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Appendix A: Symbols and Nomenclature

2N a ao A Ao b c C CDF(X) d dx dy D D(x) Db Di Dl da/dn e E Ei erf erf1 F F(X) F1 F2 G h HB I J k kt K Kc K L Lf number of load reversals to failure (N = number of cycles to failure) crack length, displacement atomic distance. cross-sectional area, stress ratio between the amplitude of alternating stress and mean stresses, cross-sectional area original cross-sectional area fatigue strength exponent crack length, distance from the neutral axis, fatigue ductility exponent empirical constant, Larson-Miller constant cumulative density function, probability distribution function average grain size, spacing between two atomic planes, grain size diameter of bore hole diameter of rod diameter of indenter ball distribution function grain boundary diffusivity diameter of indention lattice diffusivity fatigue crack propagation (or growth) rate initial indention Youngs modulus, modulus of elasticity potential energy of electron in atomic shell, i = 0, 1, 2, 3 error function inverse error function applied force, indenting force distribution function, cumulative distribution function minor load major load shear modulus height, indention depth Brinell hardness number moment of inertia of cross-sectional area polar moment of inertia Boltzmanns constant (13.8x10-24 J/K), material parameter, number of standard deviation stress concentration factor stress intensity factor fracture toughness range of stress intensity factor specimen length at the moment final specimen length

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2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

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Appendix A: Symbols and Nomenclature

Lo m M MPa n n1 ni N N1 Nf Ni nm p P P(x) Pa PDF(x) q r rx R Ra S Sa SI t T x xi X Kth L e f f o t x z e 2

original specimen length Walker exponent bending moment macro pascal sample size, nano, number of cycles, integer representing the diffraction order number of cycles the component is exposed under stress 1 number of cycles the component is exposed under stress i number of cycles to failure, population size, sample size number of cycles to failure under stress 1 fatigue life number of cycle to failure under stress i nanometer pressure, pica, empirical constant (total) load, force, Larson-Miller parameter probability function, cumulative probability function pascal probability density function plastic-constraint factor radius length of the plastic zone in the x direction stress ratio between minimum and maximum stresses roughness average, two-dimensional measurement applied stress roughness average, three-dimensional measurement International System of Units (SI/Systeme International) thickness, time torque, time, temperature exponent constant value for individual variate variate grain boundary width critical threshold value change in length creep deformation creep rate engineering (normal) strain true fracture strain fatigue ductility coefficient initial strain true or natural strain lateral strain strain in the thickness direction total strain range elastic strain amplitude

2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

Appendix A: Symbols and Nomenclature

309

p p 2 (X) s safety x x y t z safety strength stress 1 3 2 a b e eff, max eff, max/2 f f h m max min nom o R, max s safety sampling sy t u ut

plastic strain range plastic strain amplitude the angle between the tensile axis and the normal to the slip plane cumulative distribution function shear strain surface energy the angle between the tensile axis and slip direction, electron wavelength micro, statistic mean, original distribution mean the mean value of the safety margin distribution mean of part strength sampling distribution mean mean of applied stress angle between the incident electron and the scattering plane radius of curvature at crack tip mean of safety margin stress of safety margin strength of a part stress applied to a part standard deviation, tensile stress, stress, normal stress, applied tensile stress the algebraically largest principal stress the algebraically smallest principal stress variance stress amplitude, amplitude of alternating stress, alternating stress bending stress engineering (normal) stress, fatigue endurance limit effective maximum stress effective alternating stress fracture strength, fracture stress fatigue strength coefficient hoop stress mean stress maximum stress, theoretical cohesive strength in tension minimum stress normal stress constant material parameter algebraic maximum stress at a specific R ratio shear strength standard deviation of safety margin distribution standard deviation for sampling distribution yield strength in shear true stress ultimate tensile strength ultimate tensile strength

2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC

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Appendix A: Symbols and Nomenclature

Walker x x, max y yc yield y, max yt z crss max t

Walker equivalent stress standard deviation of strength, transverse elastic stress maximum stress in the x direction longitudinal stress, standard deviation of stress, yield strength, alternating stress range, stress range yield strength in compression yield strength maximum stress in the y direction yield strength in tension standard deviation of safety of margin shear stress Poissons ratio critical resolved shear stress maximum shear strength torsion stress atomic volume

2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC