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2.3.

HYDROCHLORIC ACID

2.3.1 Estimated production capacities Hydrochloric acid,depending on technology of production,is produced in the RF as synthetic HCl and also as HCl byproduct ; HCl is defined by Russian GOST as : - technical synthetic HCl with HCl content of 31,5- 33,% as well as with a concentration of 35%. - by-product HCl with HCl content of 27,5- 30% ; - so called inhibited HCl with HCl content 20-25% containing 0,3-1,2 % of inhibitor and produced according to the pending standards of the manufacturer ; Besides, at various producers there are produced higher grade HCl with HCl content of 35-38% ; The production of synthetic HCl accounts for cca. 35% of the total HCl produced. Most of HCl in the RF is produced/generated/as by-product HCl/so called abgaznaya kyslota/. The table below shows the very recent production of synthetic and by-product HCl. ble 2.3.1.1. Production of synthetic and by-product HCl/as 31,5% HCl/, 000mtpa
Region and company/producer 2002 2003

RUSSIAN FEDERATION TOTAL Including Central Region K Azot Novomoskovsk Syntez Moskva Southern Kaustik Volgograd Khimprom Volgograd Volga /basin/ Z Kaustik Sterlitamak Ufakhimprom Khimprom Novocheboksarsk Kirovo-Chepetskiy Khimkombinat Aviabor Dzerzhinsk

839,3 47,0 43,3 3,7 264,1 148,2 115,9 492,5 143,4 50,4 76,7 152,6 1,7

851,6 41,9 36,1 5,8 288,5 179,0 109,5 487,8 148,9 39,6 84,5 135,9 2,1

Region and company/producer

2002

2003

Sibur-Neftekhim Dzerzhinsk Halogen Perm Volgokhimprom Chapaevsk Siberia Altaykhimprom Yarovoe Khimsoda Sayansk/also known as Sayanskkhimplast/. Khimpromusolye Khimprom Kemerovo

41,8 23,6 2,2 35,7 0,3 6,0 8,0 21,4

43,0 31,6 2,2 33,4 0,4 4,7 8,2 20,1

The overall production of HCl/synthetic as well as byproduct/ across the RF remained steady, some 1,5% increase in 2003 in comparison with 2002. Major producers are usually also caustic soda producers , as for instance Kaustik and Khimprom Volgograd, ZAO Kaustik Sterlitamak ant the Kirovo-Chepetskiy KhK. Production capacities of HCl are estimated cca. 106,7 ktpa as 31,5% product as of 1.01.2004..

The table below shows the estimated HCl production capacities ble 2.3.1.2. HCl estimated production capacities/as 31,5% solution/ Company RF TOTAL Including K Azot Novomoskovsk Syntez Moskva Khimprom Volgograd Kaustik Volgograd Z Kaustik Sterlitamak Ufakhimprom Khimprom Novocheboksarsk Kirovo-Cheptskiy Khimkombinat Sibur-Neftekhim Dzerzhinsk Volgokhimprom Chapaevsk
Capacity as of 1.01.2004 000mt Capacity as of 1.01.2004 000mt

Operating rate /%/ 2002 . 2003 . 81,1 86,9 17,9 87,7 100,0 Over 100,0 42,6 53,7 Over 100,0 57,7 7,7 80,1 72,5 35,2 82,8 100,0 Over 100,0 33,5 59,2 Over 100,0 59,5 7,7

1035,2 49,8 20,7 132,2 148,2 135,2 118,3 142,8 60,1 72,3 28,7

1062,7 49,8 16,5 133,1 179,0 135,2 118,3 142,8 60,1 72,3 28,7

Company Z Khimsoda Sayansk Khimpromusolye Khimprom Kemerovo

Capacity as of 1.01.2004 000mt 31,1

Capacity as of 1.01.2004 000mt 31,1

26,0 45,0

26,0 45,0

Operating rate /%/ 2002 . 2003 . 19,3 15,1 30,8 31,5 47,6 44,7

In 2003 the RF HCl capacity has increased by expansions at OAO Kaustik Volgograd.

27,5 kt, due to capacities

During the discussed period of 2002-2003 the overall operating rate remaind practically unchanged .

2.3.2.The Russian Federation HCl market The basic characteristics of the RF HCl market is described in the table 2.3.2.1
ble 2.3.2.1. Basic characteristics of the RF HCl market/as31,5% solution/ 000mtpa ITEM 2002 2003 DEMAND 839,3 851,6 HOME MARKET 818,5 830,6 EXPORTED QUANTITIES 20,8 21,0 SUPPLY TOTAL 839,3 851,6 PRODUCTION 839,3 851,6 IMPORTED QUANTITIES -

Export share in production % Import share in connsumption %

2,5 -

2,5 -

HCl demand in 2003 increased by 1,5% in comparison with 2002 due to the domestic market expansion . Hydrochloric acid has a steady consumption demand basically due top the chemical industry, /wellover60%of the total consumption/ as the chlorine subsector where hydrochloric acid is used to produce chlorides of metals,, and also in the synthesis of chloroorganic compounds. (see table 2.3.2.2.). Besides,HCl is used for metal pickling in the metallurgy as well as carbonates removal from appropriate surfaces, metal treatment in non-ferrous metallurgy ,food processing industry civil engineering, it has some medical uses ,

ble 2.3.2.2. Russian HCl market segmentation /000mtpa/ as 31,5% solution SEGMENT OF CONSUMPTION Total Including Chemical and petrochemical industry Crude oil exploiting industry Refinery sector Steel metallurgy Non-ferrous metallurgy Civil engineering Food processing sector edical uses Other 2002 . 818,5 530,1 69,3 8,3 21,7 48,0 29,6 66,2 16,4 28,9 2003 . 830,6 534,2 70,8 9,0 23,0 50,0 30,0 68,0 16,6 29,0

Within the chemical industry major HCl consumption end-uses are: Calcium chloride production /about 40% of the chemical industry consumption/, coagulants/14%/,caustic soda/8%/,barium chloride production/5%/ ,calcium hypochlorite production /5%/. From amongst the other sectors: crude oil exploiting industry- 8,5%, metallurgy9%,food processing sector 8,2% -- in 2003. 97,5% of the HCl produced is sold on the domestic market. 2.3.3.Foreign trade HCl HCl export accounts for 2,5% ofthe total production and is exported mostly to CIS countries In 2002-2003 exports have stabilized around 21 ktpa as 31,5% solution HCl (tble 2.3.3.1).

ble 2.2.3.1. RF HCl trade (as 31,5% HCl), mt


Exported quantities/mt/

EXPORTS TOTAL Including Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgizstan

2002 20799,1 6222,3 13948,7 522,1

2003 . 20982,4 4637,5 15907,6 400,0

Exported quantities/mt/

Latvia Lithuania urkmenistan Usbegistan Ukraine IMPORT TOTAL Including Belarus UK Germany Netherlands Ukraine Czech Republic

55,3 5,6 14,7 30,3 6,5 1,7 1,7 0,1 3,0

7,0 0,1 0,2 30,0 4,7 0,4 1,8 0,1 2,4 -

Major importers are the CIS countries ,namely Kazakhstan and Belarus (taking cca 97,6% of the total exports in 2003 ). HCl export shares by companies in 2002-2003 are given below 2003 -. Table 2.3.3.2. ble 2.3.3.2. Major producers-exporters of HCl /as 31,5% solution/
Exports total 000mt 2002 2003 Export shares in % 2002 2003

TOTAL 20,9 21,0 100 100 Including Kaustik Volgograd 4,3 3,5 20,6 16,7 Khimprom Volgograd 0,1 0,5 0,5 2,4 Z Kaustik Sterlitamak 1,6 0,8 7,7 3,8 Ufakhimprom 6,0 7,1 28,7 33,8 Khimprom 1,1 1,7 5,3 8,1 Novocheboksarsk Khimprom Kemerovo 5,9 5,3 28,2 25,2 Kirovo-Chepetskiy KhK 0,5 0,2 2,4 1,0 Other exporters 1,4 1,9 6,6 9,0 Major exporeters were Ufakhimprom and Khimprom Kemerovo 57 and 59% of total export shares 2002 and 2003 ,respectively. Average export prices for the scrutinized period were about 71USD ./mt in 2002 with a subsequent rise in 2003 up to 91 USD/mt in 2003 . HCl imports were extremely low /10mtpa/. .

2.3.4. Domestic prices HCl average domestic prices rosse from453 Rubl/mt in 2002 to 758 Rubl/mt in 2003 Generally the price was dependent on the quality of the product as well as on the source of technology produced by mostly by-product as well as synthetic HCl. , Price levels and dynamics for the scrutinized periofd of 2002-2003 by producers is given below in the table 2.3.4.1. ble 2.3.4.1. Market prices of various producers of HCl/Rubl/mt/
PRODUCER 2002 2003

February 180 600 5500 850 600/720 300 500 167 900 1020 700 700 170 600 600 650 1000 1500 1800

November 210 1000 5500 500 1200 350 700 195 1000 1500 800 750 185 860 720 685 1000 1650 1800

February 210 1000 5500 700 1400 350 850 200 1100 1900 900 800 212 1350 1000 900 1100 1800 2000

November 500 1200 No production 800 2300 350 850 250 1400 3200 1100 1000 250 1400 1050 1000 1800 2200 2500

Sibur-Neftekhim Dzerzhinsk By-product grade 1 Inhibited sort Reactive grade Synthetic Kaustik Volgograd Synthetic Khimprom Volgograd By-product Inhibited HCl Z Kaustik Sterlitamak By-product Inhibited Reactive Synthetic Grade A Grade B Ufakhimprom Byproduct Inhibited Synthetic Grade A Grade B Khimprom Kemerovo Synthetic Reactive Grade Pure GRADE Chemically pure

PRODUCER

2002

2003

February

November

February

November

Comparison of average mrket prices of producers in USD equivalent with average export prices is shown in the table 2.3.4.2. ble 2.3.4.2.Average HCl prices , USD/mt Domestic market prices Export prices Import prices 2002 15 71 2003 25 91 -

Average export prices are well over the average domestic price levels