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Coordinate Geometry

Jonathan Lam April 16, 2013


Graphing linear relationships

Table of values

Rules: Sub three values of x into the equation to nd y , to nd coordinates. - Use x = 1; 0; 1 - Plot the points - Remember to label axes, origin and equation of line.


Finding intercepts

The x-intercept of an equation is the value of x when y is equal to zero. To nd the x-intercept, substitute y = 0 into the equation. Similarly, the y -intercept of an equation is the value of y when x is equal to zero. Equations of the form y = mx + b have a y -intercept of b. Now that we have found our x and y intercepts, plot the points and form line.

Special cases
Intercept form

Equations of the form have x-intercepts of a and y -intercepts of b.


x a

y b


Line going through the origin

= mx Sub x = 1, then nd y . Draw a line going through the origin and the point.

Points that satisfy linear relationships

Determine if a point lies on a line
P x; y

To determine if a point

) lies on a line, substitute the x and y values into the equation.

Determine the role for the equation of a straight line from a table of values

We are assuming that the

values increment by one. Count the distance between numbers

Horizontal and vertical lines


=c =c

This is a horizontal line cutting the y-axis at c.


This is a vertical line cutting the x-axis at c.

4 Midpoint

The midpoint of A(x1 ; y1 ) and B (x2 ; y2 ) is found by nding the average of the Hence, we can derive the formula to be

values and


AB (


+ x2 y1 + y2 ; ) 2 2

Length of an interval

The distance between two points A(x1 ; y1 ) and



B x2 ; y2

) is



)2 + (y1 y2 )2

Due to the property that square numbers will always be positive, it does not matter whether x1 and x2 are swapped. The same thing applies for y1 and y2 . Just remember that the xs are in the same bracket, and the y s in the same bracket.
6 Gradient of a line

If If If

0, then the line would look like 0, then the line would look like m = 0, the line would be at.
m < m >

. .
B x2 ; y2

The gradient is rise run The gradient formed when two points, A(x1 ; y1 ) and

), are joined is found using

y1 x1

y2 x2

Parallel and perpendicular lines

Two lines are parallel if their gradients are equal. Two lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is -1.
8 Graphing equations of gradient-intercept form

The gradient-intercept form is an equation in the form of y = mx + b, where m is the gradient and b is the y -intercept. To sketch this, draw a line through the y-intercept with the gradient (higher gradient = steeper) Label x-intercept.
8.1 Finding equation of a line

To nd equation of a line from two points given, nd the gradient and sub in the gradient and the x and y values from one of the points into y = mx + b. Rearrange the equation to nd b. Now that you have a gradient and the y -intercept, sub that into y = mx + b to get your equation. You may rearrange that into general form, or another form. 2