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Present Simple Tense

Afirmativ Interogativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ(Dont you?) Question-Tag (Nu-i asa?) S+V (pers. a-III-a : -s,-es, -o, -ss, -ch, -sh) do/does+S+V (inf.scurt) S+do/does+not+V (inf.scurt) do/does+S+not+V (inf.scurt)

She goes there every day, doesnt she?

1.Este o actiune obisnuita, repetata, permanenta. # very day, every week, etc. pozitia: la sfarsit sau la inceput de propozitie # ussualy, often, seldom, always, sometimes, generaly, never, okkasionaly, etc. pozitia: dupa subiect # from time to time, once a week, twice a week, etc. pozitia: numai la sfarsitul propozitiei 2.Exprima un adevar general valabil. 3.Apare in: comentarii, retete, demonstratii, indicatii scenice, titluri de articole, etc. 4.Este o modalitate de exprimare a unui program oficial Ex:We start a new term at school tomorrow 5.In propozitii circumstantiale de timp (when, while, after, before, as soon as, till, until ) si conditional tip 1 viitorul este inlocuit cu prezentul simplu pentru actiune simultana Ex: I shall go to Bucharest if I have money.

Present Continuous Tense


Afirmativ Interogativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ S+to be(present)+V-ing to be+S+V-ing S+to be+not+V-ing to be+S+not+V-ing

Question-Tag

She is reading now, isnt she? I am disturbing you, arent I?

1.Este o actiune in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii cu: now, at this moment, just(now), etc. 2.Arata ca o actiune este temporara 3.Este o modalitate de exprimare a viitorului ca urmare a unui program personal Ex: Im visiting my grandparents this week. 4.Arata ca o actiune este prea des repetata, si supara, irita vorbitorul cu often, forever, generaly, constantly, never, etc. Ex: This child is forever crying. Nota: verbele to grow si to get arata trecerea de la o stare la alta Ex: It is getting dark.My parents are growing older and older.

Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu


1)Verbe de perceptie: to feel, to hear, to notice, to see, to smell, to taste 2)Verbe care exprima o activitate mintala: to agree, to believe, to distrust, to doubt, to find, to foresee, to forget, to guess, to imagine, to know, to mean, to mind, to remember, to recognize, to recollect, to regard, to suppose, to think (that) , to trust, to understand 3)Verbe care exprima o dorinta: to desire, to intend, to want, to wish, etc. 4)Verbe care exprima o posesie: to belong, to have, to hold, to keep, to owe, to own, to possess 5)Verbe care exprima atitudini, sentimente, stari emotionale: to abhor, to adore, to detest, to dislike, to displease, to like, to love, to hate, to please, to prefer, etc. 6)Verbe care exprima o stare, o conditie: to appear, to be, to consist(of), to contain, to differ, to deserve, to equal, to exist, to resemble, to seem, to suit Semnificatia semnelor "+" si "-" este: "+" inseamna ca se foloseste la aspectul continuu, "-" inseamna contrarul. to see - to perceive + to meet, to visit, to interview to expect - to hope , to believe + to wait for to think - to believe, to give an opinion + to think of / about - to possess + to take a bath, a shower, lunch, breakfast to have + a face pe cineva sa faca ceva pentru tine(verb cauzativ) Ex: Im having my house painted to be - to exist + comportare temporara Ex: You are being rude today Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitie este: S+P+CD/CI+CM+CL+CT

Past Tense Simple


Afirmativ S+V(-ed) S+V (forma a II a) Interogativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ Question-tag did+S+V (inf.scurt) S+did+not+V (inf. scurt) did+S+not+V (inf. scurt) They left yesterday, didnt he?

1.Este o actiune terminata in trecut cu: as, when, then, yesterday, last week, last month, last year, that day, the other day, once in 1983, on Sunday, ago, etc. 2.Este o actiune obisnuita, repetata in trecut.In acest caz se foloseste used to pentru actiune incetata in prezent Nota: este timpul naratiunii la trecut si se traduce prin perfect simplu, perfect compus, imperfect, conditional prezent, conjunctiv perfect.

Past Tense Continuous


Afirmativ Interogativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ Question-Tag S+was/were+V (-ing) was/were+S+V (-ing) S+was/were+not+V wasnt/werent+S+V (-ing) They were reading at this time yesterday, werent they?

1)Este o actiune in desfasurare intr-un anumit moment in trecut cu: at this time yesterday, yesterday at 5 oclock, when he came, etc. 2)E folosit pentru a exprima iritare, indignare

Present Perfect Simple


Afirmativ Interogativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ Question-tag S+have/has+V (forma a treia ) have/has+S+V (forma a treia) S+have/has+not+V (forma a treia) have/has+S+not+V (forma a treia) They havent arrived yet, have they?

1)Este o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana in momentul vorbirii cu: since, for, how long 2)Este o actiune petrecuta intr-un moment neprecizat(se simte efectul) Ex: I have washed my blouse (it is clean) 3)Este o actiune care tocmai a avut loc # just, already dupa auxiliar yet in intrebare=deja ma informez; in negatie=inca yet apare la sfarsitul propozitiei #till, now, up to now, so far, until now, up to the present moment la sfarsit sau la inceput de propozitie #lately(in ultima vreme),recently, of late, latterly numai la sfarsit propozitiei #during the last week, the last few days, theese twenty minutes 4) O actiune petrecuta intr-o perioada de timp care nu s-a terminat inca: today, this week, this month, this year, this sommer, all day, all night, etc. 5)cu adverbe de frecventa: ever, never, seldom, often, sometimes, several times, etc. 6)In propozitiile circumstantiale de timp si propozitiile conditionale de tip 1- viitorul este inlocuit cu Present Perfect Simple pentru actiune prioritara anterioara

Present Perfect Continuous


Afirmativ Interogativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ S+have/have+been+V (-ing) Have/has+S+been+V (-ing) S+have/has+not+been+V (-ing) Have/has+S+not+been

Este o actiune inceputa in trecut, este in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii si actiunea pleaca spre viitor.Cu: since, for, how long

Past Perfect
Afirmativ Negativ Interogativ-Negativ Question-Tag S+had+V (forma a treia) S+had+not+V (forma a treia) Hadnt+S+V (forma a treia) They had already entered, hadnt they?

1)Este o actiune terminata in trecut inaintea altei actiuni tot din trecut cu: since, for, how long, just, already, yet, after, before, as soon as, etc. 2)Cu: hardly/scarcely/barely(numai doar),when Ex:I had hardly got on the bus when it started.Hardly had I got on the bus when it started. Cu:no soonerthen

Past Perfect Continuous


Afirmativ Interogativ Negativ InterogativNegativ S+had+been+V (-ing) had+S+been+V (-ing) S+had+not+been+V (-ing) had+S+not+been

Este o actiune in desfasurare in trecut, inaintea altei actiuni, tot din trecut. Cu: since, for, how long

Modalitati de exprimare a viitorului


1)Future Simple S+shall/will+V (infinitiv scurt) 2)Future Continuous S+shall/will+be+V (-ing) a)este o actiune in desfasurare, in viitor, intr-un anumit moment: at this time tomorrow, tomorrow at 5 oclock, ... when he comes, etc. b)este o actiune programata in viitor 3)Future Perfect Simple S+shall/will+have+V (forma a III a) a) este o actiune terminata in viitor, inaintea altei actiuni tot din viitor(voi fi citit, va fi terminat) cu: by tomorrow, by the end of the ..., by next year, etc. b) in propozitii circumstantiale de timp si if tip 1 Future Perfect Simple este inlocuit numai de Present Perfect 4)Future perfect Continuous S+shall/will+have+been+V (-ing) Este o actiune in desfasurare in viitor, terminata inaintea altei actiuni tot din viitor cu: for, since, how long 5)Present Simple 6)Present Continuous 7)Present Perfect 8)to be to...=a urma sa... 9) to be about to...=a fi pe punctul de a..., a sta sa... 10) to be going to...=a avea de gand sa..., a intentiona sa..., o sa... 11) Future in the Past Simple 12)Future in the Past Continuous 13)Past Tense 14)Past Perfect

If Clause
Propozitie principala Propozitie secundara Present Simple(actiune simultana) Present Perfect(actiune anterior-prioritara)

Future

Type I

Present

Imperative este o conditie deschisa, probabila Present Conditional S+should/would+V (inf. scurt) Type II este o actiune improbabila, ipotetica, respinsa, ireala (as merge, ai merge,...etc) Past Conditional S+should/would+have+V(forma a III a) Type III este o conditie imposibila As fi mers la cinematograf/mergeam la cinema daca as fi avut bani/ aveam bani. Past Perfect Past Tense to be-were la toate persoanele

NOTA:could tine loc de should sau would

Verbe modale in propozitia conditionala

Verbe: will, would si should apar in propozitia conditionala cand au sensul: Will=vointa (la prezent) Ex: If you will come=if he wants to come, if he is willing to come Wont=refuz (la prezent) Ex: If they wont go= if they dont want to go= if they refuse to go Would=vointa (la trecut) Ex: If she would sing=if she wanted to sing= if she was willing to sing Wouldnt=refuz (la trecut) Ex: If they wouldnt come= if they didnt want to come Should+infinitive=in conditional tip 1 si 2 cu sensul de intamplare Ex: (Daca se intampla sa vina...) If he happens to come/If he should come

Omiterea lui If
Se face in scopuri pur stilistice, folosind procedeul inversiune(pentru tipul II si III) Tipul II: Should he come? Tipul III: I wouldn have come if I hadnt been invited. Hadnt been invited, I wouldnt have come. (Sa nu fi fost invitat, nu veneam)

Inlocuirea lui If
Unless, but for, in case, on condition that, so long as/provided/providing (that) suppose/supposing (that) Unless=daca nu But for If were not for=daca n-ar fi If it hadnt been for= daca n-ar fi fost In case=in caz ca On condition that=cu conditia sa So long as/provided/providing (that) =atat timp cat reda ideea de limitare, restrictie Suppose/supposing (that) Ex: What will happened if it rains tomorrow Suppose/supposing, suppose if rains tomorrow Without(uneori)= but for

Passive Voice
a fi la timpul cerut + forma a III a a verbului de conjugat

Present Simple : The room is cleaned every day. Present Continuous : It is being cleaned. Past Tense Simple: It was cleaned. Past Tense Continuous: It was being cleaned. Present Perfect: It has been cleaned. Past Perfect: It had been cleaned. Future : It will be cleaned. Present conditional: It would be cleaned. Past Conditional: It would have been cleaned. Infinitive: to be cleaned

Trecerea din diateza activa in diateza pasiva:


Mary gives mother a flower S P CI CD CI P Mother is given a flower S CD by Mary

NOTA: CI sau CD din propozitia activa devine subiectul propozitiei pasive.Complementul de agent (the doer) poate sa lipseasca atunci cand e exprimat printr-un pronume personal (I,you), pronume nehotarat (somebody, anybody) sau substantive ca: a boy, some people NOTA: verbele cu prepozitie isi pastreaza prepozitia alaturi din in diateza pasiva. Ex: You can rely on this man. This man can be relied on. NOTA: People say that he is a good... It is said that he is a... He is said to be... People think that he was a... It is thought that he was a... He is thought to have been a... NOTA: infinitivul prezent arata ca o actiune este simultana; infinitivul perfect arata ca atiunea este anterioara.

Direct-Indirect Speech
A. Daca in propozitia principala verbul to say, to tell, etc.(reported verbes) sunt la prezent, in propozitia secundara (completiva directa) se pune orice timp cerut de inteles. B. Daca reported verbs sunt la trecut in completiva directa au loc schimbari la nivel de pronume, adverb si verb Pronume I we my our this these he/she they his/her their that those

Adverb Here Now Today Tonight Tomorrow there then that day that night the next day the following day Yesterday the day before the previous day Ago Next the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday before the next in two day time two days before

Verb Present simple Present continuous Present perfect Past tense Futur Imperative Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect Futur in the past Infinitive

NOTA: prezentul simplu poate ramane neschimbat atunci cand exprima un adevar general valabil sau o actiune valabila si in prezent. NOTA: If poate fi inlocuit cu whether atunci cand exprima o indoiala sau posibilitatea unei alegeri. Ex: Shall I help you? he said. He said whether I should help him. NOTA: Intrebarile... a. Do you speak english? he asked. He asked me if I spoke english. b. How are you? she said. She said how I was. NOTA: imperativul cu let : I Singular II III I Plural II III Let me go! Go! Let him/her/it go! Let us go! (Lets) Go! Let them go!

Ex: "Lets go", he said. He sugested that they should go. NOTA: exclamatiile "What a ...! " "How a ...!" "My goodness!" She said it was ...

"Oh dear!" "Heavens!" "Ugh!" "For goodness sake!" "Look out!!" "Thank you!" "Good morning!"

She exclaimed with horror/disgust/surprise

He thanked me She greeted me She wished me a... She called me a liar. She swore...

"Liar!" "Damn!"

NOTA: Conditional tip II si III raman neschimbate.

Modal verbs
Conceptul de capacitate, posibilitate, necesitate sau obligatie este redat de asa numitele "modal auxiliary verbs" : can, could, shall, should, must, need, ought to, used to, dare. Caracteristici:

Nu au infinitiv lung Nu primesc "s" la persoana a III a singular prezent simplu Nu primesc "-ing" Verbele care urmeaza sunt la infinitiv scurt; excceptie: used to, ought to Nu au toate timpurile si modurile unui verb normal, de aceea unele au echivalenti Formeaza interogativul prin inversiune; negativul + not

Can-could to be able to May-might (numai in Indirect Speech) to be allowed to; to be permited to Must to have to Verbe modale (click pe link-uri)

Will
Exprima vointa, hotarare I will pay you as much as you ask for. Promisiune I will not make such a mistake again. Posibilitate, presupunere That girl will be his sister? (Fata ceea o fi sora lui?)

Ceva inevitabil (expresii fixe) Children will be children.Accidents will happen(accidentele sunt inevitabile) Inlocuieste prezentul simplu pentru actiune obisnuita, repetata I always drink milk in the morning=I will drink milk in the morning Invitatie, cerere politicoasa Will you come and...?( Vrei sa...?)

Shall
Hotarare The enemy shall not pass. Promisiune If you get a good mark you shall have a present. Refuz, insistenta, amenintare He shall pay for insulting my daughter. Exprima o interdictie in acte oficiale All the candidats shall not bring(may not) the dictionaries into the examination room. Oferta, sugestie Shall I help you? NOTA: What about going to the cinema? Lets go to the cinema, shall we?

Can
Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la prezent si viitor Exprima o continuitate alaturi de verbele de perceptive Exprima o permisiune (informal English) Exprima o posibilitate atunci cand imprejurarile o permit If you come in my town we can swim (I have a swimming pool) Exprima o imposibilitate, neincredere: cu acest inteles can poate fi urmat de un infinitiv prezent(pentru actiune simultana) sau infinitiv perfect (pentru actiune anterioara ) Nu se poate/este imposibil sa faca o asemenea greseala Nu se poate sa fi facut o asemenea greseala Exprima o cerere politicoasa Can I help you? He cant make such a mistake He cant have made such a mistake

Could
Abilitate fizica si intelectuala la trecut.Cu acest inteles can/could poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul.Dar cand intelesul este de to succid in, to manage, to achieve-se foloseste numai echivalentul, dar nu si la negativ Cerere politicoasa, mai politicoasa deca can Could I help you?

May
Exprima o permisiune(formal english).Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul to be allowed to; to be permited to Exprima o posibilitate.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu it is possible/maybe/perhaps It is possible for you to know her Poate ca o cunosti Maybe/perhaps you know her You may hnow her May+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea unei actiuni in momentul vorbirii Ex: She may be sleeping now. May+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea unei actiuni in trecut Ex: She may have lost the key.

Exprima o urare, speranta May all your dreams come true! sau May good luck attend you!

In propozitia concesiva dupa: whatever, whenever, whereever, whoever, thought, althought, no matter how No matter how much money you have dont spend it in one day1 In completiva directa dupa to hope, to trust: I hope that you may find tickets. In propozitia de scop dupa so that: I sit on the first row so that I may see and hear well.

Might Exprima o permisiune la trecut Exprima o posibilitate in prezent, viitor si trecut (o posibilitate mai indepartata) Might+infinitiv continuu=posibilitatea indepartata a unei actiuni in momentul vorbirii Might+infinitiv perfect=posibilitatea indeparata a unei actiuni in trecut Exprima indignare, iritare, repros You might look in to my eyes when Im talking to you. In propozitia concesiva dupa: whatever, whenever, whereever, whoever, thought, althought, no matter how In completiva directa dupa to hope, to trust In propozitia de scop dupa so that Must Exprima obligatie, comanda, necesitate.Cu acest inteles el poate fi inlocuit cu echivalentul to have to Must=obligatie impusa de vorbitor(regula) Have to=obligatie externa impusa de autoritati sau imprejurari externe pe care vorbitorul nu le poate controla Dont have to Havent got to Neednt Must not

Lipsa de obligatie

Interdictie, prohibitie (regula)

Eprima deductie, concluzie logica, probabilitate NOTA: cand must exprima probabilitate el poate fi inlocuit cu: Im sure/certain/positive; Certain/obviously; Its likely/probable; Is likely

Need A.verb notional, obisnuit= to be need of (dupa care apare un pronume, substantiv, verb la gerunziu sau infinitiv lung) Ex: Mother needs a pair of shoes.The windows need washing. B.Verb modal auxiliar=to have to apare mai mult in interogativ si negativ; poate sa apara si in afirmativ alaturi de never, hardly, barely Ex: She need hardly mention her name, since I know it.

Diferenta dintre prezent si trecut: Prezent Do I need...? Need I...? Trecut Didnt need to... Neednt have+V (forma a III a) actiune care nu a fost necesara si nu a fost facuta actiune care nu a fost necesara, dar a fost facuta actiune obisnuita, repetata ocazie speciala

Should Exprima obligatie, sfat, recomandare(obligatia este mai slaba decat cea cu must) Exprima surpriza in intrebare retorica Ex:Why should I go there? Exprima presupunere, deductie logica In completiva directa dupa: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to recommend, to advise, to urge...that In propozitia subiectiva dupa constructii impersonale: it is/was advisable/essential/better/fair/important/natural/necessary/right..that In propozitia de scop dupa: so that, in order that, lest(ca sa nu..., ca sa nu cumva...), for fear that In propozitia conditionala tip I si II (intamplare) Dupa verbe de emotie: to feel sory, to be delighted, to be annoyed, to be shocked Dupa: dont think why, see no reason why, cant think why Ought to Exprima o datorie, obligatie morala Ought to + Infinitive Perfect= datorie, obligatie neimplinita Ex:You ought to have waited until the light were green. NOTA: According to the wheather forecast it ought to rain today.He worked here for 5 years. You ought to know him. Would Exprima o cerere politicoasa Would you pass... Would you please... Would you be so kind...

Would you mind+ V (-ing) # Would like/care=want # Would care nu se foloseste in afirmativ Would rather (arata preferinta) Would better/had better (mai bine) Would sooner (mai degraba) Exprima o actiune repetata in trecut si incetata prezent (obisnuiam sa...) Diferenta dintre used to si would+infinitiv este ca al doilea se foloseste narativ Apare dupa wish si if only pentru o dorinta in viitor Exprima o probabilitate Ex: That girl would be his sister! +infinitiv scurt (pentru acelasi subiect) +past tense (pentru subiecte diferite)

Exprima o vointa la trecut iar la negativ refuz Ex:She had to go there whether she would or wouldnt. Used to A nu se confunda cu to use= a folosi Used to modal auxiliar cu forma numai de trecut Desi e un modal auxiliar formeaza interogativul cu did si negativul cu did not (formal english) A nu se confunda cu: to be/get accustomed to dupa care urmeaza un substantiv sau un verb la gerunziu Ex:I am not used todrinking tea in the morning. Dare La afirmativ e un verb notional obisnuit La interogativ si negativ el poate fi atat verb modal cat si verb obisnuit Ex:How dare you contradict me? (modal) I dared her/I challenged him to run in the street(a provoca)

Hypothetical Constructions
Wish+Past Tense=dorinta in prezent (to be, were-la toate persoanele) Wish (ed)+Past Perfect=regretul, o actiune a avut loc sa nu a avut loc Wish(ed)+would+infinitiv=dorinta in viitor If only=constructie echivalenta cu wish Numai sa..., de-as.... Would rather (arata preferinta) Would better/had better (mai bine) Would sooner (mai degraba) Its time/its about time/ its high time +Past Tense (pentru subiecte diferite) +for+acuzativ+infinitiv lung=e timpul potrivit sa... +S+Past Tense=e putin cam tarziu sa.. as if/ as thought(ca si cand)/ even if/ even thought +S+Past Tense=actiune contrara realitatii in prezent +infinitiv scurt (pentru acelasi subiect)

+S+Past Tense=actiune contrara realitatii in trecut

The Subjunctive
A.The synthetical subjunctive
1.The Present Subjunctive

Este identic cu infinitivul scurt al verbului, este socotit vechi, pretentios si nu se foloseste in limba contemporana Apare in urari(expresii fixe) Far be it from me! (departe de mine) Heaven Be that as it may! Suffice it to say that... Good bye!(God be with you!) God forgive/bless you!

Apare dupa impresii impersonale It is natural that they should come! It is natural that they come.

Dupa advise, to recommend...should They suggest that he should read. They suggest him to read. They suggest that he read.

2.The Past Present Subjunctive


Identic cu Past Tense ul verbului (to be/were) Apare dupa constructii ipotetice In conditional tip II

3.The Past Perfect Subjunctive


Identic cu Past Perfect-ul verbului Apare dupa wish, if only, as if, as thought, even if, even thought

B.The Analythical Subjunctive


Format dintr-un verb modal(shall, should, would, may, mught, could) Este mai des folosit si apare atat in propozitia secundara cat si in propozitia principala. Shall+infinitiv Prozitia principala Shall I help you? (oferta) Propozitia secundara Amenintare (informal english)

Should+infinitiv Propozitia principala Why should I go there? Propozitia secundara In conditional tip I si II Dupa constructii ipotetice In completiva directa In propozitia de scop May/might+infinitiv Propozitia principala exprima o urare: May all your dreams come true! In propozitia concesiva Oh, that they might win! In propozitia de scop Would+infinitiv In propozitia secundara dupa wish si if only Could+infinitiv Exprima scopul ca o alternativa a lui may/might, could avand un grad mai mare de siguranta I studied so that I might pass the exam (but I didnt). I studied so that I could pass the exam (I am a student). Propozitia secundara Dupa constructii impersonale: it is/was possible, probable, likely

The infinitive
1)The Split Infinitive

E socotit vechi pretentios, e scos din uz Ex:To really understand.

2)Short Infinitive

Apare dupa verbe modale si verbe de perceptie Ex: I heard her sing. Dupa verbe cauzative (make, let, have) Ex: He made me laugh. Dupa would/rather/sooner/better/had better/cannot but (anu putea decat sa...) Ex:I cannot but consent to his opinion. Apare dupa to do nothing but/except Ex: She does nothing but lie in the sun all day long In constructii eliptice Ex:Why not go on the trip?

NOTA:dupa to help apare atat infinitivul scurt cat si lung Ex:The boy helps his sister do/to do her homework. Constructii cu infininive

Acuzativ+infinitiv: format dintr-un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ+un infinitiv Apare dupa verbe de perceptie si acuzative I heard her AC sing infinitiv I heard her singing Participiu prezent

NOTA: cand aceste verbe sunt in diateza pasiva ele sunt urmate de infinitiv lung Ex:She was heard to sing

Dupa verbe de vointa Ex:I want him to understand me. Dupa verbe de activitate mentala Ex: I imagined him to be right. Dupa: to order, to command, to allow, to force, etc. Ex: I ordered the soldiers to live. Dupa expresii impersonale Ex:It is important for them to come. Nominativ+Infinitiv:format dintr-un substantiv sau pronume in nominativ + infinitiv Dupa verbe de perceptie si de activitate mentala in diateza pasiva Ex: She was heard to sing.He is known to be... Dupa: to be lucky/unlucky/fortunate/unfortunate...etc. I was lucky to find you.

The Long Infinitive


Exprima scopul;el poate fi precedat de in order to/so as to Ex:I went to the country(so as to) to help my grandparents. Inlocuieste o subordonata care incepe cu what, where, how, etc. She adviced me what to buy.She adviced me to go. Dupa adjective care exprima o calitate morala sau intelectuala: clevered, brave, cruel, kind Dupa superlative, numerale ordinale si the only Dupa too si enough In constructii absolute: to tell the rtuth, to be sure, to be frank, to say nothing of, to be honest, to be more precise.

The Gerund

Exprima prohibitie, interdictie Ex: No parking!No smoking! Dupa: to admit, to advise, to anticipate, to avoid, to begin, to consider, to continue, to delay, to deny, to detest, to dread, to dislike, to enjoy, to escape, to excuse, to fancy, to finish, to forget, to forgive, to hate, to imagine, to intend, to involve, to keep (on), to like, to love, to mind, to miss, to omit, to postpone, to practice, to recollect, to remember, to regret, to resist, to risk, to save, to start, to stop, to suggest, to try, to understand Dupa: to accuse of, to aim at, to agree with, to approve, to consist of, to count on, to dissuade from(a schimba parerea), to excuse from, to insist on, to prevent from, to rely on, to result in, to succed in, to think of Dupa: to be afraid of, to be agreeable to, to be annoyed at, to be averse to, to be capable of, to be intent on, to be interested in, to be responsible for, to be suitable for, to be surprised at, to be tired of, to be/get used to, to be/get accustomed to Dupa: to go on, to keep on, to give up, to put off Dupa: cant help, cant stand, its no good/use, to be looking forward to, to be worth(while), to feel like Substantive cu prepozitie: apology for, art of, change of, disappointment at, experience in, habit of, necessity of, objection to, apportunity of, preasure of, possibility of, process of, reason for, right of, skill in, surprise at, way of...

to stop, to begin, to cease

+gerunziu=actiune deliberata +infinitiv=incetarea unei actiuni pentru a incepe alta She stops crying.She stoped to look at me.

to like

+infinitiv=to prefer +gerunziu=to be fond of +infinitiv=to intend

to mean

+gerunziu=to signify To be good at english means working hard

The Inversion
Not only, never, rarely, seldom, hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, anly, on no condition, not until, such Examples: Not only did he fail to report the accident but also... Never have I enjoyed myself more Only after posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a stamp. On no condition are they to open a... But until got home did I notice that.. Little does the government appriciate... Such was the force of/the storm that... La conditional tip II si tip III inversiunea se realizeaza prin omiterea lui If