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Table of Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Problem Statement: ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
State Variable Representation of the Equations of Motion :( State Space Model)...................................................... 4
Longitudinal Approximations: ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Long-Period (Phugoid) Approximation: .................................................................................................................... 4
Short-Period Approximation: ................................................................................................................................... 5
The Problem Analysis by MATLAB Program ................................................................................................................. 6
Program Inputs ............................................................................................................................................................. 6
Matrices A, B, C,and D .................................................................................................................................................. 6
System Transfer Functions ........................................................................................................................................... 6
Eigen Vectors and Eigen Values .................................................................................................................................... 7
Long period Approximation .......................................................................................................................................... 7
Short period Approximation ......................................................................................................................................... 8
Conclusion: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Appendices: ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Appendex A :The Charlie Aircraft data: ........................................................................................................................ 9
Appendix B: The MATLAB Program: ........................................................................................................................... 11
References: ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Books .......................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Programs:.................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Sites: ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12

Introduction

In our problem we analyze the response of an elastic airplane. The Motion of an airplane in free flight can
be extremely complicated .we can make some simplifying assumptions which will reduce the complexity of
the problem. As we interest in longitudinal motion of an airplane we assume a small perturbation that leads
to the linearized longitudinal equations. We can write them in matrix form called state space model.
The techniques described in this project are systematic and efficient methods for designing multi-variable
controllers based on well known results in classical, as well as modern control theory. The methods would
yield multi-loop systems in which a linear combination of all aircraft states are feed-back in each control
channel, consequently, every feasible feedback path will be considered.

Project Assignment

For aircraft longitudinal dynamics,


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Identify system states; classify them into rates and positions.


Identify system control inputs.
Write linear system state space equation in the form x Ax Bu .
Make a signal flow diagram of aircraft longitudinal dynamics.
Find the resolvant matrix.
Obtain the characteristic polynomial.
Find the system poles , We will observe two short period modes (real
poles), and a phugoid mode (complex pole pair).
8. Find the damping and frequency of the phugoid motion using the data in
the Table 1.
9. The speed variations in aircraft longitudinal motion are often trimmed
by a separate throttle control so that u can be assumed negligible. Thus
we can use a simplified dynamic model in which the state variables are
x1

x2 q

x3

Problem Statement:
It is required to calculate the longitudinal motion of the Charlie passenger jet aircraft using the data given in
Appendix A which includes the aircraft general parameters and the stability derivatives according to the
flight condition. In our problem, we will be solving for Flight condition 1.
We first obtain the A, B, C and D matrices required for the State Space, and then we calculate the eigen
values and vectors. The transfer function is then obtained from the State Space model and poles are
calculated from the characteristic equation. Various approximations are then applied to the State Space
model.

State Variable Representation of the Equations of Motion :( State Space Model)

U
Where

] ,

],

The eigenvalues are obtained by solving the following determinant:


|

Longitudinal Approximations:
Long-Period (Phugoid) Approximation:

It is a gradual interchange of potential and kinetic energy about the equilibrium altitude and airspeed. It is
characterized by changes in pitch altitude, altitude and velocity at a nearly constant angle of attack. An
approximation can be obtained by neglecting the pitching moment equation and assuming that the change in
the angle of attack is 0:
4

][

The eigenvalues of the long-period approximation are obtained by solving the equation
|

The frequency and damping ratio can be expressed as:

Short-Period Approximation:

An approximation to the short-period mode of motion can be obtained by assuming


the X-force equation. The longitudinal state space equations reduce to the following:

][

]
[

and dropping

The eigenvalues of the state equation can be determined by solving the equation
|

The approximate short-period roots:

[(

)]

The frequency and damping ratio can be expressed as:

[(
[

)]

The Problem Analysis by MATLAB Program


Charlie A/C (1) See level
clear,clc,close all

Program Inputs
Mach=0.1;U0=67;q_bat=2810;g=9.81;alpha=8.5;%degree
Gama_0=0;Xu=-.021;Xw=0.122;Xde=0.292;Xdt=3.66*10^-6;Zu=-.2;Zw=-.512;Zq=-1.9;Zde=1.96;
Zdt=-1.69*10^-7;Mu=0.000036;Mw=-.006;Mw0=-.0008;Mq=-.357;Mde=-.378;Mdt=0.7*10^-7;

Matrices A, B, C,and D
A=[Xu Xw 0 -g;Zu Zw U0 0;(Mu+Mw0*Zu) (Mw+Mw0*Zw) (Mq+Mw0*U0) 0;0 0 1 0];
B=[Xde Xdt;Zde Zdt;(Mde+Mw0*Zde) (Mdt+Mw0*Zdt);0 0];
C=[1 1 1 1];
D=[0 0];
sys = ss(A,B,C,D);

System Transfer Functions


tf(sys)

Transfer function from input 1 to output:


-2.044 s^3 - 26.66 s^2 - 0.08058 s + 1.028
--------------------------------------------------s^4 + 0.9436 s^3 + 0.6286 s^2 + 0.02262 s + 0.01195

Transfer function from input 2 to output:


3.561e-006 s^3 + 7.359e-006 s^2 + 1.908e-006 s - 2.173e-007
----------------------------------------------------------s^4 + 0.9436 s^3 + 0.6286 s^2 + 0.02262 s + 0.01195
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Eigen Vectors and Eigen Values


[V,D]=eig(A)

V=
-0.0515 + 0.0983i -0.0515 - 0.0983i -0.9918
-0.9937

-0.9937

-0.9918

0.1254 + 0.0209i 0.1254 - 0.0209i

-0.0008 - 0.0089i -0.0008 + 0.0089i -0.0021 + 0.0004i -0.0021 - 0.0004i


-0.0085 + 0.0077i -0.0085 - 0.0077i 0.0033 + 0.0145i 0.0033 - 0.0145i

D=
-0.4685 + 0.6189i
0

-0.4685 - 0.6189i

-0.0033 + 0.1408i
0

-0.0033 - 0.1408i

Long period Approximation


A_L=[Xu -g;-Zu/U0 0];
[V_L,D_L]=eig(A_L)
w_L=sqrt(-Zu*g/U0);
Zeta_L=-Xu/(2*w_L);

V_L =
-0.9998

-0.9998

0.0011 + 0.0174i 0.0011 - 0.0174i


D_L =
-0.0105 + 0.1708i
0

-0.0105 - 0.1708i

Short period Approximation


A_S=[Zw U0;(Mw+Mw0*Zw) (Mq+Mw0*U0)];
[V_S,D_S]=eig(A_S)
w_S=sqrt(Mq*Zw/U0-Mw);
Zeta_S=-(Mq+Mw0+Zw/U0)/(2*w_S);

V_S =
1.0000

1.0000

0.0008 + 0.0091i 0.0008 - 0.0091i


D_S =
-0.4613 + 0.6099i
0

-0.4613 - 0.6099i

Conclusion:
Finally we conclude that the short period mode [-0.4685 + 0.6189i -0.4685 - 0.6189i ] effect disappearing
quickly but the longe period mode [-0.0033 + 0.1408i -0.0033 - 0.1408i] has a long period effect .

Appendices:
Appendex A :The Charlie Aircraft data:

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Appendix B: The MATLAB Program:


%% Charlie A/C (1) See level
clear,clc,close all
%% Program Inputs
Mach=0.1;U0=67;q_bat=2810;g=9.81;alpha=8.5;%degree
Gama_0=0;Xu=-.021;Xw=0.122;Xde=0.292;Xdt=3.66*10^-6;Zu=-.2;Zw=-.512;Zq=-1.9;Zde=-1.96;
Zdt=-1.69*10^-7;Mu=0.000036;Mw=-.006;Mw0=-.0008;Mq=-.357;Mde=-.378;Mdt=0.7*10^-7;
%% Matrices A, B, C,and D
A=[Xu Xw 0 -g;Zu Zw U0 0;(Mu+Mw0*Zu) (Mw+Mw0*Zw) (Mq+Mw0*U0) 0;0 0 1 0];
B=[Xde Xdt;Zde Zdt;(Mde+Mw0*Zde) (Mdt+Mw0*Zdt);0 0];
C=[1 1 1 1];
D=[0 0];
sys = ss(A,B,C,D);
%% System Transfer Functions
tf(sys)
%% Eigen Vectors and Eigen Values
[V,D]=eig(A)
%% Long period Approximation
A_L=[Xu -g;-Zu/U0 0];
[V_L,D_L]=eig(A_L)
w_L=sqrt(-Zu*g/U0);
Zeta_L=-Xu/(2*w_L);
%% Short period Approximation
A_S=[Zw U0;(Mw+Mw0*Zw) (Mq+Mw0*U0)];
[V_S,D_S]=eig(A_S)
w_S=sqrt(Mq*Zw/U0-Mw);
Zeta_S=-(Mq+Mw0+Zw/U0)/(2*w_S);

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References:
Books

Robert c. Nelson, Flight stability and automatic control ; Mc Grow Hill, 1989, 1998.
Lecture Notes

Programs:

MATLAB Program

Sites:

arri.uta.edu/acs/jyotirmay/EE4343/.../Summer06gradprojects
http://techpubs.sgi.com/library/tpl/cgibin/getdoc.cgi?coll=0650&db=bks&fname=/SGI_Developer/Perf_PG/ch02.html
Flight stability and automatic control (Nilson)

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