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Management information system

A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations need to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing three primary components: technology, people (individuals, groups, or organizations), and data (information for decision making). 'MIS' is a planned system of collecting, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. Types of MIS DATA GATHER is any process of preparing and collecting data, for example, as part of a process improvement or similar project. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, or to pass information on to others. Data are primarily collected to provide information regarding a specific topic DATA ENTRY Direct input of data in the appropriate data fields of a database, through the use of a human data-input device such as a keyboard, mouse, stylus, or touch screen, or through speech recognition software. See also data capture and data logging. DATA TRANSFORMATION a data transformation converts a set of data values from the data format of a source data system into the data format of a destination data system. Data transformation can be divided into two steps: 1. data mapping maps data elements from the source data system to the destination data system and captures any transformation that must occur 2. code generation that creates the actual transformation program

Different MIS Functions


MIS is set up by an organization with the prime objective to obtain management information to be used by its managers in decision-making. Characteristics of MIS:

1) Data Capturing: MIS captures data from various internal and external sources of an organization. Data capturing may be manual or through computer terminals. End users, typically record data about transactions on some physical medium such as paper form or enter it directly into a computer system.

2) Processing of data:
The captured data is processed to convert it into the required management information. Processing of data is done by such activities as calculating, comparing, sorting, classifying and summarizing.

3) Storage of information: MIS stores processed or unprocessed data for future use. If any information is not immediately required, it is saved as an organizational record. In this activity, data and information are retained in an organized manner for later use. Stored data is commonly organized into fields, records, files and databases. 4) Retrieval of information: MIS retrieves information from its stores as and when required by various users. As per the requirements of the management users, the retrieved information is either disseminated as such or it is processed again to meet the exact demands. 5) Dissemination of MI: Management information, which is a finished product of MIS, is disseminated to the users in the organization. It could be periodic, through reports or on-line through computer terminals.

Characteristics of MIS?
1. Management oriented:
The system is designed form the top to work downwards. It does not mean that the system is designed to provide information directly to the top management. Other levels of management are also provided with relevant information.

2. Management directed:
Management orientation of MIS, it is necessary that management should continuously make reviews. For example, in the marketing information system, the management must determine what sales information is necessary to improve its control over marketing operations.

3. Integrated system:
The word 'integration' means that system has to cover of all the functional areas of an organization so as to produce more meaningful management information, with a view to achieving the objectives of the organization.

4. Common data
The integration concept of MIS, common data flow concept avoids repetition and overlapping in data collection and storage, combining similar functions, and simplifying operations wherever possible. For example, in the marketing operations, orders received for goods become the basis billing of goods ordered, setting up of the accounts receivable, initiating production activity, sales analysis and forecasting etc.

Discuss the main Objectives of Management Information System.

Data Capturing: MIS capture data from various internal and external sources of organization. Data capturing may be manual or through computer terminals. Processing of Data: The captured data is processed to convert into required information. Processing of data is done by such activities as calculating, sorting, classifying, and summarizing. Storage of Information: MIS stores the processed or unprocessed data for future use. If any information is not immediately required, it is saved as an organization record, for later use. Retrieval of Information: MIS retrieves information from its stores as and when required by various users. Dissemination of Information: Information, which is a finished product of MIS, is disseminated to the users in the organization. It is periodic or online through computer terminal.