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Human Performance & Limitations

Exam 3 50 questions, time allowed 1 hour 1. Hyperventilation can cause: (a) (b) (c) (d) 2. too too too too much much much much CO2 to make the blood too alkaline O2 to make the blood too alkaline CO2 to make the blood too acidic O2 to make the blood too acidic

At what altitude does the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere drop to 50% ? (a) (b) (c) (d) it does not drop to 50% 40,000 feet 18,000 feet 10,000 feet


What is the time of useful consciousness for an average person with a medium work load if rapid decompression occurs at 25,000 feet? (a) (b) (c) (d) 4 to 8 minutes 2 to 4 minutes 30 seconds to 1 minute 15 to 30 seconds


In what way does exposure to negative acceleration act on the body ? (a) (b) (c) (d) it result in a perception of pitch up the sensory system will be able to asses the new lower speed of the aircraft it result in a perception of pitch down the sensory system will be able to asses the new higher speed of the aircraft


A good crew briefing will: (a) (b) (c) (d) involve as much information as possible short and precise involve the use of visual aids only need cover variable items such as weather conditions


The purpose of the crew briefing is to: (a) (b) (c) (d) ensure that all crew members are present give all crew members a time check allocate responsibilities to crew members cover only deviations from standard operating procedures

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


A pilot who smokes: (a) (b) (c) (d) is is is is more likely to experience hyperventilation less likely to experience hyperventilation more likely to experience hypoxia less likely to experience hypoxia


The lowest level at which a pressure breathing system is required is: (a) (b) (c) (d) 10,000 33,700 40,000 50,000 feet feet feet feet


The runway width at your home base is 45 metres. If you fly to an airfield where the runway width is 27 metres you are likely to make: (a) (b) (c) (d) a a a a high approach and overshoot high approach and undershoot low approach and overshoot low approach and undershoot


Disorientation is most likely to occur: (a) (b) (c) (d) in IMC flight transferring from IFR to VFR only after aerobatic manoeuvres transferring from VFR to IFR


When flying near a thunderstorm the actions taken by the crew to protect vision will include: 1. 2. 3. 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) wear sunglasses turn up the cockpit lighting keep the field of vision inside the cockpit use facial curtains 1 and 2 only 2 and 3 only 3 and 4 only 1, 2, 3 and 4

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


Which of the following provide the body with energy ? 1. 2. 3. 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) protein and carbohydrates vitamin A minerals and vitamins vitamin D 1 only 1 and 2 only 1, 2 and 3 only 1, 2, 3 and 4


What lung capacity is expelled in a normal breath? (a) (b) (c) (d) 150 ml 450 ml 500 ml 5 litres


Which of the following form part of the inner ear? (a) (b) (c) (d) saccule and utricle semi-angular canals eustachian tube fovea Rods are located at: retina fovea fovea retina


Cones are receptive to: 1. 2. 3. 4. colour colour colour and low light colour and low light

Which of the above combinations is correct ? (a) (b) (c) (d) 16. 1. 2. 3. 4.

In the event of rapid decompression at FL 310, what action should be taken? (a) (b) (c) (d) keep the passengers calm inform ATC and request an immediate descent don oxygen masks and immediately descend to MSA or below FL100 extinguish cigarettes and don oxygene make

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


Altitude hypoxia is caused by: (a) (b) (c) (d) Daltons law decompression sickness the bends decompression sickness and the bends


When looking at a close object: (a) (b) (c) (d) the the the the lens flattens pupil becomes smaller cornea becomes more curved retina changes shape


The ossicles are situated in the: (a) (b) (c) (d) inner ear middle ear outer ear eyeball


The feeling of vertigo when flying causes the illusion of: (a) (b) (c) (d) turning while climbing climbing while turning straight and level flying while spinning spinning while straight and level


Define 'cardiac output': (a) (b) (c) (d) stroke volume x heart rate stroke volume x heart capacity total volume of blood in the body the amount of blood pumped by the heart per beat


What is the cardiac output with a heart rate of 72 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 70 mls ? (a) (b) (c) (d) 0.504 litres 504.0 litres 50.4 litres 5.04 litres


The illusion given by linear acceleration is a sense of: (a) (b) (c) (d) the the the the aircraft aircraft aircraft aircraft is is is is climbing descending tumbling yawing

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


If a pilot is being affected by flicker effect he should: (a) (b) (c) (d) close the eyes dim the cockpit lights turn off the strobe lights turn on the autopilot


What is the time of useful consciousness at 35,000 feet when (i) sitting, (ii) moderately active and (iii) under rapid decompression respectively ? (i) (a) (b) (c) (d) 20 seconds 45 seconds 60 seconds 120 seconds (ii) 30 30 45 60 seconds seconds seconds seconds (iii) 45 20 10 30 seconds seconds seconds seconds


When would a pilot be more effective than a machine ? (a) (b) (c) (d) when detecting an unusual sensory input when a system requires monitoring for a long period if a quantitative decision has to be made when a rapid response is required


Which of the following could cause a negative transfer of habit ? (a) (b) (c) (d) a pilot familiar with one type of aircraft where the fuel pump switch is forward for ON, converts to another type where the fuel pump switch is to the rear for ON. a habit of moving the pitch level in the wrong direction is moved from one aircraft type to another a pilot applies previous knowledge, gained from experience, between different types of aircraft. a pilot doe not transfer any habits from one type of aircraft to another.


Decompression sickness is caused by: (a) (b) (c) (d) increased carbon dioxide in the blood decrease of oxygen in the blood decrease of gas within the joints increase of gas within the joints


Oxygen transfer at the alveoli is governed by: (a) (b) (c) (d) Boyle's Law Charles's Law Henry's Law Fick's Law (gas diffusion)

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


Which of the following statements is correct ? 1. 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) Paradoxical sleep refreshes the brain, memory and body Paradoxical sleep decreases during the night neither statement is correct both statements are correct only statement 1 is correct only statement 2 is correct


Which of the following frequencies will cause the most distress to the human body? (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 - 100hz 1 - 100Khz 100 - 1000Khz 1000 - 10000Khz


Anderson's model of the acquisition of experience proposes which of the following stages ? (a) (b) (c) (d) Associative Imitative Cognitive Cognitive Imitative Associative Associative Automatic Skilled Automatic Automatic Skilled


What is generally thought to be the worst sort of incapacitation when on final approach? (a) (b) (c) (d) gradual sudden severe intense


Night vision may be reduced by the effects of altitude. Above what height will this begin to become apparent ? (a) (b) (c) (d) 18,000 feet 8,000 feet 35,000 feet 40,000 feet


As altitude is increased above 10,000 feet in an unpressurised aircraft what significant change might a pilot notice? (a) (b) (c) (d) a sense of euphoria onset of decompression sickness (DCS) a reduction in light levels an improvement in performance

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


What is the duration of the short term memory? (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 minute 1.5 minutes 10 minutes 20 seconds


Incapacitation is most dangerous when it is: (a) (b) (c) (d) rapid insidious acute severe


Which of the following is located in the inner ear ? 1. 2. 3. 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) Otolith Ossicles Eustachian tube Sinuses 1 1 2 3 only & 3 only & 3 only & 4 only


When initiating a recovery from a spin, a pilot may have a sensation of: (a) (b) (c) (d) turning in the same direction as the spin turning in the opposite direction as the spin pitching up and turning pitching down and turning


Which of the following would indicate the onset of hyperventilation ? (a) (b) (c) (d) cyanosis dizzy feeling slow rate of respiration slow rate of heartbeat


The subcutaneous pressure receptors (proprioceptors) sense: (a) (b) (c) (d) the the the the condition of the body true vertical of the body spatial orientation of the body environmental conditions around the body

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


Which of the following is most likely to be the cause of decompression sickness (DCS) ? (a) (b) (c) (d) altitudes above 18,000 feet in an unpressurised aircraft climbing at greater than 500 feet per minute to greater than 18,000 feet altitudes above 5,000 feet in an unpressurised aircraft temperatures greater than +24C above 5,000 feet


When on the final approach during bad weather a pilot suffers from hyperventilation. The most appropriate action to combat the effects of hyperventilation would be: (a) (b) (c) (d) declare a 'Mayday' go to 100% oxygen and go around regulate the depth and rate of breathing continue the approach and land regardless of the weather


Haemoglobin is: (a) (b) (c) (d) in the platelets in the red blood cells in the white blood cells dissolved in the blood


Before donating blood it is recommended that a pilot should consult an Aviation Medicine Specialist because blood donation may lead to: (a) (b) (c) (d) reduced tolerance to altitude hypotension (reduced blood pressure hypertension (increased blood pressure) reduced body temperature which may cause fatigue


A small intake of alcohol will result in: (a) (b) (c) (d) the pilot being more susceptible to hypoxia the brain functions being increased which will enhance performance at high altitudes the brain will be stimulated which will increase resistance to hypoxia the pilot will remain unaffected


When flying in conditions of poor visibility due to mist, fog or snow pilots may experience an illusion that: (a) (b) (c) (d) objects objects objects objects move faster than they really do move slower than they really do are closer than they really are are further away than they really are

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3


Which of the following statements about humidity is/are correct ? 1. 2. 3. 4. (a) (b) (c) (d) optimal levels are 40 - 60% cabin humidity is typically 5 - 15% humidity has no effect on the performance of the crew crew performance will be affected by dehydration 1&3 1,2 & 2&3 2&4 only 4 only only


Which of the following statements is most correct ? (a) (b) (c) (d) 40% of the information we process enters via the visual channel 70% of the information we process enters via the visual channel the 'kinestatic' channel offers the most important channel for information when in the flying environment the hearing channel is the most important for information we process


If the visual image is focussed in front of the retina the condition is known as: (a) (b) (c) (d) hypermetropia myopia presbycusis astigmatism

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3

Intentionally Blank

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3

Human Performance & Limitations

Exam 1 50 questions, time allowed 1 hour

A B C D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

A B C D 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50



Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3

ANSWERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. (b) (a) (b) (c) (b) (c) (c) (c) (d) (d) (b) (a) (c) (a) (a) 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. (c) (a) (b) (b) (d) (a) (d) (a) (c) (b) (a) (a) (d) (d) (a) 31. 32. 33. 34 35 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. (a) (c) (a) (b) (a) (d) (b) (a) (b) (b) (c) (a) (c) (b) (a) 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. (a) (d) (b) (b) (b)

Bristol Groundschool

Human Performance Exam 3