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Congress of Vienna. Also, it sought to prevent any European nation from acquiring too much power. Holy Alliance- Set up by Alexander; stated that Christian nations should not attack each other Objectives: End war, democracy, and nationalism. 9) January 1820 – Revolution in Spain, due to Ferdinand VII being a ridiculous nincompoop. -Rebels abolished the tithe & church property laws -Internal arguments and reluctance prevent any decisive action by the Quadruple Alliance 10) The Concert of Troppau (1820) broke the Concert of Europe into two pieces: Prussia, Austria, and Russia drew closer together, and then agreed to intervene in any European revolution that they deemed threatening. This caused France and Britain to lose faith in the Congress. France, in 1822, asked permission to intervene in Spain and crush a revolution. Permission was granted, despite British protests. The Concert of Europe was finally considered dead because: -Britain would no longer participate -France would only participate where it suited French interests. Definition question things 1) Greek War for Independence: Caused by Liberal Greek nationalism; Greeks had the funds needed in order to revolt from serving as Turkish government officials, buying ships, carrying Austrian and Russian commerce in the Mediterranean and Black seas. Wealthy Greeks set up schools; young Greeks were acquainted with ancient culture, Greeks in France during the Revolution brought back revolutionary ideas. •Revolt begain in 1821, Greeks (modern-day Balkans) struggled for independence from Muslim-Ottoman empire. Government of Egypt’s troops suppressed revolt and sold Greeks into slavery. •1827 – Russia/Britain/France supported Greeks •1829 – Turks free greeks, Greece becomes constitutional monarchy 2) “July Revolution” of 1830 in France: Liberals who wanted to preserve charter of 1814 vs. conservatives who wanted to restore power of the clergy and nobles. Charles X limited voting rights (bad for the middle class), let nobles influence education, used public money to pay for émigrés lost land, attacked charter of 1814, altered it to further reduce influence of bourgeoisie, dissolved parliament, increased censorship, wanted to elect a conservative parliament •People closed their shops, set up barricades, Charles X fled. Louise Phillippe, a
bourbon, is declared King. Government of France remained under the control of the wealthy middle class. 3) A revolution that occurred in Belgium, establishing their national independence. Happened August of 1830. Belgians fought against the Dutch Netherlands, in spite of the Netherlands being a boon to agricultural/commercial establishments in Belgium. •Causes: Belgians were unhappy with Dutch rule/policies/presence. -Law, language, censorship -Belgians were catholic; resented Dutch protestants. •Effects: Austria, Prussia, Russia prepared to intervene, but didn’t due to other, more pressing revolutions. -France and Britain aided Belgium -Belgium gained: •Independence •New government: liberal monarchy, constitution, two-house legislature, lowest voting qualifications in Europe -1839: All countries signed an agreement supporting Belgian neutrality.