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Appendix of Week 1 Materials:

Monday and Tuesday: Excerpts from Two Treatises by John Locke Two Treatises of Government by John Locke Of the State of Nature. Sect. 4. TO understand political power right, and derive it from its original, we must consider, what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or depending upon the will of any other man. A state also of equality, wherein all the power and jurisdiction is reciprocal, no one having more than another; there being nothing more evident, than that creatures of the same species and rank, promiscuously born to all the same advantages of nature, and the use of the same faculties, should also be equal one amongst another without subordination or subjection, unless the lord and master of them all should, by any manifest declaration of his will, set one above another, and confer on him, by an evident and clear appointment, an undoubted right to dominion and sovereignty. Sect. 5. This equality of men by nature, the judicious Hooker looks upon as so evident in itself, and beyond all question, that he makes it the foundation of that obligation to mutual love amongst men, on which he builds the duties they owe one another, and from whence he derives the great maxims of justice and charity. His words are, The like natural inducement hath brought men to know that it is no less their duty, to love others than themselves; for seeing those things which are equal, must needs all have one measure; if I cannot but wish to receive good, even as much at every man's hands, as any man can wish unto his own soul, how should I look to have any part of my desire herein satisfied, unless myself be careful to satisfy the like desire, which is undoubtedly in other men, being of one and the same nature? To have any thing offered them repugnant to this desire, must needs in all respects grieve them as much as me; so that if I do harm, I must look to suffer, there being no reason that others should shew greater measure of love to me, than they have by me shewed unto them: my desire therefore to be loved of my equals in nature as much as possible may be, imposeth upon me a natural duty of bearing to them-ward fully the like affection; from which relation of equality between ourselves and them that are as ourselves, what several rules and canons natural reason hath drawn, for direction of life, no manis ignorant, Eccl. Pol. Lib. 1. Sect. 6. But though this be a state of liberty, yet it is not a state of licence: though man in that state have an uncontroulable liberty to dispose of his person or possessions, yet he has not liberty to destroy himself, or so much as any creature in his possession, but where some nobler use than its bare preservation calls for it. The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions: for men being all the workmanship of one omnipotent, and infinitely wise maker; all the servants of one sovereign master, sent into the world by his

order, and about his business; they are his property, whose workmanship they are, made to last during his, not one another's pleasure: and being furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among us, that may authorize us to destroy one another, as if we were made for one another's uses, as the inferior ranks of creatures are for our's. Every one, as he is bound to preserve himself, and not to quit his station wilfully, so by the like reason, when his own preservation comes not in competition, ought he, as much as he can, to preserve the rest of mankind, and may not, unless it be to do justice on an offender, take away, or impair the life, or what tends to the preservation of the life, the liberty, health, limb, or goods of another. Sect. 7. And that all men may be restrained from invading others rights, and from doing hurt to one another, and the law of nature be observed, which willeth the peace and preservation of all mankind, the execution of the law of nature is, in that state, put into every man's hands, whereby every one has a right to punish the transgressors of that law to such a degree, as may hinder its violation: for the law of nature would, as all other laws that concern men in this world 'be in vain, if there were no body that in the state of nature had a power to execute that law, and thereby preserve the innocent and restrain offenders. And if any one in the state of nature may punish another for any evil he has done, every one may do so: for in that state of perfect equality, where naturally there is no superiority or jurisdiction of one over another, what any may do in prosecution of that law, every one must needs have a right to do. Sect. 8. And thus, in the state of nature, one man comes by a power over another; but yet no absolute or arbitrary power, to use a criminal, when he has got him in his hands, according to the passionate heats, or boundless extravagancy of his own will; but only to retribute to him, so far as calm reason and conscience dictate, what is proportionate to his transgression, which is so much as may serve for reparation and restraint: for these two are the only reasons, why one man may lawfully do harm to another, which is that we call punishment. In transgressing the law of nature, the offender declares himself to live by another rule than that of reason and common equity, which is that measure God has set to the actions of men, for their mutual security; and so he becomes dangerous to mankind, the tye, which is to secure them from injury and violence, being slighted and broken by him. Which being a trespass against the whole species, and the peace and safety of it, provided for by the law of nature, every man upon this score, by the right he hath to preserve mankind in general, may restrain, or where it is necessary, destroy things noxious to them, and so may bring such evil on any one, who hath transgressed that law, as may make him repent the doing of it, and thereby deter him, and by his example others, from doing the like mischief. And in the case, and upon this ground, EVERY MAN HATH A RIGHT TO PUNISH THE OFFENDER, AND BE EXECUTIONER OF THE LAW OF NATURE

Sect, 10. Besides the crime which consists in violating the law, and varying from the right rule of reason, whereby a man so far becomes degenerate, and declares himself to quit the principles of human nature, and to be a noxious creature, there is commonly injury done to some person or other, and some other man receives damage by his transgression: in which case he who hath received any damage, has, besides the right of punishment common to him with other men, a particular right to seek reparation from him that has done it: and any other person, who finds it just, may also join with him that is injured, and assist him in recovering from the offender so much as may make satisfaction for the harm he has suffered Sect. 12. By the same reason may a man in the state of nature punish the lesser breaches of that law. It will perhaps be demanded, with death? I answer, each transgression may be punished to that degree, and with so much severity, as will suffice to make it an ill bargain to the offender, give him cause to repent, and terrify others from doing the like. Every offence, that can be committed in the state of nature, may in the state of nature be also punished equally, and as far forth as it may, in a commonwealth: for though it would be besides my present purpose, to enter here into the particulars of the law of nature, or its measures of punishment; yet, it is certain there is such a law, and that too, as intelligible and plain to a rational creature, and a studier of that law, as the positive laws of commonwealths; nay, possibly plainer; as much as reason is easier to be understood, than the fancies and intricate contrivances of men, following contrary and hidden interests put into words; for so truly are a great part of the municipal laws of countries, which are only so far right, as they are founded on the law of nature, by which they are to be regulated and interpreted.

Sect. 13. To this strange doctrine, viz. That in the state of nature every one has the executive power of the law of nature, I doubt not but it will be objected, that it is unreasonable for men to be judges in their own cases, that self-love will make men partial to themselves and their friends: and on the other side, that ill nature, passion and revenge will carry them too far in punishing others; and hence nothing but confusion and disorder will follow, and that therefore God hath certainly appointed government to restrain the partiality and violence of men. I easily grant, that civil government is the proper remedy for the inconveniencies of the state of nature, which must certainly be great, where men may be judges in their own case, since it is easy to be imagined, that he who was so unjust as to do his brother an injury, will scarce be so just as to condemn himself for it: but I shall desire those who make this objection, to remember, that absolute monarchs are but men; and if government is to be the remedy of those evils, which necessarily follow from men's being judges in their own cases, and the state of nature is therefore not to how much better it is than the state of nature, where one man, commanding a multitude, has the liberty to be judge in his own case, and may do to all his subjects whatever he pleases, without the least liberty to any one to question or controul those who execute his pleasure and in whatsoever he cloth, whether led by reason, mistake or passion, must be submitted to much better it is in the state of nature, wherein men are not bound to submit to the unjust will of another: and if he that judges, judges amiss in his own, or any other case, he is answerable for

it to the rest of mankind

Excerpts from Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes Excerpt from: XXI: Of the Liberty of Subjects Liberty, or freedom, signifieth properly the absence of opposition (by opposition, I mean external impediments of motion); and may be applied no less to irrational and inanimate creatures than to rational. For whatsoever is so tied, or environed, as it cannot move but within a certain space, which space is determined by the opposition of some exter- nal body, we say it hath not liberty to go further. And so of all living creatures, whilst they are imprisoned, or restrained with walls or chains; and of the water whilst it is kept in by banks or vessels that otherwise would spread itself into a larger space; we use to say they are not at liberty to move in such manner as without those external impediments they would. But when the impediment of motion is in the constitution of the thing itself, we use not to say it wants the liberty, but the power, to move; as when a stone lieth still, or a man is fastened to his bed by sickness. And according to this proper and generally received meaning of the word, a freeman is he that, in those things which by his strength and wit he is able to do, is not hindered to do what he has a will to. But when the words free and liberty are applied to anything but bodies, they are abused; for that which is not subject to motion is not to subject to impediment: and therefore, when it is said, for example, the way is free, no liberty of the way is signified, but of those that walk in it without stop. And when we say a gift is free, there is not meant any liberty of the gift, but of he giver, that was not bound by any law or covenant to give it. So when we speak freely, it is not the liberty of voice, or pronunciation, but of the man, whom no law hath obliged to speak otherwise than he did. Lastly, from the use of the words free will, no liberty can be inferred of the will, desire, or inclination, but the liberty of the man; which consisteth in this, that he finds no stop in doing what he has the will, desire, or inclination to do.

Excerpts from Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1. SUBJECT OF THE FIRST BOOK MAN is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer. If I took into account only force, and the effects derived from it, I should say: "As long as a people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and shakes it off, it does still better; for, regaining its liberty by the same right as took it away, either it is justified in resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away." But the social order is a sacred right which is the basis of all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and must therefore be founded on conventions. Before coming to that, I have to prove what I have just asserted.

4. SLAVERY SINCE no man has a natural authority over his fellow, and force creates no right, we must conclude that conventions form the basis of all legitimate authority among men. If an individual, says Grotius, can alienate his liberty and make himself the slave of a master, why could not a whole people do the same and make itself subject to a king? There are in this passage plenty of ambiguous words which would need explaining but let us confine ourselves to the word alienate. To alienate is to give or to sell. Now,a man who becomes the slave of another does not give himself; he sells himself, at the least for his subsistence: but for what does a peoplesell itself? A king is so far from furnishing his subjects with their subsistence that he gets his own only from them; and, according to Rabelais, kings do not live on nothing. Do subjects then give their persons on condition that the king takes their goods also? I fail to see what they have left to preserve. It will be said that the despot assures his subjects civil tranquillity. Granted; but what do they gain, if the wars his ambition brings down upon them, his insatiable avidity, and the vexations conduct of his ministers press harder on them than their own dissensions would have done? What do they gain, if the very tranquillity they enjoy is one of their miseries? Tranquillity is found also in dungeons; but is that enough to make them desirable places to live in? The Greeks imprisoned in the cave of the Cyclops lived there very tranquilly, while they were awaiting their turn to be devoured. To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an act is null and illegitimate, from the mere fact that he who does it is out of his mind. To say the same of a whole people is to suppose a people of madmen; and madness creates no right. Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they has the right to dispose of it. Before they come to years of discretion, the father can, in their name, lay down conditions for their preservation and well-being, but he cannot give them irrevocably and without conditions: such a gift is contrary to the ends of nature, and exceeds the rights of paternity. It would therefore be necessary, in order to legitimise an arbitrary government, that in every generation the people should be in a position to accept or reject it; but, were this so, the government would be no longer arbitrary. To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the rights of humanity and even its duties. For him who renounces everything no indemnity is possible. Such a renunciation is incompatible with mans nature; to remove all liberty from his will is to remove all morality from his acts. Finally, it is an empty and contradictory convention that sets up, on the one side, absolute authority, and, on the other,unlimited obedience. Is it not clear that we can be under no obligation to a person from whom we have the right to exact everything? Does not this condition alone, in the absence of equivalence or exchange, in itself involve the nullity of the act? For what right can my slave have against me, when all that he has belongs to me, and, his right being mine, this right of mine against myself is a phrase devoid of meaning?

Grotius and the rest find in war another origin for the so-called right of slavery. The victor having, as they hold, the right of killing the vanquished, the latter can buy back his life at the

price of his liberty; and this convention is the more legitimate because it is to the advantage of both parties. Graphic Organizer Notesheet

Two Treatises of Government By John Locke

The Social Contract By Jean Jacques Rousseau


By Thomas Hobbes Wednesday: PowerPoint for the Bill of Rights

Thursday: Powerpoint that covers the 3rd-5th Amendments

Articles for discussion: 3rd Amendment: 4th Amendment: 5th Amendment:

Friday: Articles for discussion: 6th Amendment: 7th Amendment: 8th Amendment:

10th Amendment:

Week 2 Materials:
Monday:Handout with First Amendments Name:__________________________________


RELIGION:_____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

SPEECH:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

PRESS:__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

ASSEMBLY:____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

PETITION:_____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

Tuesday: Articles brought in by students

Wednesday: Guided note sheets for students

Article on First Amendment:


Thursday: Guided note sheet for the computer lab time

Friday: Guided worksheets for the computer lab time. These are some articles for students to possible read if they are having trouble finding resources - - - -

Week 3 Materials:
Monday: Questions to guide students during computer time (in preparation for debate)

Possible articles for students to consider: - - - -

Tuesday: Notes that students have collected will be used in the debate today.

Rubric for the debate: Performance Based Assessment: DEBATE: Gun rights vs. Gun control--To what extent does the government control us? What side is more valid? What side should we agree with?

Advocates of gun control: support stricter firearm laws: tougher background checks and longer waiting periods for those purchasing guns; mandatory child safety locks; a limit of one handgun purchase per month; and raising the legal age limit for ownership of guns to age 21 from the current age of 18. They believe these measures will curb the rise of gunrelated violence. Advocates of gun rights: say such legislation would infringe on the constitutional rights of law-abiding citizens. The National Rifle Association, a prominent voice in the gun debate, says firearm-control measures are unnecessary if lawmakers would enforce current laws.

Category Respect for other team

All statements, body language, and responses were respectful and were in appropriate language.

Statements and responses were respectful and used appropriate language, but once or twice body language was not.

Most statements and responses were respectful and in appropriate language, but there was one sarcastic remark.

Statements, responses and/or body language were borderline appropriate. Some sarcastic remarks.

Statements, responses and/or body language were consistently not respectful.



All information Most Most Some Information had presented in this information information information was some major debate was presented in presented in the accurate, but inaccuracies OR clear, accurate this debate was debate was there were was usually not and thorough. clear, accurate clear and some minor clear. and thorough. accurate, but inaccuracies. was not usually thorough. All counterarguments were accurate, relevant and strong. Every major point was well supported with several relevant facts, statistics and/or examples. Most counterarguments were accurate, relevant, and strong. Most counter- Some counter arguments were arguments accurate and were weak and relevant, but irrelevant. several were weak. Counterarguments were not accurate and/or relevant.


Use of facts/statistics

Every major Every major point was point was adequately supported with supported with facts, statistics relevant facts, and/or statistics and/or examples, but examples. the relevance of some was questionable. Most arguments were clearly tied to an idea (premise) and organized in a

Some points Every point was were supported not supported. well, others were not.


All arguments were clearly tied to an idea (premise) and organized in a tight, logical

All arguments Arguments Arguments were were clearly tied were not tied not tied to an to an idea well to an idea. idea at all. (premise) but the organization was sometimes


tight, logical fashion.

not clear or logical. The team The team seemed to seemed to understand the understand the main points of main points of the topic and the topic, but presented those didnt present with ease. with ease The team somewhat used their time for research and could have used more materials during debate The team acted out during research and was unable to effectively use their material for debate The team did not show an adequate understanding of the topic.

Understanding of Topic

The team clearly The team understood the clearly topic in- depth understood the and presented topic in- depth their information and presented forcefully and their convincingly. information with ease. The team clearly The team used prepared and the research used the time research time productively. professionally in order to use material during debate.

Misc: Preparation/using research material

The team did not use their time for research and they were unable to use much during debate for support.

Total Points:_____________

Wednesday: The definition of the 9th Amendment, and materials on womens and civils rights.

Thursday: Articles on legalizing gay rights and the song Same Love by Macklemore

Lyrics for the song

Friday: 10 folders containing materials found and used for each amendment, essentially each amendment would have one folder.

Bill of Rights: The Bill of Rights: A Transcription The Preamble to The Bill of Rights Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution. RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz. ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution. Note: The following text is a transcription of the first ten amendments to the Constitution in their original form. These amendments were ratified December 15, 1791, and form what is known as the "Bill of Rights." Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Amendment II A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment III No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be

seized. Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. Amendment VII In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

Week Four Materials:

Monday: The final evaluation (essay test) Essay Question & Rubric

Essay (50 points total) Over the course of this unit, you have defined, analyzed and, applied the Bill of Rights to colonial times and current topics. In a cohesive essay, compare and contrast the meaning of, What is freedom? when the framers were writing the Bill of Rights to todays meaning? Keep in mind: o How has it changed over time? o How is it the same? o Remember articles, media clips, satire, etc. o Make sure to reference material used in class

Thesis (15 points) The essay clearly has a thesis that has a point and a clear argument that is supported (15) This essay has a thesis but it is not 100% developed (10)

Structure (10 points) This essay has a coherent structure that supports the thesis and includes topic sentences, support, and transitions. (10) This essay somewhat has a structure that supports the thesis with support and transitions. (7) This essay has poor construction of an essay and lacks a coherent organization (3)

Grammar/Syntax (10 points) This essay has few to none grammatical/syntactical errors (10)

Support (15 points) This essay expertly includes articles and examples from this unit to support the thesis (15) This essay uses a good amount of articles and examples from this unit to support the thesis. (10) This essay uses few articles and examples from the unit to support the

This essay has few to a couple grammatical & syntactical errors (7)

This essay may have a thesis but it is not clearly defined (5)

This essay has a lot of grammatical & syntactical errors (3)

thesis. (5) This essay does not have a thesis. (0) This essay does not have any structure. (0) This essay has entirely too many grammatical & syntactical errors (0) This essay does not use any or few articles and examples to support the thesis. (0)

Additional Comments:

****END OF UNIT****