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APPENDIX

Transl,ation of tke Pratyehabud,d,kabk&mi I

What is the pratyekabudd.habhfr'rni? It must be known as having five aspects: regarding family (gotra), Way (md.rga), achievement (samud,d.gama), way of living (uikd.ra) and behaviow (cdritra).

What is the pratyekabwd.d.hagotra? In this three characteristics are to be recognized: (r) According to their nature pratyekabud,d,kas belong to a family where impurities are weak (mandarajashagotra) until their complete enlightenment, because their minds are not inclined towards contact (samsarga) 2 (and) they are inclined to d.elight in solitude (eharamatd.). (z) According to their
nature pratyehabwddhas are weak in compassion (rnand'aharu4'ya) until their complete enlightenment because their minds are not directed towards the teaching of the dharma (and) towards action for the welfare of beings (sattad.rthakriya), bttt towards the state of remaining unconcerned (alpotsukaa'ihd.ratd.).3 (3) According to their nature pr at y ekabud,d,h,as hav e f aculties that are moderate (rn adh y en' driya) a until their complete enlightenment and they have the natural disposition to act with pride (manacaritajd.ttrya), because without teacher (and) without rival they desire complete enlightenment. The pratyekabudd,kamdzga should also be recognized as having three characteristics : (r) For instance, some one who belongs to the family of the pratyehabud,d,kas and who in a hundred hal,pas acquires the resolution to become a bud.d,ha (budd'kotpad'a) ar'd therefore brings to maturity the continuity (santati),6 namely, who practises skilfulness

I The translation is based on the Sanskrit text. Where the Tibetan text varies, this is mentioned in the notes. , Cf.p. 77;83. Lit.: 'of being only a little eager'; cf. BHSD, s.v. alpotsuhatd. { The five moral faculties: faith (traddha), energy (uErya), n.rintlfulness
3 (smyti), concentration (samddhi), wis<lotu (l>rajfiA\. 6 Santati,'continuity of rrrind', thc nrcntal rlisposition
(r

to roaclt tlrt: aint, 'fhc'l'ibetan trilusla,tion has: 'lrrittgs t.o tttittttt'ity tlto goittg towirnls scll'
trrrligtrtr;n rrrcrtl:.'
a'rlJtyarl-c hul t),

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127

with regard to (knowledge of) the aggregates (shand'hakawSalya) 'the organs of sense (and' their objects) (ayatana),-the elements (pratr'tyasamutpad'a)'@,katul,-the origination by dependence possilltities and impossibilities (sthanasth'ana) and the truths (pratyekabodhi) in th'e isatya) for the sake of self_enlightenment iuture. This is the first Way of the pratyekabud'd'ka' (z) Or another one, having acquired the resolution to become a budiha, having come into contact with virtuous people (salwho has produced the listening to the good purwgararyrseaAl, -d,harma (sad'd,karrnasraua4'a) (and) the fund'amental concentration of mind., produces previous roots of merit which belong to the (four stages) of penetration (nirued'habhd'giya),6 i'e' he realizes ib".o-" *ur*' \u;rnagata),'summit' (mwrdhan) and'receptivity' (h;anti), but is not able to come to a clear comprehension of the ikn *o or to attain the fruit of asceticism (Sramary,yaphal'a) in the same birth; he becomes one who is skilful with regard to (knowledge of) the aggregates, organs of sense (and their objects)' the elements' ttre origiiltion by d.epend.ence, possibilities an6 impossibilities and the trulhs for the sake of clear comprehension of the dharma and attainment of the fruit of asceticism in the future' This is the second Way of llne pratyekabud'dka. (S)Otanotherone,havingacquiredtheresolutiontobecomea Uriilro, having come into contact with virtuous people' who has produced the iistening to the good' d'karma (and) the fundamental loncentration of mind., comes to a clear comprehension of the to d,harma; he attains the fruit of asceticism, but he is not able of(nisthatd'), certitude attain completely the state of infinite life religious of infinite prrrity (iimal'ata), of infinite completion
who (brahmacaryaparyaaasd'nntd') and' of arhatship' He becomes one is skilful with regard to (knowledge of) the aggregates' the organs

6 The four stages are uttnaga,ta,, ntil.rd,han, hsdnti and lauhihd.gryadhavtna, (BHSD' 'become *.rrn, ."on -it, receitivity, prime-in-the-world condition' is mo.third the (+nydu)' weak are slcond and first .-i. X.St VI, 169: the thc e.aie, tire last strong; they are developed in. the stages that lie in between place' thc this {rom clear it is It (andgarnyd,ntaraihyanabhil'*iho1' d,httd,nas ;ii" Frrtv"r..uuadnabtrumi statcs t:nat pratyehabwddhas only

;;fi;".'i-

'I'heravida attain the first thre-e niruedhabhdgiyas, cf' KoSa VI' 176' In Urc prececlcs whioh stage the tJ AUt iAnun',*o these {our bel..g .}ay of i;;Ghtfu;ttrnamagga).Cf, I(oSaV, p. IV; Divy' 5o' Tn Mahdyanaphilosophv rluring tht', udhili;;; ;; part of tti way <.tf tlv bio'tlhise,ttua n,n<l practiscd. ,l tlttr iikUooriat1ilm1,llt',prtip.rlt,,ry wty (frayogurndrgu) to tlt. trttttzurtr.
bh'ttrm'is.

r28

APPENDIX

objects), the elements, the origination by d.ependence, possibilities and impossibilities and the truths, that is to say by means of the Way leading to the supra-mundane for the sake of infinite certitude, purity and completion of religious life in the future, for the sake of the attainment of the fruit of arhatship. This is the third Way of the pratyekabud'd'ka.

of sense (and their

(attained) the equipmenl (sambhara) in the course of a full hundred kal,pas, and at the end of a hundred kal'pas, without (having made) the resolution of the budd,kas and without a teacher, cultivated the thirty-seven elements of enlightenment (bod,kipdksya), becomes enlightened to self-enlightenment and realizes the elimination of all faults (sa.raahlesapraha4'a) and
bwd.d,harnarga

Then about the achievement (samud'agama)(r) For instance, some one who, by means of the fftst pratyeha-

arhatship.

(z-3) For instance some one acquires, by means of the second or third. pratyehabud'dkamd.rga, by means of this cause and this condition, without (having made) the resolution of the bwddhas, without a teacher, having cultivated the thirty-seven elements of enlightenment, clear comprehension of tl;re d'harma. When he attains the fruit of arhatship or when he attains the fruit of asceticism, he attains the state of infinite certitude, infinite purity, infinite completion of religious life and the highest fruit: arhatship. when one becomes a pratyehabwd,d,ha by means of the first achievement, one is like the horn of a rhinoceros (hkaSgaui;a4'ahal'pa)' when one becomes a pratyehaiina by means of the second or third achievement, then one is not like the horn of a rhinoceros.T Then about the way of living (aikd'ra). (r) He, who is a pratyehabud'd'ka iike the horn of a rhinoceros, delights in solitude (ekd'rdma), deeply devoted to living alone (ehaaikd.ra); his highest goal is deep intellectual mastery (praty'
? The Tibetan text adcls: '(one is) one who lives in a group' (tskogs-dah spyort-pa; uargaadrinl, cf. Mahdvyutpatti rooT; KoSa III, r95; MppS II, ro'69, tt,ri" t : ", . . sont cl'ancient Srdval<as qui ont obtenu les fruits de Sroir6panna .u tlc Saklcldgdmin sous le rdgne d'un l3ucldha, tr unc 6poque or) la, llonno t,oi oxistait cncoro. Plus tarcl, tr unc 6poquc oil lc.l3rrtldha ct la llonuo,Loi ont clisPilru, its r6olisont p.[r cnx-nrorutls l.[ <1uo,lit6 tl'Arltut."

APPENDIX
aaek;ary,d.)

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(apraq'ireflection (rnanashd.tra) of the ,oid, lsanyold), aimlessness hita) and. causelessness (animitta)' , by (z-3) Then a prary)kajina (who attained pratyehabod'ki) does who one becomes *;;'of the second ot tttira achievement' notabsolutelydeiightinsolitude,(and')livesaTone(ekaaihd'rin)' (aargaaik.d'rin-)' Of but (may) also become one who lives in a group a khad'him also ih" *"y of living is hand'ed" d'own as (if he were)
gaui;d.4,ahal'Pa.e

in the of the origination by d'epend'ence'8 He is remaining

Then about the behaviov (caritra)' enter that They all live near a village or market-town' They well-guarded' village or market-town to collect alms' their bodies well estab(smyti) mindfulness their senses well-controlled, their miserable and wretched the lished. They are compassionate towards of the means by (kinad,inanwhampamina), they show compassion of the d'haryy.tt Uy bod.y, not with word.s; also their teaching manifold fields of means of the bod.y, noi with words' They show round obstructed supernatural power, merely for the sake of turning who follow the those as *irrd.r, and. t-hey should. all be known (all) faults' down Way which is to be gone alone in ord'er-to calm itrit it the end' of the Pratyekabuddhabhumi'
the History, t5z3: according to the Buddhd,vatamsaka prafitya' .'-".-as, th.e and Sraaahas trLe to soaJh" lreached the-fJur iob"le truths r3z' See also ERE' r53 (5); sarnutpd'd'a to tne praryJi)oiiii"t; cf' Ap'A'

Intr. p. ro. gTheTibetantranslationreadslega(thag-ma)insteadotiiSla.