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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2012
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2012

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

2012

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2012
Pada akhir sesi ini, guru dapat: • menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang

Pada akhir sesi ini, guru dapat:

Pada akhir sesi ini, guru dapat: • menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan

menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains,

pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan

menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)

HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)

menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)
menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)
menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)
menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains, • pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)
Sesi taklimat ini mengandungi DUA komponen: 1) Penerangan & Perbincangan 2) Perbengkelan

Sesi taklimat ini mengandungi DUA komponen:

1) Penerangan & Perbincangan

2) Perbengkelan

Sesi taklimat ini mengandungi DUA komponen: 1) Penerangan & Perbincangan 2) Perbengkelan
Communication Creativity & Innovation CRITICAL Collaboration SKILLS Information Literacy Problem Responsible
Communication
Creativity &
Innovation
CRITICAL
Collaboration
SKILLS
Information
Literacy
Problem
Responsible
Solving
Citizenship

Apakah LOTs dalam Sains?

Resnick (1987) application of concepts or knowledge Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the

Resnick (1987)

Resnick (1987) application of concepts or knowledge Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the recall

application of concepts or knowledge

Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often

characterized by the recall of information or the

to familiar situations and contexts.

Schmalz (1973) LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a fact, perform a simple

Schmalz (1973)

LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a fact, perform a simple operation,
LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a
fact, perform a simple operation,

or solve a familiar type of problem.

It DOES NOT require the student to work

outside the familiar”

Thompson 2008 generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while working in familiar situations and contexts;

Thompson 2008

generally characterized LOT as solving tasks

while working in familiar

situations and contexts; or, applying algorithms already familiar to the

student.
student.
Senk, Beckman, & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when students are solving tasks where the

Senk, Beckman, & Thompson (1997)

Senk, Beckman, & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when students are solving tasks where the solution

LOT is involved when students are solving

tasks where the solution requires applying a well - known algorithm , often with NO

justification, explanation, or proof

required, and where only a single correct answer

is possible

Apakah HOTs dalam Sains?

Resnick (1987) characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) as “non - algorithmic.” Stein and Lane (1996) describe

Resnick (1987) characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) as “non-

algorithmic.”
algorithmic.”

Stein and Lane (1996) describe HOT as “the use of complex, non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is NOT a predictable, well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested by the task, task instruction,

, well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested by the task, task instruction, or a worked out

or a worked out example.”

Senk, et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving tasks where no algorithm has been taught,

Senk, et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving

tasks where no algorithm has been taught, where

justification or explanation are required, and

where more than one solution may be

possible.

Thompson (2008) generally characterized HOT involves

solving

tasks

where an algorithm has not been taught or

using known algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts or situations.

“Higher-order” questions promote learning because these types of questions require students to apply, analyze,
“Higher-order” questions promote learning
because these types of questions require
students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and
evaluate information instead of simply
recalling facts.
questions require students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information instead of simply recalling facts.
questions require students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information instead of simply recalling facts.
Creating - generating of new ideas, products or ways of viewing things (menjana idea, produk
Creating - generating of new ideas, products or ways of viewing things (menjana idea, produk

Creating - generating of new ideas, products or

ways of viewing things (menjana idea, produk atau cara baharu)

Evaluating - justifying a decision or action

(mewajarkan keputusan atau tindakan)

Analising seeing patterns and classifying information, concepts and theories into

component parts (mengenalpasti corak dan menggelas maklumat, konsep dan teori kepada komponen)

Applying - using information in another familiar

situation (menggunakan maklumat dalam satu situasi lain)

Understanding - explaining ideas or concepts

(menerangkan idea atau konsep)

Remembering - recalling information (mengingat

kembali maklumat)

• Penggunaan kata kerja seperti membuat inferens , mewajarkan , menaakul dalam HP/SP bermaksud ia

Penggunaan kata kerja seperti membuat

inferens, mewajarkan, menaakul

dalam HP/SP bermaksud ia memerlukan HOTs.

Secara amnya HOTs adalah dari aplikasi ke atas.

Walau bagaimanapun LOTs dalam HP/SP

seperti menerangkan…’ juga boleh di capai

melalui aktiviti HOTs

Kata Kerja Proses
Kata Kerja Proses
LOTs dalam HP/SP seperti ‘ menerangkan …’ juga boleh di capai melalui aktiviti HOTs Kata Kerja

MENGAPA HOTs dalam SAINS?

Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas, kreatif dan inovatif bagi memenuhi cabaran abad ke-21 agar negara

Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas, kreatif

dan inovatif bagi memenuhi cabaran abad ke-21

agar negara mampu bersaing di persada dunia.

abad ke-21 agar negara mampu bersaing di persada dunia. If we want students to develop the
abad ke-21 agar negara mampu bersaing di persada dunia. If we want students to develop the

If we want students to develop the

capacity to think, reason, and problem solve then we need to

start with high-level,

cognitively complex tasks.

Stein & Lane 1996

• Berubah daripada amalan hafalan kepada pemahaman yang mendalam. • Meningkatkan tahap kesedaran dengan

Berubah daripada amalan hafalan kepada pemahaman yang mendalam.

Meningkatkan tahap kesedaran dengan menganalisa, menyelesaikan masalah dan menilai serta mencipta

Belajar mewajarkan penyelesaian dan penemuan

Konsep sains boleh dipelajari dengan berkesan melalui HOTs.

Penyiasatan saintifik memerlukan HOTs.

Bagaimana meningkatkan penguasaan HOTs dalam kalangan murid dalam Sains?

• berfikir • menyoal bagi mencungkil idea murid • Memotivasi murid • menekankan aktiviti hands-on

berfikir

menyoal bagi mencungkil idea murid

Memotivasi murid

menekankan aktiviti hands-on

mengubah jenis tugasan

mentaksir untuk pembelajaran berkomunikasi secara berkesan

Menggalakkan pemikiran kritis, kreatif dan inovatif 1. 2. 3. 4. Memastikan setiap murid melibatkan diri
Menggalakkan pemikiran kritis, kreatif dan inovatif
Menggalakkan
pemikiran kritis,
kreatif dan
inovatif

1.

2.

3.

4.

Memastikan setiap murid melibatkan diri secara aktif dalam PdP.

setiap murid melibatkan diri secara aktif dalam PdP. Memberi peluang murid berbincang, bertanya dan memberi

Memberi peluang murid berbincang, bertanya dan memberi pendapat.

Mempelbagaikan strategi.

Mengemukakan soalan membina, memimpin, terbuka serta menggalakkan penaakulan serta berfikir pada aras tinggi.

Inkuiri dalam Sains

•

Inkuiri berlaku apabila terdapat kaitan antara konsep sains dengan

soalan yang murid kemukakan dan

mereka mencari jawapan melalui

penyiasatan.

Murid belajar konsep sains berdasarkan penemuan yang mereka sendiri peroleh.

jawapan melalui penyiasatan . Murid belajar konsep sains berdasarkan penemuan yang mereka sendiri peroleh. •
Murid: • Belajar dengan berkesan melalui aktiviti hands on dan berasaskan inkuiri. • Seronok menyelesaikan

Murid:

Belajar dengan berkesan melalui aktiviti hands on dan berasaskan inkuiri.

Seronok menyelesaikan masalah yang bermakna

Memberi respon kepada soalan yang bermakna

Belajar lebih baik melalui galakan berbanding hukuman

Melihat dunia dari kaca mata mereka

Memahami idea berkembang secara berperingkat dan berurutan

hukuman • Melihat dunia dari kaca mata mereka • Memahami idea berkembang secara berperingkat dan berurutan
Murid teruja apabila diberikan masalah luar dari kebiasaan, ketidakpastian, persoalan atau dilema. Penyoalan HOTs

Murid teruja apabila diberikan masalah luar dari kebiasaan, ketidakpastian, persoalan atau dilema.

Penyoalan HOTs KPS/KBSB Inkuiri
Penyoalan
HOTs
KPS/KBSB
Inkuiri

Belajar secara hands-on menghasilkan kefahaman yang mendalam untuk

membolehkan mereka

mengaplikasikannya

dalam situasi yang baru.

Contoh Soalan TIMSS

TIMSS is assessing student learning in particular topics. • What should the student know ?
TIMSS is assessing student learning in particular topics.
TIMSS is assessing student
learning in particular topics.

What should the student know?

( what knowledge does this item allow a student to show? )

What should the student be able to do?

(What cognitive processes does this item require a student to demonstrate?)

Soalan LOTs and HOTs

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan 2 blok di dalam 1000 cm 3 air dan jadual di

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan 2 blok di dalam 1000 cm 3 air dan jadual di bawah menunjukkan ketumpatan bahan X dan Y

Rajah

jadual di bawah menunjukkan ketumpatan bahan X dan Y Rajah Jadual Bahan Isipadu Jisim Ketumpatan (cm

Jadual

Bahan

Isipadu

Jisim

Ketumpatan

(cm

3 )

(g)

(g/cm 3 )

Bongkah

 

8

2

0.25

X

 

Bongkah

 

8

16

2

Y

 

Air

1000

1000

1

1. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X? 2. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y? 3. Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X

1. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X?

2. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y?

3. Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X dan Y di dalam air.

4. Berikan satu inferens mengenai kedudukan bongkah X di dalam air.

5. Ramalkan keadaan bongkah Z di dalam air jika ketumpatan Z ialah 0.8g/cm 3.

LOTS

LOTS

LOTS

HOTS

HOTS

1. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X? 0.25 (g/cm 3 ) 2. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y? 2

1. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X?

0.25 (g/cm 3 )

2. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y?

2 (g/cm 3 )

3. Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X dan Y di dalam air.

LOTS

LOTS

LOTS

Bongkah X timbul manakala bongkah Y tenggelam

4. Berikan satu inferens mengenai kedudukan bongkah X di dalam air.

HOTS

Ketumpatan X kurang tumpat daripada air

5. Ramalkan keadaan bongkah Z di dalam air jika ketumpatan Z ialah 0.8g/cm 3.

HOTS

Bongkah Z akan berada di tengah antara bongkah X dan bongkah Y

SOALAN LOTs VS. HOTs

SOALAN LOTs

SOALAN HOTs

Tidak memerlukan

Memerlukan tahap pemikiran pada aras tinggi.

murid untuk menggunakan kemahiran berfikir pada aras tinggi.

Operasi yang perlu

Meningkatkan kemahiran menaakul.

Jawapan dan prosedur yang perlu digunakan tidak serta merta jelas.

Menggalakkan lebih daripada satu cara penyelesaian dan strategi.

Terdapat lebih daripada satu jawapan.

digunakan adalah jelas.

Berupaya membentuk murid yang kreatif dan

inovatif

Memerlukan masa yang mencukupi untuk diselesaikan.

Menggalakkan perbincangan dalam kumpulan dalan mendapatkan penyelesaian.

Apakah tahap soalan ini?

#1. In living things, large and complex molecules are broken down into small and simple

#1. In living things, large and complex molecules are broken down into small and simple molecules.

What is this process called?

A Excretion

B Absorption

C
C

Digestion

D Circulation

Domain: Knowing
Domain: Knowing
#2. Explain how soil is formed. Domain: Knowing

#2. Explain how soil is formed.

Domain: Knowing
Domain: Knowing

#2. Explain how soil is formed.

#2. Explain how soil is formed.
#3. The colour of an object such as an apple is the same as the

#3. The colour of an object such as an apple is the same as the colour of the light waves

A. that travel through the object
B. that are absorbed by the object that are reflected by the object

C.
C.

D. that travel around the object

Domain: Applying
Domain: Applying
#4. Keith had influenza. He played a game with two friends. One of his friends

#4. Keith had influenza. He played a game with

two friends. One of his friends caught influenza but the other did not.

What could have been the reason why one of his friends did NOT catch influenza?

Domain: Applying
Domain: Applying
Sarah fell off her bicycle and spilled the bag of salt she was carrying. She

Sarah fell off her bicycle and spilled the bag of salt she was carrying. She

collected the salt off the ground together with the sand and tree leaves and

put the mixture in a plastic bag.

sand and tree leaves and put the mixture in a plastic bag. In the table below,

In the table below, describe the steps used by Sarah to separate the salt from the mixture of salt, sand

and leaves. State a reason for doing each step. The

first step has been done for you.

Step Description of step Reasons for carrying out the step 1 2 3 4 Domain:
Step
Description of step
Reasons for carrying
out the step
1
2
3
4
Domain: Reasoning

Contoh Soalan PISA

Give one reason why it is recommended that young children and old people, in particular,

Give one reason why it is recommended that young children and old people, in particular, should be vaccinated against influenza (flu).

Full Credit Code 1: Responses referring to young and/or old people having weaker immune systems

Full Credit

Code 1: Responses referring to young and/or old people having weaker immune systems than other people, or similar. Scoring Comment: The reason(s) given must refer to young or old people in particular not to everyone in general. Also, the response must indicate, directly or indirectly, that these people have weaker immune systems than other peoplenot

just that they are generally “weaker”.

• These people have less resistance to getting sick.

• The young and old can’t fight off disease as easily as others.

• They are more likely to catch the flu.

• If they get the flu the effects are worse in these people.

• Because organisms of young children and older people are weaker.

• Old people get sick more easily.

No Credit Code 0: Other responses.

• So they don’t get the flu.

• They are weaker.

• They need help to fight the flu.

Sediakan soalan HOTs rangsangan yang diberikan. Bentangkan.

Sediakan soalan HOTs rangsangan yang

diberikan.

Bentangkan.

Sediakan soalan HOTs rangsangan yang diberikan. Bentangkan.
Sediakan soalan HOTs rangsangan yang diberikan. Bentangkan.
1. Adakan taklimat dalaman di sekolah masing-masing kepada semua guru Sains dan Matematik. 2. Gunakan

1. Adakan taklimat dalaman di sekolah masing-masing kepada

semua guru Sains dan Matematik.

2. Gunakan aturcara dan tempoh masa taklimat seperti yang diterima.

3. Semua guru Sains & Matematik menggunakan soalan HOTS

dalam pdp.

4. Guru Sains dan Matematik Tingkatan 1 perlu mula menyediakan murid untuk Gerak Gempur HOTsSM pada Jun

dan Oktober 2013 dan 2014 untuk persediaan murid ke TIMSS

2014 dan PISA 2015.

5. Soalan dan skema pemarkahan Gerak Gempur akan disediakan secara berpusat dan pelaporan disediakan.

Terima Kasih