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Generator Basics

GENERATOR BASICS

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Generator Basics

Generator Structure
• Generator is a machine which converts
Mechanical energy to Electrical energy

• Magnetic Induction Principle

• An emf is induced in a coil whenever

a) a coil cuts through a magnetic field


b) a magnetic field cuts through a coil

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Generator Basics

Generator Structure
• emf induction is due to relative motion
between two parts ( coil & magnetic field)

• Relative motion is by Rotation

• Two mechanical parts :

Field - Part which produces magnetism (Rotor)


Armature – part where emf is induced (Stator)

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Generator Basics
Generator Structure

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Generator Basics

Generator components

• Prime Mover
• Rotor (Exciter)
• Stator

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Generator Basics

Generator components- Prime mover

• Source of mechanical power for


relative motion

• Two classes of Prime movers :

High Speed : Steam & Gas Turbines


Low Speed : IC engines, Water turbines and
DC motors

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Generator Basics

Generator components- Prime mover

• Type of prime mover plays an important role


in a generator installation

Many characteristics of alternator


and its construction depend upon
Speed at which the rotor is turned.

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Generator Basics

Generator components- Rotors

• Two types are used in rotating field alternators

- Turbine driven rotor


( used where prime mover is a high speed turbine)

- salient pole rotor


( used with low speed prime movers)

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Generator components- Rotors
Generator Basics

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Generator Basics

Generator components- Stators

• Many types based on

- Power out put


- Voltage output
- Type of cooling
- Number of phases

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Generator components- Generator Basics
Simplified schematic of 3 ph. Stator

• Three single phase windings


displaced by 120 degrees

• Star or Delta connection

• Neutral may or may not be


brought out

• No. of terminals can be


3,4, or 6

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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator

Three phase ac power at :

-Rated Voltage
-Rated Frequency

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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator – Common Ratings

Small Generators : 25 kVA to 300 kVA

Medium Size Generators : 500 kVA to 1 MVA

Large size Generators : 1 MVA to 25 MVA

Power Plant Generators: 110 MW to 500 MW

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Generator Basics
Out-puts from a Generator - Frequency

• Frequency depends up on the


Speed of Rotation ( direct proportion)

• F = PN / 120 where
F = frequency in Hz
P = No. of poles
N = speed of rotation in RPM

( 120 is a constant to convert minutes to seconds


and poles to pole pairs)
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Generator Basics
Out-puts from a Generator - Frequency

• Nominal frequency = 50 Hz

• Generator frequency can vary due to


load fluctuations

• Frequency Regulation is mainly


by adjusting the speed

• speed is controlled by varying the fuel


input to the prime mover ( Governor control)
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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator - Governors

• Governor ensures frequency at a set value


by increasing / decreasing the fuel input

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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator - Governors

Two types of Governors :

Pneumatic : Fuel flow is controlled by


valve position control
Control Input : DC Voltage

Electronic : Fuel flow is controlled by


a total servo mechanism
Control input : DC Voltage pulses
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Generator Basics
Droop Characteristics of Governors

Speed

Load
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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator - Voltage

• Voltage is induced in the stator winding

• Terminal voltage depends upon :

1) No. of conductors in series per winding


2) Speed at which magnetic field cuts the winding
3) Strength of the magnetic field

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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator – Voltage Control

• Nominal Voltage = 415 V, 11 kV


• Voltage can vary due to load fluctuations

• Terminal voltage is controlled by


varying the Strength of magnetic field
= varying the current through the field coil
= varying the voltage applied to the field coil
(Exciter control)
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Generator Basics
Typical Exciter

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Generator Basics

Out-puts from a Generator – Exciters

External to Exciter Transformer


Generator Rectifier Unit
Controls

Built on the Small DC machine


Generator attached to same shaft
of generator

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Generator Basics

Typical Exciter

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Generator Basics

Neutral terminal

• Very important from the point of view of


a) reducing the fault currents
b) providing effective protection

• should be used for medium size and above

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Generator Basics
Neutral Grounding Resistors

Protect generators from excessive fault currents


Provides safety for operators
Provides protection for connected equipment

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Generator Basics

Generator Impedance
X

Synchronous Reactance
Transient reactance

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
ϕ = 0o (360O) FORWARD RESISTIVE

ϕ = +30o FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE


ϕ = +60o FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE

ϕ = +90o FORWARD CAPACITIVE (LOSS OF FIELD)

ϕ = +120o REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWADRD CAPACITIVE


ϕ = +150o REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE

ϕ = +180o REVERSE RESISTIVE

ϕ = +210o (-150O) REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE


ϕ = +240o (-120O) REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE

ϕ = +270o (-90O) FORWARD INDUCTIVE

ϕ = +300o (-60O) FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE


ϕ = +330o (-30O) FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE
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Generator Basics

Generator Behaviour

Influence of Rotor on Stator


Influence of Stator on Rotor
Effect of Load on Generator
Effect of excitation on Generator Impedance
Influence of generator on prime mover

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Generator Basics
Generator Behaviour

Influence of Rotor on Stator

• Only variable is excitation current


• Terminal voltage is proportional to
Excitation current
• Will influence Generator impedance

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Generator Basics
Generator Behaviour

Influence of Stator on Rotor

• Only variable is the load


• Unbalance loads can cause rotor heating
• Excessive loads can cause out of step

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Generator Basics

Generator Behaviour

Effect of Load on Generator

• Load will decide the pF of generator


• Over loads can cause speed reduction
• Unbalance loads can cause over heating

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Generator Basics

Generator Behaviour

Effect of excitation on Generator Impedance

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Generator Basics

Power output from Generator

Active power kW Controlled by Governor

Reactive Power kVA Controlled by Exciter

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

TYPES OF GENERATORS
 TURBO GENERATOR
 DIESEL GENERATOR
 HYDRO GENERATOR
 WIND GENERATOR

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

SUB SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS

 PRIME MOVER
 EXCITATION SYSTEM
 VOLTAGE REGULATOR
 GOVERNOR
 COOLING SYSTEM

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FAULTS IN GENERATOR

 EXTERNAL FAULTS
 INTERNAL FAULTS
 ROTOR EARTH FAULT
 FAULTS RELATED TO SUB SYSTEMS

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EXTERNAL FAULTS

OVER LOADING
UNBALANCE LOADING
SHORT CIRCUIT
EARTH FAULT

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INTERNAL FAULTS

 PHASE TO PHASE FAULTS IN


WINDINGS
 PHASE TO EARTH FAULTS

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ROTOR EARTH FAULT

 DOUBLE EARTH FAULT TRIPPING

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FAULTS RELATED TO SUB-SYSTEMS

 UNDER VOLTAGE
 OVER VOLTAGE
 UNDER FREQUENCY
 OVER FREQUENCY
 REVERSE POWER
 LOSS OF EXCITATION
 LOW-FORWARD POWER
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GENERATOR PROTECTION

TYPES OF FAULTS (STATOR SIDE)

VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT


THERMAL OVER LOAD
CURRENT UNBALANCE
OVER VOLTAGE
UNDER VOLTAGE
OVER FREQUENCY
UNDER FREQUENCY
LOSS OF FIELD
REVERSE POWER
UNDER POWER

OUT OF STEP
INADVERTANT ENERGISATION
EARTH FAULT (100%)
EARTH FAULT (95%)

GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL
OVER EXCITATION (V/Hz)

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

TYPES OF FAULTS (ROTOR SIDE)

ROTOR EARTH FAULT


EXCITATION UNDER VOLTAGE
EXCITATION UNDER CURRENT
DIODE FAILURE

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SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
11 kV GENERATOR PROTECTION

11000/110v

r 27 59 81

400/5 49 51V 46 40 32 37 64

400/5

87G
6.6 MW
G

400/5

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT

- WHEN O/C FAULT, TERMINAL VOLTAGE REDUCES.


- RELAY MAY NOT TRIP, SINCE FAULT CURRENT
THROUGH RELAY MAY BE LESS THAN SET POINT

NECESSARY TO VARY THE O/C PICK UP SETTING


WITH RESPECT TO VOLTAGE

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

VOLTAGE RESTRAINED OVER CURRENT

I*/ [I>]

1.0

0.2

0.2 0.8 V/Vs


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GENERATOR PROTECTION

LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS

GENERATOR WILL OVER SPEED &


OPERATE AS AN INDUCTION GENERATOR
(OVER SPEEDS OF THE ORDER OF 2 TO 5% )

GENERATOR WILL CONTINUE TO DELIVER POWER


WILL DERIVE EXCITATION FROM THE SYSTEM

STATOR CURRENT WILL BE 200%


THERE WILL BE HEAVY ROTOR CURRENT
RESULTS IN OVER HEATING

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS

PHASE ANGLE BETWEEN


ANGLE ϕ VOLTAGE & CURRENT

IMPEDANCE REPLICA OF
ANGLE α PHASE ANGLE

α = 360O - ϕ
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GENERATOR PROTECTION

LOSS OF FIELD IN GENERATORS

ϕ
α

Z
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GENERATOR PROTECTION
ϕ = 0o (360O) FORWARD RESISTIVE

ϕ = +30o FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE


ϕ = +60o FORWARD RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE

ϕ = +90o FORWARD CAPACITIVE (LOSS OF FIELD)

ϕ = +120o REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWADRD CAPACITIVE


ϕ = +150o REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD CAPACITIVE

ϕ = +180o REVERSE RESISTIVE

ϕ = +210o (-150O) REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE


ϕ = +240o (-120O) REVERSE RESISTIVE + FORWARD INDUCTIVE

ϕ = +270o (-90O) FORWARD INDUCTIVE

ϕ = +300o (-60O) FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE


ϕ = +330o (-30O) FORWARD INDUCTIVE + FORWARD RESISTIVE
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GENERATOR PROTECTION

LOSS OF FIELD X
PROTECTION

Z
NORMAL
R

LOSS OF
FIELD

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

LOSS OF FIELD X
PROTECTION

Z
NORMAL
R
K1

LOSS OF
FIELD K2

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GENERATOR PROTECTION

REVERSE POWER GENERATORS

GENERATOR WILL BECOME MOTOR

HARMFUL TO THE PRIME MOVER

( STEAM TURBINE WILL OVER HEAT)


(DIESEL ENGINE WILL EXPLODE DUE
TO UNBURNT FUEL)
(HYDRAULIC TUBINE WILL HAVE CAVITATION)

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
STATOR EARTH FAULT

95% EARTH FAULT NORMAL RELAY

100% EARTH FAULT SPECIAL RELAY


SENSES ABSENCE
OF 3RD HARMONICS

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
STATOR EARTH FAULT
0%

95 TO 100%
95%

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GENERATOR PROTECTION
INADVERTANT ENERGISATION

- APPLICATION OF FULL VOLTAGE AT


STANDSTILL
COASTING TO STOP
BEFORE SYNCHRONISM

- PRESENCE OF UNBALANCE VOLTAGE DUE TO


FLASH OVER AT IONE OR TWO POLES OF BREAKER

GENERATOR FORCED TO START AS


INDUCTION MOTOR RESULTING IN MECHANICAL
DAMAGES TO PRIME MOVER AND EXCESSIVE
HEATING IN THE ROTOR
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GENERATOR PROTECTION

V/Hz PROTECTION

- INCORRECT VOLTAGE REGULATOR ACTION


- LOAD THROW - OFF
- SUDDEN OVER VOLTAGE / OVER FREQUENCY

RESULTS IN OVER FLUXING OF GENERATOR


AND OVER HEATING

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LOAD SHARING OF GENERATORS

BC1 BC2
BUS-1 BUS-2 BUS-3
r r

r B1 r B2 r B3 PT3
PT1 PT2
L L L L
L L S S S S
S S - R R R R
R R CT3
CT1 CT2

G1 G2 PULSES FOR G3 PULSES FOR


PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & GOVERNOR &
GOVERNOR & EXCITER EXCITER
EXCITER

LSR = LOAD SHARING RELAY

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GRID ISLANDING SCHEME

GRID INCOMER
TRANSFORMER

REVERSE POWER RELAY


LOW FORWARD POWER RELAY
UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY
DIRECTIONAL O/C + E/F RELAY
r

r rr r

dF/dT RELAY
UNDER FREQ. RELAY
DG
OVER FREQ. RELAY PLANT
VECTOR SURGE RELAY LOADS
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SYNCHRONISATION OF GENERATORS

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SYNCHRONISING IS THE PROCESS OF
ELECTRICALLY CONNECTING
TWO AC POWER SOURCES WITH
ROTATING MACHINES

WITHOUT ANY DISTURBANCE TO


EXISTING SYSTEM AND

WITHOUT ANY DAMAGE TO THE


EXISTING SYSTEM

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SYNCHRONISATION

SINGLE GENERATOR TO A BUS


(DEAD BUS / LIVE BUS SYNCH.)

MULTIPLE GENERATORS TO A BUS


(SIZE, VINTAGE, RESPONSE TIMES)

AUTO CHANGEOVER IN BUS CONNECTIONS

MANUAL & AUTO SYNCHRONISATION

REVERSE SYNCHRONISATION

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PARAMETERS GOVERNING
SYNCHRONISATION :

VOLTAGE

FREQUENCY

PHASE ANGLE

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SYNCHRONISING OF GENERATORS

COMMON BUS

r B1 r B2
PT1 PT2

SCM 21

G1 G2

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RESULTS OF INCORRECT SYNCHRONISATION

FREQUENCY ACTIVE POWER FLOW


HIGH FREQ. TO LOW FREQ.

PHASE ANGLE JOLT TO THE SYSTEM


FATIGUE TO SHAFT
DAMAGE TO BEARINGS
OVER HEATING OF STATOR

VOLTAGE REACIVE POWER FLOW


HIGH VOLTAGE TO LOW VOLTAGE

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REVERSE SYNCHRONISATION

GRID INCOMER
TRANSFORMER

r rr r

DG
PLANT
LOADS
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

TYPES OF PARALLEL OPERATION

MULTIPLE GENERATORS ON A COMMON BUS


WITHOUT CONNECTION TO GRID

GENERATORS CONNENCTED TO GRID IN


IMPORT ONLY MODE

GENERATORS CONNECTED TO GRID IN


IMPORT + EXPORT MODE
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED
BASIC PROTECTIONS

•SEQUENTIAL STARTING & SYNCHRONISATION

•NEUTRAL SWITCHING LOGIC

• INSTABILITY & HUNTING AT HIGHER POWER O/P

•CASCADED TRIPPING ON LOAD FLUCTUATION

•REVERSE POWER FLOW DUE TO BREAKER FAILURE

•POOR POWER FACTOR

•EFFECT OF GRID DISTURBANCES &


GRID ISLANDING SCHEMES

•LOAD MANAGEMENT AFTER ISLANDING

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

BASIC PROTECTIONS

OVER CURRENT + E/F


THERMAL OVER LOAD
UNDER VOLTAGE + OVER VOLTAGE
UNDER FREQUENCY + OVER FREQUENCY
LOSS OF FIELD
CURRENT UNBALANCE
REVERSE POWER
DIFFERENTIAL + REF
ROTOR E/F

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

SEQUENTIAL STARTING & SYNCHRONISATION

AMF SCHEME

STARTING LOGIC

AUTO SYNCHRONISATION
- DEAD BUS SYNCHRONISATION (FIRST MACHINE)

STARTING/ STOPPING OF GENERATOR NEXT IN LINE


- LIVE BUS SYNCHRONISATION
(SUBSEQUENT MACHINES)

PT SWITCHING LOGIC

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

SEQUENTIAL STARTING & SYNCHRONISATION

MAINS FAILURE
DETECTION
I/C TRIP &
STARTING LOGIC
3 ATTEMPT
STARTERS
PT SWITCHING
LOGIC
AUTO SYNCH. OF
GENERATORS
CUT IN – CUT OUT
LOGIC
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

NEUTRAL SWITCHING LOGIC

MASTER GENERATOR NEUTRAL TO BE GROUNDED

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

INSTABILITY AT HIGHER O/P & CASCADED TRIPPING

ERRATIC RESPONSE TO LOAD FLUCTUATIONS

- DIFFERENT SIZES OF GENERATORS


- DIFFERENT VINTAGES OF GENERATORS

IMROPER LOAD ALLOCATION TO


EACH GENERATOR

OPERATOR’S LIMITATIONS

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GENERATORS ON COMMON BUS – AUTO LOAD SHARING SCHEME

BC1 BC2
BUS-1 BUS-2 BUS-3
r r

r B1 r B2 r B3 PT3
PT1 PT2
L L L L
L L S S S S
S S - R R R R
R R CT3
CT1 CT2

G1 G2 PULSES FOR G3 PULSES FOR


PULSES FOR GOVERNOR & GOVERNOR &
GOVERNOR & EXCITER EXCITER
EXCITER

LSR = LOAD SHARING RELAY RRS

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

REVERSE POWER FLOW

G1 STOPS DUE TO
BC1 MECHANICAL PROBLEMS
BUS-1 BUS-2
r B1 WILL NOT TRIP

r B1 r B2 G2 WILL FEED G1
PT1 PT2
RELAY RELAY
R1 - R2
CT1 CT2

G1 G2

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Fig. -2
GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

POOR POWER FACTOR


GRID
KEEP RATIO OF
KW/KVAr CONSTANT
r

BUS-1 REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
r PT1 SOURCE
L L
S S
R R
CT1

G1 PULSES FOR
GOVERNOR &
EXCITER
LSR09873171145
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Fig. -3
GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

HANDLING OF GRID DISTURBANCES

 GRID FAILURE

 GRID FAULT

 OVER LOAD IN THE GRID

 UNDER / OVER VOLTAGE IN THE GRID

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

GRID ISLANDING SCHEME


GRID INCOMER
TRANSFORMER

REVERSE POWER RELAY


LOW FORWARD POWER RELAY
UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY
DIRECTIONAL O/C + E/F RELAY
r

r rr r

dF/dT RELAY
UNDER FREQ. RELAY
DG
OVER FREQ. RELAY PLANT
VECTOR SURGE RELAY LOADS
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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

LOAD MANAGEMENT AFTER ISLANDING

 LOAD SHEDDING
- FREQUENCY BASED
- POWER BASED

 LOAD SHADING

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GENERATORS IN PARALLEL

REVERSE SYNCHRONISATION

 AUTO SYNCHRONISING

 LOCATION OF SYNCHRONISING

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THANK YOU

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