. although studied only a little in the schools. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue. in Lapland.7% 0.4% of the population (Swedish-speaking Finns). French and Russian can be studied as second foreign languages from the eighth grade (at 14 years of age. Somali.[104] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami. Danish are mutually intelligible with Swedish and are thus understood by a significant minority.[106][not in citation given] who usually also speak Finnish.000–6. English and Arabic (see Languages of Finland).[102] To the north. are the Sami people.[110] The best-known foreign languages are English (63%).[108] The right of minority groups (in particular Sami.[109] Immigrant languages include Russian (1. German. Norwegian and. Estonian (0.1% 1.000[103] and recognized as an indigenous people. A third foreign language may be studied in upper secondary school or university (at 16 years of age or over).[102] which is part of the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages.[105] Finnish Romani is spoken by some 5.000–5.6%). and French (3%).

3% 1.8% 1980 90.7% 7.1% 1.1% 1.5% 20.1% 12.1% 0.1% 2012 76.9% 10.1% 0.7% 0.1% 1. .3% 1.2% 14.7% 2005 83.2% 2000 85.8% 1.1950 95.1% 1.4%[112] Petäjävesi Old Church is an old wooden Lutheran church and a UNESCO World Heritage site.5% 2011 77.8% 1990 87.2% 1.0% 1.5% 2.

1%).5%). the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas ceremonies.4%[112] at the end of 2012) adherents are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.1%[113] of the population.3% of Finnish children were baptized and 83. including UK. The average number of church visits per year by church members is approximately two. Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller. However.Turku Cathedral is the Mother Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. and 31% "moderately religious". weddings and funerals. educational. 28% reported themselves as "agnostic" and 29% as "non-religious".[122] [edit]Society Finnish family life is centred on the nuclear family[dubious – discuss][citation needed]. Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1. 33% of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God". 42% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force". tribes or similar structures [dubious – discuss][citation needed] .0% were confirmed in 2011 at the age of 15. has no religious affiliation. Finland was ranked 2nd in Gross National Happiness in a report published by The Earth Institute. Finnish women were the first in . Relations with the extended family are often rather distant and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans.[117] In the same survey.[124] The group reached this conclusion after examining the health.1 million (or 76. Approximately 4.[123] After examining the position of women around the world. accounting for 20. God.[114] In 2012. [edit]Health Main article: Healthcare in Finland Life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men. the Washington-based Population Crisis Committee reported in 1988 that Finland. [111] The second largest group. or life force". France and New Zealand. 8% consider themselves "highly religious". The Lutheran Church estimates that approximately 2% of its members attend church services weekly.[120][121] In April 2012.[116] According to ISSP survey data (2008). A recent study by The Lancet medical journal found that Finland has the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are national churches of Finland with special roles such as in state ceremonies and schools. was one of the best places in which a woman could live.[115] According to a 2010 Eurobarometer poll. Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being. although its share of the country's population has declined in recent years. and legal conditions that affect women's lives. A small minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1.9% of health care is funded directly by households and 76. 75. slightly behind top-ranked Sweden and just ahead of the United States. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is one of the largest Lutheran churches in the world.[119] About 18.6% by taxation. economic. According to UNICEF. as are the Muslim.[118] There are 307 residents for each doctor. and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit.[112] and nearly all funerals are Christian.

Most striking was the disparity in wages. Another aim was for women to occupy a more equal share of decision-making positions. for example. In the late 1980s. they earned only about two-thirds of the wages paid to men. however. about 75% of adult women worked outside the home. the number of women studying at the university level. in some cases.Europe to gain the franchise.[60] The Equality Law that went into effect in 1987 committed the country to achieving full equality for women. Finnish women were as well educated as their male counterparts.[126] Finland has general elections every fourth year. [60] In a number of areas. The emphasis was to be equality for everyone. In addition to an expanding welfare system. but also to bring males into fields traditionally believed to belong to the women's sphere. was slightly ahead of the number of men. Although women made up just under half the work force and had a tradition of working outside the home. rather than protection for women. and. including women. such as child care and elementary school teaching. Efforts were undertaken not only to place women in occupations dominated by males. they made up about 48% of the work force. women had made notable legislative gains that brought them closer to full equality with men. Finland was the first nation in the world to give full suffrage (the right to vote and to run for office) to all adult citizens. [edit]Culture . In the 1980s. which since World War II had come to provide them with substantial assistance in the area of childbearing and child-rearing.[125] In 1906. the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved. there was a timetable listing specific goals to be achieved during the remainder of the twentieth century. and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the membership of the Eduskunta (parliament) and held several ministerial posts.[60] Finland ranks second in the Global Gender Gap Report 2012.

Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16. Main article: Culture of Finland [edit]Education and science Auditorium in Aalto University's main building. . The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Even though many or most schools were started as private schools. designed by Alvar Aalto. Most schools are managed by municipal officials.[127] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries and formal education is usually started at the age of 7. today only around 3 percent of students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK). Trade schools prepare for professions. designed by Alvar Aalto. graduates may either enter the workforce directly. After lower secondary school.Mikael Agricola. Main article: Education in Finland See also: List of universities in Finland Most pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level. Seminaarinmäki Campus of the University of Jyväskylä. or apply to trade schools or gymnasiums (upper secondary schools). Primary school takes normally six years and lower secondary school three years. many times less than in Sweden and most other developed countries.

Originating in Denmark in the nineteenth century.[132] Finland had a long tradition of adult education. Study centres allowed groups to follow study plans of their own making. and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year.[129] Around 33% of residents have a tertiary degree. low-temperature physics. civic and workers' institutes. Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.[134] [edit]Literature Main article: Finnish literature Written Finnish could be said to have existed since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish during the Protestant Reformation. study centres. Many writers of the national awakening wrote in Swedish. 1.[131] More than 30% of tertiary graduates are in science-related fields.[130] The proportion of foreign students is 3% of all tertiary enrolments. Forty percent of them did so for professional reasons. notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino. such as the national poetJohan Ludvig Runeberg and Zachris Topelius. vocational course centres. and folk high schools. such as secondary evening schools. Folk high schools are a distinctly Nordic institution. Graduation from either formally qualifies for tertiary education. materials research.801 patents were filed in Finland. In tertiary education. brain research. similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%).3%. environmental sciences. while in advanced programs it is 7. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala. United States (38%) and Japan (37%). [128] The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world. In 2005.Academically oriented gymnasiums have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for Abitur and tertiary education. but few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century and the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. the Finnish national epic. neural networks. Education is free and living expenses are to a large extent financed by the government through student benefits. Helsinki University is ranked 75th in the Top University Ranking of 2010. biotechnology. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country.5%. still below OECD average 16. Forest improvement. two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-orienteduniversities.[60] Finland is highly productive in scientific research. genetic technology and communications showcase fields of study where Finnish researchers have had a significant impact.[133] In 2007. one of the lowest in OECD. Adults of all ages could stay at them for several weeks and take courses in subjects that ranged from handicrafts to economics. . Adult education appeared in a number of forms. with educational and financial assistance provided by the state. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish. folk high schools became common throughout the region.

Sofi Oksanen and Jari Tervo. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. Popular modern writers include Arto Paasilinna. most famously the Finnishspeaking Mika Waltari and Swedish-speaking Edith Södergran. The Second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought. the Swedish-speaking Tove Jansson is the most translated Finnish writer. about four childhood friends who perform stunts and play pranks on each other (in similar vein to the American TV showJackass). [edit]Television Finland's most internationally successful TV shows are the backpacking travel documentary series Madventures and the reality TV show The Dudesons. located in central Helsinki. Alvar Aalto. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen. while the best novel is annually awarded the prestigious Finlandia Prize. [edit]Visual arts The National Museum of Finland. See also: List of Finnish architects Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Besides Kalevala and Waltari. textilesand glassware. remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Ilkka Remes. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939.[citation needed] [edit]Music . Finnish architecture is famous around the world. Kari Hotakainen. illustrates Finnish history from prehistoric times to the present day. there was a rise of modernist writers. characterized by Väinö Linna. who helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland.After Finland became independent. is also famous for his work in furniture.

Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades. [edit]Pop . Finland's national anthem. a significant figure in the history of classical music. Finnish rock. The same word sometimes refers tolavlu or vuelie songs. Pekka Kuusisto. Today. less influenced by Germanic influence than the Nordic folk dance music that largely replaced the kalevaic tradition. Kaija Saariaho. and Sami music [edit]Classical Much of the Finland's classical music is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics. though this is technically incorrect. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread. The first Finnish opera was written by the German-born composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Esa-Pekka Salonen. and many of Finland's importantcomposers are still alive. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. Finland has a very lively classical music scene. the Sami. and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphonyKullervo.The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. Sweden and Norway. Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. Main articles: Music of Finland. such as Magnus Lindberg. Finnish classical music has existed for only about a hundred years. The people of northern Finland. and has become a part of popular music. Pacius also wrote the music to the poem Maamme/Vårt land (Our Country). Olli Mustonen. as comprised in the Kalevala. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila. Soile Isokoski. are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. Jukka-Pekka Saraste and Leif Segerstam. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs. Tarja Turunen and Linda Lampenius. Osmo Vänskä. In 1899 he composedFinlandia.

tango. Sentenced. HIM's 2005 albumDark Light went gold in the United States. a style of Argentine music. Modern Finnish popular music includes a number of prominent rock bands. Sonata Arctica. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s glam rock act that inspired the hit American hard rock group Guns N' Roses among others. During the late 1960s and 1970s.[135] Many Finnish metal bands have gained international recognition. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music. jazz musicians. This was also the fate of the rock and roll groupHurriganes. HIM and Nightwish are some of Finland's most internationally known bands. During the early 1960s. During the decade. some progressive rock groups such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. After Finnish hard rock/heavy metal band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest. meaning "hit") is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Finland hosted the competition in 2007. Beatlemania arrived in Finland. resulting in further development of the local rock scene. Korpiklaani. Finnish rock musicians increasingly wrote their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. Other well-known metal bands are Amorphis. Around 1964. the first significant wave of Finnish rock groups emerged. dance music acts. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager. is also popular. Apocalyptica are an internationally famous Finnish group who are most renowned for mixing strings-led classical music with classic heavy metal.Perttu Kivilaakso ofApocalyptica. . Children of Bodom. hip hop performers. playing instrumental rock inspired by groups such as The Shadows. The light music in Swedish-speaking areas has more influences from Sweden. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s.Stratovarius and Waltari. Impaled Nazarene. etc.

[136] [edit]Media and communications Linus Torvalds. Around twelve feature films are made each year. 320 popular magazines. List of newspapers in Finland. along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese. 67 commercial radio stations.100 professional magazines. tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. Spede Pasanen and Hollywood film director and producer Renny Harlin. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines. Worldwide. Mauritz Stiller. the Finnishsoftware engineer best known for creating the popular open-source operating system Linux. Finns. 2. including the newspaper Aamulehti. notable directors include Aki Kaurismäki. there are around 200 newspapers. spend the most time reading newspapers. three digital radio channels and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels. Each year. the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat.000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold.000[138] making it the largest). the commerce-orientedTaloussanomat and the television channel Nelonen. Finland's press has been rated the freest in the world. around 12. [136] Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (its circulation of 412.[137] Today.[139] . and Television in Finland Thanks to its emphasis on transparency and equal rights.[edit]Cinema Main article: Cinema of Finland See also: List of Finnish films In the film industry. See also: Telecommunications in Finland.

000 inhabitants. both terrestrially and on cable. Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabitper-second beginning July 2010.[141] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers and most residents have a mobile phone. Butter.[143] [edit]Cuisine Main article: Finnish cuisine Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Value-added services are rare. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier).YLE. Sauteéd Reindeer is a popular dish in Lapland and is usually eaten with Lingonberry .[140] Finland had around 1. Around 79% of the population use the Internet. often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi). operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages.[142] In October 2009. is spread over the hot pastries before eating. All TV channels are broadcast digitally.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1. Finland's public broadcasting station. YLE is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters.

Main articles: Public holidays in Finland and Flag days in Finland All official holidays in Finland are established by Acts of Parliament. Ascension Day. New Year's Day. while the dishes from the eastern part have traditionally included various vegetables and mushrooms. According to the statistics. lingonberries. but still Finns eat less beef than many other nations. barley. Easter. John's Day) and All Saints' Day. cloudberries. [edit]Sports .Epiphany. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking. Midsummer Day (St. and more fish and poultry. but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. red meat consumption has risen. while secular holidays include May Day and the Independence Day.Finnish cuisine is notable for generally combining traditional country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental style cooking.Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food. [citation needed] Christian holidays include Christmas.[citation needed] Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye. This is mainly because of the high cost of meat in Finland. Pentecost. and sea buckthorn). Refugees from Karelia contributed to foods in eastern Finland. Fish andmeat play a prominent role in traditional Finnish dishes from the western part of the country. [edit]Public holidays A midsummer bonfire (kokko) inMäntsälä. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated and at least 24 to 26 December is taken as a holiday. drink or in various recipes. oats) and berries (such as bilberries. New Year's Day and Midsummer.

Pesäpallo. five world championships.[145] Finland first participated at the Olympic Games in 1908. Main article: Sport in Finland Various sporting events are popular in Finland. At the 1912 Summer Olympics. Finnish long-distance runners dominated the Olympics. with Paavo Nurmi winning a total of nine Olympic gold medals between 1920 and 1928 and setting 22 official world records between 1921 and 1931. ski jumping and Formula One. At the 1924 Summer Olympics.2 million people.[144] In terms of medals and gold medals won per capita. a nation then of only 3. is the national sport of Finland. Finland is the best performing country in Olympic history. The event has brought Finland nine Olympic gold medals. although the most popular sports in terms of spectators are ice hockey. Paavo Nurmi at the 1920 Summer Olympics. Nurmi is often considered the greatest Finnish sportsman and one of the greatest athletes of all time.Finland's men's national ice hockey teamis ranked as one of the best in the world. five European championships and 24 world records. In the 1920s and 1930s. athletics. came second in the medal count. resembling baseball. Finland. The team has won two world championship titles (1995 & 2011) titles and five Olympic medals. For over 100 years. Finnish male and female athletes have consistently excelled at the javelin throw. great pride was taken in the three gold medals won by the original "Flying Finn" Hannes Kolehmainen. cross-country skiing. . while still an autonomous Grand Duchywithin the Russian Empire. Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II.

and Saku Koivu. some of Finland's most internationally well-known and successful sportspeople are long-distance runners Ville Ritola and Lasse Virén. see International rankings of Finland. Teemu Selänne. and four-time World Rally champions Juha Kankkunen and Tommi Mäkinen. football players Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä. ski-jumpers Matti Nykänen and Janne Ahonen. ice hockey players Jari Kurri. [edit]International rankings The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. Mika Häkkinen and Kimi Räikkönen.In addition to Kolehmainen and Nurmi. Nordic walking. gymnast Heikki Savolainen. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. For a more comprehensive list. Eero Mäntyranta. running. alpine skiers Kalle Palander and Tanja Poutiainen. Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball. The 1952 Summer Olympics were held in Helsinki. rower Pertti Karppinen. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics. cycling and skiing. Formula One world champions Keke Rosberg. [show]    V T E International rankings of Finland [edit]See also Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Finland portal     Outline of Finland Index of Finland-related articles Bibliography of Finland Outline of Finland . cross-country skiers Veikko Hakulinen. Marja-Liisa Kirvesniemi and Mika Myllylä.

Finland is actually represented by its prime minister. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 3. According to the Finnish Constitution. and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. ^ a b c d e "Finland". the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval. he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semipresidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p. it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter. revised 2008). First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitution reduced the powers of the president even further. Retrieved 2012-04-18. ^ a b Formerly a semi-presidential republic. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press. 2.09. International Monetary Fund.2012" (in Finnish). Population Register Centre. . and not by its president." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)".         [edit]Notes Finnish Models of Public Transport Index of Finland-related articles Fire fighting in Finland Football in Finland Gun politics in Finland Kansallisbiografia List of bands from Finland List of Finns Protected areas of Finland 1.95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'. ^ "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30.

OECD 11. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ a b "Kuusi kuntaa katoaa kartalta". 31 December 2010. 13. and politics ranks the globe's top nations. E24. 1980–2010". ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk". ^ "The World's Best Countries. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. 6. 10. University of Oulu. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile".WorldAudit. Retrieved 7 November 2010. Helsinki: Yleisradio Oy. 5. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". 12. ^ "National Archives Service. 14. "Republiken Finland" in Swedish. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Fundforpeace. Retrieved 1 January 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2011. ^ "Republic of Finland". Newsweek. Prosperity. 15. ^ Herkules. People.1787/20755120-table1. ^ SUOMI(TTAVIA ETYMOLOGIOITA). YLE Uutiset (in Finnish). Population Register Centre. Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Archaeological Conference. 18–23 August 2004 Edited by Vesa-Pekka Herva Gummerus Kirjapaino . 8. Retrieved 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^ a b "KUNTIEN ASUKASLUVUT AAKKOSJÄRJESTYKSESSÄ". ^ "Human Development Report 2010". or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish. United Nations. kotikielenseura. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". economy. 2010-06-14.doi:10. which is however not defined by law. material. August 2010". 2010-08-16. United 17. ^ "The Failed States Index 2008". Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. education. Legislation only recognizes the short 31 August 2012. A Newsweek study of health. 7. Helsinki: The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. is the long protocol name. 2010. culture and environment in the north. Retrieved 2011-03-06. and "Human Development Index trends. Newsweek.4. Retrieved 16 September 2012. Finland (in English)".no. 9. Local Finland. Retrieved 201002-04.oulu. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 2010. ^ a b "Local Finland—Front page". Retrieved 5 November 2010. and "Northern Sami:Suoma dásseváldi" in Sami.

^ a b c d Finland 1917–2007 (last updated 2007-12-05). "From slash-and-burn fields to postindustrial society—90 years of change in industrial structure".fi. Retrieved 2010-08-26. Finland chronology". Retrieved 2010-08-26. 21. World Bank 25. Retrieved 24 June 2008. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic. ^ Timothy Snyder (2010). Stat. ^ "Median Age (Years)".Federal Research Division. 1941–44: 900 days of terror". Retrieved 24 June 2008."Population development in independent Finland—greying Baby Boomers". ^ History of Finland and the Finnish People from stone age to WWII. Retrieved 2008-12-11.18. ISBN 0-465-00239-0 31. Retrieved 2013-04-04. . ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland. ^ Finland. Zenith Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013-03-22. ^ The Finnish Civil War. 29. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ Mickelsson. ^ David Glantz (2001). Europe-cities. page 67. ^ Dr. muutos ja nykypäivä. ^ Finland 1917–2007 (2007-02-20). 23. ^ a b "Finland and the Swedish Empire". p. Federal Research Division. Suomen puolueet—Historia. 20. Pirjo Uino of the National Board of Antiquities. University of Minnesota Press. ^ Sawyer and Sawyer: Medieval Scandinavia. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.33. ISBN 0-7603-0941-8 30. ^ "A Country Study: Finland—The Finnish Civil War". 33. "The siege of Leningrad. Environment and Natural Resources". GlobalHealthFacts. ThisisFinland — "Prehistory: The ice recedes—man arrives". p. 34. "History of Finland. Stat. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 26.173. Helsingin Sanomat 32. Library of Congress. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 27. Rauli. 1993 22. Vastapaino 24. ^ "Statistics Finland. 19. Basic Books. ^ Professor Frank Horn of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law University of Lappland writing for Virtual Finland on National Minorities of Finland.

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^ Statistics – Population structure. ^ "National Minorities of Finland.104. 204. 2009-09-17. 117. Retrieved 2011-12-06. Statistics Finland. Fieldwork: January– February The Tatars". Statistics Finland. Department of State. 106. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 17 § and 121 §" (PDF). ^ "Language according to age and gender by region 2011".2013 a b c 113. 114. Publication: October 2010. ^ a b Population structure Statistics Finland Lutheran church member statistics evl. ^ Unofficial names for Finland in Sami languages are: Suopma (Northern Sami). ^ "The Constitution of Finland.FINLEX Data Bank. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 2011. Department for Communications and Culture. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 110.pdf?sequence=1 118. 2006-12-31. ^ "The population of Finland in 2006". Retrieved 2007-09-04. Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). ^ "Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count?". Retrieved 2011-0111. ^ "Health (2004)". ^ "Finland in Figures". Produced by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 1. Forum. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2004". ^ Salla Korpela (May 2005). The Lancet.uta. p. . Statistics Finland. ^ 112. ^ "Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken —Teckenspråken i Finland" (in (Swedish)). See Geonames. 111. "The Church in Finland today".hunturk. 109. 2004-09-15. 120. 105. ^ "Finland Life expectancy at birth—Demographics".2. ^ "Special Eurobarometer Biotechnology" (PDF). ^ See Kalo Finnish Romani language 107. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 119. Finland Promotion Retrieved 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2007-01-22. Stat. 116. Indexmundi. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 108.Unknown parameter|section= ignored (help) 115.

Archived fromthe original on 2011-07-07. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. ^ "Top University Ranking of 2010: University of Helsinki". 128. 1988. Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Department for Communication and Culture / Unit for Promotion and Publications / Embassy and Consulates General of Finland in China.C. OECD 132. 131. Research. . 2007-11-15.121. 123. (Washington D. Daily Mail (London). "A country that innovates". No. 130. 135. 2012. Jenny (2011-04-14).org. 133. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage. 124. 122. Research. ^ "Scientific publication—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish).org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.weforum. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Population Briefing Paper. 134. ^ "Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-0214. ^ Education at Glance 2007: Finland. 20. 129. "'National scandal' of 11 stillbirths a day means Britain has one of worst survival rates". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 19 November 2012. in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Retrieved 2012-04-07.pdf 126.The Wall Street Journal. ^ "World Happiness report". Retrieved 2010-02-04. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote (in 1893). ^ Kari Sipilä. Powerless and Pregnant". Tilastokeskus. ^ 125.: Population Crisis Committee).fi". ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights". 2009-12-08. ^ "Patents with numbers—Finnish science and technology Information Service" (in Finnish). ^ Shah. Virtual Finland. Neil (15 April 2012). ^ a b "Media moves". ^ "Tilastokeskus. Eurydice. ^ "Summary sheets on education systems in Europe". ^ Hope. but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 136. Retrieved 2007-01-22. ^ "Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor. "Guns N' Roses Can Agree on at Least One Thing: This Finnish Saxophonist Rocks".

^ Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index. 144. pp. Retrieved 2011-0306. 74– 81 148. Heritage. ^ a b "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". ^ Measuring Globalisation. 143. Retrieved 2007-12-22. ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007".137. ^ IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Scoreboard 2006. 141. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 152. pp. Iltalehti. Columbia University and World Economic Forum (2006) (2012-01-03). Foreign Policy. 2009-10-14. ^ a b The World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2012.imd. 52–60 149. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity | The Heritage Foundation". ^ "2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE" (PDF). ^ 2010 Freedom of the Press Survey (retrieved 4 May 2011). Heritage. www. 153. 138. Retrieved Statistics Finland. 2007-08-31. The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). ^ The Global Top 20. Retrieved ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". 147. Retrieved 2007-09-04. Foreign Policy November/December 2006. 150. Foreign Policy May/June 2005. ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). 140. Retrieved 25 July 2009. www. Yale University. Retrieved on 2012-06-09. Yale University. 145. World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. ^ [2] 146. Retrieved 2009-10-16. ^ "Coming Soon". Retrieved 2011-0306. The Global Top 20. 142. YLE. 139. ^ "Circulation Statistics". ^ Tässä ovat Suomen suosituimmat lajit | 154. ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life (Statistics Finland).ch .imd.

org 157. ^ "PISA 2003 – Learning for Tomorrow's World" (PDF). ^ "Reporters Without Borders". ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2010". Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008. ^ "Technological achievement statistics – countries compared". 156. Organisation for economic co-operation and development 159. 162. ^ Methodology. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Organisation for economic co-operation and development (2007) pisa. Institute for Economics & Peace . ^ "Human Development Report 2005" (PDF). Transparency International 168. weforum. 164. 158. Volume 1: Analysis. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Institute for Economics & Peace 165. 163. Retrieved 2011-03-06. NationMaster. Transparency International 169. Save the Children. ^ Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006. Results & Findings. Retrieved 201103-06. ^ Pisa 2006. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ Persistently high corruption in low-income countries amounts to an “ongoing humanitarian disaster”. ^ "State of the World’s Mothers – 2003". Results & Findings. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009. Global Peace Index. [dead link] [dead link] Retrieved 2011-03-06. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978-0-230-54704-9 170. ^ 2008 Methodology. Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World. ^ Finland. ^ "Human Development Report 2006" (PDF).org. 171. ^ Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action. Transparency International 167.155. Global Peace Index. 160. Rsf. ^ "Reporters Without Borders". ^ Messages From Pisa 2000. Retrieved 172. Save the Children. Rsf. Rsf. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. United Nations Development Programme.oecd.

Let Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9).org/issues/global-information-technology/gitr-2012data-platform 176. Allen F. ^ Table 1: Global Competitiveness Index rankings and 2005 comparisons. Lavery. Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8). Retrieved 2011-03-06. Fred. ^ http://www. and the USSR 1940–1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1). there's music from the forest. Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5) Mann. Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway. Klinge. Richard D.      Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1).weforum.  Trotter. World Economic Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X). Kauko. Eloise and Paananen. 177.173. The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939–1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6). Finland. 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4. ^ a b "World Audit Democracy". Jutikkala.  Engle. The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2). Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. ^ http://www. Eino. Matti.    Lewis. . weforum. a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3).    Rusama. Singleton. Chris. Retrieved 201103-06. The Global Competitiveness Report 2006. Greenwood Press. Pauri. Ecumenical Growth in Finland (ISBN 951-693-239-8). Finland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1). 174. Listen.weforum. Jean-Jacques. Deborah. William R. A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0). Jason. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939– 1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6). Jaakko. Worldaudit. Pirinen. The History of Finland. Max. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report – Finland" (PDF). A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1). Jakobson. [edit]Further reading  Chew.  Swallow. ISSN 1096-2905).

Key Development Forecasts for Finland from International Futures. The largest groups by native language 2001 and 2011 (Statistics Finland). Finland (University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries Government Publications). the official English-language online portal (administered by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs). Government  This is Finland. .[edit]External links Find more about Finland at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Overviews and data       Finland entry at The World Factbook Finland at the Open Directory Project Finland profile from the BBC News.   Finland Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members (CIA Publications). Population in Finland 1750–2010 Appendix figure 2.

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