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# Coordinate Geometry

1
1.1

## Graphing linear relationships

Table of values

Rules: Sub three values of x into the equation to nd y , to nd coordinates. - Use x = 1; 0; 1 - Plot the points - Remember to label axes, origin and equation of line.

1.2

Finding intercepts

The x-intercept of an equation is the value of x when y is equal to zero. To nd the x-intercept, substitute y = 0 into the equation. Similarly, the y -intercept of an equation is the value of y when x is equal to zero. Equations of the form y = mx + b have a y -intercept of b. Now that we have found our x and y intercepts, plot the points and form line.
1.3
1.3.1

Special cases
Intercept form

1.3.2
y

x a

y b

=1

## Line going through the origin

= mx Sub x = 1, then nd y . Draw a line going through the origin and the point.
2
2.1

## Points that satisfy linear relationships

Determine if a point lies on a line
P x; y

To determine if a point
2.2

## ) lies on a line, substitute the x and y values into the equation.

Determine the role for the equation of a straight line from a table of values

y

=c =c

x

## This is a vertical line cutting the x-axis at c.

4 Midpoint
x

The midpoint of A(x1 ; y1 ) and B (x2 ; y2 ) is found by nding the average of the Hence, we can derive the formula to be
M

values and

values.

AB (

x1

+ x2 y1 + y2 ; ) 2 2

Length of an interval

## The distance between two points A(x1 ; y1 ) and

AB

p(

B x2 ; y2

) is

x1

x2

)2 + (y1 y2 )2

Due to the property that square numbers will always be positive, it does not matter whether x1 and x2 are swapped. The same thing applies for y1 and y2 . Just remember that the xs are in the same bracket, and the y s in the same bracket.
6 Gradient of a line

If If If

0, then the line would look like 0, then the line would look like m = 0, the line would be at.
m < m >

. .
B x2 ; y2

The gradient is rise run The gradient formed when two points, A(x1 ; y1 ) and
m

y1 x1

y2 x2

## Parallel and perpendicular lines

Two lines are parallel if their gradients are equal. Two lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is -1.
8 Graphing equations of gradient-intercept form

The gradient-intercept form is an equation in the form of y = mx + b, where m is the gradient and b is the y -intercept. To sketch this, draw a line through the y-intercept with the gradient (higher gradient = steeper) Label x-intercept.
8.1 Finding equation of a line

To nd equation of a line from two points given, nd the gradient and sub in the gradient and the x and y values from one of the points into y = mx + b. Rearrange the equation to nd b. Now that you have a gradient and the y -intercept, sub that into y = mx + b to get your equation. You may rearrange that into general form, or another form. 2