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COMPUTER
FUNDAMENTAL
dEI;wVj D;k gS %& dEI;wVj ,d ,slk bysDVkfud ;U= gSAtks fd User ls i;kZIr Data ysus ds ckn mls vadxf.krh; ;k rkfdZd fof/k ls gy djus esa leFkZ gksrk gSA ifjp;(Introduction):ComputerdaEi;wVj kCn dk mnHko(Derivation)Compute kCn ls gqvk Fkk Computer ,d bysDVkaWfud midj.k gS] ftles izR;{k gkFkksa ls dke fd,s fcuk tVhy ls tVhy lwpukvksa dks lalksf/kr djds iyd >idrs gh gy lfgr fudky ysus ds {kerk ekStwn gSA ?kjksa vkSj nrjksa esa vke rkSj ij iz;ksx fd, tkus okys daI;wVj dks ih0 lh0 (PC)(Personal Computer) dgk tkrk gSaA daI;wVj dh t:jr D;ksa iM+rh gS&(Why do we need Computer):euq; ds thou esa daI;wVj ,d egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gS daI;wVj dk mi;ksx djus dk izeq[k dkj.k ;gha gS fd blds }kjk ge vius thou dks vkSj vf/kd ljy cuk ldrs gaSA vkt ds ;qx es daI;wVj dk ego tkuus ds fy, ge ,d NksVk lk mnkgj.k ysrs gS tSls& ,d dEiuh dk Accounting System ;fn ge ijaeijkxr rjhds dk gh bLrseky djds Balance Sheet cuk,axs] rks yxHkx ,d eghuk yx tk,xk] tcfd daI;wVj dk iz;ksx djus ij ;g dke dqN gh ?kaVksa es iwjk gks ldrk gSA gkFk ls cukbZ xbZ Balance Sheet esa xyfr;kaW gksus dh vf/kd laHkkouk jgrh gSa vkSj buesa lq/kkj djuk bruk vklku ugha gksrk] fdarq ;fn bl Balance Sheet dks daI;wVj ij cuk;k tk,] rks xyfr;kaW gksus dh vkkadk cgqr de gks tkrh gS vkSj tks FkksM+h cgqr xyfr;ksa gh Hkh tk,aWxh] mUgas ge Balance Sheet dks nksckjk cuk, fcuk Hkh lq/kkj dj ldrs gSA

Q.what is definition of computer ?(ifjHkkkk) Ans. Definition of computer-computer ,d rhoz xrh dk bysDVkfud ;ak gS tks xf.krh; ,ao rkfdZd fdz;k dykiks dk lQyrk ls laiknu djrk gS ;g MkVk dks ysrk gS vkSj ,d dze c) izfdz;k ds tfj;s mles okafNr (bPNkuqlkj) lqpuk ds :i es izLrqr djrk gS A

Q.what is the meaning of data processing? Ans. tc ge computer ij tksMuk-Vkuk vkfn vad xf.kfr; f;kvks ds
vykok cgqr ls dke djrs ;k djkrs gS bu dkeks dks data processing dgrs gS Q. Full form of computer C-common (lkekU; O-oprating (pykuk M-machine(ekhu P-particular (fooj.k U- used for (iz;ksx ds fy, T- traning (vH;kl E- education (fk{kk R-research ([kkst Input- process- output [data] [precessing] [in formation]

Examle Ram-are the fsct and make a data asRam Process when a user give any data put input devices
Computer marks some wark on this wark is called process

Information- computer give out put a fore processing on data


which is called information. Data processing - Information.

3*5=15

(3,5) (processing *) (15)

Q- what is feature of computer? (fokskrk) Ans- feature of computer1- speed - xfr (ekbdzks lsds.M) 10-12 2- Accuracy- kq)rk 3-storage- laxzg (ekius dh bdkbZ =Bytes) 4- Automation Lopkyu 5- Diligence - ifjJeh 6- Versatility - papyrk Q- What is the meaning of Hardware? Ans- Hardware mls dgrs gSaA ftlls ge ns[kdj,Nqdj eglql dj ldrs gSA tSls- Key bord , mouse, CPU,etc. Q- what is the meaning of Software? Ans- Software mls dgrs gSA tks rkfdZd :i ls dze o) fd;s izksxzkeksa ds leqg dks dgrs gSA Hardware ds Software ij dk;Z ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA Q- What is the meaning of data? Ans- Data lHkh lEcUf/kr rF;ksa dk ,d leqg gSA ;s rF; la[;k (Numbers) vaxzsth ds o.kZekyk ds v{kj (Letter of Alphabets)kCn (words) ;k foksk fpUg (special symbols) Q- What is the meaning of Information ? Ans- foysfkr Data ds leqg dks Information dgrs gSaA

(ih<h)(Generation) and history of computer Generation1- 1946-1955-Vacuumtube


Ikgyh ih<h ds dEI;qVj dh kq:vkr esa ;qfuosd1 (Univac1)ds lkFk gq;h blesa osD;qeV~;qOl dk bLrseky fd;k x;kA

2-

1956-1965- Tranasistor

blesa osD;qeV~;qOl ds txg ij VkfUtLVjksa us yh vkSj eseksjh (IBM 1401,Honeywell 800) ds fy, eSxusfVd dksj dk fuek.kZ gksus yxkA

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1966-1975- I.c( Integrated circuit)

With SSI &MSI technology blesa igyh ij bafVxzsfVM lfdZV (IBM360 , cdc6400) vkSj vkijsfVsx flLVe dk bLrseky gqvkA (IC) 4-

1976- 1985- Microprocesser


Chip with LSI&VLSI Technology fpi dk bLrseky gksus yxk ftlds dkj.k NksVs izkslslj (ekbdzksizkslslj) vkSj futh daI;qVjl (pc) vLfkrRo esa vk;sA

5- 1985 - Microprocessor chi with ULSI teachnogy Ikkapoh ih<h ds dEI;qVj es daI;wVj esa daI;wfVax ds dbZ csgrjhu rjhds ftlesa vkfVZfQly baVsfytsal vkSj V;w fMLVhO;wVsM izkslsflax dks kkfey fd;kA

History of computer
1.Abacus= Abacus =>

euq; )kjk x.kuk djus )kjk rS;kj fd;k tkus okyk igyk ;aU= gSA ;s lcls iqjkuk vkSj ljy gSA bl tools dk vfodkj loZ izFke fpu esa gqvk Fkk ;s nks Hkkxksa esa cVk jgrk gSA ,d rjQ jaaxhu xksfy;k yksgs ds rjaxksa esa yxh jgrh gSA nqljk Hkkx LysV dh rjg gksrk gSA

igyk daI;wVj& vckdl& izkphu dky esa yksax x.kuk djus ds fy, dadM+ksa vkSj iRFkjksa dk iz;ksax djrs FksaA tc bl rjg ls x.kuk dk dk;Z dfBu yxus rks mlus vckdl uked ,d midj.k dk vkfodkj fd;kAbl midj.k dks vkt ls yxHkx nksa gtkj okZ igys phu esa cuk;k x;k FkkA ;g midj.k ,d ydM+h das Qsze dk cuk Fkk] ftlesa dbZ NM+s FkhaA ;g NM+sa ,d lekukarj NM+ ls nksa vleku Hkkxkas esa caWVh gksrh FkhaA yacor NM+ks ds ijh Hkkx esa nksa xksfy;kaW vkSj fupys Hkkx essa ikaWp xksfy;kaW gksrh FkhaA ij dh ,d xksyh dks ikaWp bdkb;ksa ds cjkcj ekuk tkrk Fkk vkSj uhp dh ,d xksyh dks ,d bdkbZ dsaA bu xksafy;ksa dksa dqN fufpr fu;eksa ds lkFk iz;kasx djds x.kuk dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk Fkk ftlls xf.krh; leL;kvksa dk lek/kku vklkuh ls gks tkrk FkkAdaI;wVj ds tud&pkYlZ cSost& pkYlZ cSost ,d vaWxzst xf.krK FksA lcls igys mUgksaus daI;wVj tSLkh fdlh ekhu dh ifjdYiuk dh FkhA blh otg ls bUgsa daI;wVj dk tud dgk tkrk gSA lu~ 1823 esa bUgksaus ,d ,slh ekhu dk vkfodkj fd;k tks rsth ls x.kuk djusa esa le{k FkhA bl ekhu dksa fMQjsaUl baftu dk uke fn;k x;kA ;g ekhu orZeku le; ds daI;wVj ls dkQh feyrh&tqyrh FkhA

2. Charles babbage =>


daI;wVj ds bfrgkl esas pkYlZ ckcst dk uke lcls T;knk egRoiw.kZ gSA bUgs vkt ds vk/kqfud fMftVy daI;wVj dk firk (father of modern Digital computer) dgk tkrk gSA bUgksaus lu~ 1822 esa fMQjsl batu (Difference Engine) dk fuekZ.k fd;k A buds akq:vkr ds fy, ,d ehy dk iRFkj lkfcr gqvk bl ekhu esa yxHkx 50000fgyus&Mqyus okys Hkkx yxs gq;s Fks tks fd ;af=d xh;j )kjk dk;Z djrs Fks ;g nksuks izdkj dk dk;Z djus esa la{ke Fkk vadxf.krh; x.kuk rFkk vkdM+s dks lqjf{kr j[kukA

3. pascals Additing machine =>

Blaisepascal us lu~ 1642bZ0 es loZizFke ;a= ls tksM+ djus okyh ekhu dk vkfodkj fd;k mlus bl ekhu dk vfodkj vius firk fd enn ds fy, fd;k mud firk Qzkal esa ,d ckj vf/kdkjh ds :i esa dk;Z djrs Fks ;g ekhu ,d okLrfod dSydqysVj fl) gqvk ftlds )kjk tksM- ?kVkuk ds vykok xq.kk ,oa Hkkx djuk Hkh lEHko gks x;kA

4. Hollerith Machine (gkysfjFk dk ekkhu )=>


lu~~ 1884 bZ0 esa gjeu gkysfjFk tj ds la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk ds tux.kuk foHkkx esa dke djrk Fkk gkysfjFk us 1885 bZ0 esa fctyh ls pyus okyh ekhu dk fuek.kZ fd;k ;g ekhu la[;kvksa ds lkFk lkFk v{kjksa dks Hkh le> ldrk FkkA 1. ENIAC Electronic numerical Integra or and calculator. 2. EDVAC Electronic Discrete Varialde automatic computer. 3.EDSAC Electronic Delary storage Automatic calculator 4.UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer.

1. ENIAC (Electronic numerical Integra or and calculator)=>


lu~ 1946 bZ0 esa ekmpyh rFkk bdVZ us igys bysDVkfud MkVk izkslsflax eakhu dk fuekZ.k fd;k ftldk uke Eniac vFkkZr Electronic numerical Integra or and calculator iM+k ;g igyk Computer dkQh fokky Fkk ftldk fuekZ.k yxHkx 18 gtkj Vacuumtube ls fd;k x;k Fkk ;g Computer yxHkx 100QqV yEck RkFkk 80 Vu otu dk Fkk bldks pykus esa yxHkx 150000 okV dh fctyh dh t:jr iM+rh Fkh bl fy, ;g cgqr xeZ gks tkrh Fkh ftls dqN nsj ds fy, cUn dj fn;k tkrk FkkA

2. EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Varialde automatic computer)=>


;g Eniac ds ckn fodflr gksus okyk nwljk computer esa iap dkMZ dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk Fkk ftldk mn~ns; MkVk dks lqjf{kr j[kuk gksrk FkkA 3. EDSAC (Electronic Delary storage Automatic calculator)=> ,fu;kd ,MoSd ds ckn rhljk fodflr gksus okyk Computer ,aMlSd (EDSAC) ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bldk fuekZ.k lu~1949 bZ0 esa gqvk ;g vius rjg dk igyk Computer Fkk tks fd iwoZ fyf[kr rFkk lafpr izksxzke ds vk/kkj ij dke dj ldrk Fkk bldk bLrseky lu~ 1951 ls kq: gqvk A bl ih<h esa izksxzke dks fy[kus ds fy, f}&vk/kkjh; vadks dk iz;ksx fd;kAa 4. UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)=>

blds igys ftrus Computer dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;kA os lHkh izksxzke ds vk/kkj ij fd;k x;k FkkA ;g ekhu okLrfod :i ls dk;Z lEiUu djus okyh ekhu Fkk bldk vkdkj de gks x;k Fkk blesa 10~000Vacuumtubes dk mi;ksx fd;k x;k ;g ekhu [kqn gh tkap djus esa l{ke Fkh D;ksafd ekhu dsoy ckbujh Hkkkk esa le> ldrs gSA f}&vk/kkjh; la[;k dk vFkZ gksrk gS 0 vkSj 1 bldk mi;ksx izksxzke crk;k x;k A ;g cgqr dfBu vkSj tfVy dk;Z gSA daI;wVj vkSj ge& daI;wVj ,d ,slh bysDVkaWfud ekhu gS ftldk fuekZ.k euq; us fd;k gSA blfy, ge ;g dg ldrs gS fd euq; dk fnekx gh daI;wVj dk ekfyd gSA daI;wVj euq; ds }kjk fn, x, funsZkk sa ds vuqlkj dk;Z djrk gS vkSj blesa [kqn dh lksapus o le>usa dh kfDr ugha gksrh gSA daI;wVj dk iz;ksax D;ksa& daI;wVj gekjsa ij iwjh rjg ls fuHkZj gksrs gSa] fQj Hkh ge budk iz;ksax thou ds izR;sd {ksa= esa djrs gSA blds fuEu dj.k gSa& 1. daI;wVj dh eseksjh cgqr cM+h gksrh gSA 2. daI;wVj dHkh Hkh Fkdrs ugha gSA 3. daI;wVj cgqr rsth ls dk;Z dj ldrs gSA 4. daI;wVj gesakk lgh ifj.kke nsrs gSA daI;wVj cgqr cM+h ek=k esa MsVk LVksaj dj ldrs gSA daI;wVj dh lhek,aW& tgkaW ,d vksaj daI;wVj ds cgqr ls Qk;nsa gSa ogha nwljh vksj bldh dk;Z laca/kh dqN lhek,aW Hkh gSaA vkb, tkusa fd ;g lhek,aW D;k gSa& daI;wVj [kqn dksbZ dk;Z ugh dj ldrk gSAA daI;wVj esa eseksjh rks gksrh gS] ysfdu lkspus okyk fnekx ughs gksrk gSa daI;wVj cqn~f/keku ugha gksrk gSA daI;wVj dkj.kksa dh O;k[;k ughsa dj ldrk gSA daI;wVj gekjsa }kjk fn, x, funsaZkksa dk gh ikyu dj ldrk gSA

daI;wVj esa D;k&D;k&ftl rjg gekjs kjhj esa vyx&vyx dk;ksZ dks djus ds fy, vyx&vyx Hkkx gksr gSa] Bhd mlh rjg ls daI;wVj es Hkh vyx&vyx dk;ksZ dks djus ds fy, vyx&vyx Hkkx gksrs gSA bu Hkkxksa dks ge nksa oxkasZ esa ckaWV ldrs gSA igys oxZ esa blds vfuok;Z Hkkx gksrs gSA

daI;wVj ds vax(Parts of a Computer):-lcls igys ge daI;wVj ds ckgj ls fn[kus okys fHkUu Hkkxksa (Components)dk ifjp; yssrs gSA ewy :i ls daI;wVj esa ,d lh0 ih0 ;w0] ,d ekaWuhVj] ,d ekml vkSj ,d dh&CkksMZ gksrk gSA dqN daI;wVj esa vfrfjDr Hkkx] tSls& Lihdj] ekbdzksQksu] gsMQksu bR;kfn Hkh gksrs gSA ;s vfrfjDr Hkkx gesa dqN vU; dk;ksaZ ds fy, daI;wVj dk iz;ksax djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA daI;wVj ds vfuok;Z rFkk ,sfPNd Hkkxksa ds ckjs esa ge bl v/;k; esa vkxs ppkZ djsaxsA fQygky ge ,d lk/kkj.k daI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa ds ckjs esa tkusxsA

C.P.U
Memory Unit
Primery Memory

Control Unit

Airthmatic And Logic Unit


Secondry Memory

RAM

ROM

Floppy Hard disk Compact Disk Etc (C.D.)

CPU(Central Processing Unit):-daI;wVj dk lh0ih0;w0 vkerkSj ij ,d aWps dSfcusV esa gksrk gSA blesa dbZ vyx&vyx NksVs Hkkx] tSls-Motherboard, Hard Disk, RAM, Floppy Disk Drive, Sound Card bR;kfn yxs gksrs gSA bu Hkkxksa ds ckjs esa bl v/;k; esa vkxs crk;k x;k gSA

Monitor :-Vsyhfotu ls feyrk&tqyrk ;g midj.k daI;wVj dk vkmViqV nkkZrk gSA ekaWuhVj Monochrome (Black and White),LCD (Liquid Crystal Display),VGA ;k SVGA izdkj dk gksrk gSA bldsa vfrfjDr ekaWuhVj Analouge ;k Digital nksuks izdkj dk gks ldrk gSAekaWuhVj ns[kus es Vsyhfotu dh rjg gh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ekaWuhVj ds ftl Hkkx ij gesa fp= ;k v{kj fn[kkbZ nsrk gSa mls Ldzhu dgrs gSA rduhdh Hkkkk esa bls lhvk jVh dgk tkrk gSA bldk iwjk uke gS&dsFkksM js V;wcAdh&cksMZ ds }kjk tks Hkh Vkbi fd;k tkrk gS og ekaWuhVj ij gh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA dke iwjk gksus ij gesa ifj.kke Hkh ekaWuhVj ij gh fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA blfy, bls vkmV iqV fMokbl dgk tkrk gSA

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gekjs nsk esa nks rjg ds ekaWuhVj iz;ksax fd, tk jgs gSA ekaWuhVjksa dk ;g oxhZdj.k jaxks ds vk/kkj ij gS vkSj ;g gSa& eksuksdzkse ekaWuhVj] dyj ekaWuhVjA eksuksdzkse ekaWuhVj&bl Js.kh es vkus okys lHkh ekaWuhVj dsoy ,d jax esa gh lwpukvksa dks nkkZrs gSA blhfy, buds lanHkZ ess eksuks kCn dks iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vc budk pyu yxkrkj de gksrk tk jgk gSA dyj ekaWuhVj&bl Js.kh esa vkus okys ekaWuhVj lHkh jaxks esa lwpukvksa dks nkkZrs gSA blhfy, buds lanHkZ esa dyj kCn dk iz;ksax fd;k tkrk gSA gekjsa nsk es dhers de gksus ls budk pyu yxkrkj c<+ jgk gSA Mouse:-;g NksVk lk midj.k gekjh gFksyh dh idM+ esa vklkuh ls vk tkrk gSA blesa nks ;k rhu cVu yxs gksrs gS] ftudh lgk;rk ls ge daI;wVj ij lqfo/kktud <ax ls dk;Z djrs gSA daqth iVy dh Hkkafr fg mouse Hkh ,d izdkj dk input Divies gSA ftldk iz;ksx computer dks funZsk nsus esa fd;k tkrk gSA blds )kjk lqpukvksa dks daI;qVj esa mifLFkr Software gksrs gSaS mudks blds )kjk fu;af=r dj ldrs gSA ;g pkj izdkj ds gksrs gSA

Mouse
1. Machanical mouse ( esdsfudy ekml) 2. Optical mouse 3. Bus mouse 4. Serial mouse (vkifVdy ekml) ( cl ekml) (flfj;y ekml)

daI;wVj dk ekml& ekml Hkh daI;wVj dh buiqV fMokbl gSA blds ij nks ;k rhu cVusa gksrh gS vkSj ;g ,d rkj ds }kjk lhih;w ls tqM+k jgrk gSA vktdy fcuk rkj ds ekml Hkh vk x, gSA ekml dks ,d pkSdksj iSM ij j[kk tkrk gSA bls ekml iSM dgrs gSA tc vki ekml iSM ij ekml dks ?kqek,aWxs rks ,d rhj ds fukku dh rjg dk ladsrd ekaWuhVj ij fgyrk gqvk fn[kkbZ nsaxkA bls vki vke cksypky dh Hkkkk essa ekml IokbaVj dgk tkrk gSA ekml ds }kjk daI;wVj dks funsZk nsus dk dke Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA blhfy, ;g Hkh ,d buiqV fMokbl gSA

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dh&cksMZ] ekaWuhVj]lhih;w vkSj ekml dksa tksM+dj laiw.kZ ihlh vFkkZr ilZuy daI;wVj curk gSA orZeku le; esa ekml Hkh ,d egoiw.kZ buiqV fMokbl gSA foaMkst vkaWijsafVax flLVe esa blds fcuk dke djuk cgqr gh eqfdy gSA ekml cgqi;ksxh gSA blls vusd dk;Z laiUu fd, tk ldrs gSA foksak :i ls xzkfDl ds fy, rks bldk cgqr vf/kd mi;ksx gSA tc vkidk eu xzkfDl ds izksaxke esa js[kk [khapus dk gks rks ;g ekml IokbaVj rhj dh ctk, ,d isafly dh kDy vf[r;kj dj ysrk gS ;fn fdlh js[kk ;k fp= dks feVkuk pkgsa rks jcM+ vkSj ;fn jax Hkjus dk fopkj j[ksaxs rks jax ds fMCcsa dh vkd`fr xzg.k dj yssxkA vktdy ,sls ekml Hkh pyu esa gSa] ftuesa izdkk ijkorZu rduhd dk iz;ksax fd;k tk jgk gSA bUgsa vkaWfIVdy ekml dgrs gSA blds vykok fcuk rkj okys ok;jysl ekml Hkh vc [wkc bLrseky fd, tk jgsa gSA ekml ls tqM+h kCnkoyh& tc vki ekml ls daI;wVj ij dk;Z djsaxas rks dbZ kCn vkidksa bl rjg ds irk pysaxs] ftUgsa vki vHkh rd tkurs gh ugha gSA ekml dks ljyrk ls iz;ksax fd;k tk lds blfy, igys bu kCnksa ds vFkZ tkurs gS& fDyd djuk& tc ekml ds IokbaVj vFkkZr ladsrd dks ekaWuhVj dh Ldzhu ij fdlh vkbdu ij ys tkdj mldh ckbZ cVu dks nckrs gS rks ;g fdz;k fDyd djuk dgykrh gSA fDyd djus ls vki ekaWuhVj ds vkaWCtsDV dks LysDV dj ldrs gSA Mcy fDyd djuk&tc vki fdlh vkaWCtsV ij ,d ckj fDyd djds mls LysDV djrs gSa rks og dsoy LysDV gksrk gSA ml vkaWCtsDV ;k mlls tqM+s izksaxzke dks [kksayu ds fy, vkaWCtsDV ij rsth ls nks ckj yxkrkj fDyd djrs gS rks bls izksaxzke fdz;kfUor gks tkrk gSA ;g fdz;k Mcy fDyfdax dgykrh gSA MSx ,aM MkaWi djuk&ekaWuhVj dh Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ ns jgs vkaWCtsDV ij ekml IokabVj ys tkdj tc ,d ckj fDyd djds mls LysDV djrs gSa rFkk vki bl ck,aW cVu dks ;fn nck, j[ksa vkSj ekml dks iSM ij ?kqek,aW rks vkaWCtsDV Hkh Ldzhu ij LFkku cnysxkA bl fdz;k dks MSx djuk dgrs gSA MSx djds vkaWCtsDV dks u, LFkku ij ykdj NksM+uk vFkkZr u, LFkku ij vkus ds ckn ck,aW cVu dks NksM+ nsuk Mki djuk dgykrk gSA

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Keyboard:;g ,d Typewriter ds fupys vk/ks Hkkx tSlk midj.k gS] ftlesa daI;wVj ij Vkbi djus ds fy, dht cuh gksrh gSA bleas lHkh v{kj] vad rFkk dqN ladsr fy[ks jgrs gSA vkerkSj ij dh cksMZ ds nks ekaWMy feyrs gS& 83-84 Keys okyk Standard Model rFkk Enhanced Model- vktdy ;g vf/kd izpfyr gSA blesa 104 ;k blls vf/kd Keys gksrh gSA daI;wVj dk dh&cksMZ& dh&cksMZ daI;wVj dk igyk vfuok;Z Hkkx gSaA ns[kus esa ;g VkbijkbVj dh rjg gh gksrk gSaA blds }kjk Vkbi djds MsVk vkSj funsZkksa dks daI;wVj ds lhih;w es Hkstrs gSa] blhfy, bls buiqV fMokbl Hkh dgrs gSA Vkbi djus ds fy, ftu cVuksa dks nck;k tkrk gSa] mUgsa dht dgrs gSA dh&cksMZ dks daI;wVj ds lhih;w ls tksaM+k tkrk gSA vktdy ftl rjg ds dh&cksMZ iz;ksax fd, tk jgsa gS] muesa 104 ls ysdj 124 rd dht gks ldrs gSA vkb,]bUgs dze esa le>sa& 1. QaDku dht& QaDku dht dk iz;ksax daI;wVj dks foksk dekaM nsus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA orZeku le; esa tks dh&cksMZ iz;ksax fd, tkrs gS muesa budh la[;k ckjg gksrh gSA tSls& F1,F2,F3.......................F12A 2. cSDLisl dh& bl dh dk iz;ksax Vkbi fd, gq, v{kjksa dks nk,aW ls ckbZ vksj feVkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA dh&cksMZ esa ;g viuh rjg dh ,d gh dh gksrh gSA 3. Lislckj dh& ;g dh&cksMZ dh lcls yach dh gksrh gSA bldk iz;ksax v{kjksa vkSj kCnksa ds chp Lisl nsus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 4. ,aVj ;k fjVZu dh&bl dh dk iz;ksax lhih;w esa MsVk vkSj dekaM~l dks Hkstus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA dqN dh&cksMZ ess bl ij fjVuZ Hkh fy[kk gksrk gSA ns[kus esa ;g bl rjg ls gksrh gS& 5. dsIl ykaWd dh& bl dh dk iz;ksax dh&cksMZ es dsfiVy ysVlZcMs+ v{kj dks LekaWy ysVlZNksVs v{kj esa ;k fQj LekaWy ysVlZ dks dsfiVy ysVlZ esas cnyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

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6. ,jks dht&bu dht ds }kjk vki dlZj dks Ldzhu ij pkjksa fnkkvksa esa yk tk ldrs gSaA ;g la[;k esa pkj gksrh gSA 7. dlZj daVksaYk dht& bu ij vyx&vyx fnkk ds rhj ds fukku cus gksrs gSA dlZj daVksay dh bu dht dks ysV] jkbV] vi ,aM Mkmu dht dgk tkrk gSA ;g dht dlZj dks ij&uhps] nk,aW] ck,aW ys tkus dk dke djrh gSA dlZj fu;a=d pkj nwljh dht gkse] ,aM] istvi] ist Mkmu gSA bu ij (Home,End,PageUp, Page Down) fy[kk gksrk gSA istvi dk eryc bl dh dks nckdj igys okys ist dks Ldzhu ij ns[kuk vkSj dke djuk gSA ist Mkmu ls ist ds fupys fgLls dks lkeusa ykdj ogkaW dke djuk gSA gkse dht dks nckus ls Ldzhu ij yxs nLrkost dh kq:vkr es igqaWpk ;k ykbu ds kq: esa tk; tk ldrk gSA ,aM okyh dht dks nckus ls ykbu ds vkf[kj esa tk;k tk ldrk gSA 8. U;wesfjd dht&;s dh&cksMZ ds nk;h rjQ gksrh gSA buesa ls dqN ds nksgjs dke gksrs gSA tc ue ykaWd vkaWu gksrk gS rks eryc ij dh gjh ykbV pkyw gksuk ;s lHkh uacj dh rjg dke djrh gS vkSj ykad can ;k ykbV can gksus ij dht dlZj dh rjg dke djrh gSA ;g 0 ls 9 rd gksrh gS& 9. fkV dht&;fn fdlh dh ij nks ladsr ;k djsaDVj gS rks mlds ij ds v{kj dks Vkbi djus ds fy, fkV dht dks v{kj dht ds lkFk nckuk gksrk gSA 10.,LdSi dh& bls nckus dk eryc] igys nh dekaM ;k izfofV dks jn~/k djuk gSA ns[kus esa ;g bl rjg ls fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA 11.ikaWt ;k cszd dh&;fn MkaWl eksM esa dke dj jgsa gS vkSj fdl dekaWM ds iz;ksx ls Ldzhu ij ,d ds ckn ,d yxkrkj eSVj vkrk tk, rks bl dht dks nckus ij og :d tk,xkA 12.VSc dh&;g ist esa iSjkxzkQ] VsDlV] la[;k vkfn igys r; djus ;kuh dlZj dks ,d ykbu ds lkFk fiz&lsV txg ij ys tkus okyh dh gSaA 13.fMyhV dh&Ldzhu ij tgkaW dlZj gS vkSj ml kCn dks feVkuk gS rks bls nckus ls og feV tk,xkA 14.Vkbfiax dht&T;knkrj ;g lQsn jax dh dht gksrh gSA bu ij v{kjA-Z la[;k vkSj foeku ds ladsr gksrs gSA ;g VkbijkbVj ds dht tSlh gksrh gSA KEYBORD

14 1- F1 to F12 2. A to Z 3. 0 to 9 4. Shift,Tab,Ctrl,Alt,Ese,etc Funcation key Normal key Numerical key Special key

;g fdlh Hkh Computer ds fy, vR;Ur vko;d buiqV ;qfDr gksrk gS D;ks fd blh ds tfj, euq; dke ys ldrk gSA blds )kjk ge lkjh lqpuk;sa vkSj funsZk dks ns ldrs gSA ;g ,d VkbZi jkbVj ds Hkkafr dk;Z djrk gS A igys key bord esa 83 keys gksrs Fks vc key bord esa 106-108 key gksrs gSA vkSj Multimidia bord esa 112-120 rd key gksrs gSA
,

. ; : \ / ~ _ ^

comma(dkWek) full stop(Qwy LVki) semicolon(lsehdkWyu) colon(dkWyu) backward slas(cSdoMZ) forward slash(QkjoMZ LySk)

tilde(VkbYV) under scor(v.Mj Ldksj) quotation(dksVsku) circumflex accent(ljD;qEysDl ,ls.V) - minus(ekbul) < less than (ysl nSu) % percentage(ijlsaUVst) @ at the rate(,V n jsV) & and(,.M) up arrow(vi ,jks) enter(b.Bj) = equal(bDoy)

dollor(MWkyj ) greater than(xzsVj nsu) left parenthesis(ysV iSjsaFksfll) right parenthesi(jkbV iSjsaFksfll) left square bracket(ysV LDoS;j cSzdsV) ] right square bracket(jkbV LDoS;j cSzdsV) ? question merk (DoSpu ekdZ) apostrophe mark(viksLVksQh ekdZ) ! exclamation mark(,DlDysesku ekdZ) * asterisk(vLVfjLd)

$ > ( ) [

+ { } #

plus (Iyl) left curly bracket(ysV dyhZ czSdsV) right curly bracket(jkbV dyhZ czSdsV) hass(gSt) right arrow(jkbV ,jks) left arrow(ysV ,jks) down arrow(Mkmu ,jks)

MICR (Magnetic Ink character Reader ) => ;g ,d izdkj dk ;qfDr gSA ftldk T;knk iz;ksx cSadks esafd;ktkrk gSAMICR dsoy mu v{kjkas dks i<+ ldrk gSA tks ,d pqEcdh; inkFkZ ls feys L;kgh dks i<+ ldrk gSA OCR (optical character Reader) =>

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;g MICR dh vis{kk vf/kd kfDr kkyh ;qfDr gSA ;g fdlh izdkj ds fNis gq, inkFkZ ds v{kjksa dks Hkh vklkuh ls i<+ ldrk gSA buds i<+us fd nj 2400 v{kj izfr lsds.M gksrh gSA OMR( Optical mark Reader) => bl izdkj buiqV ;qDfr dh isfUly ;k isu )kjk fdlh foksk dkxt ij fn;s x;s v{kjksa dks vklkuh ls i<+ ldrk gSA bl izdkj ds input dk iz;ksx cgqmPpLkjh; question dks check djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA BCR( Bar code Reader ) => fdlh [kkl mRikn dks igpkuus ds fy, mudks ladsrks dks fpfUgr fd;k tkrk gS ;g fpUg ydhj ij [kM+h mRikn esa gksrs gSA tSls. fdrkc ij fpUg dks vklkuh ls ns[kk tkrk gSA bu ladsrksa ds )kjk mRikn dk level rS;kj fd;k gSA bu ladsrksa lineo dksDigital computer vklkuh ls iM+ ldrk gSA Scanner => fdlh [kkl fp= ;k i| dksfk; fd rjg iz;ksx fd;k tk;s rc Bhd mlh fp+++= dks computer esa ykuk vklku ugh gksrk gSA bl [kkl fp= dks ge Scanner Divice ds )kjk computer esa yk ldrs gSAScanner nks izdkj ds gksrs gSA 1. Flatbed . Scanner 2. HANDHELD Scanner LdSuj dk uke FLATBED dk;Z&i)fr iqLrd dk ,d i~`B ;k dkxt dh ,d khV LdSu djrk gSA ftl vkd`fr dks vki LdSu djuk pkgs] ml ij gkFk }kjk LdSuj dks ?kqek ldrs gSaA fokskrk,aW egaWxk rFkk de Compact gSA lLrk rFkk Portable gS

HANDHELD

Track ball=> ;g mousedh rjgDivice gksrk gSA blesa ,d xsan lrg ij j[kh jgrh gSA ftls vaxqyh ls fgyk;k tkrk gS A mouse dks myV nsus ij ;g tSlk fg fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA oSlk gh gksrk gSA Trackball Light pen=>

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light pen ,d Pointing ;a= gSA tks fl/ks ,d ldzhu Point ij mls ?kqekus ds dke esas yk;k tkrk gSA light pen esa uksd ds :i esa ,d photo ditector gksrk gS ;g ditector photo fd cnyrh ped dks i<+ ldrk gSA Touch Screens=> Touch Screen dk mi;ksx rc fd;k tkrk gS tc gesa lqpuk cgqr de dksfkk ls izkIr djuh gks blds fy, nks izpfyr rduhdh gSA igys rduhd esa Screen dks lw{e xkgh cuk;k gSA vkSj lgh txg ij LikZ fd;k tkrk gSA nwljs rjhds esa Ldzhu ij [kM+h fnkk esa LEDS ysM dh /kkfj;k gksrh gS vkSj iM+h fnkk esa QksVks fMVsDVj yxk gksrk tc Hkh mi;ksxdrkZ maxyh ls Ldzhu dks Nqrk gS rks izdkk dk izokg VqV tkrk gSA vkSj QksVks fMVsDVj ds )kjk i<+ fy;k tkrk gS Vp Ldzhu dk mi;ksx vLirkyksa foeku iru, jsyos,vkj{k.k f[kMfd+;ksa gksVyksa tyiku x`gks rFkk LVkd ,Dlpsat esa Hkh iz;ksax fd;k tkrk gS joy stick => joy stick dk mi;ksax eq[;r% dEI;qVj esa xse [ksyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS rFkk bls [ksy fu;kd Hkh dgrs gS ;g ,d lh/ks rFkk ds N ds #i es gksrk gS ftldh nwljh fdukjs es /kqjh gskrh gS ;g dlZj dks ?kwekus ds fy, mij uhps nk;sa ck;sa ?kqek;k tk ldrk gS

dEI;wVj dk fodkl dze vkt ge ftl daEI;wVj dks bLrseky djrs gSa og dbZ nkZdksa vkSj lSdMksa oSKkfudksa ds iz;kl dk urhtk gSaA daEI;wVj gkMZos;j dk foLrkj ls v/;;u djus ls igys vkb;s ,d utj daEI;wVj ds fodkl ds bfrgkl ij Mkyrs gaS& 1617 bl okZ tksu uSfi;j uked oSKkfud us usfi;j Ckksu ds uke ls ydh vkSj vkbZojh dh jWkM Ckuk;hA ftldk bLrseky dSydqysfVax ds fy, fd;k x;kA 1642 bl okZ Cyst ikLdy uked oSKkfud us iSLdkykbu ds uke ls fMftVy ,fMax ekhu CkukbZaA 1822 bl okZ pkYlZ CkScst us fMQjsal batu ds uke ls ,d ekhu cuk;h ftldk uke ckn esa bukysVdy batu ikAbls okLrfod tujy iiZt daI;wfVax ekhu dk ntkZ izkIr gqvkA

17

1906 bl okZ yh&Ms&QkjsLV uked oSKkfud us oSD;we V;wc Vk;ksM dk isVsaV djk;k vkSj bldk bLrseky bysDVkfud dEI;wVj esa fd;k x;kA 1937 bl okZ tWku oh ,VukkkWWQ us ,VukkkWWi oSjh uked daI;wVj dk fuekZ.k fd;kAbl daI;wVj dks ABC ds laf{kIr uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSaA vkf/kdkf/kd rkSj ij bl daI;wVj dks gh igys bysDVWkfud daI;wVj dk ntkZ izkIr gSaA 1943 bl okZ ,syu VfuZd uked oSKkfud us ,d lhdzsV fczfVk dksM dks czsd djus ds fy, daI;wVj fMtkbu fd;kAftldk bLrseky teZuh ds }kjk bLrseky ;k Hksts tk jgs xqIr lanskks dks fMdksM djus esa fd;k x;kAbl daI;wVj dks czsfdax daI;wVj dk uke fn;k x;kA 1945 tkWu ckWu U;wesu uked oSKkfud us EDB ,lh uked daI;wVj ds mij ,d fjiksZV cuk;hAbl fjiksZV esa bl daI;wVj dk laiw.kZ [kkdk okLro esa ,d ekWMuZ vFkkZr vk/kqfud LVksjsat izksxkze okys daI;wVj dk FkkA 1946 bl okZ ENIC ,lh uked dEI;wVj dk fuekZ.k gqvk vkSj bl ekhu dks cukus dk Js; fefpyh rFkk ts Vsl uked oSKkfud dks x;kA 1947 bl okZ 23 fnlECkj dks fofy;e lkWdyh CkkWVy cSzVeSu vkSj tkWu okWMhZu uked oSKkfudksa us feydj IokbaV ls dkUVsDV djds cuus okys VkftLVj dk lQyrkiwoZd ijh{k.k fd;k vkSj ;gha ls lseh daMsDVj dh kq:vkr gqbZ A 1949 bl okZ EDS ,lh uked igys O;ogkfjd izksxzke uked dEI;wVj dk fuekZ.k gqvkA ;g fuekZ.k dSEfczt foofo|ky; esa ekWjh fosd fodysl uked oSKkfud us fd;k A 1950 bl okZ bathfu;fjaax fjlpZ ,lksfl,V~l vkQ fefu ,IysV~l fufYMax ds }kjk igys dkWefkZ;yh bLrseky fd;s tk ldus okys daI;wVj dk mRiknu fd;k x;k A 1952 bl okZ ;wfuosd&1 uked daI;wVj dks vesfjdu lsalst C;wjks dks fMyhoj fd;k x;kA ;g igyk defkZ;y daI;wVj FkkAftlus yksxks dk /;ku viuh vksj [khapkA 1953

18

vkbZch,e uked daiuh us vius igys bysDVkWfud daI;wVj 701 dks bl okZ ekdsZV es mrkjkA 1954 bl okZ flyhdWku ij vk/kkfjr taxlu VkaftLVj dks xkMZu Vhy tks fd VSDlkl ds oSKkfud Fks ds }kjk cuk;k x;kAbldh otg ls daI;wVjksa dh dher esa tcjnLr fxjkoV vkbZA 1954 bl okZ vkbch,e vFkkZr baVjuskuy fctusl ekhu uked daiuh us 650 eSXusfVd Me dSydqysVj uked daI;wVj dks cuk;k vkSj ;g daI;wVj ,d lky esa 450 dh la[;k esa fcdkA 1955 csy ysczksVht us bl okZ ;g |ksk.kk dh fd mUgksus Vhvkj,MhvkbZlh uked igys iwjh rjg ls VkaftLVj ij vk/kkfjr daI;wVj dks cuk;kA 1956 ,evkbZVh fjlpZ ds }kjk Vh,Dl kwU; uked igyk tujy ijit izksxzkecsy daI;wVj VkaftLVjksa }kjk cuk;k x;kA 1958 bl okZ tSd fdYch uked oSKkfud us baVhxzsVsM lfdZV cuk;kAftlesa jftLVlZ vkSj dSfiLVlZ dks Hkh lseh daMDVj ihl ds rkSj ij bLrseky fd;k x;k FkkA;g dke VSDlkl baLVwesaV uked daiuh ds rRok/kku esa fd;k x;kA 1959 bl okZ vkbZch,e uked daiuh us 7000 lhjht ds esuQzse daI;wVj dks cktkj esa mrkjkA;g daiuh ds igys VkaftLVj ij vk/kkfjr daI;wVj FksA 1959 bl okZ jkWcVZ Uokbl uked oSKkfud us baVhxzsVsM lfdZV dk vkfodkj fd;kAblds }kjk flyhdkWu lfQZl ij ldsZV dh fizafVax dh kq:vkr gqbZA 1960 csy ysczksVht us MsVk QkWUV dks fMtkbu fd;kA;g igyk O;ogkfjd ekWMse Fkk tks fd fMftVy daI;wVj MsVk dks ,ukykWx flaxuy esa cnydj VkaLkfeku dk dke yach nwjh usVodZ esa djrk FkkA 1960 bl okZ ihMhih&1 uked feuh daI;wVj dks 1,20,000 $ esa csapk x;kA 1961 MsVkesku eSxthu ds vuqlkj baVjuskuy fctusl ekhu vFkkZr vkbch,e uked daiuh dk daI;wVj cktkj ds 81.2 izfr Hkkx ij dCtk gks pqdk Fkk vkSj blh okZ vkbch,e us vius 14 lkS lhjht okys daI;wVjks dks cktkj esa mrkjkA 1964

19

bl okZ lseksjdzs ds }kjk lhMhlh 66 lkS uked lqij daI;wVj fMtkbu fd;k x;kA;g lqij daI;wVj ,d lsdsaM es rhu fefy;u funsZkksa dks fdz;kfUor djus dh {kerk ls ySl Fkk vkSj bldh izkslsflax xfr vius fudVre daI;wVj ls rhu xquk vf/kd FkhA 1964a bl okZ vkbch,e uked daiuh us flLVe 360 uked daI;wVj QSfeyh dks cktkj esa mrkjus dh ?kksk.kk dhAbl daI;wVj ds lkFk pkyhl lgk;d midj.k ,d lkFk feydj dke dj ldus dh {kerk j[krs FksAblh okZ vkWu ykbu VkaLktsDku izkslsflax ds fy, vkbZch,e us ks;j fjtosZku flLVe vkSj vesfjdk ,;jykbu ds fy, fjtosZku uked flLVe dks lsV fd;kA 1965 fMftVy bD;wiesaV dkWjiksjsku ftls la{ksi esa MhbZlh dgk tkrk gS uked dEiuh us ihMhih -8 uked igyk defkZ;yh feuh daE;wVj cktkj esa isk fd;k ftldk lQyrk iwoZd bLrseky fd;k x;k A E-mail dh [kkst 1965bZ0 esa gqq;h FkhA 1966 bl okZ gSyosV iSdMZ vFkkZr ,pih uked daiuh us tujy ijit daI;wVj ds fcftusl esa izosk fd;k vkSj blus ,pih 2115 ds uke ,d daI;wVj dks cktkj esa mrkjkA 1970 bl okZ daI;wVj ls daI;wVj ds chp dE;wuhdsku ij T;knk tksj jgk vkSj fMikVesaV vkWQ fMQsal LisfLyV ds +)kjk vkiZusV dh LFkkiuk dh xbZ ftls vkt ge baVjusV ds uke ls tkurs gSaSsA blesa dSyhQksfuZ;k ds rgr vkus okys laVkckjkZ vkSj lsaVj foofo|ky; dk dkQh ;ksxnku jgk A 1971 bl okZ vkbZch,e uke daiuh us lSUtksk yScszVh ds rgr vkB bap dh ykWih fMLd dk vfodkj gqvkA blh okZ igys ekbdkzsizkslslj ftls baVsy 4.00 dgk x;k dks cktkj esa mrkjk x;k 1971 es gh dsuosd -1uked igyk ilZuy daI;wVj cktkj esa mrkjk x;k ftldh dher 750MkWyj FkhA 1972 gSyosV iSdMZ vFkkZr ,pih uked daiuh us ,pihd 35 ds uke ls ,d cgqr gh kq)rk ds lkFk x.kuk djus okyh bysDVkfud kk;Mwy ftlesa fd lkWysM LVasV eseksjh dk bLrseky fd;k x;k Fkk uked daI;wVj dks cktkj esa mrkjkA bl okZ baVsy us 8008 ekbdzksizkslslj eks cktkj esa ykap fd;k A1972es gh LVhiokaft;d us XywckWDl ds uke ls eqr esa Qksu djus dh lqfo/kk dks cktkj esa ykap fd;kA 1973

20

bl okZ jkcVZ eSp dSysQ fMokbl ds )kjk bzZFkjusV duskuksa dks ykap fd;k x;kA 1973esa gh fedzsy uked debfkZ;y ukWu fdV ilZuy daI;wVj tksfd 8008 uked ekbdzksizkslslj ij vk/kkfjr Fkk dks cktkj esa mrkjk x;kA 1973 esa gh Vhoh VkbijkbVj dks fMtkbu djds dkLVj uked oSKkfud ds )kjk cktkj esa mrkjk x;k A blesa vYQkU;wesafjd baQkWesZaku dk fMLIys gksrk Fkk vkSj bl fMLIys ds fy, blesa ,d lkekU; Vsyhfotu lsV dks iz;ksx fd;k x;k FkkA 1974 thjkWDl iky ,YVks fjlpZ lsaVj ds )kjk igyk vkWYVks ,slk odZ LVsku cuk;k x;k ftlesa ekml dks tksM-dj byuiqV djus dh lqfo/kk FkhA 1974 bl okZ igyk defkZ;y iSdsV lwfpax usVodZ dk tUe gqvkA 1975 esa ,fYV;j 8800uked daE;wVj dks izpkfjr fd;k x;k Fkk og baVsy ds 8008 ekbdzksizkslslj ij vk/kkfjr FkkA 1975 bl okZ VsyhusV vFkkZr igys defkZ;y iSdsV lwfpax usVodZ dk tUe gqvkA 1975 esa ,fYV;j 8800uked daI;wVj dks cktkj esa mrkjk x;k A ;g daI;wVj 8080 ekdzksizkslsljk ij vk/kkfjr FkkA bl izkslslj dk fuekZ.k baVsy daiuh ds )kjk fd;k FkkA 1975 esa gh chMh,e dks fMtkbu fd;k x;k ;g fMtkbu yh ysalVsal uked oSKkfud us fd;k Fkk A ftldk ckn esa vYQk U;wesfjd ohfM;ks fMLIys ds rkSj ij ilZuy daI;wVj esa bLrseky gqvkA 1976 bl okZ LVhi gkwtksusd uked oSKkfud us ,iy -1ds uke ls flaxy eksM ij vk/kkfjr daI;wVj dks fMtkbu fd;kA 1976esa gh lok ikap bap vkdkj okyh ysDlcy ykihd fMLd dks bLrseky djus okyh fMLd Mkbo vkSj fMLd dks lkSxVZ ,lksfl,V daiuh ds )kjk cktkj esa ykap fd;k A bl okZ dzscu ds uke ls igyk defkZ;yh osDVj izzzzzzkslslj cktkj esa mrkjk x;kA 1977 bl okZ VsUMh jsfM;ks lsd uked daiuh us Vhvkj,lVh uked daE;wVj dks cktkj esa mrkjk vkSj blh okZ dkseksMksj ,aVkssM;wlst dkseksMksj uked daiuh usilZuy bysDVkfud VkaftLVj uked daI;wVj dks cktkj esa ykap fd;k A 1978 bl okZ oSDl BAX11/780uked daI;wVj dks MhbZlh vFkkZr fMftVy bD;wiesaV dkWjiksjsku ds )kjk cktkj es mrkjk x;k A bl daI;wVj 4.3 xsxkckbV dh opZqvy eseksjh dks bLrseky fd;k x;k Fkk Aftldh otg ls bldh {kerk fdlh Hkh lkekU; feuh daI;wVj ls dbZ lkS xquk T;knk Fkh A

21

1979 eksVksyk uked daiuh us bl okZ 6800 uked ekbdzksizkslslj dks fMtkbu djds cktkj es mrkjkA 1980 thjkWDl ikWfy;ks vkYVks fjlpZ lsaVj ds tkWu Luks us ,d ,slk lkVZ izksxzke bUosaV fd;k ftls usVoZd ij bLrseky fd;k tk ldrk Fkk vkSj bldk uke okeZ vFkkZ WORM j[kk ;kA 1980 bl okZ lhxsV VsDuksykth uked daiuh us igyh gkMZfMLd Mkbo tks fd ekbdzks daI;wVj esa bLrseky gks ldrh Fkh dks ykap fd;k vkSj bl gkMZfMLd dk ekMy Fkk XT 506A 1980 esa gh igyh ckj vkWfIVdy MsVkLVksjsat fMLd dks cktkj es mrkjk x;kA bl fMLd es fdlh Hkh laok ikp bap okyh ykWih ls 60 T;knk LVksjsat {kerk FkhA 1981 bl okZ thjkWDl daiuh us igyk ,slk daI;wVj cktkj esa mrkjk ftlesa xkzfQd ;wtj baVjQsl vFkkZr GUI{kerk Fkh 1981esa ,Me vkLckZu oSKkfud igyk iksVsZcy daI;wVj cuk;k A ftldk otu 24ikmaM Fkk vkSj bldh dher 1795 MWkyj Fkh 1981 esa gh vkbZch,e us ihlh vFkkZr ilZuy daI;wVj dks bUVksMkst fd;kA ;g vkt ds vR;k/kqfyd ihlh dk xzkaM Qknj ekuk tkrk gSA 1981esa lksuh uked daEkiuh us igyh ckj lk<+s rhy baPk ykWih Mkbo fMLd dks cktkj esa mrkjkA 1983 bl okZ ,iy daI;wVj uked daiuh us eSdaVksk ds uke ls tgyk ekml ds )kjk pyus okyk xkzfQDl ;qtj baVjQsl ikj vk/kkfjr daI;wVj ykap fd;kA ftldh fd ml le; fcdzh vius vki esa ,d fjdkMZ Fkh A1984 esa gh vkbZch,e uked daiuh us ihlh ,Vh vFkkZr ihlh ,Mokal VsDuksykWth ukled daI;wVj dks cktkj e sa mrkjk A tks fd vius igys ihlh ls rhu xquk T;knk dke djus dh {kerk j[krk Fkk vkSj blh okZ blesa 16fcV dk vkbZ,l cl flLVe bLrseky fd;k x;kA 1985 bl okZ fQfyIl uked daiuh ds )kjk lhMh-jkse Mkbo dks ykap fd;k x;kA 1986 bl okZ dkWEiSd uked daiuh MsLd 386uke ls igyk daI;wVj cktkj esa mrkjk ftlesa varxZr baVsy ds )kjk cuk;k x;k 386uked ikzslslj yxk gqvkA 1987 vkbZch,e uked daI;wVj us bl okZ ih,l Vw uked ekhu dks cktkj esa mrkjk A ftlesa lk<+s rhu bap dh ykWih fMDl Mkbo LVSaMMZ vksj ekbdzks pSuy vkphZDLVj cl dks bLrseky fd;k x;k FkkA ;g igyh Iyx ,aM {kerk ;qDr cl Fkh ftls iz;ksx fd;k x;k FkkA

22

1988 ,iy daeiuh ds LVhi tkWCl us ,iy daiuh dks NksM-dj viuh ,d ubZ daiuh cukbZ A ftldk uke NEXT j[kkA1988 esa gh dkWEiSd rFkk nwljs ihlh Dyksu cukus okyksa bUgsaLM baMLVh ,M vkphZVsDLVj dk fodkl fd;k A ftls bZtk ds uke ls tkuk x;k A blh okZ jkWcVZ ekWjh us vkiZusV ds fy, dkQh dke fd;k A ;g 23 okhZ; O;fDr ,d daI;wVj flD;ksfjfV ,DliVZ dk csVk Fkk tks fd uskuyd flD;ksfjfV esa dke djrk Fkk blus ,d ukWu fMLVksfDVo ckWuZ dks baVjusV ds ek/;e ls usVodZ ds fyad cukus esa dkQh enn dh A 1990 bl okZ oMZ okbM osc vFkkZr www dk tUe gqvk A blesa fVe cSfjusl oSKkfud dk ;ksxnku lokZf/kd FkkA ;g oSKkfud gkbZ,uthZ fQftDl iz;ksxkkyk tsusok esa dke djrk Fkk vkSj blds )kjk gkbZij VsDLV ySaXost dk fodkl gqvkA 1993 bl okZ baVsy us viuk isafV;e vFkkZr ih-5 izkslslj cktkj esa mrkjk A blh ds lkFk baVsy us enjcksMZ fpi lsV dks Hkh ykap fd;k tks fd igyh ckj muds }kjk cuk;k x;k ,d lEiw.kZ enjcksMZ Fkk A 1995 bl okZ baVsy us iksafV;e izkslslj dks cuk;k A tks fd igyk ih -6izkslslj QSfeyh dk izkslslj gSA 1995esa gh ekbdzkslkV us foaMkst 95 dks fjfyt fd;k A igyk esu LVhe 32fcV vkWijsfVax flLVe FkkA 1997 bl okZ isafV;e us isafV;e -2 izkslslj dks cktkj esa fjyht fd;k A ;g okLro esa isafV;e izks vkSj MMXVsDuksykWth dk feyk tqyk :i FkkA 19i97 esa gh ,eMh uked daiuh us k-6uked ,d ,slk izkslslj cktkj esa ykap fd;k tks ih-5lerqY; Fkk vkSj dher esa dkQh de FkkA 1998 bl okZ ekbdzkslkWV dkWjiksjsku ds )kjk foaMkst 98 dks ,s laiw.kZ vkWijsfVax flLVe ds :i esa cktkj esa mrkjk x;k \a blh okZ bVsay us lsysjkWu uked izkslslj fldh dher de Fkh cktkj esa ykap fd;k A ;g izkslslj okLro esa isafV;e 2 iszklslkj dk ,d ,slk :i Fkk ftlesa L-2 uked dSk esaeksjh dh ek=k de dj nh xbZ FkhA 1999 bl okZ baVsy esa isafV;e-3uked izksQslj dks cktkj esa fjyht fd;kA ;g izksQslj isafV;e-2 vkSj LVhfesx SIMD ,DLVsaku rduhd ls ;qDr FkkA 1999 esa gh ,,eMh us viuk ,FkykWu izksQslj cktkj esa mrkjkA 2000 bl okZ ekbdzkslkWV faoaMkst ME dks cktkj esa ykap fd;kA;g foaMkst dk feysfu;e ,Mfeku Fkk ftls foaMkst 2000 Hkh dgk x;kAblh

23

okZ baVsy vkSj ,,eMh us ,d xsxkgV~Zt dh xfr ls dke djus okys izkslsljksa dks fodflr fd;kAblh okZ AMD uked daiuh us M;wjkWu uked izksQslj Hkh cktkj esa mrkjkA

COMPUTING AND IT FULL FORM


09
1GLFirst-Generation Programming Language 1NFFirst Normal Form 10B210BASE-2 10B510BASE-5 10B-F10BASE-F 10B-FB10BASE-FB 10B-FL10BASE-FL 10B-FP10BASE-FP 10B-T10BASE-T 100B-FX100BASE-FX 100B-T100BASE-T 100B-TX100BASE-TX 100BVG100BASE-VG 286Intel 80286 processor 2B1Q2 Binary 1 Quaternary 2GLSecond-Generation Programming Language 2NFSecond Normal Form 3GLThird-Generation Programming Language 3NFThird Normal Form 386Intel 80386 processor 486Intel 80486 processor 4B5BLF4 Byte 5 Byte Local Fiber 4GLFourth-Generation Programming Language 4NFFourth Normal Form 5GLFifth-Generation Programming Language

24
5NFFifth Normal Form 6NFSixth Normal Form 8B10BLF8 Byte 10 Byte Local Fiber

A
AATAverage Access Time AAAnti-Aliasing AAAAuthentication Authorization, Accounting AABBAxis Aligned Bounding Box AACAdvanced Audio Coding AALATM Adaptation Layer AALCATM Adaptation Layer Connection AARPAppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol ABCLActor-Based Concurrent Language ABIApplication Binary Interface ABMAsynchronous Balanced Mode ABRArea Border Router ABRAuto Baud-Rate detection ABRAvailable Bitrate ABRAverage Bitrate ACAcoustic Coupler ACAlternating Current ACDAutomatic Call Distributor ACEAdvanced Computing Environment ACF NCPAdvanced Communications FunctionNetwork Control Program ACIDAtomicity Consistency Isolation Durability ACKACKnowledgement ACKAmsterdam Compiler Kit ACLAccess Control List ACLActive Current Loop ACMAssociation for Computing Machinery ACMEAutomated Classification of Medical Entities ACPAirline Control Program ACPIAdvanced Configuration and Power Interface

25
ACRAllowed Cell Rate ACRAttenuation to Crosstalk Ratio ADActive Directory ADAdministrative Domain ADCAnalog-to-Digital Converter ADCApple Display Connector ADBApple Desktop Bus ADCCPAdvanced Data Communications Control Procedures ADOActiveX Data Objects ADSLAsymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ADTAbstract Data Type AEAdaptive Equalizer AESAdvanced Encryption Standard AFAnisotropic Filtering AFPApple Filing Protocol AGPAccelerated Graphics Port AHActive Hub AIArtificial Intelligence AIXAdvanced Interactive eXecutive AjaxAsynchronous JavaScript and XML ALActive Link ALAccess List ALACApple Lossless Audio Codec ALGOLAlgorithmic Language ALSAAdvanced Linux Sound Architecture ALUArithmetic and Logical Unit AMActive Matrix AMAccess Method AMActive Monitor AMAllied Mastercomputer AMAmplitude Modulation AMDAdvanced Micro Devices AMQPAdvanced Message Queuing Protocol

26
AMRAudio Modem Riser ANNArtificial Neural Network ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute ANTAnother Neat Tool AoEATA over Ethernet AOPAspect-Oriented Programming APCIApplication-Layer Protocol Control Information APIApplication Programming Interface APICAdvanced Programmable Interrupt Controller APIPAAutomatic Private IP Addressing APLA Programming Language APRApache Portable Runtime ARCAdaptive Replacement Cache ARCAdvanced RISC Computing ARINAmerican Registry for Internet Numbers ARMAdvanced RISC Machines AROSAROS Research Operating System ARPAddress Resolution Protocol ARPAAddress and Routing Parameter Area ARPAAdvanced Research Projects Agency ARPANETAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network ASAccess Server ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange ASGAbstract Semantic Graph ASICApplication-Specific Integrated Circuit ASIMOAdvanced Step in Innovative Mobility ASLRAddress Space Layout Randomization ASMAlgorithmic State Machine ASMPAsymmetric Multiprocessing ASN.1Abstract Syntax Notation 1 ASPActive Server Pages ASPApplication Service Provider ASRAsynchronous Signal Routine

27
ASTAbstract Syntax Tree ASSPApplication-Specific Standard Product ATAdvanced Technology ATAccess Time ATActive Terminator ATAAdvanced Technology Attachment ATAGAuthoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines ATAPIAdvanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface ATMAsynchronous Transfer Mode AVCAdvanced Video Coding AVIAudio Video Interleaved AWKAho Weinberger Kernighan AWTAbstract Window Toolkit

B
B2BBusiness-to-Business B2CBusiness-to-Consumer BALBasic Assembly Language BashBourne-again shell BASICBeginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code BBPBaseband Processor BBSBulletin Board System BCDBinary Coded Decimal BCNFBoyceCodd normal form BEEPBlocks Extensible Exchange Protocol BERBit Error Rate BFDBinary File Descriptor BFSBreadth-First Search BGPBorder Gateway Protocol BiDiBi-Directional binbinary BINACBinary Automatic Computer BINDBerkeley Internet Name Domain BIOSBasic Input Output System

28
BJTBipolar Junction Transistor bitbinary digit BlobBinary large object BlogWeb Log BMPBasic Multilingual Plane BNCBayonet Neill-Concelman BOINCBerkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing BOMByte Order Mark BOOTPBootstrap Protocol BPDUBridge Protocol Data Unit BPELBusiness Process Execution Language BPLBroadband over Power Lines bpsbits per second BRRBusiness Readiness Rating BSABusiness Software Alliance BSBBackside Bus BSDBerkeley Software Distribution BSoDBlue Screen of Death BSSBlock Started by Symbol BTBitTorrent BTBluetooth BTAMBasic Telecommunications Access Method BW Bandwidth

C
CACertificate Authority CADComputer-Aided Design CAEComputer-Aided Engineering CAIDComputer-Aided Industrial Design CAIComputer-Aided Instruction CAMComputer-Aided Manufacturing CAPTCHACompletely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart CAT Computer-Aided Translation

29
CAQComputer-Aided Quality Assurance CASEComputer-Aided Software Engineering ccC Compiler CDCompact Disc CDECommon Desktop Environment CDMACode Division Multiple Access CDNContent Delivery Network CDPContinuous Data Protection CD-RCD-Recordable CD-ROMCD Read-Only Memory CD-RW CD-Rewritable CDSACommon Data Security Architecture CERTComputer Emergency Response Team CESConsumer Electronics Show CFCompact Flash CFDComputational Fluid Dynamics CFGContext-Free Grammar CFGControl Flow Graph CGComputer Graphics CGAColor Graphics Array CGICommon Gateway Interface CGIComputer-Generated Imagery CGTComputational Graph Theory CHAPChallenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol CHSCylinder-Head-Sector CIDRClassless Inter-Domain Routing CIFSCommon Internet Filesystem CIMCommon Information Model CISCComplex Instruction Set Computer CJKChinese, Japanese, and Korean CJKVChinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese CLICommand Line Interface CLRCommon Language Runtime

30
CMConfiguration Management CMContent Management CMMICapability Maturity Model Integration CMOSComplementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor CMSContent Management System CNCanonical Name CNCommon Name CNCComputer Numerical Control CNRCommunications and Networking Riser COBOLCommon Business-Oriented Language COMComponent Object Model CORBACommon Object Request Broker Architecture COTSCommercial Off-The-Shelf CPACell Processor Architecture CPAConverged Packet Access CPANComprehensive Perl Archive Network CP/MControl Program/Monitor CPRICommon Public Radio Interface CPScharacters per second CPUCentral Processing Unit CRCarriage Return CRANComprehensive R Archive Network CRCCyclic Redundancy Check CRLFCarriage Return Line Feed CRMCustomer Relationship Management CRSComputer Reservations System CRTCathode Ray Tube CRUDCreate, Read, Update and Delete CSCable Select CSComputer Science CSEComputer Science and Engineering CSICommon System Interface CSPCommunicating Sequential Processes

31
CSRFCross-Site Request Forgery CSSCascading Style Sheets CSSContent-Scrambling System CSSClosed Source Software CSSCross-Site Scripting CSVComma-Separated Values CTComputerized Tomography CTANComprehensive TeX Archive Network CTCPClient-To-Client Protocol CTIComputer Telephony Integration CTLComputational Tree Logic CTMClose To Metal CTSClear To Send CTSSCompatible Time-Sharing System CUACommon User Access CVSConcurrent Versioning System

D
DACDigital-To-Analog Converter DACDiscretionary Access Control DAOData Access Objects DAODisk-At-Once DAPDirectory Access Protocol DARPADefense Advanced Research Projects Agency DATDigital Audio Tape DBDatabase DBADatabase Administrator DBCSDouble Byte Character Set DBMSDatabase Management System DCCDirect Client-to-Client DCCPDatagram Congestion Control Protocol DCCADebian Common Core Alliance DCLData Control Language DCMIDublin Core Metadata Initiative

32
DCOMDistributed Component Object Model DDDouble Density DDEDynamic Data Exchange DDLData Definition Language DDoSDistributed Denial of Service DDRDouble Data Rate DECDigital Equipment Corporation DESData Encryption Standard devdevelopment DFADeterministic Finite Automaton DFDData Flow Diagram DFSDepth-First Search DFSDistributed File System DGDDworkin's Game Driver DHCPDynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHTMLDynamic Hypertext Markup Language DIFData Integrity Field DIMMDual Inline Memory Module DINDeutsches Institut fr Normung DIPDual In-line Package DIVXDigital Video Express DKIMDomain Keys Identified Mail DLDownload DLLDynamic Link Library DLNADigital Living Network Alliance DLPDigital Light Processing DMADirect Memory Access DMCADigital Millennium Copyright Act DMIDirect Media Interface DMLData Manipulation Language DMLDefinitive Media Library DMRDennis M. Ritchie DNDistinguished Name

33
DNDDrag-and-Drop DNSDomain Name System DOCSISData Over Cable Service Interface Specification DOMDocument Object Model DoSDenial of Service DOSDisk Operating System DPDot Pitch DPCDeferred Procedure Call DPIDeep Packet Inspection DPIDots Per Inch DPMIDOS Protected Mode Interface DPMSDisplay Power Management Signaling DRAMDynamic Random Access Memory DR-DOSDigital Research - Disk Operating System DRIDirect Rendering Infrastructure DRMDigital Rights Management DRMDirect Rendering Manager DSDLDocument Schema Definition Languages DSDMDynamic Systems Development Method DSLDigital Subscriber Line DSLDomain-Specific Language DSLAMDigital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer DSNDatabase Source Name DSNData Set Name DSPDigital Signal Processor DSSSLDocument Style Semantics and Specification Language DTDDocument Type Definition DTEData Terminal Equipment DTPDesktop Publishing DTRData Terminal Ready DVDDigital Versatile Disc DVDDigital Video Disc DVD-RDVD-Recordable

34
DVD-ROMDVD-Read Only Memory DVD-RW DVD-Rewritable DVIDigital Visual Interface DVRDigital Video Recorder

E
EAIEnterprise Application Integration EAPExtensible Authentication Protocol EBCDICExtended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBMLExtensible Binary Meta Language ECCElliptic Curve Cryptography ECMAEuropean Computer Manufacturers Association ECNExplicit Congestion Notification ECOSEmbedded Configurable Operating System ECRSExpense and Cost Recovery System EDAElectronic Design Automation EDIElectronic Data Interchange EDOExtended Data Out EDSACElectronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVACElectronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer EEPROMElectronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory EFFElectronic Frontier Foundation EFIExtensible Firmware Interface EFMEight-to-Fourteen Modulation EGAEnhanced Graphics Array EGPExterior Gateway Protocol eIDelectronic ID card EIDEEnhanced IDE EIGRPEnhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol EISAExtended Industry Standard Architecture ELFExtremely Low Frequency ELFExecutable and Linkable Format ELMELectronic Mail EMACSEditor MACroS

35
EMSExpanded Memory Specification ENIACElectronic Numerical Integrator And Computer EOFEnd of File EOLEnd of Life EOLEnd of Line EOMEnd Of Message EPICExplicitly Parallel Instruction Computing EPROMErasable Programmable Read-Only Memory ERPEnterprise Resource Planning ESCONEnterprise Systems Connection ESDElectrostatic Discharge ETLExtract, Transform, Load ESREric Steven Raymond EUCExtended Unix Code EULAEnd User License Agreement EXTEXTended file system

F
FAPFORTRAN Assembly Program FASMFlat ASseMbler FATFile Allocation Table FAQFrequently Asked Questions FBDIMMFully Buffered Dual Inline Memory Module FC-ALFibre Channel Arbitrated Loop FCBFile Control Block FCSFrame Check Sequence FDCFloppy Disk Controller FDSFedora Directory Server FDDFloppy Disk Drive FDDIFiber Distributed Data Interface FDMAFrequency-Division Multiple Access FECForward Error Correction FEMBFront-End Motherboard FETField Effect Transistor

36
FHSFilesystem Hierarchy Standard FICONFIber CONnectivity FIFOFirst In First Out FIPSFederal Information Processing Standards FLFunction Level FLACFree Lossless Audio Codec FLOPSFLoating-Point Operations Per Second FLOSSFree/Libre/Open Source Software FOLDOCFree On-line Dictionary of Computing FOSDEMFree and Open source Software Developers' European Meeting FOSIFormatted Output Specification Instance FOSSFree and Open Source Software FPFunction Programming FPGAField Programmable Gate Array FPSFloating Point Systems FPUFloating Point Unit FRUField Replaceable Unit FSFile System FSBFront Side Bus FSFFree Software Foundation FSMFinite State Machine FTTCFiber To The Curb FTTHFiber To The Home FTTPFiber To The Premises FTPFile Transfer Protocol FQDNFully Qualified Domain Name FUDFear Uncertainty Doubt FWSFolding White Space FXPFile eXchange Protocol

G
G11NGlobalization GasGNU Assembler GbGigabit

37
GBGigabyte GCCGNU Compiler Collection GCJGNU Compiler for Java GCRGroup Code Recording GDBGNU Debugger GDIGraphics Device Interface GFDLGNU Free Documentation License GIFGraphics Interchange Format GIGOGarbage In, Garbage Out GIMPGNU Image Manipulation Program GIMPSGreat Internet Mersenne Prime Search GISGeographic Information System GLUTOpenGL Utility Toolkit GMLGeography Markup Language GNOMEGNU Network Object Model Environment GNUGNU's Not Unix GOMSGoals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules GPASMGNU PIC ASseMbler GPGGNU Privacy Guard GPGPUGeneral-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units GPIBGeneral-Purpose Instrumentation Bus GPLGeneral Public License GPLGeneral-Purpose Language GPRSGeneral Packet Radio Service GPTGUID Partition Table GPUGraphics Processing Unit GRUBGrand Unified Boot-Loader GSMGlobal System for Mobile Communications GTK+GIMP Toolkit GUIGraphical User Interface GUIDGlobally Unique IDentifier GWTGoogle Web Toolkit

38

H
HALHardware Abstraction Layer HBAHost Bus Adapter HCIHuman Computer Interaction HDHigh Density HDDHard Disk Drive HCLHardware Compatibility List HD DVDHigh Definition DVD HDLHardware Description Language HDMIHigh-Definition Multimedia Interface HFHigh Frequency HHDHybrid Hard Drive HIDHuman Interface Device HIGHuman Interface Guidelines HIRDHurd of Interfaces Representing Depth HLASMHigh Level ASseMbler HMAHigh Memory Area HPHewlett-Packard HPCHigh-Performance Computing HPFSHigh Performance File System HSMHierarchical Storage Management HTHyper Threading HTMHierarchical Temporal Memory HTMLHypertext Markup Language HTTPHypertext Transfer Protocol HTTPdHypertext Transport Protocol Daemon HTXHyperTransport eXpansion HURDHird of Unix-Replacing Daemons HVDHolographic Versatile Disc HzHertz

I
I2CInter-Integrated Circuit

39
I18NInternationalization IANAInternet Assigned Numbers Authority iBCSIntel Binary Compatibility Standard IBMInternational Business Machines ICIntegrated Circuit ICANNInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICEIn-Circuit Emulator ICEIntrusion Countermeasure Electronics ICMPInternet Control Message Protocol ICPInternet Cache Protocol ICTInformation and Communication Technology IDEIntegrated Development Environment IDEIntegrated Drive Electronics IDFIntermediate Distribution Frame IDLInterface Definition Language IDSIntrusion Detection System IEInternet Explorer IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IETFInternet Engineering Task Force IFLIntegrated Facility for Linux IGMPInternet Group Management Protocol IGRPInterior Gateway Routing Protocol IHVIndependent Hardware Vendor IIOPInternet Inter-Orb Protocol IISInternet Information Services ILIntermediate Language IMInstant Messaging IMAPInternet Message Access Protocol IMEInput Method Editor INFOSECInformation Systems Security I/OInput/Output IPIntellectual Property

40
IPInternet Protocol IPCInter-Process Communication IPLInitial Program Load IPOInter Procedural Optimization IPPInternet Printing Protocol IPSIntrusion Prevention System IPsecInternet Protocol security IPTVInternet Protocol Television IPXInternetwork Packet Exchange IRCInternet Relay Chat IrDAInfrared Data Association IRPI/O Request Packet IRQInterrupt Request ISInformation Systems ISAIndustry Standard Architecture ISAInstruction Set Architecture ISAMIndexed Sequential Access Method ISCInternet Storm Center iSCSIInternet Small Computer System Interface ISDNIntegrated Services Digital Network ISOInternational Organization for Standardization iSNSInternet Storage Name Service ISPInternet Service Provider ISPFInteractive System Productivity Facility ISRInterrupt Service Routine ISVIndependent Software Vendor ITInformation Technology ITLInterval Temporal Logic ITUInternational Telecommunication Union IVRS-Interactive Voice Response System

J
J2EEJava 2 Enterprise Edition J2MEJava 2 Micro Edition

41
J2SEJava 2 Standard Edition JAXBJava Architecture for XML Binding JAX-RPCJava XML for Remote Procedure Calls JAXPJava API for XML Processing JBODJust a Bunch of Disks JCE Java Cryptography Extension JCLJob Control Language JCPJava Community Process JDBCJava Database Connectivity JDKJava Development Kit JESJob Entry Subsystem JDSJava Desktop System JFCJava Foundation Classes JFETJunction Field-Effect Transistor JFSIBM Journaling File System JINIJini Is Not Initials JITJust-In-Time JMXJava Management Extensions JMSJava Message Service JNDIJava Naming and Directory Interface JNIJava Native Interface JNZJump non-zero JPEGJoint Photographic Experts Group JREJava Runtime Environment JSJavaScript JSONJavaScript Object Notation JSPJackson Structured Programming JSPJavaServer Pages JTAGJoint Test Action Group JUGJava Users Group JVMJava Virtual Machine jwzJamie Zawinski

42

K
K&RKernighan and Ritchie KBKeyboard KbKilobit KBKilobyte KBKnowledge Base KDEK Desktop Environment kHzKilohertz KMKnowledge Machine KRLKnowledge Representation Language KVMKeyboard, Video, Mouse

L
L10NLocalization L2TPLayer two Tunneling Protocol LAMPLinux Apache MySQL Perl LAMPLinux Apache MySQL PHP LAMPLinux Apache MySQL Python LANLocal Area Network LBALogical Block Addressing LCDLiquid Crystal Display LCOSLiquid Crystal On Silicon LDAPLightweight Directory Access Protocol LELogical Extents LEDLight-Emitting Diode LFLine Feed LFLow Frequency LFSLinux From Scratch LGPLLesser General Public License LIBLIBrary LIFLow Insertion Force LIFOLast In First Out LILOLinux Loader

43
LISPLISt Processing LKMLLinux Kernel Mailing List LMLan Manager LOCLines of Code LPCLars Pensj C LPILinux Professional Institute LPT Line Print Terminal LSBLeast Significant Bit LSBLinux Standard Base LSILarge-Scale Integration LTLLinear Temporal Logic LTRLeft-to-Right LUGLinux User Group LUNLogical Unit Number LVLogical Volume LVDLow Voltage Differential LVMLogical Volume Management LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch

M
MACMandatory Access Control MACMedia Access Control MANMetropolitan Area Network MANETMobile Ad-Hoc Network MAPIMessaging Application Programming Interface MbMegabit MBMegabyte MBCSMulti Byte Character Set MBRMaster Boot Record MCAMicro Channel Architecture MCAMicrosoft Certified Architect MCADMicrosoft Certified Application Developer MCASMicrosoft Certified Application Specialist MCDBAMicrosoft Certified DataBase Administrator

44
MCDSTMicrosoft Certified Desktop Support Technician MCITPMicrosoft Certified Information Technology Professional MCMMicrosoft Certified Master MCPMicrosoft Certified Professional MCPDMicrosoft Certified Professional Developer MCSAMicrosoft Certified Systems Administrator MCSDMicrosoft Certified Solution Developer MCSEMicrosoft Certified Systems Engineer MCTMicrosoft Certified Trainer MCTSMicrosoft Certified Technology Specialist MDAMail Delivery Agent MDAModel-Driven Architecture MDAMonochrome Display Adapter MDFMain Distribution Frame MDIMultiple Document Interface ME[Windows] Millennium Edition MFMedium Frequency MFCMicrosoft Foundation Classes MFMModified Frequency Modulation MGCPMedia Gateway Control Protocol MHzMegahertz MIBManagement Information Base MICRMagnetic Ink Character Recognition MIDIMusical Instrument Digital Interface MIMDMultiple Instruction, Multiple Data MIMOMultiple-Input Multiple-Output MINIXMIni-uNIX MIPSMillion Instructions Per Second MIPSMicroprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages MISManagement Information Systems MISDMultiple Instruction, Single Data MITMassachusetts Institute of Technology MIMEMultipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

45
MMDSMortality Medical Data System MMIMan Machine Interface. MMIOMemory-Mapped I/O MMORPGMassively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game MMUMemory Management Unit MMXMulti-Media Extensions MNGMultiple-image Network Graphics MoBoMotherboard MOMMessage-Oriented Middleware MOOMUD Object Oriented MOSMicrosoft Office Specialist MOSFETMetal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor MOTDMessage Of The Day MOUSMicrosoft Office User Specialist MPAAMotion Picture Association of America MPEGMotion Pictures Experts Group MPLMozilla Public License MPLSMultiprotocol Label Switching MPUMicroprocessor Unit MSMemory Stick MSMicrosoft MSBMost Significant Bit MS-DOSMicrosoft DOS MTMachine Translation MTAMail Transfer Agent MTAMicrosoft Technology Associate MTBFMean Time Between Failures MTUMaximum Transmission Unit MSAMail Submission Agent MSDNMicrosoft Developer Network MSIMedium-Scale Integration MSIMicrosoft Installer MUAMail User Agent

46
MUDMulti-User Dungeon MVCModel-View-Controller MVPMost Valuable Professional MVSMultiple Virtual Storage MXMail exchange MXFMaterial Exchange Format

N
NACKNegative ACKnowledgement NAKNegative AcKnowledge Character NaNNot a Number NASNetwork-Attached Storage NASMNetwide ASseMbler NATNetwork Address Translation NCPNetWare Core Protocol NCQNative Command Queuing NCSANational Center for Supercomputing Applications NDPSNovell Distributed Print Services NDSNovell Directory Services NEPNetwork Equipment Provider NetBIOSNetwork Basic Input/Output System NEXTNear-End CrossTalk NFANondeterministic Finite Automaton NFSNetwork File System NGLaNGeL NGSCBNext-Generation Secure Computing Base NINational Instruments NICNetwork Interface Controller NIMNo Internal Message NIONew I/O NISTNational Institute of Standards and Technology NLPNatural Language Processing NLSNative Language Support NPNondeterministic Polynomial time

47
NPLNetscape Public License NPUNetwork Processing Unit NSNetscape NSANational Security Agency NSPRNetscape Portable Runtime NMINon-Maskable Interrupt NNTPNetwork News Transfer Protocol NOCNetwork Operations Center NOPNo OPeration NOSNetwork Operating System NPTLNative POSIX Thread Library NSSNovell Storage Service NSSNetwork Security Services NSSName Service Switch NTNew Technology NTFSNT Filesystem NTLMNT Lan Manager NTPNetwork Time Protocol NUMANon-Uniform Memory Access NURBSNon-Uniform Rational B-Spline NVRNetwork Video Recorder NVRAMNon-Volatile Random Access Memory

O
OASISOrganization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards OATOperational Acceptance Testing OBSAIOpen Base Station Architecture Initiative ODBCOpen DataBase Connectivity OEMOriginal Equipment Manufacturer OESOpen Enterprise Server OFTCOpen and Free Technology Community OLAPOnline Analytical Processing OLEObject Linking and Embedding OLEDOrganic Light Emitting Diode

48
OLPCOne Laptop per Child OLTPOnline Transaction Processing OMFObject Module Format OMGObject Management Group OOObject-Oriented OOOpenOffice OOEOut-of-Order Execution OOMOut Of Memory OOoOpenOffice.org OoOEOut-of-Order Execution OOPObject-Oriented Programming OOTBOut of the box OPMLOutline Processor Markup Language ORBObject Request Broker ORMOject-Relational Mapping OSOpen Source OSOperating System OSCONO'Reilly Open Source CONvention OSDNOpen Source Developer Network OSIOpen Source Initiative OSIOpen Systems Interconnection OSPFOpen Shortest Path First OSSOpen Sound System OSSOpen-Source Software OSSOperations Support System OSTGOpen Source Technology Group OUIOrganizationally Unique Identifier

P
P2PPeer-To-Peer PACProgrammable Automation Controller PANPersonal Area Network PAPPassword Authentication Protocol PARCPalo Alto Research Center

49
PATAParallel ATA PCPersonal Computer PCBPrinted Circuit Board PCBProcess Control Block PC DOSPersonal Computer Disk Operating System PCIPeripheral Component Interconnect PCIePCI Express PCLPrinter Command Language PCMCIAPersonal Computer Memory Card International Association PCMPulse-Code Modulation PCREPerl Compatible Regular Expressions PDPublic Domain PDAPersonal Digital Assistant PDFPortable Document Format PDPProgrammed Data Processor PEPhysical Extents PERLPractical Extraction and Reporting Language PGAPin Grid Array PGOProfile-Guided Optimization PGPPretty Good Privacy PHPPHP: Hypertext Preprocessor PICPeripheral Interface Controller PICProgrammable Interrupt Controller PIDProportional-Integral-Derivative PIDProcess ID PIMPersonal Information Manager PINEProgram for Internet News and Email PIOProgrammed Input/Output PKCSPublic Key Cryptography Standards PKIPublic Key Infrastructure PLCPower Line Communication PLCProgrammable Logic Controller PLDProgrammable Logic Device

50
PL/IProgramming Language One PL/MProgramming Language for Microcomputers PL/PProgramming Language for Prime PLTPower Line Telecoms PMMPOST Memory Manager PNGPortable Network Graphics PnPPlug-and-Play PoEPower over Ethernet POIDPersistent Object Identifier POPPoint of Presence POP3Post Office Protocol v3 POSIXPortable Operating System Interface POSTPower-On Self Test PPCPowerPC PPIPixels Per Inch PPPPoint-to-Point Protocol PPPoAPPP over ATM PPPoEPPP over Ethernet PPTPPoint-to-Point Tunneling Protocol PSPostScript PSAProfessional Services Automation PS/2Personal System/2 PSUPower Supply Unit PSVIPost-Schema-Validation Infoset PTS-DOSPhysTechSoft - Disk Operating System PVPhysical Volume PVGPhysical Volume Group PVRPersonal Video Recorder PXEPreboot Execution Environment PXIPCI eXtensions for Instrumentation

Q
QDRQuad Data Rate QAQuality Assurance

51
QFPQuad Flat Package QoSQuality of Service QOTDQuote of the Day QtQuasar Toolkit QTAMQueued Teleprocessing Access Method

R
RACFResource Access Control Facility RADRapid Application Development RADIUSRemote Authentication Dial In User Service RAIDRedundant Array of Independent Disks RAIDRedundant Array of Inexpensive Disks RAITRedundant Array of Inexpensive Tapes RAMRandom Access Memory RARPReverse Address Resolution Protocol RASReliability, Availability and Serviceability RASRemote Access Service RRAS Routing and Remote Access Service RCRegion Code RCRelease Candidate RCRun Commands RCSRevision Control System RDBMSRelational DataBase Management System RDFResource Description Framework RDMRelational Data Model RDOSReal-time Disk Operating System RDSRemote Data Services REFALREcursive Functions Algorithmic Language RESTRepresentational State Transfer regexRegular Expression regexpRegular Expression RFRadio Frequency RFCRequest For Comments RFIRadio Frequency Interference

52
RFIDRadio Frequency Identification RGBRed, Green, Blue RGBARed, Green, Blue, Alpha RHLRed Hat Linux RHELRed Hat Enterprise Linux RIARich Internet Application RIAARecording Industry Association of America RIPRaster Image Processor RIPRouting Information Protocol RIRRegional Internet registry RISCReduced Instruction Set Computer RISC OSReduced Instruction Set Computer Operating System RLERun-Length Encoding RLLRun-Length Limited RMIRemote Method Invocation RMSRichard Matthew Stallman ROMRead Only Memory ROMBRead-Out Motherboard ROM-DOSRead Only Memory - Disk Operating System RPCRemote Procedure Call RPGReport Program Generator RPMRPM Package Manager RSARivest Shamir Adleman RSIRepetitive Strain Injury RSSRadio Service Software RSSRich Site Summary, RDF Site Summary, or Really Simple Syndication RTAIReal-Time Application Interface RTCReal-Time Clock RTEReal-Time Enterprise RTEMSReal-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems RTLRight-to-Left RTOSReal-Time Operating System RTPReal-time Transport Protocol

53
RTSReady To Send RTSPReal Time Streaming Protocol

S
SaaSSoftware as a Service SANStorage Area Network SATASerial ATA SAXSimple API for XML SBODSpinning Beachball of Death SBP-2Serial Bus Protocol 2 sbinsuperuser binary SBUStandard Build Unit SCADASupervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCIDSource Code in Database SCMSoftware Configuration Management SCMSource Code Management SCPSecure Copy SCPIStandard Commands for Programmable Instrumentation SCSISmall Computer System Interface SCTPStream Control Transmission Protocol SDSecure Digital SDDLSecurity Descriptor Definition Language SDISingle Document Interface SDIOSecure Digital Input Output SDKSoftware Development Kit SDLSimple DirectMedia Layer SDNService Delivery Network SDPSession Description Protocol SDRSoftware-Defined Radio SDRAMSynchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory SDSLSymmetric DSL SESingle Ended SEALSemantics-directed Environment Adaptation Language SEISoftware Engineering Institute

54
SEOSearch Engine Optimization SFTPSecure FTP SFTPSimple File Transfer Protocol SFTPSSH File Transfer Protocol SGISilicon Graphics, Incorporated SGMLStandard Generalized Markup Language SHASecure Hash Algorithm SHDSLSingle-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line SIGCATSpecial Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications and Technology SIGGRAPHSpecial Interest Group on Graphics SIMDSingle Instruction, Multiple Data SIMMSingle Inline Memory Module SIPSession Initiation Protocol SIPSupplementary Ideographic Plane SISDSingle Instruction, Single Data SISO - Single-Input and Single-Output SLEDSUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop SLESSUSE Linux Enterprise Server SLIScalable Link Interface SLIPSerial Line Internet Protocol SLMService Level Management SLOCSource Lines of Code SPMDSingle Program, Multiple Data SMASubMiniature version A SMBServer Message Block SMBIOSSystem Management BIOS SMILSynchronized Multimedia Integration Language S/MIMESecure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions SMPSupplementary Multilingual Plane SMPSymmetric Multi-Processing SMSShort Message Service SMSSystem Management Server SMTSimultaneous Multithreading

55
SMTPSimple Mail Transfer Protocol SNASystems Network Architecture SNMPSimple Network Management Protocol SNTPSimple Network Time Protocol SOAService-Oriented Architecture SOEStandard Operating Environment SOAPSimple Object Access Protocol SoCSystem-on-a-Chip SO-DIMMSmall Outline DIMM SOHOSmall Office/Home Office SOISilicon On Insulator SPService Pack SPASingle Page Application SPFSender Policy Framework SPISerial Peripheral Interface SPIStateful Packet Inspection SPARCScalable Processor Architecture SQLStructured Query Language SRAMStatic Random Access Memory SSDSoftware Specification Document SSDSolid-State Drive SSEStreaming SIMD Extensions SSHSecure Shell SSIServer Side Includes SSISingle-System Image SSISmall-Scale Integration SSIDService Set Identifier SSLSecure Socket Layer SSPSupplementary Special-purpose Plane SSSESupplementary Streaming SIMD Extensions susuperuser SUSSingle UNIX Specification SUSESoftware und System-Entwicklung

56
SVCScalable Video Coding SVGScalable Vector Graphics SVGASuper Video Graphics Array SVDStructured VLSI Design SWFShock Wave Flash SWTStandard Widget Toolkit SysopSystem operator

T
TAOTrack-At-Once TASMTurbo ASseMbler TBTeraByte TclTool Command Language TCPTransmission Control Protocol TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TCUTelecommunication Control Unit TDMATime Division Multiple Access TFTThin Film Transistor TITexas Instruments TLAThree-Letter Acronym TLDTop-Level Domain TLSThread-Local Storage TLSTransport Layer Security tmptemporary TNCTerminal Node Controller TNCThreaded Neill-Concelman connector TPFTransaction Processing Facility TROFFTrace Off TRONTrace On TRONThe Real-time Operating system Nucleus TRS-DOSTandy Radio Shack - Disk Operating System TSOTime Sharing Option TSPTraveling Salesman Problem TSRTerminate and Stay Resident

57
TTATrue Tap Audio TTFTrueType Font TTLTransistor-Transistor Logic TTLTime To Live TTSText-to-Speech TTYTeletype TUCOWSThe Ultimate Collection of Winsock Software TUGTeX Users Group TWAINTechnology Without An Interesting Name

U
UAAGUser Agent Accessibility Guidelines UACUser Account Control UARTUniversal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UATUser Acceptance Testing UCSUniversal Character Set UDDIUniversal Description, Discovery, and Integration UDMAUltra DMA UDPUser Datagram Protocol UEFIUnified Extensible Firmware Interface UHFUltra High Frequency UIUser Interface ULUpload ULAUncommitted Logic Array UMAUpper Memory Area UMBUpper Memory Block UMLUnified Modeling Language UMLUser-Mode Linux UMPCUltra-Mobile Personal Computer UNCUniversal Naming Convention UPSUninterruptible Power Supply URIUniform Resource Identifier URLUniform Resource Locator URNUniform Resource Name

58
USBUniversal Serial Bus usruser USRU.S. Robotics UTCCoordinated Universal Time UTFUnicode Transformation Format UTPUnshielded Twisted Pair UUCPUnix to Unix Copy UUIDUniversally Unique Identifier UUNUniversal User Name UVCUniversal Virtual Computer UXUser Experience

V
varvariable VAXVirtual Address eXtension VCPIVirtual Control Program Interface VRVirtual Reality VRMLVirtual Reality Modeling Language VBVisual Basic VBAVisual Basic for Applications VBSVisual Basic Script VDSLVery High Bitrate Digital Subscriber Line VESAVideo Electronics Standards Association VFATVirtual FAT VFSVirtual File System VGVolume Group VGAVideo Graphics Array VHFVery High Frequency VLANVirtual Local Area Network VLSMVariable Length Subnet Mask VLBVesa Local Bus VLFVery Low Frequency VLIW Very Long Instruction Word VLSIVery-Large-Scale Integration

59
VMVirtual Machine VMVirtual Memory VNCVirtual Network Computing VODVideo On Demand VoIPVoice over Internet Protocol VPNVirtual Private Network VPUVisual Processing Unit VSAMVirtual Storage Access Method VSATVery Small Aperture Terminal VTVideo Terminal? VTAMVirtual Telecommunications Access Method

W
W3CWorld Wide Web Consortium WAFSWide Area File Services WAIWeb Accessibility Initiative WAISWide Area Information Server WANWide Area Network WAPWireless Access Point WAPWireless Application Protocol WASMWatcom ASseMbler WBEMWeb-Based Enterprise Management WCAGWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines WCFWindows Communication Foundation WDMWavelength-Division Multiplexing WebDAVWWW Distributed Authoring and Versioning WEPWired Equivalent Privacy WFIWait For Interrupt Wi-FiWireless Fidelity WiMAXWorldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WinFSWindows Future Storage WINSWindows Internet Name Service WLANWireless Local Area Network WMAWindows Media Audio

60
WMVWindows Media Video WOLWake-on-LAN WOMWake-on-Modem WORWake-on-Ring WPAWi-Fi Protected Access WPANWireless Personal Area Network WPFWindows Presentation Foundation WSDLWeb Services Description Language WSFLWeb Services Flow Language WUSBWireless Universal Serial Bus WWANWireless Wide Area Network WWIDWorld Wide Identifier WWNWorld Wide Name WWWWorld Wide Web WYSIWYGWhat You See Is What You Get WZCWireless Zero Configuration

X
XAGXML Accessibility Guidelines XAMLeXtensible Application Markup Language XDMX Window Display Manager XDMCPX Display Manager Control Protocol XCBLXML Common Business Library XHTMLeXtensible Hypertext Markup Language XILPX Interactive ListProc XMLeXtensible Markup Language XMMSX Multimedia System XMPPeXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol XMSExtended Memory Specification XNSXerox Network Systems XPCross-Platform XPExtreme Programming XPCOMCross Platform Component Object Model XPIXPInstall

61
XPIDLCross-Platform IDL XSDXML Schema Definition XSLeXtensible Stylesheet Language XSL-FOeXtensible Stylesheet Language Formatting Objects XSLTeXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations XSSCross-Site Scripting XTFeXtensible Tag Framework XTFeXtended Triton Format XULXML User Interface Language

Y
Y2KYear Two Thousand YAAFYet Another Application Framework YACCYet Another Compiler Compiler YAMLYAML Ain't Markup Language YaSTYet another Setup Tool

Z
ZCAVZone Constant Angular Velocity ZCSZero Code Suppression ZIFZero Insertion Force ZIFSZero Insertion Force Socket ZISCZero Instruction Set Computer ZOPEZ Object Publishing Environment ZMAZone Multicast Address ZPLZ-level Programming Language

COMPUTER NORMAL FULL FORM


ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line AGP Accelerated Graphics Port ALI Acer Labs, Incorporated ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit

62
AMD Advanced Micro Devices APC American Power Conversion ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface AT Advanced Technology ATI ATI Technologies Inc. ATX Advanced Technology Extended B BFG BFG Technologies BIOS Basic Input Output System BNC Barrel Nut Connector C CAS Column Address Signal CD Compact Disk CDR Compact Disk Recorder CDRW Compact Disk Re-Writer CD-ROM Compact Disk Read Only Memory CFM Cubic Feet per Minute (ft?/min) CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CPU Central Processing Unit CTX CTX Technology Corporation (Commited to Excellence) D DDR Double Data Rate DDR-SDRAM Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory DFI DFI Inc. (Design for Innovation) DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory DPI Dots Per Inch DSL See ASDL DVD Digital Versatile Disc DVD-RAM Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory E ECC Error Correction Code ECS Elitegroup Computer Systems EDO Extended Data Out EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory EPROM Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory EVGA EVGA Corporation F FC-PGA Flip Chip Pin Grid Array FDC Floppy Disk Controller FDD Floppy Disk Drive

63
FPS Frame Per Second FPU Floating Point Unit FSAA Full Screen Anti-Aliasing FS For Sale FSB Front Side Bus G GB Gigabytes GBps Gigabytes per second or Gigabits per second GDI Graphical Device Interface GHz GigaHertz H HDD Hard Disk Drive HIS Hightech Information System Limited HP Hewlett-Packard Development Company HSF Heatsink-Fan I IBM International Business Machines Corporation IC Integrated Circuit IDE Integrated Drive Electronics IFS- Item for Sale IRQ Interrupt Request ISA Industry Standard Architecture ISO International Standards Organization L LG LG Electronics LAN Local Area Network LCD Liquid Crystal Display LDT Lightning Data Transport LED Light Emitting Diode M MAC Media Access Control MB ? MotherBoard or Megabyte MBps Megabytes Per Second Mbps Megabits Per Second or Megabits Per Second MHz MegaHertz MIPS Million Instructions Per Second MMX Multi-Media Extensions MSI Micro Star International N NAS Network Attached Storage NAT Network Address Translation

64
NEC NEC Corporation NIC Network Interface Card OC Overclock (Over Clock) OCZ OCZ Technology OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer P PC Personal Computer PCB Printed Circuit Board PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect PDA Personal Digital Assistant PCMCIA Peripheral Component Microchannel Interconnect Architecture PGA Professional Graphics Array PLD Programmable Logic Device PM Private Message / Private Messaging PnP Plug n Play PNY PNY Technology POST Power On Self Test PPPoA Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet PQI PQI Corporation PSU Power Supply Unit R RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks RAM Random Access Memory RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital Analog Convertor RDRAM Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory RPM Revolutions Per Minute S SASID Self-scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display SCA SCSI Configured Automatically SCSI Small Computer System Interface SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory SECC Single Edge Contact Connector SODIMM Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module SPARC Scalable Processor ArChitecture SOHO Small Office Home Office SRAM Static Random Access Memory SSE Streaming SIMD Extensions SVGA Super Video Graphics Array S/PDIF Sony/Philips Digital Interface

65
T TB Terabytes TBps Terabytes per second Tbps Terabits per second TDK TDK Electronics TEC Thermoelectric Cooler U UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter USB Universal Serial Bus UTP Unshieled Twisted Pair UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply V VCD Video CD VPN Virtual Private Network W WAN Wide Area Network WTB Want to Buy WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get X XGA Extended Graphics Array XFX XFX Graphics, a Division of Pine XMS Extended Memory Specification XT Extended Technology

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Mkbo ;wfuV ds Hkhrj ekStwn jgrs gSA flLVe ;wfuV ds lkFk dHkh&dHkh Mh0oh0 Mkbo vkSj fudkys tk ldus okys Storage Devices Hkh tqMs jgrs gSA bl Hkkx esa ge flLVe ;wfuV ds egoiw.kZ Hkkxksa ij ppkZ djsaxs]rkfd vki flLVe dh dk;Z&iz.kkyh dks vPNh rjg le> ldsaA 1. Hard Disk gkMZ fMLd& ;g og Hkkx gS] ftlesa daI;wVj ds lHkh izksxzke vkSj MkVk tek jgrs gSaA blhfy, bls daI;wVj dk Memort Bank Hkh dgk tkrk gSaA gkMZ fMLd dh Memory LFkk;h gksrh gSA blhfy, daI;wVj dks can djus ij Hkh blesa tek izksaxkze vkSj MkVk fMyhV ugha gksrsA vktdy gkMZ fMLd dh {kerk dks Gega Bytes ;k GB esa ekik tkrk gSA igys daI;wVj dh Memory {kerk Mega Bytes ;k MB rd lhfer jgrh Fkh] fdUrq vktdy 10GB, 20GB, ;k 30GB dh {kerk;qDr PC yksdfiz; gks x, gSaA gkMZ fMLd dh {kerk ftruh vf/kd gksrh gS] mruh gh vf/kd ek=k esa Software Programs rFkk MkVk blesa LVksj fd, tk ldrs gSA A.Pata-7200 RPM rd gksrh gSaA B.Sata-7200 RPM ls T;knk gksrh gSaA RPM- Revolutions Per Minute 2. Mother Board enj cksMZ& enj cksMZ Fibre Glass dk cuk ,d lery IySVQkaWeZ gksrk gS] ftl ij PC ds bysDVkaWfud vo;o (Components) yxs jgrs gSaA Fibre Glass dh IysV dh lrg ij Metal ls cus Connecting Pins ckjhd js[kkvksa ds :i esa fLFkr gksrs gSA ;s fiu bu vo;oksa dks ,d nwljs ds lkFk tksM+rs gSa vkSj daI;wVj dk Electronic Circuit cukrs gSaA enj cksMZ dks Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA 3. Central Processing Unit lsaVy izkaWlsflax ;wfuV& ;g daI;wVj dk lcls vf/kd egoiw.kZ Hkkx gSaA blesa ,d Microprocessor Chip jgrk gS] tks daI;wVj ds fy, lkspus ds lHkh dke djrk gS vkSj iz;ksxdrkZ ds vknsakks rFkk funsZkksa ds vuqlkj izksxkze dk lapkyu djrk gSA fofHkUu izdkj ds CPU Chips bl izdkj gSa& Pentium isafV;e AMD Athlon ,0,e0Mh0 ,FkykaWu Pentium Pro isfV;e izks

68

Intel Celeron bUVsy lsysjkaWu Pentium III isafV;e III AMD Duron ,0,e0Mh0 M~;wjkaWu Pentium IV isafV;e IV Cyrix lkBfjDl 4. CD-ROM Drive lh0Mh0jkse Mkbo& ;g og Hkkx gS] tks CDROM fMLd esa lafpr MkVk dks i<+krk gSA CD-ROM okLro esa Compact Disk-Read Only Memory dk laf{kIr :i gSA blds }kjk ge blesa ntZ MkVk dks dsoy i<+ ldrs gSA blesa tek MkVk dks uk rks cnyk tk ldrk gS vkSj u gh blesa u;k MkVk tk ldrk gSA blhfy, bls Read Only Memory ;k ROM dgk tkrk gSA CD-ROM Mkbo dh xfr dks ,d la[;k ds ckn o.kkZ{kj (Alphabet) X yxkdj lwfpr fd;k tkrk gSA ;g la[;k crkrh gS fd fMLd fdruh rsth ls ?kwe ldrh gSA fMLd ftruh vf/kd rst xfr ls ?kwerh gS] mruh gh rsth ls fMLd ls daI;wVj esa MkVk LFkkUkakrfjr gksrk gSA bl le; 56XCD-ROM Specification lcls yksdfiz; gSA CD ij MkVk fjdkaWMZ djus ds fy, ,d foksk CD Mkbo dk iz;ksx gksrk gS] ftls CD-ROW dgrs gSA CD-ROM fMLd xksykdkj vkSj lery gksrk gSA blesa ykaWih fMLd dh rqyuk esa vf/kd MkVk tek gks ldrk gSaA vktdy CD Mkbo ds LFkku ij DVD Mkbo dk iz;ksax gksrk gSA1990bZ0 esaA 5. Floppy Disk Drive ykaWih fMLd Mkbo& daI;wVj ds bl Hkkx }kjk ykaWih fMLd ls MkVk i<+k rFkk LVksaj fd;k tk ldrk gSA ykWih fMLd Mkbo easa ykaWih fMLd Mkyus ds fy, ,d Slot fMLd dk ?kqekus ds fy, ,d eksaVj rFkk fjdkMZ djus@i<+us okyk ,d midj.k(Device) ekStwn jgrk gS] tks MkVk dks i<+us ;k fy[kus ds fy, fMLd ij ?kwerk gSA ykaWih fMLd [ftls fMLdsV( Diskette) Hkh dgk tkrk gSa] dk iz;ksax gkMZ fMLd ds leku gh MkVk LVksj djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;g pqacdh; :i esa MkVk dks LVksj djrk gSA tc th pkgs] bls fudkyk Hkh tk ldrk gS] fdarq bldh {kerk 1.44 MB gksrh gS] tks gkMZ fMLd (20GB ;k vf/kd) ls cgqr de gksrh gSA ,d PC esa 51/4 ykaWih Mkbo ;k nksuksa gh ekStwn gks ldrh gSaA 1. Mini Floppy (51/4) 2. Micro Floppy (31/2)

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Mini Floppy=>bldk vkfoLdkj lu~ 1976 bZ0 esa gqvk FkkA;g nks izdkj dk gksrk gSaA A-DS/DD(Double side/double density)and 360 kb B-DS/HD(Double side/ high density)1.2 mb Micro Floppy=>bl rjg dh floppy mini floppy fd rqyuk esa NksVh gksrh gSaA;g mlls vf/kd lqjf{kr gksrh gSA ;g nks izdkj dk gksrh gSA ,oa lax.kd {kerk vf/kd gksrk gSA ;g mlls vf/kd csgrj gSA A-DS/DD(Double side/double density)720kb B-DS/HD(Double side/ high density)1.44mb 6. Math Co-Processor Slot eSFk dks&izkaWlsljLykaWV& dqN daI;wVlZ esa ,d Slot jgrk gS] ftlesa Math Co-Processor dks MkVk tk ldrk gSA ;s izkaWlslj CPU dks xf.krh; dSYd;qysku djus esa ;fn izksaxkze bldk iz;ksax djus ds fy, cuk;k x;k gS] enn djrk gSA 486ls aWph Jas.kh ds daI;wVjksa esa vyx eSFk dks&izkslslj ugh gksrk]D;ksfd ;g igys ls gh CPU Chip esa yxk jgrk gSA 7. RAM Chips jSe fpIl& RAM ls rkRi;Z gS Random Access MemoryA ;g daI;wVj dk og Hkkx gS] tks vLFkk;h rkSj ij izksxkze ds MkVk dks rc rd laWHkkydj j[krk gS] tc rd daI;wVj dke djrk gSA PC dk fLop vkaWQdj nsus ij RAM esa ekStwn MkVk uV gks tkrk gSA fdlh Hkh MkVk dks ge dsoy gkMZ fMLd ij gh LFkk;h :i ls LVksj dj ldrs gSaA RAM ,Chip Memory ds vk/kkj ij 16GB,32MB,64MB,128MB bR;kfn ds vkdkj esa feyrs gSaA 8. SRAM(Static Random Access memory )bl fpi esa ,d transest ,d Capacitor rFkk ,d jftLVsUl gksrk gSA tks cUn gksus dh fLFkfr esa uV gksus okyk MkVk dks iqu% lafpr djus dk dk;Z djrk gSA ;g Mk;usfed jSe dh vis{kk T;knk tfVy gksrk gSA bldk mi;ksx dqN foksk txgksa ij fd;k tkrk gSA ;g lekU;r% izkbejh LVksjst esa mi;qDr gksrk gSA

9. DRAM (Dynamic Random Access memory )bl fpi esa ,d Transister jgrk gSA tks ,d ;af=d (Switch) fLop ds :i esa dk;Z djrk gSA vkSj ,d

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dSilhVj gksrk gS tks foLr`r vkosk dks tek djus dk dke djrk gSA bl fy, bls cksykVkby LVksjst Hkh dgrs gSA

10.FRAM (Ferromangnetic Ramdom Access memory ) bl rjg ds Ram esa Data lafpr djus dk rjhdk LVSfVd gksrk gSA ROM (Read only memory )bl izdkj dh memory dk mi;ksx flZQ mlesa fyf[kr funsZkksa dks i<+us ,oa mlds vuqlkj dk;Z djus ds fy, gksrk gSA blfy, mls jhM vkuyh esaeksjh dgrs gSA ;g memory ,d fpi esa lafpr dj fn;k tkrk gSA rks mls nksckjk cnyk ugh tk ldrk gSA vFkkZr ;g iqjh rjg ls jkWe dgykrh gSA blds izksxzke dks i<+k tk ldrk gSA ijUrq mls cnyk ugh tk ldrk gSA blfy, bls uWku oksykVkby esaeksjh Hkh dgrs gSA 11.PROM(Programmable Read only memory );g ,d ,slk jkse gS ftlesa program fd;k tk ldrk gSA mls nqckjk Hkh program fd;k tk ldrk gSA ijUrq blds fy, vYVk-ck;kysV fdj.kksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA igys fy[ks program dks feVkdj fy[kk tkrk gSA 12.EPROM(Electrically programmble-Read only memory)bl izdkj ds fpi esa bysDVkfud ds tfj, feVkdj fQj fy[k fn;k tkrk gSA 13.EEPROM)(Electrically erasable p.Rom)bl izdkj ds Rom dk fodkl gkyh esa gqvk gSA bl izdkj esa izkEIV esa fctyh ds flXuYl dk mi;ksx djds mlesa lafp= fp= dks feVk;k tkrk gSA blds iz;ksx ds vykok cgqr lkjs bysDVkfud Device esa Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA EEPROM dks Dovble EPROM dgrs gSA 14.Magnatic tap bl izdkj ds Device esa egRoiw.kZ Data dks lafpr fd;k tkrk gS ftl top dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj esa fd;k tkrk gSA mldh eki 12.5mmls 25mm pkSM+k vkSj 500mm ls 1200mm yEch IykfLVd fd lrg gksrh gSA ftl ij pqEcdh; rRo dh ,d pknj fcNh jgrh gSA ;g rs; /kqjh ij fyiVh jgrh gSA ;g fcYdqy Vsi fjdkMZ dh rjg gksrk gSA blesa lkjh lqpuk,sa dzec) gksrh gSA 15.RAM Chip SlotsjSe fpi LykaWV& bu Slots dk iz;ksax vfrfjDr RAM Chips Mkydj daI;wVj dh RAM dks c<+kus ds fy, gksrk gSaA 16.CGA(Colour Graphics Adapter);g jaxhu Ldzhu okyk ekfuVj gksrk gSA bldh kq:vkr 1982 esa IBM uked daEiuh us fd;k bl rjg ds

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ekfuVj esa de izdkk okys Ldzhu dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ftlesa fofHkUu jaxks dh {kerk gksrh gSA 17.HGA(Hercules Graphics Adapter)bldk iz;ksx gjD;wYl dEI;wVj rduhd lu 1982 esa fd;k ;g izdkj eksuks dksu ,MkIVj dk iz;ksx djrk gSA ftlus xzkfQDl dks nkkZus okys xq.k gksrs gSA blesa Hkh mPp izdkk (Resolution) dks enn djrk gSA vFkkZr buesa foDlsy 750*350 fcUnvksa ds leqg esa jgrs gSA 56 colour 18.EGA(Enhanced Graphies Adapter)bldk iz;ksx IBM esa 1984 esa fd;k Fkk fofHkUu izdkj ds ,MkIVj dks feykdj bldk fodkl fd;k x;k bl b.th.,. esa lHkh izdkj ds ,MkIVj ds xq.k gksrs gSA blesa Hkh mPPk fjvksY;qku dh {kerk gksrh gSA lkFk gh fofkV xq.k okys jaxhu ekfuVj dk iz;ksx fufgr gksrk gSA ;g 16 jaxksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 19.VGA(Video Graphic Array) bl izdkj ds u;s rFkk fodflr ekuhVj dk iz;ksx loZ izFke vesfjdh dEifu;ksa ds leqg us lu 1988 esa kq: fd;k Fkk blesa fiDlsy dh l[;k igys ds eqdkcys 46 izfrkr T;knk gksrh gSA256 Colour 20.Over Drive Chipvksoj&Mkbo fpi& ;g daI;wVj dh izkaWlsflax dh xfr dks c<+k nsrk gS] ftlls daI;wVj dh dk;Z{kerk Hkh c<+ tkrh gSA vkerkSj ij ;g lkekU; PC ds fy, t:jh ugha gksrk gSA ;g vdlj Corporate daifu;ks }kjk iz;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gSA 21.SCSI,l0lh0,l0vkbZ& SCSI dk rkRi;Z gS& Small Computer System InterfaceA SCSI ,d Hkhrjh dusDVj miyC/k djkrk gS] ftlds }kjk vki daI;wVj dks External Storage Devices ckgjh LVksjst fMokbl tSls&DVD Mkbo] gkMZ fMLd Mkbo] CD Mkbo] Zip Mkbo bR;kfn ds lkFk tksM+ ldrs gSaA 22.Power Supply Unitikoj lIykbZ ;wfuV& daI;wVj ;k PC ds lHkh Hkkx dsoy rHkh dke djrs gSa] tc mUgsa fctyh dh lIykbZ feyrh gSaA vf/kdrj Hkkxksa dks 5oksYV fctyh dh lIykbZ dh vko;drk gksrh gS] tcfd ykaWih vkSj gkMZ fMLd ds fy, yxHkx 12 oksYV t:jh gksrs gSaA bu Hkkxksa dks ;fn ?kjsyw fctyh lIykbZ ls tksM+ fn;k tk, rks ;s midj.k ty tk,aWxsA ikoj&lIykbZ ;wfuV vf/kd Voltage ds izokg dk de Voltage ds izokg esa cnydj PC ds midj.kksa dks lqjf{kr j[krh gSA

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23.Disk Drive Control CardfMLd Mkbo daVksy dkMZ&;g dkMZ PC dh fMLd Mkbo eksaVjks(Disk Drive Motors)dks fu;af=r djrk gS] MkVk dks daVksy lfdZV esa LFkkukarfjr djrk gS vkSj Read/Write Head dks fMLd ls MkVk ,Dlsl djus dk funsZk nsrk gSA igys ds daI;wVj esa ,d Slot gksrk Fkk] ftlesa dkMZ dks Mkyk tk ldrk FkkA vktdy ds daI;wVjksa esa bl dkMZ ds fy, ,slk dksabZ vyx Slot ugha gksrk;;g enj cksMZ esa LFkk;h :i ls izfoV jgrk gSA 24.Display Video/Graphic Card fMLIys@ohfM;ksa@xzkfQd dkMZ&bldk iz;ksax MkVk nkkZus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;g vizR;{k :i ls daI;wVj dh Memory ls lacaf/kr gksrk gSA vktdy ;g enj cksMZ esa kkfey jgrk gSA cktkj esa nks izdkj ds fMLizys dkMZ miyC/k gSaA ;sa gSa&PCI Graphics Card vkSj AGP CardA 25.Printer Adaptor CardfizaVj ,MkaWIVj dkMZ&daI;wVj esa MkVk bldh Memory esa tek jgrk gSaA bl MkVk dk bLrseky djus ds fy, vkidks bls ekaWuhVj ij ns[kuk gksrk gS ;k fizaV djuk gksrk gSA Printer Adapter Card PC dh Memory, ekaWuhVj vkSj fizaVj ds chp laca/k cukrk gSaA ;g ekaWuhVj ij MkVk nkkZus ds lkFk&lkFk bUgsa fizaV djus esa Hkh enn djrk gSA fizaVj (The Printer) & PrinterfizaVj og midj.k gSa] tks dkxt ij izfrd la[;k,aW] v{kj] xkzQ bR;kfn ds :i esa cuk;k gSA daI;wVj ij viuk MkaWD;wesaV rS;kj djus ds ipkr~ vki bldh Hard CopygkMZ dkaWih fizaV djus ds fy, bls fizVj ij Hkst ldrs gS] ftls lkekU; rkSj ij PrintoutfizaVvkmV dgk tkrk gSA fizaVj dh xfr Pages Per Minute (PPM) fizaV djus vFkok Characters Per Second (CPS) fizaV djus ds vk/kkj ij r; dh tkrh gSA fizaVj nks ekaWMyksa esa feyrs gSa& Colour fizaVj rFkk Black and White fizaVjA Colour fizaVjksa dh xfr Black and White fizaVjks dh rqyuk esa de gksrh gS rFkk os egaWxs Hkh gSA vkerkSj ij iz;ksx fd, tkus okys fizaVjksa dh fokaskrk,aW fuEufyf[kr gS% fizVj dk uke Dot-MATRIX xfr 25-450 Cps ewY; lLrk gS rduhd Impact }kjk dke djrk gSA

MkaWV esfVDl fizaVj ;k 1-18 Ppm

73

INKJET badtsV fizaVj Laser ystj fizaVj

0.5 ls 4 Ppm

Colour Laser fizaVj ls de egaWxk egaWxk

fNnzksa }kjk i`B ij L;kgh dks fNM+drk gS

4-24 Ppm

,d ikmMjuqek L;kgh (Toner) dk iz;ksx djrk gSA

vktdy yksdfiz; gks jgs vU; fizaVj gS% LED (Light Emitting Diode) fizaVj rFkk Multi Functional fizaVjA LED fizaVj vkdkj esa Laser fizaVj ls NksVk gksrk gSA ;g rks uke ls gh irk pyrk gS fd Multi-Functional fizaVj ,d ls vf/kd (Fax ekhu] Photo-Copy ekhu rFkk Scanner) dke dj ldrk gSA 26.Expansion Solts,Dliasku LYkkaWV& ;g ,d yack vkSj iryk la;kstd (Connentor) gksrk gS] ftldh lgk;rk ls vki Expansion dkMZ ftls vkerkSj ij Adaptor dkMZ Hkh dgk tkrk gSa lkmaM dkMZ]usVodZ dkMZ bR;kfn dks daI;wVj esa Iyx }kjk tksaM+ ldrs gSA ;s Expansion dkMZ dqN vfrfjDr fodYi miyC/k djkrs gSa] tks vkerkSj ij PC esa ughsa feyrs gSA 27.Sound CardlkmaM dkMZ&bl dkMZ dh lgk;rk ls vki /ofu rFkk laxhr lqu ldrs gSA ;g lkmaM dkMZ fMftVy lwpuk dks fo|qr flXuyksa (Electric Signals)esa cny nsrk gSa] ftudk iz;kssax Lihdjksa }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA Lihdj dks lkmaM dkMZ ds lkFk tksM+us ij blesa ls /ofu mRiUu gksrh gSA flLVe ;wfuV dk lkeus okyk Hkkx(The Front Part of a System Unit) vc ge flLVe ;wfuV ds lkeus fn[kkbZ nsus okys Hkkx ds ckjs esa tkusaxsA bl Hkkx esa fn[kus okys fofHkUu vo;o vkSj muds dk;Z fuEufyf[kr gkssrs gSa& 1. Power Switchikoj fLop& bldk iz;ksax PC ds fy, fctyh dks pkyw (On) ;k can (off) djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA 2. Reset ButtonjhlsV cVu& bl cVu }kjk vki ikoj&lIykbZ can fd, fcuk daI;wVj dks nksckjk kq: dj ldrs gSaA 3. LightsykbV~l& flLVe ;wfuV ds vxys iSuy esa dbZ rjg dh lwpd cfk;kaW(Indicator Light) gksrh gS] ftuesa ikoj vkSj VcksaZ ladsr

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kkfey gSA bu cfk;ksaa dk iz;ksax ;g nkkZus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS fd D;k gkMZ fMLd] ykaWih fMLd ;k CD-ROM dks i<+k ;k fy[kk tk jgk gSa\ 4. Floppy Disk DriveykaWih fMLd Mkbo& bldk iz;ksax ykaWih fMLd ftls Diskette Hkh dgk tkrk gSa esa tek MkVk dks i<+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA flLVe ;wfuV esa ,d Slot gksrk gS] ftlesa ykaWih fMLd dks Mkyk tk ldrk gSA 5. CD-ROM Drivelh0Mh0&jkse Mkbo& bl dk iz;ksx CD-ROM fMLd esa lafpr MkVk dks i<+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 6. Removable Storage Drivesfudkyh tk ldus okyh LVksjst Mkbo& daI;wVj ds lkFk tksM+s tk ldus ;ksX; bl midj.k esa cM+h ek=k esa MkVk LVksj fd;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, Zip Drive ftls daI;wVj ls fudkyk tk ldrk gS& ,d fMLd gS] tks 31/2 vkdkj okyh ykaWih fMLd ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA ;g vrqyuh; ek=k esa MkVk (100MB;k mlls vf/kd dks LVksj djus dh {kerk j[krh gSA vU; ckgjh LVksjst midj.k gSa& CD Writer vkSj Rewriters bR;kfnA flLVe ;wfuV dk fiNyk Hkkx (The Backside of a System Unit) flLVe ;wwfuV ds fiNys Hkkx esa fofHkUu izdkj ds PortsiksVZl cus jgrs gSaaA mUgs Parallel Port, Serial Port rFkk Universal Serial Bus(USB) dgk tkrk gSA budk laf{kIr fooj.k bl izdkj gSa& 1. Power in and Out Sockets iaWkoj bu vkSj vkmV lkaWdsV~l&buesa Iyx }kjk os rkj tqMs jgrs gSa] tks fctyh dks mlds fLop ls flLVe ;wfuV esa rFkk flLVe ls ekaWuhVj ess igqaWpkrs gSA 2. Serial Ports lhfj;y iksVZl& ;g PC dks ekml ;k ekaWMe ls tksM+rk gSA vf/kdrj daI;wVjksa esa nks Serial Ports jgrs gSA 3. Video/Monitor PortohfM;ks@ekaWuhVj iksVZ& ekaWuhVj ls tkus okyk ,d rkj Iyx }kjk Video/Monitor Port esa tqM+k jgrk gSaA ;g MkVk dks ekaWuhVj rd igaWpkrk gSA 4. Parallel PortiSjsyy iksVZ& bls Printer Port Hkh dgk tkrk gSA vkerkSj ij bldk iz;ksx daI;wVj dks fizVj dss lkFk tksM+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA blds lcls cM+k xq.k MkVk LFkkukarfjr djus dh bldh xfr gSaA ;g xfr Serial Port ls vkB xquk rst gksrh gSA

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5. Keyboard Portdh&cksMZ iksVZ& dh&cksMZ ls tkus okyk rkj Iyx }kjk blesa tqM+k jgrk gSA 6. Universal Serial Bus Port;wfuolZy lhfj;y cl iksVZ& bldk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh midj.k ekml] fizaVj vkfn dks USB Connection ds lkFk tksM+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 7. Fan HousingQSu gkmflax&fdlh Hkh dke ds nkSjku PC esa yxs bysDVkaWfud midj.k vR;f/kd ek=k esa rki(Heat)iSnk djrs gSA Qyr% flLVe ds vko;drk ls vf/kd xje gks tkus dh vkkadk cuh jgrh gSaA flLVe ls bl vfrfjDr xjeh dks nwj djus ds fy, ;wfuV ds fiNys Hkkx esa ,d ia[kk yxk jgrk gS] tks flLVe ds vUnj ls bl vf/kd rki dks ckgj Qsadrk gSA bl iwjh izfdz;k dks Fan Housing dgrs gSA 8. Audio JackvkaWfM;ksa tSd& bldk iz;ksx Lihdj] gsMQksau] ekbdzksQksu vkfn midj.kksa dks tksMus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 9. Modem JankekaWMe tSd& bldk iz;ksx eq[;r%Internal Modem Hkhrjh ekaWMe yxs gksus ij fd;k tkrk gSA 10.Small Computer System Interface [SCSI] PortLekaWy daI;wVjflLVe baVjQsl iksVZ& SCSI Port dk iz;ksx External Hard Disk ckgjh gkMZ fMLd] DVD Mkbo ;k Scanner LdSuj dks tksM+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA 11. Network PortusVodZ iksVZ& blds }kjk vki usVodZ esa ,d daI;wVj dks nwljs daI;wVj ls tksM+ ldrk gSaA

THE SOFTWARE
dEI;wVj dks fn;s x;s funsZkksa ds leqg dks izksxzke rFkk izksxzke ds lewgksa dks tks fdlh u fdlh izksxzkfeax Hkkkk esa fy[ks gq, gksrs gSA dks lkVos;j dgrs gSA bls dEI;wVj dk vkRek dgrsa gSA lkVos;j gh gkMZos;j dks fdz;kkhy cukrh gSA bLrseky esa yk;s tk jgas lkVos;j dks nks oxzksZ esa ckVk x;k gSA 1.System Software 2.Application Software

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1.System Sofwear =>os lkVos;j tks dEI;wVj ds lHkh vaxks vFkZkr gkMZos;j dks fdz;kkhy cukrk gS ftlesa fd mldk mi;ksx laHko gks lds ;g dEI;wVj ds fy, vR;Ur t:jh gSA System Softwear dks rhu Hkkxksa ckVk x;k gSA 1. Language translator 2. Operating System 3. ;wfVfyfV izksxzke 1.Language translator=> os Softwear tks lkslZ dkMZ vFkkZr izksxzkafeax Hkkkk esa fn;s x;s izksxzke dks ;k MkVk dks ekhu dksM ;k Hkkkk esa cnydj nsrk gSA rFkk blds ckn mls vaxzsth Hkkkk esa vkmV iqV nsrk gSA bls gh Language Translator dgrs gSA vkSj bls lk/kkj.k Hkkkk esa ifjoZrhZr djds euq; bls le> ys ;s eq[;r% rhu izdkj ds gksrs gSA A..Inter preter(baVj izsVj);g izksxzke ds okD; dks ckjh ckjh vkSj mls ckjh ckjh vkCtsDV dksM esa ifjoZfrr djrk gSA vkSj vxj dksbzZ okD; xyr gksrk gS rks ;k vkxs ugh tkrk gS Bhd gksus ds ckn gh ;g vkxs c<+rk gSA ckbujh vkSj ekhu Hkkkk esa fy[kk gksrk gSA B. Compiler( dEikbyZj) ;g ,d ,slk izkxzke gSA tks ,lsEcyh Hkkkk esa fy[kk jgrk gSA ;g Data dks Line By Line i<+rk gSA vkSj High Level Language ls Machine Language esa cnyrk gSA ftldh otg ls ;g dEI;wVj vkSj euq; ds fcp dk;Z cM+h vklkuh ls djrk gSA C. Assembler( ,lsEcyj ) ,lsEcyj Hkkkk esa fyf[k izksxzke dks ekhu Lrj dh izksxzke esa cnyuk gksrk gSA 2. Operating system =>;g flLVe izkxzke ,oa ;wfVyhVh izksxzke dk ,d leqg gS tks dEI;wVj ij dk;Z djus okyk okrkoj.k rS;kj djrk gSAftlls fd fdlh Hkh lkVos;j ds lkFk dke fy;k tk lds Oprating System eq[; pkj izdkj ds gksrs gSA A . Single program luser oprating system. bl izdkj ds vkijsfVax flLVe esa ,d dEI;wVj ij ,d izksxzke gh pyk;k tk ldrk gSA rc c.p.u ,d ckj esa ,d gh dk;Z djrk gSA bls flaxy izksxzke dgrs gSA B. xzkfQdy ;wtj baVjQsl vkijsfVax flLVe bl System esa Aicon ;k NksVs fp=ksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ftlds )kjk izksxzke ds lxq.k dks i<+k ;k ns[kk tkrk gSA ;g okrkoj.k ;wtj ds lkFk vkbdkWau vkSj fp=ksa dh Hkkkk esa gh ckr djrk gSAtSls foUMkst 3.1 foUMkst 94, foUMkst 98, foUMkst 2000, C. Multi program- bl izdkj ds flLVe ,d lkFk cgqr ls ;wtj dks ,d gh ckj dke djus dks lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA dbZ ckj dbZ yksxks dks ,d gh

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vkdM+s fd t:jr gksrh gSA ;s ;wtj vyx vyx foHkkxksa esa cSBs yksx dke djrs gSA ,d ,d gh izksxzke dks udy dj ldrs gSA ,sls LFkkuksa esa Multi program gh iz;ksx djrs gSA D. ekhu vkijsfVax flLVe - tc dksbZ izksxzke cM+k gksus ds dkj.k izkFkfed eseksjh esa fQV ugh gksrk blds fy, opZqvy eseksjh dh t:jr gksrh gSA tks izkFkfed vkSj f}rh; eseksjh ds chp MkVk dk vknku iznku dj lds bl izdkj fd O;oLFkk dks opqZvy LVksjst vkijsfVax flLVe dgrs gSaA 3. ;wfVfyfV izksxzke os lHkh izksxzke tks igy ls dEI;wVj ds fuek.kZdrkZ )kjk fy[kk jgrk gSA ftls dEI;wVj ds gkMZos;j ds lkFk lkFk izkIr gksrs gS mls ;qfVfyfV izksxzke dgrs gSA Application Software. os lkVos;j tks euq; ds fofHkUu dk;ksZ dks lEiUu djus ds fy, cus gksrs gSA mls ,Iyhdsku lkVos;j dgrs gSA ;gApplication Software fdlh [kkl dk;Z dks djus ds fy, gksrs gSA 1. Normal- tks lHkh yksx izksxzke dks use djrs gSA mls Normal program dgrs gSA 2. Standar- tks Software fdlh izksMDV ds pykus ds fy, [kkl rS;kj fd;k tkrk gSA rks mls Standar Software dgrs gS

Classefication of Computer
Computer dks eq[;r% rhu oxkZs esa oxZhZd`r fd;k tk ldrk gsA 1.Digital Computer. ;s computer vkdMs vFkkZr fMftV dh fxurh djrs gSA tks fdlh la[;k v{kj ;k fQj fdlh foksk fpUg dks nkkZrk gS bl rjg dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx eq[; :i ls O;kikfjd rFkk oSKkfud {ks=ksa esa fd;k tkrk gSA 2. ,ukWykx dEI;wVj. os lHkh ;a= tks eki ds vk/kkj ij dke djrs Fks viuk ifj.kke nsrs Fks mls ,ukWykx dEI;wVj dgrs gSA 3.Hybrid computer. (gkbZfczM dEI;wVj) ;s dEI;wVj ftuesa fMftVy ,oa ,ukWykx dEI;wVj nksuks ds gh xq.k fo/keku jgrs gS mUgsa gkbZfczM dEI;wVj dgrs gSA budk mi;ksx ekhuksa esa fd;k tkrk gSA ;k fQj dkj[kkuksa esa O;fDrxr fu;a=.k ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

Size Wise Computer


Micro computer bl rjg ds dEI;wVj ij flQZ ,d gh vkneh dk;Z dj ldrk gSA blds ekbdzksizkslslj flQZ ,d gh gksrs gSA vkSj blh esa izkslslj jftLVj rFkk dUVksy ;wfuV lHkh lekfgr gksrs gSA bldk lh.ih. ;w. ,d lsds.M esa

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lkS fdyks (100000)funsZkksa dk ikyu djrk gSA ;g T;knk ls T;knk 16 ls 32 bit okys kCnksa dks le>k ldrk gSA Mini computer-;g ekbdzksdEI;wVj dh vis{kk cM+k gksrk gSA rFkk ;g ,d eYVh;wtj vFkkZr ,d le; esa 15 ls 50 O;fDr rd dke ys ldrs gSA bl dEI;wVj esa kCnksa dh yEckbZ l/kkj.krk 24ls 32bit gksrs gSA bldh lap; {kerk ekbdzks dEI;wVj dh vis{kk cgqr T;knk gksrh gSA bldk iz;ksx vf/kdrj jsyos cSafdax dk;ksZ esa fd;k tkrk gSA izFke feuh dEI;wVj lu 1964bZ0 esa uke PDP-8 ;k esu Qzse ds eqdkcys dkQh lLrk gksrk gSA buls izkslsflax xfr 4fefy;u ckbV~l izfr lsds.M gSA Mainframe computer-;g dEI;wVj eYVh;wtj flLVe vk/kkfjr gSA ;g fdlh dEI;wVj dh vis{kk vf/kd kfDrkkyh rFkk izHkkkkyh gksrk gSA ;g yxHkx 500dsUnzksa ds fy, mi;ksxh fl) gSA blesa 500O;fDr ,d lkFk dk;Z rFkk MkVk lap; djus dh kfDr vf/kd gksrh gSA buds kCnksa dh YEckbZ 24,32,48,64,128bits rd gksrh gSA Super computer- vU; dEI;wVj dh rqyuk es ;s lokZsRre gksrk gSA ;g Hkh eYVh;wtj ij gh vk/kkfjr gSA vU; dEI;wVj dh vis{kk izkslsflax T;knk gksrh gSA blesa bldh xfr dks lsds.Mksa esa ekih tkrh gSA ;g lcls cM+s esu Qzse dEI;wVj ls 6xwuk T;knk jrkj ls dke djrk gSA ;g dkQh cM+k rFkk [kphZyk gSA bl dEI;wVj esa lap; djus dh {kerk yxHkx 64mb ls 4gb ds fcp gksrk gSA blds kCnksa dh yEckbZ yxHkx 64;k 128 bits gksrh gSA Hkkjr dk igyk lqij dEI;wVj 25 ekpZ 1981bZ0 dks fnYyh esa vk;k FkkA bldk uke ije 1000 gSA ekSle lEcfU/kr tkudkjh izkIr djus ds fy, ftl lhMkWd cd-ac uked Hkkjrh; lLFkk us cuk;k vkSj mi;ksx fjlZp dk;Z esa djrs gSA blds lhMkWd us nwljk dEI;;wVj ije 10000 j[kk x;k
Shortcut Keys
Ctrl+N Ctrl+T Ctrl+W Ctrl+R Esc Alt+ Alt+ PageUp PageDown Alt+Home Alt+D Ctrl+Enter MiddleClick Open a new window Open a new tab (if your browser supports tabs) Close the current window/tab Refresh Stop Back Forward Move up a page Move down a page Go to your homepage Move focus to the address bar to type in a URL Add "http://www." and ".com" around an address Middle-clicking a tab will close it, even if it's not the active tab

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Scenario: Open a website in a new window


1. 2. 3. Ctrl+N to open a new window Alt+D to bring you to the address bar Type the address without the "http://www." or the ".com" (for example, "microsoft" instead of "http://www.microsoft.com" 4. Press Ctrl+Enter to add in the "http://www." and the ".com"

Editing Text
Shortcut Keys
Ctrl+B Ctrl+I Ctrl+U Ctrl+Backspace Ctrl+Del Ctrl+F Ctrl+Z Bold the selected text bold Italicize the selected text italic Underline the selected text Delete the previous word Delete the next word Find some text in the current document Undo your last action

Scenario: Bold some text you are about to type


1. 2. 3. Ctrl+B to turn on the bold feature Type the text you want to be bold Ctrl+B to turn off the bold feature

Moving the Cursor and Selecting Text


Pay close attention to these! These shortcut keys can be used in almost all text editors, like Notepad, your instant messaging program, and any text input dialog boxes in Windows.

Moving the Cursor


PageUp PageDown Home End Ctrl+Home Ctrl+End Ctrl+ Ctrl+ Move the cursor up a page Move the cursor down a page Move the cursor to the beginning of the line Move the cursor to the end of the line Move the cursor to the beginning of the document Move the cursor to the end of the document Move the cursor left one word Move the cursor right one word

80 The shortcut keys for selecting text are directly related to those that move the cursor around. Just add a Shift:

Selecting Text
Shift+PageUp Select everything between the cursor and a page previous Shift+PageDown Select everything between the cursor and a page after Select everything between the cursor and the beginning of the Shift+Home line Shift+End Select everything between the cursor and the end of the line Select everything betweeen the cursor and the beginning of the Shift+Ctrl+Home document Select everything between the cursor and the end of the Shift+Ctrl+End document Shift+Ctrl+ Select the word to the left Shift+Ctrl+ Select the word to the right

Using the Clipboard


Ctrl+C Ctrl+X Ctrl+V Ctrl+A Copy what's selected Cut what's selected Paste what you last copied or cut Select all

Documents and Files


Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+W Ctrl+S Ctrl+P Create a new document Open an existing document Close the current document Saves the current document Print the current document

Windows
Alt+F4 Alt+Tab Alt+Esc Win+D Exit the active window Switch to the previous active window Cycle through all open windows Show desktop (hit it again to show windows)

WINDOWS XP

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foaMkst D;k gSaA


foaMkst ,d vkijsfVax flLVe gSa tks dEI;wVj ij izksxkzedrkZ dks ju djkus ds fy, txg nsrk gSaA ge foaMkst esa ,d gh le; ij dbZ izksxkze dks ju djk ldrs gSak fo.Mkst dk izkjEHk 1983 bZ0 esa *ekbdzkslkV^ dEiuh us fd;k FkkA blds laLdj.k bl izdkj gSa&
1. Win-1983 2. Win-1985 3. Win-1986 4. Win-1990 5. Win-1992 6. Win-1995 (Internet) 7. Win-1998 8. Win-1998 SE (Second Edition) 9. Win-2000 NT 10.Win-2000 Server 11.Win-2000 Professional 12.Win-2000 Home Edition 13.Win-Millennium 14.Win-XP (Expert) 15. Win-XP (Home Edition) 16. Win-XP (Professional) 17. Win-XP SP (I) 18. Win-XP (Loghorn) 19. Win-M5 20. Win-M6 21. Win-XP SP (II) 22. Win-XP (Unlimited) 23. Win-XP SP(III) 24. Win-Vista (Maheva) 25. Win-Vista (Microsoft) 26. Windows 7

Input- process- output [data] [precessing] [in formation]

Example Ram-are the facts and make a data asRam Process when a user give any data put input devices
Computer marks some work on this wark is called process

Information- computer give out put a fore processing on data


which is called information. Data processing - Information. 5+5=10 (5,5) (processing +) (10)

dSls dke djrk gS daI;wVj& daI;wVj ds rhu izeq[k vaxksa dks buiqV fMokbldh&cksMZ] izkslsflax ;wfuVlhih;w vkSj vkmViqV fMokblekaWuhVj ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA vFkkZr buiqV fMokbl lwpukvksa dks daI;wVj ds vanj Hkstrh gSA izksalsflax ;wfuV bUgsa

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izkslsl djrh gS tcfd vkmViqV ;wfuV gesa ifj.kke nkkZrh gSA vkb, bls ,d vkSj mnkgj.k ds }kjk le>saA ;fn vki larjs dk twl fudkyuk pkgrs gSa rks vkidkss twlj uked midj.k essa larjs Mkyus gksaxaA bl fdz;k es larjs twlj esas buiqV gks jgsa gSA blds ipkr~ ;g twlj&feDlj izkslsflax djds budk jl fudkysxkA bls vki Xykl ;k fdlh rjg ds fdlh nwljs crZu esa bdV~Bk djsaxsaA ;gkaW ij vkmViqV dks geus Xykl esa ,df=r fd;kA vFkkZr bl fdz;k esa buiqV] izkslsflax vkSj vkmViqV tSls rhuksa dk;Z laiUu gq,A blh rjg ls tc vkidks vius ?kj ds fQzt dk iz;ksax djds cQZ tekuh gksrh gS rks vki Vs es ikuh ysdj Qzhtj izkslsflx djds cQZ tek ysrs gS ftls ge Vs ls fudkydj ,d cM+h Vs esa LVksaj dj nsrs gSaA ;gkaW ij Hkh buiqV] izksalsflax vkSj vkmViqV tSls rhuksa dk;Z gksrs gSA bl rjg vki le> x, gksxs fd ekhuksa dh dk;Ziz.kkyh fdl rjg ls bu rhu izfdz;kvksa ls lapkfyr gksrh gS vkSj ;g rhu pj.k gS& igyk buiqV nwljk izkslsflax rhljk vkmViqV

daI;wVj blh rjg ls viuk dk;Z djrk gSaA daI;wVj ij tc vki mls fdUghs nks la[;kvksa dks tksM+us ds fy, dgrs gS mles lcls igys ;g nksa la[;k,aW dh&cksMZ ds }kjk Vkbi djds buiqV dh tkrh gSA buiqV gksrs gh ;g lhih;w esa igqaWprh gSA lhih;w esa izksalsflx ;wfuV ds }kjk x.kuk djus dk dk;Z iwjk gksrk gS vkSj bl izfdz;k es ;g nksuks la[;k,aW vkil es tqM tkrh gSA bUgs tksM+us dss fy, ge daI;wVj dks dqN funsZk nsrs gSA blh funsZk ds ifj.keLo:i izkslsflax ;wfuV viuk dk;Z djrh gSA funZsk dk ikyu djrs gq, izkslsflax ;wfuV la[;kvksa dks vkil esa tksM+dj mudk ifj.kke vkmViqV ;wfuV ij Hkstrh gS vkSj gesa ekaWuhVj ds Ldzhu ij ;g fjtYV fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA tksM+us dh rjg gh nwljs dk;Z Hkh bUgh pj.kksa dk ikyu djrs gq, laiUu gksrs gSA buiqV midj.k&vHkh rd vki ;g rks le> gh x, gS fd daI;wVj esa MsVk vkSj funsZkksa dks buiqV fd;k tkrk gSA MsVk buiqV djus ds ckn funZsk nsdj mls izkslsl djrs gSa vkSj ifj.kke izkIr djrs gSA daI;wVj MsVk vkSj funsZkksa ds cxSj dksbZ Hkh dk;Z ugha dj ldrk gSA ftu

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midj.kksa dks blds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS mUgsa buiqV midj.k dgrs gSA daI;wVj esa buiqV djus ds fy, oSls rks vktdy dbZ midj.kksa dk iz;ksax fd;k tkrk gSA ysfdu lcls T;knk dh&cksMZ vkSj ekml dks blds fy, bLrseky djrs gSA dh&cksMZ dks izkbejh buiqV fMokbl Hkh dgk tkrk gSA

daI;wVj vkaWu djuk&


eq[; ikaWoj fLop vkaWu djsaA lhohVh ;k ;wih,l dks vkaWu djus ds ckn daI;wVj dks vkaWu djsaA ;fn ekaWuhVj lhih;w ds fo|qr izokg ls ugha tqM+k gS rks ekaWuhVj dk fLop vkaWu djsaA blds ipkr~ lhih;w dk fLop vkaWu djsaA foaMkst MsLdVkaWi vkus dk bartkj djsA foaMkst ds MsLdVkaWi es vkidks tks NksVs&NksVs fp= fn[kkbZ nsrs gS] mUgsa vkbdu dgrs gSA blesa lcls uhps VkLd ckj gksrk gSaA VkLd ckj ds ck,aW dksus ij LVkVZ cVu gksrh gSa] ftl ij fDyd djds vki vius dke dh kq:vkr dj ldrs gSA vkidksa foaMkst ds MsLdVkaWi ij ekml IokbaVj Hkh fn[kkbZ nsxkAtc vki ekml dks iSM ij ?kqek,aWxs rks ;g ?kwesaxkA ;fn vki foaMkst esa dksbZ dke djuk pkgrs gS rks vkidksa og izksxzke kq: djuk gksxkA

daI;wVj vkaWQ djuk&dke


fuEu dze ls can djsa&

lekIr gksus ds ipkr~ daI;wVj dks

lcls igys faoaMkst ds LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsaA vkids lkeus ;g bl rjg ls [kqydj vk tk;sxkA bles fn, kVMkmu ;k VuZ vkaWQ fodYi ij fDyd djsaA vkids lkeus ;g fodYi ckaWDl vk tk,xkA bless kVMkmu ;k VuZ vkaWQ fodYi ij fDyd djds vksds cVu ij fDyd djsaA vkids lkeus ;g lansk vk,xk&

84

Its now safe to turn off your computerA bl lansk dks i<+us ds ckn lhih;w dk fLop can djsaaA ekaWuhVj dk fLop can djsaA lhohVh ;k ;wih,l dks can djsaA eq[; fo|qr vkiwfrZ fLop can djsaA fudkZ(Conclusion)& rksa vc ge bl lQj dks gh ;gha [kRe djrs gS fd vkkk gS fd vkius gekjsa lkFk bl lQj dk Hkjiwj vkuan mBk;k gksaxkA daI;wVjksa ds ckjs es vkius vHkh tks tkudkjh izkIr dh gSa] mlls vkidh dk;Z{kerk esa dkQh lq/kkj gksaxk] pkgsa vki fdlh Hkh {ksa= ls lacaf/kr D;ksa u gksaA vius bl dke ds }kjk] geusa viuh vksj ls Hkjiwj iz;kl fd;k gS fd vki daI;wVj ds lkFk yxHkx lHkh i{kksa ls iwjh rjg ifjfpr gks tk,aWA gesa vkkk gS fd tkudkfj;ksa ls Hkjha lh0Mh0 ds lkFk dke djus esa vkidksa vkuan vk;k gksxk vkSj vkius daI;wVj&laca/kh ikBksa vkSj muds fl)karksa dk iz;ksax [kqn djds vf/kd tkudkjh vkSj vuqHko izkIr fd;k gksaxkA gj fnu c<+rh gqbZ vkilh gksaM+ ds bl nkSj esa nl iqLrd ls vkius tks {kerk gkaWfly dh gS] og vkids lHkh izdkj ds dkeksa vkSj O;olk; esa dkQh mi;ksxh fl) gksxhA bllsa vkidk vkRefookl c<+sxk vkSj csgrjh dk vglkl gksxkA foaMkst MsLdVkaWi (Windows Desktop) & Booting fdz;k lekIr gks tkus ij vkidks tks igyh Ldzhu fn[kkbZ nsrh gS]mls Desktop dgk tkrk gSA foMkst Xp dk MsLdVkaWi] foaMkst Me ds MsLdVkaWi ls FkksM+k fHkUu gksrk gSA MsLdVkaWi ij NksVs&NksVs fp= cus gksrs gSa] tks PC esa LFkkfir fd, x, fofHkUu izksxzkEl dks nkkZrs gSaA bu fp=ksa dks Icon dgk tkrk gSa vkidks vius MsLdVkaWi ij vdlj fuEufyf[kr Icons fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa& My Computer& ;g vkidks daI;wVj ds dUVsUV~l dh lwph vFkkZr~ C: Mkbo] mueas ekStwn Qkbysa nkkZrk gSaA ;g ml LFkku dks nkkZrk gS] ftlesa vki viuk MkVk LVksj dj ldrs gS vkSj vko;drkuqlkj ckn es nksckjk fudky Hkh ldrs gSA Recycle Bin& bldk bLrseky ,d ^MLV fcu* ds leku gksrk gSA blesa os Qkby tek gks tkrh gSa] ftUgsa vki daI;wVj ls fMyhV dj nsrs gSA

85

Briefcase&vius fd, x, dke ds dbZ Versiosn, tks vkius daI;wVj esa fd;k gS] dks vki bles LVksj dj ldrs gSA bu Icons }kjk nkkZ, tkus okys izksxzkEl dks vki bu ij ck,aW ekml cVu dks nks ckj fDyd djds [kksy ldrs gSaA MsLdVkaWi ij Icons ds vfrfjDr fuEufyf[kr Hkh ekStwn jgrs gSa& Start cVu&bl cVu ij fDyd djds vki Start esaU;w dks [kksy ldrs gSA blds }kjk vki vius daI;wVj esa ekStwn lHkh izksxzkekssa dks [kksy ldrs gSaA Start Bar & ;g MsLd VkaWi esa fcYdqy uhps dh vksj gksrk gSaA blesa ,d Clock vkSj fofHkUu Application dh fLFkfr fn[krh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,&;fn vki fizaVj ij dke dj jgs gSa] rks bl Bar esa fizaVj dk Icon fn[kkbZ nsxk] ;fn vki CD dk bLrseky dj jgs gSa]rks blesa CD dk Icon fn[kkbZ nsxkA vkids MsLdVkaWi ij dbZ vU; Icons Hkh miyC/k jgrs gSaA os izR;sa daI;wVj es fHkUu gks ldrs gSaA pwaWfd ;s izksaxkzEl ds kkaWVZdV gksrs gSa vr% vki bUgsa vius daI;wVjksa ds fdlh Hkh izksxkzEl ds fy, vklkuh ls cuk ldrs gSaA vxys v/;k;ksaa esa vki vius MsLdVkaWi ij Icons cukus dk rjhdk lh[ksaxaA gkMZos;j vkSj lkaWVso;j (Hardware and Software)& PC dbZ {ks=ksa tSls &i= fy[kus] ysVjgsM vkSj pkVZ cuku] viuh psdcqd dk fglkc j[kus] fp= cukus] LVkaWd ewY;ksa dk irk yxkus] [ksayus] gkseodZ djus bR;kfn esa vkidh lgk;rk djrk gSA vki bl ij laxhr Hkh lqu ldrs gS vkSj fQYe Hkh ns[k ldrs gSaA fdlh Hkh PC esa fufpr :i ls fuEufyf[kr Hkkx gksrs gSa& Hardware gkMZos;j Software lkaWVos;j& blesa fuEufyf[kr kkfey gksrs gSa& 1. Operating SystemvkaWijsfVax flLVe 2. Utilty Software ;wfVfyVh lkaWVos;j] tks oSdfYid (Opational) gksrk gSA Software:-Computer dks fdlh vknsk dks iwjk djus ds fy, i;kZIr tkudkjh pkfg, tSls,fdlh vknsk dks dgkaW dc vkSj dSls iwjk djuk gS bl izdkj ds

86

vknskksa dks tgkaW lek;ksftr gksrk gS mls Programme dgrs gS vkSj ,sls Programme dk lewg gh Software dgykrk gSA dEI;wVj dsoy ,d tM+ ekhu gS, tks Lo;a dqN ugha djrh ;k dj ldrh gS mls dksbZ dk;Z djus ds fy, ck/; fd;k tkrk gS,vknskks ds }kjk lkekU; Hkkkk esa dEI;wVj gkMZos;j ls dksbZ dk;Z djkus ds fy, gesa vknsk nsus iM+rs gS vknskksa ds lewg dks izksxzke dgk tkrk gSA dEI;wVj esa lSdM+ksa dh la[;k esa izksxzke gksrs gS,tks vyx&vyx dkeksa ds fy, fy[ks tkrs gSA izksxzkeksa ds lewgksa dks lfEefyr :i esa Softwate dgk tkrk gSA dEI;wVj dh tM+ ekhu dks psru cukus dk dk;Z Software dk gh gS, fcuk Software ds dEI;wVj ,sls gh gS tSls fcuk vkRek ds kjhjA Softwatre nksa izdkj ds gksrs gS %& 1. System Software. 2. Application Software. System Software:- System Software ls gekjk rkRi;Z mu Programme ls gS tks System dks pykus mlds ekaxkZs dh ns[kHkky djusa,mlds dk;ksZ ij utj j[kus rFkk mlls vf/kd ls vf/kd vPNk dke djkus dk;Z djrs gSA dEI;wVj ls gekjk lEidZ ;k ckrphr System Software ds ek/;e ls gh gks ikrh gSA Application Software:- Application Software mu Programme dks dgk tkrk gS,tks gekjk vlyh dk;Z djkus ds fy, fy[ks tkrs gS, tSls gekjs dk;kZy; dk nLrkost (Document) ys[ku,[kkrksa rFkk ysunsu dk fglkc j[kuk fofHkUu izdkj dh fjiksVZ osru x.kuk vkfnA Application Programme cktkj esa Readymade feyrs gS tks dkxu Use gksrs gS rFkk foksk izdkj ds Programme,Programmer }kjk cuk;s tkrs gSA Computer Language:- fdlh dEI;wVj esa lkjk dk;Z ckbujh (Binary) vadks 0 vkSj 1 ds ek/;e ls fd;k tkrk gS bldh Hkkkk Hkh 0 vkSj 1 ls cuh gSA izksxzke D;k gS %& fdlh dk;Z foksk dks dEI;wVj }kjk djkus ds fy, dEI;wVj dks le> esa vkus okyh Hkkkk es fufpr dze esa fn;s x;s funsZkksa ds lewg dks izksxzke dgk tkrk gSA Programming D;k gS %& fdlh dk;Z foksk dks dEI;wVj }kjk djkus ds fy, funskksa ds lewg dks dzec) djds dEI;wVj dks le> esa vkus okyh Hkkkk esa izLrqr djus dh izfdz;k (Prosess) dksa izksxzkfeax dgk tkrk gSA tSls 1 ls 10 rd dk fxurh fy[kuh gks rks] Step 1 A=1 Step 2 Print=A Step 3 A=A+1

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Step 4 Step 5

If A<10/ Stop

Go to Step 2

Programming Language:- dEI;wVj ls dksbZ dk;Z djus ds fy, gesa Programme fy[kuk iM+rk gSA izksxzke dqN funsZkks dk ,slk dzec) lewg gS ftldk Bhd&Bhd ikyu djus ij dksbZ iwjk gks tkrk gSa dEI;wVj tks cM+s&cM+s dke djrk gS ekywe iM+rk gS og dEI;wVj dh ugha cfYd mldks fn;s x;s izksxzke dk dkjekr gS vkSj izksxzke fy[kus okys Programmer dh cqf) dk deky gSA dEI;wVj dsoy Programme dk Bhd&Bhd ikyu djds dke tYnh dj nsrk gSA dEI;wVj ds fy, Programme ,slh Hkkkk esa fy[kh tkrh gS ftls dEI;wVj le> lds] ftu Hkkkk esa izksxzke fy[ks tkrs gS mUgsa Programming Language dgrs gSA ;s fuEu gS %& 1. Low Level Language 2. High Level Language Low Level Language:- Binary Hkkkk esa izksxzke fy[kuk gekjs fy, vlEHko ugha rks cgqr dfBu gS D;ksfd og izksxzke 0 vkSj 1 dh yEch Ja`[kyk ds :i esa gksxkA ;fn bldks fy[kus esa D;ksfd xyrh gks tk, rks mls idM+uk vkSj Bhd djuk yxHkx vlaEHko gh gksrk gS High Level Language:- vc lHkh Programme dks High Level Language esa fy[ks tkrs gS ftls Computer }kjk Lower Language esa cny fn;s tkrs gS tSls %& Cobol, Basic System Software (Operating System):-Operating System(System Software) Computer dk vko;d Hkkx gS ;g tfVy ,oa cM+s Programmes dk lewg gS tks fd User vkSj dEI;wVj ds chp Interface dk dk;Z djrk gS] O,S, lHkh Hardware dks izfrcaf/kr djrk gS fd os fdlh dk;Z djrs gS vkSj User dks mu Hardware dks lapkfyr djus dh {kerk iznku djrs gS tks ;g fuEu izdkj dk gS& 1. Single User O.S.- DOS Windows etc. 2. Multe User O.S.- Unir Windows NT etc.

CTRL and A CTRL and C CTRL and F CTRL and G

Selects all the items in the active window. Copies the item or items to the Clipboard and can be pasted using CTRL and V. Displays the Find all files dialog box. Displays the Go to folder dialog box.

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CTRL and N CTRL and O CTRL and P CTRL and S CTRL and V CTRL and X CTRL and Z CTRL and F4 CTRL CTRL+SHIFT CTRL+F4 CTRL+ESC CTRL and F6

Displays the New dialog box. Displays the Open dialog box. Displays the Print dialog box. Displays the Save dialog box. Pastes the copied item or items from the Clipboard. Cuts the item or items selected to the Clipboard. Undoes the last action. Closes the active document window. while dragging an item Copy the selected item with arrow keys Highlight a block of text Close the active document Display the Start menu Opens the next document window in the active application. ALT+ENTER View the properties for the selected item ALT+F4 Close the active item, or quit the active program ALT+SPACEBAR Open the shortcut menu for the active window ALT+TAB Switch between the open items ALT+ESC Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened F1 key Gives help on the active window or selected item. F2 key Rename the selected item F3 key Search for a file or a folder F4 key Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer F5 key Update the active window F6 key Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop F10 key Activate the menu bar in the active program Windows Logo Display or hide the Start menu Windows Logo+PAUSE Display the System Properties dialog box Windows Logo+D Display the desktop Windows Logo+M Minimize all of the windows Windows Logo+SHIFT+M Restore the minimized windows Windows Logo+E Open My Computer Windows Logo+F Search for a file or a folder CTRL+Windows Logo+F Search for computers

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Windows Logo+F1 Display Windows Help Windows Logo+ L Lock the keyboard Windows Logo+R Open the Run dialog box Windows Logo+U Open Utility Manager TAB Move forward through the options SHIFT+TAB Move backward through the options CTRL+TAB Move forward through the tabs CTRL+SHIFT+TAB Move backward through the tabs ALT+Underlined letter Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option ENTER Perform the command for the active option or button SPACEBAR Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box F1 key Display Help F4 key Display the items in the active list Arrow keys Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons BACKSPACE Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box END Display the bottom of the active window HOME Display the top of the active window NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) Display the contents of the selected folder NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) Collapse the selected folder LEFT ARROW Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder RIGHT ARROW Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder

Paint
Minimize Maximize

90
Title Bar Menu Bar Close

Tool Bar

Color Box Status Bar

isUV dks izkjEHk djus dh fof/k;k (I) Start Menu=> Accessories => Paint. (II) Start Menu=>Run=> Mspaint (111) Desktop=>Right Click on paint icon =>open. VkbVyckj => blesa izksxzke rFkk Qkby dk uke feuhekbt, eSDlhekbt, Dykst cVu fn[kkbZ nsrs gSA Dykst cVu=> isUV dks cUn djukA eSDlhekbt=> isUV dks isUV dh fo.Mks dks cM+k\ NksVk djukA feuhekbt=> isUV dh fo.Mks dks ,dne NksVk djuk (VkLdckj esa ys tkukA) ehuwckj:isUV esa fofHkUu dk;ksZ dks iwjk djus ds fy, ehuwckj miyC/k gksrk gSaA ftlesa 6 ehuw gksrs gSa, tSls-File, Edit,view,image,colors&help. Vwyckj:- isUV izksxzke ds Vwyckj esa Mkbax djus ds fofo/k Vwy miyC/k gksrs gSaAblesa dqy 16 VwYl gksrs gSaA

Vwyckj ds VwYl ds uke o muds dk;Z :-

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Free form select Eraser Pick color Pencil Airbrush Line Rectangle Ellipse

Select Fill color Magnifier Brush Text Curve Polygon Rounded Rectangle

1. Free-form select - bldk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh fp= dks lsysDV djukA 2. Select -;g dsoy vk;r Hkkx esa lsysDV djrk gSA 3. Eraser -;g fdlh Hkh Hkkx dks feVkus ds fy, iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 4. Fill color -fdlh Hkh fp= esa dyj Hkjus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA 5. Pick color -fdlh Hkh fp= ;k okyisij esa ls dyj dks mBk ysrk gSA 6. Magnifier -;g ist dks cM+k dj nsrk gSA 7. Pencil -isafly ls ge dqN Hkh ykbu [khap ldrsa gSa lh/kh ykbu ds fy, fkV cVu dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA 8. Brush -czk ls ge fofHkUu izdkj dh ykbu cuk ldrs gSaA 9. Airbrush -QOokjs dh rjg jax Hkjus ds fy, iz;ksx djrs gSaA 10. Text -isat ij dqN fy[kus fy, bl VwYl dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA 11. Line -blls ykbu f[akph tkrh gSA 12. Curve -;g doZ cukus dk dke djrk gSA 13. Rectangle -bldk iz;ksx ge vk;r cuus ds fy, djrs gSA 14. Polygon -bl Vwy ls ikWyhxkWu cuk;k tkrk gSaA 15. Ellipse -o`Rr ;k xksykdkj cuk;k tkrk gSaA 16. Rounded rectangle -xksy dksus okyk vk;r cuk;k tkrk gSaA

dyjckWDl
isUV izksxzke esa fp= esa dyj Hkjus ds fy, fofHkUu dyj gksrs gSaAdyjckWDl esa dyj ds 28 ckWDl gksrs gSa rFkk 2 ckWDl vi rFkk Mkmu dyj dks nkkZrs gSaA]

LdzkWyckWDl
dSuokl dks mij,uhps nk;sa ck;s ?kqek;k tkrk gSaA

LVsVlckj
fofHkUu fodYiks dks nkkZrk gSaA

dSuokl
ftl ist ij ge fp= cukrs gSa mls dSuokl dgrs gSaA

esU;w ckj
File,Edit,View,Image,Colors,Help
FILE MENU NEW (CTRL+N) OPEN (CTRL+O) ::-

u;k ist ysukA cuh Qkby dks [kksyukA

92
SAVE (CTRL+S) SAVE AS Print Preview Page Setup Print (ctrl+P) Send ::::::::-

Qkby dks lqjf{kr djukA igys ls lso Qkby dks nwljs uke ls lso djukA fizUVvkmV ds le; ist fdl izdkj fn[kk;h nsxk mls ns[kukA ist dh lsfVax tSls-isij lkbt]ekftZu]Ldsfyax]bR;kfn djukA fp= dks dkxt ij NkiukA viuh Qkby dksa esy esa vVSp djds fdlh fe= dks cuk;s x;s fp= dks MsLdVkWi ij lso djukA isUV dks cUn djukA fd;s x;s dk;Z dks jn~n djukA (3 LVsi rd) jn~n fd;s x;s dk;Z dks nksgjkukA fdlh vkWCtsDV dks lsysDV djds dV(xk;c) djukA fdlh vkWCtsDV dks lsysDV djds dkWih djukA dkWih dh xbZ VsDLV dks nwljs txg ys tkukA lsysDV fd;s x;s vkWCtsDV dks fMyhV djukA ist ij ekStwn lHkh oLrqvks dks ,d lkFk lsysDV djukA lsysDV fd;s x;s vkWCtsDV dks nwljs txg HkstukA dkWih fd;s x;s VsDLV dks nwljs Qkby esa ;k nwljs txg

HkstukA
Set As Background Exit (Alt+F4) EDIT MENU Undo (ctrl+Z) Repeat (ctrl+Y) Cut (ctrl+X) Copy (ctrl+C) Paste (ctrl+V) Clear Selection(del) Select All (ctrl+A) Copy To Paste From

:::::::::-

HkstukA
VIEW MENU Tool Box` Color Box Status Bar Text Toolbar View Bitmap Zoom (ctrl+T) :(ctrl+l) :::(ctrl+F) ::-

Vwy ckWDl dks fn[kkuk ;k fNikukA dyjckWDl dks fn[kkuk ;k fNikukA LVsVlckj dks fn[kkuk ;k fNikukA VsDLV Vwyckj dks fn[kkuk ;k fNikukA cuk;s x;s fp= dks QwyLdzhu ij ns[kukA ist dks cMk ;k NksVk djds ns[kukA

IMAGE MENU Flip/Rotate(ctrl+R)

lsysDV fd;s x;s vkWCtsDV dks dks mij,uhps]nk;sa]ck;s ;k fdlh dks.k ij |qekukA Stretch/Skew(ctrl+W) :lsysDV fd;s x;s vkWCtsDV dk vkdkj cnyukA Invert Color (ctrl+I) :lsysDV fd;s x;s vkWCtsDV ds jax dks mYVk djukA Attributes (ctrl+E) :ist dk vkdkj cnyuk rFkk dyjckWDl dks CySd ,.M OgkbV djukA Clear Image (ctrl+shift+N) :ist dks lkQ djukA Draw Opaque :lsysDV fd;s x;s vkWCtsDV dks cSdxzkm.M ds lkFk ugha ys tkukA
:COLORS EDIT COLOR :-

viuk dksbZ u;k jax cukuk o mls dyjckWDl esa MkyukA

Ctrl+A = Select All Ctrl+C = Copy

93 Ctrl+E = Attributes Ctrl+F = View Bitmap Ctrl+I = Invert Colors Ctrl+L = Color Box Ctrl+N = New Ctrl+O = Open Ctrl+P = Print Ctrl+R = Rotate Ctrl+S = Save Ctrl+T = Tool Box Ctrl+W = Stretch/ Skew Ctrl+V = Paste Ctrl+X = Cut Ctrl+Y = Redo Ctrl+Z = Undo Alt+F4 = Exit F1 = Help

isUV izksaxzke dks kq: djuk (Opening the Paint Program)& vkb, vc vki Accessories ds ,d u, izksaxzke es dke djsaA vc vki nwljs Accessories Programme Paint esa dke djsaA ;g fp=ksa dks cukus vkSj muess jax Hkjus okyk izkasxzke gSA bl izksaxzke esa fofHkUu VwYl vkSj jax ekStwn gS] ftuesa vkids fp= vkSj lqUnj fn[aksxsaA bl izksaxzke dks vf/kd tkuus ds fy, vki bls fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj [kksy ldrs gS& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Taskbar ds Start cVu ij yk,aW vkSj blds ij ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA ,d iqk&vi esU;w Ldzhu ij vk tk,xkA 2. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Programme fodYi ij ys tk,aWA ,d nwljk esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks nwljs esaU;w ij ys tkdj Accessories fodYi ij j[ksaA rqjar gh Ldzhu ij rhljk esU;w vk tk,xkA 4. rhljs esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaWa,aVj dks Paint fodYi ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsa rqjar gh Paint foaMksa vkids Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xhA isaV izksaxzke esa dke djuk (Working in Paint)& Paint foaMks ds dbZ Hkkx gksrs gSaA budk laf{kIr fooj.k blizdkj gS&

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Title Bar&Paint Window ds lcls ijg Hkkx dks Title Bar dgk tkrk gSA ;g Bar vkerkSj ij izksaxzke dk uke vkSj bl le; [kqyh gqbZ Qkby dk uke fn[kykrk gSA Menu Bar&;g cgqr lkjs fodYiksa tSls&File,Edit,View....Help dks fn[kykrk gSA vki fdlh Hkh fodYi dks pquko mlds ij ekml ikaW,aVj ys tkdj] ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djds dj ldrs gSA Work area&tSlk vki ns[ksaxs] Workarea, Paint fosaMks dk vf/kdkak Hkkx gSA LdzkaWy cVu&ck;kaW LdzkaWy cVu] nk;kaW LdzkaWy cVu] Mkmu ,sjks LdzkaWy cVu vkSj vi ,sjks LdzkaWy cVu Work area esa fn[kkbZ nsrs gSA tc vki Paint izkasxzke [kksyrs gSa] rks iwjk Work area ughs fn[kkbZ nsrkA vki iwjsa Work area dks LdzkaWy cVuksa ls Ldzhu dks LdzkaWy djds ns[k ldrs gSA Colour Box&Paint foaMks ds lcls uhps Colour Box gksrk gSA ;gakW ls vki viuk euilan jax pqu ldrs gSA Tool Box&Workarea dh ckbZ vksj vki Toolbox ns[ksxs] ftlesa fofHkUu izdkj ds Tools gksrs gSaA os Tool fp=dkjh esa vkidh enn djrs gSA vkxs ds Hkkx esa ge bu Tools ls dke djuk lh[ksxsA VwYl dk p;u djuk (Selecting Tools)&Paint izksaxzke es vkidks dbZ rjg ds Tools iz;ksx djus gksxs A bu Tools ls dke djus dk rjhdk blizdkj gSa& Text Tool&Text Tool Ldzhu ij dksbZ Hkh Text fy[kus esa vkidh enn djrk gSA vkb,] Text Happy New Year fy[kdj bl tool dks vf/kd le>sA ,slk djus ds fy, gesa fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dke djuk gksxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Text tool ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Text tool gkbZykbV gks tk,xkA bldk eryc ;g gS fd bldk pquko gks x;k gSA 2. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Paint foaMks ds Work area esa ys tk,aWA vc ekml ikaW,aVj ,d Cross ds vkdkj esa cny tk,xkA 3. Happy New Year Vkbi djus ls igys vkidks ml {ksa= dk pquko djuk gksxk] tgkaW vki bls Vkbi djuk pkgrs gSA ,slk djus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks isaUV foaMks ds ijh ck,aW dksus ij ys tk,aWA 4. vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dks FkksaM+k uhpsa nkbZ vksj MSx djsaA blls vkids Ldzhu ij ,d Dotted line cu tk,xhA

95

5. ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml ikaW,aVj dks blizdkj MSx djsa fd Dotted Box bruk cM+k gks tk, fd mlesa Happy New Year Text ljyrk ls vk tk,A 6. tc ,d ckj vkius tc t:jr ds vuqlkj Dotted Box cuk fy;k gS] rc ck;kaW ekml cVu NksaM+ nsaA 7. rqjar gh ,d Text toolbar vkids Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA vxj Text toolbar [kqn fn[kkbZ u nsa] rc vki bls Ldzhu ij blizdkj yk ldrs gS& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks esU;w ckj ds View fodYi ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Text toolbar fodYi ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh Text toolbar Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxhA QkaWUV dks pquuk (Choosing a Font)& fy[ks gq, Text ds fy, ge fofHkUu Fonts kCn fy[kus dh kSfy;ksa dks mi;ksx dj ldrs gSA ;g Fonts,Text toolbar esa Fonts Box esa fLFkr jgrs gSA vkb, vc vius Text ds fy, fdlh QkaWUV dk p;u djds ns[krs gSa& 1. Text toolbar ds Fonts Box ds Mkmu ,sjks cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks ykdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj vkb, vc Times New Roman QkaWUV dk pquko djsaA gekjs mnkgj.k esa iqy&Mkmu esU;w esa Times New Roman ugh fn[kkbZ ns jgk gSA bls <aWw<+us ds fy, Mkmu ,sls LdzkaWy cVu dks iz;ksax djsaA 3. ck,aW ekml cVu dks rc rd Click djrs jgsa] tc rd Times New Roman fn[kkbZ ugha nsA 4. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Times New Roman QkaWUV ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh iqy&Mkmu esU;w xk;c gks tk,xk vkSj pqus x, QkaWUV dks uke Times New Roman, Text toolbar ds Fonts Box esa fn[kkbZ nsxkA

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QkaWUV ds vkdkj dks pquuk (Choosing a Font Size)& nwljs Box dk bLrseky v{kjkas ds vkdkj dks cnyus ds fy, gksrk gSA ;g Font Size Box gSA ;g Box Vkbi fd, tkus okys v{kjksa ds vkdkj dks fn[kykrk gSA vHkh bl Box esa 8fy[kk fn[kkbZ ns jgk gSA vki bls cnydj 12djsaA ,slk djus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Fonts Size Box ds Mkmu ,sjks cVu ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. bl esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks vkdkj 12 ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh iqy&Mkmu esU;w xk;c gks tk,xk vkSj Font size Box ds vanj 12 fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. foMkst Me ds Paint Programme esa fofHkUu Fonts esa ls Font Style pquus dh lqfo/kk feyrh gSA VsDLV ds fy, QkaWeZ dks pquuk(Choosing a Form for the Text)& foaMkst Me esa dksbZ Hkh Font dbZ rjg ls fn[kk;k tk ldrk gS] tSls& Arabic,Baltic,Central,European,Cyrillic,Greak,Hebbrew,Turkish,Western vkfnA bu Forms dks Fonts dh Script dgrs gSA Central European Form pquus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. Text toolbar ds rhljs Box ;kuh Script Box ds vanj Mkmu ,sjks cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w vkids Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Central European fodYi ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA pqus gq,s Font Box ds vanj rqjar fn[kkbZ nsxkA VsDLV dk LVkby cnyuk(Adding Styles to the Text)&Font Style ds fy, Text toolbar esa rhu cVu gksrs gSa&Bold Button, Italic Button and Underline Button, Font vkSj mldss vkdkj dk pquko djsaA ,slk djus ds fy, vki fuEufyf[kr dze ls dke djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Bold Button ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh Bold Button nck fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. vxj cksaYM cVu igys ls nck gqvk gS] rks dze 2 ls vkxs c<+sA vxj Italic Button pquk gqvk gS] rks dze 3 ls vkxs c<+sA vxj Underline cVu nck gqvk gS] rks dze 4 ls vkxs c<+sA

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3. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Italic cVu ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh Italic cVu gkbZykbV gks tk,xkA 4. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Underline cVu ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsA Underline cVu gkbZykbV gks tk,xkA 5. ;g t:jh ugha fd Text toolbar ds vanj ds lHkh LVkby dks pquk tk,] tSlk vkius vH;kl esa fd;k gSA ;g pquko vkidh t:jr ij fuHkZj djrk gSA 6. vius Text ds fy, lHkh fodYiksa dk pquko dj ysus ds ckn vc vki Text Happy New Year Vkbi djsaA blds fy, lcls igys ekml ikaW,aVj dks Dotted Boxs ds vanj ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d Blinking Cursor Dotted Boxs ds vanj utj vk,xkA 7. Happy New Year ds v{kj H, N and Y cM+s v{kjksa esa Vkbi djus ds fy, Shift Key dks nck, j[ksaA 8. vc Text Happy New Year Type djsaA Text Dotted Boxs vanj utj vk,xkA vki ns[ksxs fd Vkbi fd;k gqvk Text pqus x, Format (FontTimes New Roman,Size-12,Bold,Underline and Italic Style) esa fn[ksxkA 9. vc vki Tool Boxs ds nwljs Vwy ;kfu Rectangle Tool ls dke djsaA ysfdu blesa igys ;g vPNk gksxk fd vki Text Tool dks Ldzhu ls gVk nsaA ,slk djus ds fy, vkidksa fuEufyf[kr izfdz;k ds vuqlkj c<+uk gksaxk& 10.Text Toolbar ds Title Bar ij mifFkr Close cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tk,aWA 11.ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Text Toolbar xk;c gks tk,xkA Rectangle Tool ;g fdlh Hkh vkdkj ds oxZ ;k vk;r Boxs dks cukus esa vkidh enn djrk gSA vkb,] vc vki bl Tool ls dke djuk lh[ksaA blds fy, vkidksa fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djuk gkssaxk& eku yhft, fd vkids Ldzhu ij Vwy Boxs ds Rectangle Tool ij ekml ikaW,aVj ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml Button Click djsaA vc isaUV izksaxzke ds Work area esa ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tk,aW vkSj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA Cursor rqjar gh dzkaWl ds vkdkj esa cny tk,xkA

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ck,W ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dks blizdkj MSx djs fd WorkArea esa vk;r fn[ksaA tc bfPNr vkdkj dks vk;r cu tk,] rc ck;kaW ekml cVu NksM+ nasA vkb, vc vki Ellipse Tool dk iz;ksx dj ds o`k cuk,aWA ;fn vki o`k dh jaxhu ykbu pkgrs gS] rks o`k cukus ls igys jax dk pquko dj ysaA blds fy, vkidksa Colour Box ls jax dks p;u djuk lh[kuk gksxkA jaxksa dk p;u(Selecting Colors)&Colour Boxs euilan jax ls fp= cukus ;k muesa jax Hkjus esa vkidh enn djrk gSA Colour Boxs esa fofHkUu rjg ds jax gksrs gSA jax pquus ds fy, vki fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dk;Z djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks vkisf{kr jax gekjs mnkgj.k esa Dark Grey Colour, tks Colour Boxs dh igyh iafDr vkSj nwljs dkaWye esa mifLFkr gS ds ij ys tk,aWA 2. ck;akW ekml cVu Click djsaA 3. vkius tks jax pquk gS] og Selected Colour Boxs es fn[ksxkA blh rjg ls vki nwljs jaxks dks Hkh pqu ldrs gSA vkb,] vc vki pqus gq, jax ls Ellipse Tool dk iz;kasx djds o`k cuk,& Ellipse Tool&bl Vwy dk iz;ksx djds Ldzhu ij fdlh Hkh f=T;k dk o`k cuk;k tk ldrk gSA Ldzhu ij jaxhu o`k cukus ds fy, nh xbZ izfdz;k ds vuqlkj dke djs& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Ellipse Tool ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA vc Ellipse Tool Highlight fn[ksxk vkSj Cursor dzkaWl esa cny tk,xkA 2. vkb, vc o`k dh ykbu ds fy, jax dk pquko djsaA ,slk djus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks Colour Boxs ij yk,aW vkSj euilan jax ds ij Click djsA mnkgj.k& ge igyh iafDr ds vafre dkaWye esa mifLFkr jax ij Click dj ldrs gSA vkidk pquk gqvk jax rqjar gh Selected Colour Boxs esa fn[kkbZ nsxkA pquk gqvk jax Selected Colour Boxs esa fn[k jgk gSA 3. vkius Ellipse Tool vkSj euilan jax dk p;u dj fy;k gSA vkb,] vc vki blls Ldzhu ij o`k cuk,aWA ,slk djus ds fy, dzkaW ds vkdkj dk Cursor,

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tks Ellipse Tool dk pquko djus ds ckn ls fn[kkbZ iM+ jgk gS] dks Paint Windows ds Work Area ij ys tk,aWA 4. ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dks bl izdkj MSx djsa fd o`k cu tk,A vki viuh bPNkuqlkj fdlh Hkh lkbt dh Radius dk o`k cuk ldrs gSA 5. visf{kr o`k cukus ds ckn ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsaA 6. isaUV foaMks dbZ rjg ds VwYl dks fn[kykrk gS] ftlls vki fofHkUu fp= cuk ldrs gSA fdlh Vwy dk uke ns[kus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks ml Vwy ij ys tk,aWA dqN {k.kkas ds ckn ekml ikaW,aVj ds uhps ,d NksVs&ls Boxs ess Tool dk uke fn[ksxkA o vc vki ykbu VwYl dk iz;ksx djds Ldzhu ij ykbu [khapuk lh[ksaA Line Tool& Ldzhu ij ykbu [khpus esa ykbu VwYl enn djrk gSA blds vykok Width Boxs ds fodYiksa dk iz;ksx djds vki ykbu dks eksVk ;k iryk dj ldrs gSA ykbu VwYl dk iz;ksx djus ds fy, vkidks fn, x, dze ds vuqlkj dk;Z djuk gksxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks ykbu BwYl ds ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu Click djsaA tSls gh vki ykbu VwYl ij Click djrs gS] oSls gh ;g gkbZykbV gks tkrk gS vkSj Width Boxs esa fofHkUu Width Hkh fn[kus yxrh gSA 2. vc ekm ikaW,aVj dks bfPNr PkkSM+kbZ dks bfPNr ij ys tk,aWA mnkgj.kk ds fy,&;fn vki eksVh ykbu cukuk pkgrs gSa]rks ekml ikaW,aVj dks Width Boxs dh rhljh Width ij ys tkdj ck;kaW cVu Click djsaA 3. Work Area ds vanj ekml ikaWa,aVj dks ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA 4. ck,aW ekml cVu dsk nck, j[kdj ekml dks ekml iSM ij MSx djsaA vki ns[ksxs fd Ldzhu ij bfPNr pkSM+kbZ dh ykbu cu jgh gSA vc ck;kaW ekml cVu NksM+ nsaA vc vkius fofHkUu rjg ds fp=ksa dks Ldzhu ij cukuk lh[k fy;k gSA vc vki uhps fn;k x;k dk;kZH;kl djsa& Que:- isaUV foaM+ks ds vanj dkys jax dk Rounded Rectanglee dSls cuk,aW\

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Ans:- isaUV foaM+ks ds vanj dkys jax dk Rounded Rectanglee cukus ds fy,A Rounded Rectangle Tool ij Click djsaA Colour Boxs ds dkys jax ij Click djsaA ekml iakW,aVj dks Work Area esa ys tk,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dks ekml iSM+ ij uhps nkbZ vksj Rounder Rectangle cukus ds fy, MSx djsA Rounded Rectangle cukus ds ckn ck;kaW ekml cVu NksM+ nsaA vc Ldzhu ij ,d vk;r] o`k] ykbu vkSj Rounded Rectangle vkidks fn[ksxsA vc vki isaUV foaMks ds ,d vkSj Vwy tks fd vkd`fk;ksa esa jax Hkjus es enn djsxk] ds ckjs esa tkusA bl Vwy dks Spray Tool ;k Air Brush Tool dgk tkrk gSA Spray Tool&vkd`fr esas jax Hkjus ds fy, Spray Tool dk iz;ksax fd;k tkrk gSA ;g Vwy vkidh visf{kr vkd`fr esa vkids bfPNr jax dks xksy vkdkj ds fcanqvksa esa Liza djrk gSaA isaUV izksaxzke ds Width Boxs dk iz;ksx djds vki Lizzas dh xksykdkj fcUnqvksa dk vkdkj c<+k ;k ?kVk ldrs gSA fuEufyf[kr dze ls vki Spray Tool ls dke dj ldrs gSa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Spray Tool ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA Spray Tool Highlight gks tk,xkA 2. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Colour Boxs esa vius bfPNr jax ij ys tk,aWA mnkgj.k ds fy,& ;fn vki igyh iafDr ds rhljs dkaWye ds jax ij Click djrs gS] rks vkidks Brown Colour feysxkA 3. jax dk pquko dj ysus ds ckn vc vki Spray Tool ds fy, PkkSM+kbZ dk pquko djsA ,slk djus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks Width Boxs ds rhljs Width ij ys tk,aW vkSj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA 4. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Rounded Rectangle ds vanj ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu nck,aWA

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5. ekml dks nck dj ekml iSM ij bl izdkj MSx djs fd Rounded Rectangle esa jaxks dk LiV fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ekml dks nck, j[kdj bl izdkj rc rd MSx djsa] tc rd iwjk Rounded Rectangle dks nwljs jax ls Hkjus dk iz;kl djsA Filler Tool& bldk iz;ksx fdlh fp= es fdlh Hkh jax dks rqjar Hkjus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA bl Vwy dk iz;ksx djrs le; jax Hkjus ds fy, vkidks ekml dks MSx djus dh t:jr ugha gSA vkius bl Vwy dk p;u dj fy;k gSa] vc vkidks flQZ ml vkd`fr es Click djuk gksxk] ftlesa jax Hkjuk gSA vkd`fr pqus jax ls Hkj tk,xhA Filler Tool ls dke djus ds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dke djuk gksxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Filler Tool ij ykdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA 2. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Colour Boxs ds fdlh Hkh jax ij yk,aW vkSj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsA mnkgj.k& igyh iafDr ds nwljs dkaWye ds jax ij Click djsA 3. vc eku yhft, fd Ldzhu ij fn[k jgs vk;r esa vki jax Hkjuk pkgrs gSA ,slk djus ds fy, vki ekml ikaW,aVj dks Rectangle ds vanj ys tk,aWA 4. ck,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj Click djsA rqjar gh Rectangle pqus gq, jax ls Hkj tk,xkA vc vki fuEufyf[kr dk;kZH;kl djas& Que:- Brush Tool dk iz;ksax djds dkys jax ls o`k dks dSls Hkjs \ Ans:- Brush Tool dk iz;ksx djds dkys jax ls o`k dks Hkjuk& Brusgh Tool ij Click djsaA Colour Boxes ds dkys jax ij Click djsA Tool Box ds uhps fofHkUu vkdkj ds czk fn, gq, gS] muesa ls igys vkdkj ij Click djsA ekml ikaW,aVj dks o`k ds vanj ys tk,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nckdj ekml dks bl izdkj MSx djsa fd pquk gqvk jax o`k ds vanj fn[kasA

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vc pqus gq, jax ls iwjs o`k dks Hkj ysA vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsA Eraser Tool& vkd`fr [khsapus ds le; vkils xyrh gks ldrh gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa Eraser Tool vkidh enn djrk gSA vkerkSj ij dkxt ij dke djrs le; vki iasfUly ds fpUg dks gVkus ds fy, jcj dk iz;ksx djrs gSA issaUV izksxzke esa ;g dk;Z Eraser Tool djrk gSA lkekU; jcj dh rqyuk esa bldk ,d Qk;nk ;g gS fd vki t:jr ds vuqlkj bl Eraser Tool dk vkdkj cny ldrs gSA vkb,] tc fuEufyf[kr izfdz;k ds vuqlkj dk;Z djds Eraser Tool dks le>us dk iz;kl djas& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Eraser Tool ij ys tkdj Click djsaA rqjar gh Vwy gkbZykbV gks tk,xk vki Width Boxs es Eraser ds fofHkUu vkdkj Hkh fn[ksxsA buds ij Click djds vki bfPNr vkdkj dk p;u dj ldrs gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,& vki rhljk vkdkj pqusaA 2. rhljk vkdkj pquus ds fy, ekml iakW,aVj dks blds ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh rhljk vkdkj gkbZykbV gks tk,xkA 3. vkb,] vc Ldzhu ls o`k dks gVk,aWA ,slk djus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks isUV foaMks ds Work Area ij ys tk,aWA 4. vc bls o`k ds ij ys tk,aWA vki ns[ksxs fd Cursor NksVs oxZ ds :i esa fn[kkbZ nsxkA 5. vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dks ekml iSM djsaA tSls& ?kwe jgk gSa] oSl&oSls o`k feV jgk gSA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dks rc rd ?kqekrs jgsa] tc rd o`k feV ugha tkrk gSA vc feVkus dh izfdz;k dk vH;kl djus ds fy, uhps fn;k x;k dk;kZH;kl djsa& 1. fp= ls Text Happy New Year dSls gVk,aW \ 2. Eraser Tool ij Click djsaA 3. Width Box ds vanj pkSFkh Width, ftldk vkdkj lcls cM+k gS] ij Click djsaA 4. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Text Happy New Year ij ys tk,aWA 5. tc Text iwjh rjg ls gV tk, rks ck,aW ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsaA

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Note:- vkius ;g ns[kk gksxk fd tc vki fofHkUu Vwy dk p;u djrs gSa] rc Cursor Hkh fofHkUu vkdkj esa cny tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,& Rectangle, Ellipse, Line ;k Rounded Rectangle dk p;u djus ij ;g Cursor, Cross vkdkj esa cny tkrk gSA Spray Tool dk p;u djus dk Cursor Spray Bottle esa cny tkrk gSA Filler Tool dk p;u djus ij Cursor Tilted Bottle es cny tkrk gSA blh rjg Eraser Tool dk p;u djus ij Cursor,Square vkd`fr esa cny tkrk gSA ;fn vki xyrh ls vkd`fr dk dqN Hkkx fMyhV dj nsrs gSa] rks bls okil ykus ds fy, Edit esU;w Ckkj fodYi ij Click djsaA iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds fodYiksa ess ls Undo fodYi pqu ysA isaV Qkby dks lso djuk (Saving a Paint File) & ,d ckj tc vkius lHkh vkd`fr;ksa dks vafre :i ns fn;k gS] rks t:jr iM+us ij ckn esa ns[kus ds fy, vki viuh Qkby dks lso dj ldrs gSA ,d Qkby dks nwljh Qkby ls vyx djus ds fy, izR;sd Qkby dk vyx uke gksuk pkfg,A vki viuh Qkby dks lso djus ds fy, fuEfyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dk;Z dj ldrs gS& 1. ekml iakW,aVj dks esaU;w ckj ds ij ys tkdj Qkby fodYi ij Click djsaA ,d iqy&Mkmu esaU;w dbZ fodYiks ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esaU;w ds lso fodYi ij Click dj pqusaA rqjar gh Ldzhu ij lso ,l Box fn[ksxkA 3. dksbZ Hkh uketSLk&Mhae Vkbi djasA tSls gh vki ;g uke Vkbi djsaxs] oSls gh ;g File Name fodYi ds lkFk okys Box esa fy[kk fn[kkbZ nsxkA 4. Save in fodYi ds lkFk okys Box ds Mkmu ,sjks cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esaU;w Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 5. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj ekml iakW,aVj dks Local Disk [C:] ds ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA lso bu fodYi ds lkFk okys Box esa Local Disk[C:] rqjar fn[kkbZ nsxkA 6. var esa lso cVu ij Click djsaA ;g vkidh Qkby dks Mhe uke ds lkFk Local Disk gks tk,xk vkSj vki isaUV foaMks esa ykSV vk,aWxsA vki ik,aWxs fd Title Bar esa Qkby Dreams Bar Extation ds lkFk fn[k jgk gSA

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isaUV Qkby dks fizaV djuk (Printing a Paint File) & daI;wVj dh Hkkkk esa Softcopy and Hardcopy kCn dk mi;ksx vki dbZ ckj djrs gSA Softcopy og Qkby gS] tks daI;wVj ij fn[krh gSaA bls Nqik ;k eglwl ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA nwljh rjg Hardcopy og gS] ftls ge dkxt ij fizaV djrs gSA tc Softcopy dks dkxt ij fizaV fd;k tkrk gS] rc ;g Hardcopy gks tkrh gSA Softcopy dss cnyus ;k {kfrxzLr gksus dh vkkadk jgrh gS] Hardcopy LFkk;h gksrh gS] D;ksfd bls dkxt ij fizaV fd;k tkrk gSA fiNys Hkkx esa vkius isaUV izksxzke ds ek/;e ls Mhe Qkby cukbZ FkhA vkb,] vc bls fizaV djus blds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlku dk;Z djuk gksxk& 1. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Qkby esU;w ckj fodYi ij Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w Ldzhu ij fn[kxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esaU;w ds vanj ck,aW ekml cVu dks isaUV fodYi ij Click djsaA rqjar gh Paint Box Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. Paint Box ds vanj ekml iakW,aVj dks vksds cVu ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsA ;g fizaV dh izfdz;kvks dks vuqefr nsdj vkidh Qkby dks fizV djus yxrk gSA D;ksfd uEcj vkaWQ dkih fodYi ds lkFk okys Box esa 1 gS] ;g vkidh Qkby dh ,d dkaWih fizaV djsxkA ;fn vki Mhe Qkby dh ikaWp dkaWih fizaV djuk pkgrs gS] rks vkidksa fuEufyf[kr izfdz;k ds vuqlkj dk;Z djuk gksxk& 1. Print Box ds vanj uEcj vkaWQ dkih fodYi <w<+sA 2. bl fodYiksa ds lkFk okys Box ess vki nks cVu ns[ksaxs& vi ,sjksa LdzkaWy cVu vkSj Mkmu ,sjks LdzkaWy CkVuA pwaWfd vki ,d ls T;knk dkaWih fizaV djuk pkgrs gSA blfy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks vi ,sjks LdzkaWy cVu ij ys tk,aWA 3. 5 fn[kus rd ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA 4. Qkby dh fizafVx kq: djus ds fy, Paint Box ds vksds cVu ij Click djsaA isaV izkasxzke ls ckgj vkuk (Quitting the Paint Program)& vc vki isaUV izksxzke esa dke djus esa leFkZ gks x, gksxsasA blfy, vkb,] vc

105

vki isaUV izksaxzke dks can djsaA ,slk djus ds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dk;Z djuk gksxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Qkby esU;w ckj fodYi ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Exit fodYi ds ij Click djsaA rqjar gh isUV foaMks Qkby Dreams.Bmp ds lkFk can gks tk,xh vkSj vki foaMkst Mi/Xp ds MsLdVkaWi ij ykSV vk,aWxasA eku yhft, fd vkius igyh Qkby esa dqN ifjorZu fd, gS] ysfdu mls isaUV izksaxzke dks can djus ls igys lso djuk Hkwy x, gSa] bl ifdfLFkfr esa Ldzhu ij ,d Message Box fn[ksxkA tks vkils iwNsxk fd D;k vki ifjorZuksa dks lsc djuk pkfg,s gSa \ ;fn vki ifjorZuksa dks lsc djuk pkgrs gSa] rks Yes cVu ij Click djsaA ;fn vki ifjorZu dks lsc ugh djuk pkgrs gS] rks No Button ij Click djsaA ;fn vki Cancel Button ij Click djrs gS] rks Message Box ds can gks tk,sxk] ysfdu isaUV foaMks vkids Ldzhu ij [kqyh jgsxhA ;g t:jh fd vki viuh Qkby dks FkksM+h&FkksM+h nsj esa lsc djrs jgs gSA blds fy, Ctrl+S Keys dks nck,aW bl Option ls ge dqN Simple Type dh Drawing dj ldrs gSA Paint es cgqr ls Option,Notepad okys gh gSA tks Option u;s gSa mUgsa Mantion fd;k tk jgk gSA FILE MENU:Print Preview:- bl Option ls ge fdlh Hkh File dk og Preview ns[k ldrs gS] tSls fd File fizUV gksxkA Set As Wallpaper:- bl Option ls ge Paint esa fdlh Hkh Figure dks Desktop ij yxk ldrs gS bl Option dk Use djus ls igys gesa File dks Save djuk t:jh gS Figure dks Desktop ij nks rjg ls yxk ldrs gSA Tiled Way esa vkSj Desktop ds Centre esa A EDIT MENT:Copy To:- bl Option ls ge fdlh Selected Figure dks nwljh File ;k ubZ File esa ys tk ldrs gSS] fcuk Cut, Copy, Paste ;k Save As dk mi;ksx fd;s Paste From:- bl Option ls fdlh nwljh File dk Figure [kqyh gqbZ File esa ys tk ldrs gS] fcuk Cut, Copy, Paste ;k Save As dk mi;ksx fd;sA

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VIEW MENU:Zoom:- bl Option ls ge fdlh File dk Size cM+k djds ns[k ldrs gS lkFk gh blh Option ls Figure dk lkbt igys tSlk Hkh dj ldrs gSA View Bitmap:- bl Option ij fDyd djus ls ges Screen ij flQZ cuk;k x;k Figure fn[kkbZ nsrk gS vkSj dqN ughaa A Toolbar:- bl Option ls ge Toolbar dks fNik dj fn[kk Hkh ldrs gSA Colour Box:- bl Option ls ge Colour okys Tool dks fNik dj fn[kk ldrs gSA Text Toolbar:- bl Option ls ge Text ds Toolbar dks fNik dj fn[kk ldrs gSA Status Bar:- bl Option ls ge Status Bar dks fNik dj fn[kk ldrs gSA IMAGE MENU:Flip/ Rotate:- bl Option ls ge Figure dks Horizontally ;k Vertically iyV ldrs gS lkFk gh Figure dks 900] 1800 vkSj 2700 ?kqek ldrs gSA isaUV izksaxzke dks lh[kus ds ckn vkb,] vc vki Accessories ds ,d vU; mi;ksxh izksaxzke Calculator dks lh[ksA

CALCULATOR
dSyD;qysVj (Calculator)& daI;wVj essa x.kuk djus ds fy, vki Accessories ds vU; egoiw.kZ izksaxzke Calculator dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gSA bl izksaxzke }kjk ge iyd >idrs gS yach x.kuk dj ldrs gSA ;g izksaxzke xf.krh;k x.kuk (Mathematical Calculation) dks tYnh vkSj csgrj rjhds ls djrk gSA daI;wVj dk Calculator izksaxzke gkFk okys Calculator dh rjg gksrk gSA ijUrq Calculator izkasxzke vf/kd rst rFkk fcuk fdlh xYrh ds x.kuk djus dh {kerk j[krk gSA Calculator izksaxzke easa dke djus ds fy, vki igys bls [kksysA ;g izksxzke Accessories ds vanj gksrk gSA bls [kksyus ds fy, vki bl dze dks viuk ldrs gSa&

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1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks LVkVZ cVu iu ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh ,s iqk&vi easU;w Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 2. iqk&vi esaU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks izkasxzke fodYi ij ys tk,aWA rqjar gh Ldzhu ij ,d nwljk easU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. nwljs esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Accessories fodYi ys tk,aWA rqjar gh rhljk easY;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 4. vc rhljk esU;w vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Calculator fodYi ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Calculator foaMks vkids Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xhA Calculator foaMks ds vanj vki fofHkUu cVuksa dks ns[ksaxsA Numeric cVu (0-9), gS] tcfd nwljs cVu tSls] Arithmetin Operator cVu (/,*,-,+) dks fn[kykrk gSA vkb,] vc vki bu cVuksa ls ifjfpr gksus vkSj dk;Z djus ds fy, lk/kkj.k x.kuk djsaA eku yhft, fd vki 200 dks 5 ls Hkkx djuk pkgrs gSA Calculator izksxzke ls x.kuk djus ds fy, vkidks bl izfdz;k ds vuqlkj dk;Z djuk gksxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks 2 uacj cVu ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA 2. 0 nkkZus okys cVu ij ,d ckj Click djsaA vc Display Box esa 20 fn[ksxkA 3. 0uacj cVu dks ,d ckj fQj Click djsA ;g la[;k 200 dks Display Box esa fn[kk,xkA 4. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Division cVu ij ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA Click djrs gh izkasxzke dks ;g irk py tk,xk fd vki p;fur la[;k dks Hkkx pkgrs gSA 5. vc 5 uacj cVu ij Click djsaA Display Box rqjar la[;k 5 fn[kyk,xkA bldk eryc ;g gqvk fd izkasxzke vc 200 dks 5 ls Hkkx dj nsxkA 6. var eas ekml ikaW,aVj dks Equal to cVu ij ys tkdj ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA Display Box esa rqjar gh mkj (40) fn[ksxkA

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dSyD;qysVj dks can djuk rFkk foaMkst ls ckgj vkuk (Closing Calculator and Quitting Windows) & vc vki Calculator izksaxzke ls ckgj vk,aWA blds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj pysa& 1. Title Bar dh nkbZ vksj fLFkr Close cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Calculator izksxzke Ldzhu ls gV tk,xk vkSj Ldzhu ij MsLdVki fn[ksxkA 3. foaMkst Me/Xp ls ckgj vkus ds fy, LVkVZ cVu ij Click djsaA iqk&vi esaU;w ds Shut Downaa ds fodYi ij Click djsaA 4. dqN gh {k.kkas ds ckn ,d lansk& Its now safe to turn off your computer Ldzhu ij fn[ksxkA ;g lansk fn[krs gh vki viuk flLVe can dj ldrs gSA
Alt + F4 Ctrl+N Ctrl +O Ctrl +S Ctrl+W Ctrl+A Ctrl+B Ctrl+C Ctrl+E Ctrl+F Ctrl+I Ctrl+J Ctrl+L Ctrl+V Ctrl+X Ctrl+R Home End Ctrl+Home Ctrl+End : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : To Close any application u;k File [kksyus ds fy, igys ls cuh Qkby [kksyus ds fy, File dks Save djus ds fy, MS-Word esa File cUn djus ds fy, iwjh File,Select djus ds fy, MS-Word es Selected Text dks Bold djus ds fy, Selected dks Copy djus ds fy, MS-Word es Text dks Center es j[kus ds fy, Word dks [kkstus (Find) djus ds fy, Selected Text dks frjNk djus ds fy, M.S.Word es Text dks Justify djus ds fy, M.S. Word es Text dks Left j[kus ds fy, Copied ;k Cut Text dks Curser Position ij Paste djus ds fy, Selection dks Cut djus ds fy, M.S.Word esa Text dks Right esa j[kus ds fy, fdlh ykbu ds izkjaHk esa igqaWpus ds fy, fdlh ykbu ds var es igqaWpus ds fy, Document ds izkjaHk es igqaWpus ds fy, Document ds var es igqaWpu ds fy,

NOTEPAD
Maximize
Minimize

109
Title Bar Menu Bar Close

Start Button

Task Bar

File ->
New (ctrl+N) Open (ctrl+O) Save (ctrl+S) Save As Page Setup Print (ctrl+P) Exit :::::::::::::::::::-

u;k ist ysukA iqjkuh Qkby dks [kksyukA cuk;h x;h Qkby dks lso djukA cuh Qkby dks nwljs uke ls lso djukA ist dks lgh djukA cuh Qkby dk fizUV fudkyukA izksxzke dks cUn djukA VsDLV dks gVkus ds fy,A fy[ks VsDLV dks dV (xk;c) djukA fy[ks VsDLV dks dkWih djukA dkWih fd;s x;s VsDLV dks nwljs txg fy[kukA lsysDV VsDLV dks fMyhV djukA ist ij fdlh Hkh VsDLV dks ns[kus ds fy,A fy[ks VsDLV esa oMZ dks nwljs uke ls fy[kukA vius ekml dlZy dks fdlh Hkh ykbu ij HkstukA fy[ks x;s VsDLV dks lsysDV djukA ist ij Vkbe ;k MsV fy[kukA bl Vwy ij fDyd djus ls ;g dlZj dks igys yk nsrk QkWUV ij fDyd djus ls QkWUV ckWDl [kqy tkrk 1

Edit ->
Undo (ctrl+Z) Cut (ctrl+X) Copy (ctrl+C) Paste (ctrl+V) Delete Find (ctrl+F) Replace(ctrl+H) Go To (ctrl+G) Select All (ctrl+A) Time / Date (F5)

Format ->
Word Wrap

gSaA
Font

gSaA
____@Kris@Kris ___@Kris@Kris@R

110
___@Kris@Kris@R __@Kris@Kris@Ro _@Kris@Kris@Ro _@Kris@Kris@Ro _@Kris@Kris@Kris@ @Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris @Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris@Ro @Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris@Ros _@Kris@__@Kris@Kris@Ros ___@Ros____@Kris@Kris@ ___@Ros_____@Kris@Kris ___@Ros_____@Kris@Kris ____@Ros____@Kris@Kris _____@Ro____@Kris@Ros ______@Ro__@Kris@Kris _______@Kris@Kris@Ros ________@Kris@Kris@Ros _______@Kris@Kris@Kris@Ro _______@Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris@ _______@Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris _______@Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris@Kris@R ________@Kris@Kris____@Kris@Kris@Ro _________@Kris@Ro_______@Kris@Kris@ _________@Kris@Ro_____@Kris@Kris@ _________@Kris@R____@Kris@Kris _________@Kris@R_@Kris@Kris ________@Kris@Kris@Kris ________@Kris@Kris@R ________@Kris@Kris _______@Kris@Ro _______@Kris@ ______@Kris@ ______@Kris@ ______@Kris@ ______@Kris ______@Kris _______@Ros _______@Ros _______@Ros ______@Kris@ ______@Kris@Rosy

2
......,-.______________,=========, ......[|..)_____________)#######((_ ....../===============..-..___,--".._\ ....."-._,__,__[ BooM ]____\.########/ ......................\...(...).)...).#### O##( ........................\..\____/,..#######\ .........................`====&quot;....\#######\ ...........................................\#######\

111

,;****, ,*,*, ,**@;;;- -,**)- //,**** (,(**/** ((,*/*;);*)* ((,**)*/**/* ,(,****.:)** ((,*****)* ,(,***/*)*,* ,***/*)*,* )*/*)*)** /**)**\\)\\) */*,...)!))!).....,( ,_)----------/_.

4
______________%%% _____________%%%%% ____________%%%%%% _____________%%%% _____________%%% _____________%%% _____________%%% _____________%%% _____________%%% _____________%%% _____________%%% _____________%%%__%% _____________%%%__%__% _____________%%%___%__% _____________%%%___%___% _____________%%%___%___% _______%%____%%%__%____% ______%__%__%%%%%%____%% ______%___%%_____%____%% _______%____%%%%%____%% ________%___________%% _________%_________%% _________%%__take__%% ________%%_________%%% _______%%___care____%%% ______%%______________%% _____%%________________%% _____%%_________________%% _____%%%________________%% ______%%_______________%%% _______%%%____________%%% _________%%%%________%%% ___________%%%%%%%%%

112 5
...........///\\\\ ........../// _\\\\ ......../|| ^|^.\\\ ....... |))\_-_/((\ ........ )'_/.".\_ \) ......./._.\___/...\ .....././|_.\-/._ |\ \ ......\.\|".|."....|/ / .......\.\.'...'...../ / ....... \/....`.. / / ........ |....__ \.\ .........| ../. \..\ / .........|..|... \..\ .........|..|.... \..\ .........|..|..... \..\ .........|..|..... .\..\ .........|..|...... .\..\ .........|..|....... .\..\ ......../__\....... .|_\ ........./.|.......... |.\_. ........`-''.......... `--

6
_______________________# ______________________# _____________________# ____________________## __________________###* ______________.*##### _____________*###### ___________*####### __________*########. _________*#########. _________*######*###* ________*#########*### _______*##########*__*## _____*###########_____* ____############ ___*##*######### ___*_____######## __________####### ___________*###### ____________*#####* __YOU_________*####* __ARE___________*#### __VERY____________*##* __SPECIAL____________*## _____________________*##. ____________________.#####. _________________.########## ________________.####*__*####

113

: ````'``&(";;")&amp; &);;(& &amp;(;;;;)& `````````````)||( \=/ |!!| |!!| |!!| |!!| |!!| |!!| |!!| |!!| |!!| )~~)||(~~( /||||\ )||||( (/||||\) //)(\\ \((!!))/ \((*()*))/ )(!!)``( /~```\ /||||||```\ /||||||\ (\(DDDD)/) ******** \(======)/

8
__|_______________#____________._|_ _(__)___________#___#__________.(__) _|#|__________#______#_________.|#| _|#|________#__________#_______.|#| _|#|______#___ Tajmahal __#______.|#| _|#|_____#______4u _______#_____|#| _|#|_____#________________#__|__|#|_ |##|___|__#______________#__.*__|##| _|#|_(___)_..############__(__)..|#| _|#|__|#|**|_______*_______|**|#|_.|#| _|#|__|#|**|_____*___*_____|**|#|_.|#| _|#|__|#|**|___**_____**___|**|#|_.|#| _|#|__|#|**|___**_____**___|**|#|_.|#| _|#|__|#|**|___**_____**___|**|#|_.|#| _|#|__|#|**|___**_____**___|**|#|_.|#| _|#|__|#|**|___**_____**___|**|#|_.|#| ____ |$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$|___

114 9
__________####______________ __________####______________ __________####______________ ______###########___________ _______#########____________ ________#######_____________ _________#####______________ __________###_______________ ___________#________________

10
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11

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12

115

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13

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14

116
_______________________@ __________@__@ ____________________@@ __________________@@@* ______________.*@@@@@ _____________*@@@@@ ___________*@@@@@@ __________*@@@@@@@@. _________*@@@@@@@@@. _________*@@@@*@@@@* ________*@@@@@@@@@*@@@ _______*@@@@@@@@@@*__*@@ _____*@@@@@@@@@@@_____* ____@@@@@@@@@@@@@ ___*@@*@@@@@@@@@ ___*_____@@@@@@@@ __________@@@@@@@ ___________*@@@@@@ ____________*@@@@@ __YOU_________*@@@* __ARE___________*@@@ __VERY____________*@@* __SPECIAL____________*@@ _____________________*@@. ____________________.@@@@@. _________________.@@@@@@@ ________________.@@@*__*@@@

15
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117 16
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17

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118 19
...........|/|/|/|/| ..........(^O.O^) ..........(...(_)...) ............\..--../_ ........./Y\.\ .........|....|.......\..\ .........|._.\_.....|\_.\ ..........\__\......|...\..\ ......(\...\_|/\__\_________oooooo ........)=======0000=========) ......(____/\__/ ........./..../.........\...\ ..__./._/.............\._.\__ (____ /.............(_____)

WORDPAD
foMkst esa oMZiSM ,d VsDLV ,fMfVax izksxzke gSAaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ftlesa ge VsDLV dks fofHkUu QkWUV LVkby rFkk jax esa QkesZV dj ldrs gSaAblesa ysVj ~ ck;ksMkVk ~ fjT;we ~ fdrkc ~ vkfn cukdj dkxt ij Nki ldrs gSA vius MkWD;wesaV esa ckgj ls ykdj fp= Hkh yxk ldrs gSA viuh Qkby dks Hkfo; esa iz;ksx ds fy, lqjf{kr dj ldrs gSaA Extension Name => RTF (Rich text format)
Minimize Maximize

Close

Start Button

oMZiSM izkjEHk djus dh fof++++/k;kW fyf[k;sA


(I) (II) (III) Start Menu => All Programs =>Accessories =>Wordpad Start Menu => Run => Wordpad ,Enter Desktop => Right Click on WordPad Icon => Open.

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QkesZfVax Vwy ckj ds fodYi =>


=

bl fodYi ds }kjk ge vius QkWUV dks cny ldrs

gSaA

bl fodYi ds }kjk ge vius QkWUV dk lkbt cny ldrs gSA

= = = = = = =

= lsysDVsM v{kj dks eksVk djukA lsysDVsM v{kj dks frj{kk djukA lsysDVsM v{kj ds uhps ykbu [khapukA Text dk jax cnyukA Text dks ck,a rjQ yh[kukA Text dks chp esa yh[kukA Text dks nk,a rjQ ls yh[kukA cqysV dks bUlVZ djukA

LVS.MMZ Vwyckj ds fodYi => (ck,a ls nak,)

New Open Save Print Print Preview mls ns[kukA

:::::-

u;k ist ysukA cuh Qkby dks [kksyukA cuh Qkby dks lqjf{kr djukA cuk;s x;s MkWD;wesaV dks dkxt ij NkiukA fizUV djus ls igys dkxt fdl izdkj fn[kkbZ nsxk

120 Find Cut Copy Paste Undo Date/Time ykukA ::::::fdlh foksk kCn dks [kkstukA fdlh vkWCtsDV dks lsysDV djds dV(xk;c) djukA fdlh vkWCtsDV dks lsysDV djds dkWih djukA dkWih dh xbZ VsDLV dks nwljs txg ys tkukA fd;s x;s dk;Z dks jn~n djukA vius MkWD;wesaV esa orZeku le; ;k fnukad

1.

esU;w ckj ds fodYi :File Menu Edit Menu Paste Special => isLV VsDLV dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs ij ewo djkukA 2. Find(ctrl +F) => fdlh foksk kCn dks [kkstukA 3. Find Next(F3) => [kksts x;s kCn dks nksckjk [kkstukA 4. Replace(ctrl+H)=> fdlh kCn dks [kkstdj mlds LFkku ij nwljk kCn ykukA 5. Links => ;fn Qkby fdlh osc ist ls tqM+h gSa rks blls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh ds fy, bldk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA 6. object Properties (alt+Enter) :-vius }kjk yk, x, vkCtsDV dh tkudkjh ysukA 7.Object = ;fn fodYi Qkby esa vkCtssDV ysus ij lfdz; gksrk rFkk bldk iz;ksx vkCtsDV dh lsfVsx djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gsA View = 1.Ttoobar 2.Format bar 3.Rule 4.Status bar 5.Option Insert Menu= 1. Date and Time 2.Object Format Menu= 1.Font : Vwyckj fn[kkuk ;k fNikuk A : QkeZsVckj fn[kkuk ;k fNikukA : :yj fn[kkukl ;k fNikukA : LVsVlckj fn[kkuk o cnyukA : fodYiks dks ns[kuk o cnyuk A

: viuh Qkby esa fnukad o le; ykukA :dksbZ vkWctsDV (fp= oSxjg ) cnyukA

: QkWUV dh lsfVax cnyukA

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2.Bullet Style 3. Paragraph 4.Tabs

:cqysV dh lsfVax cnyukA : iSjkxzkQ dh lsfVsx cnyukA : VSc dh lafVx cnyukA

WordPad ,d ljy oMZ izklslj oMZ izksaxzke gS] ftldk mi;ksx MkaWD;wesaV] tSls& i= vkfn cukus es fd;k tkrk gSA ;g MkaWD;wesaV cukus ds vfuok;Z Tools nsrk gSA ;g u, VsDLV dks tksM+us vkSj vupkgs VsDLV dks gVkus dh lqfo/kk Hkh nsrk gSA ;g fdlh okD; dks ,d txg ls nwljh txg ys tkus esa Hkh enn djrk gSaA blesa vki VsDLV dks QkaWesaV Hkh dj ldrs gSA Paint dk mi;ksx vki daI;wVj ij rlohj cukusa ds fy, dj ldrs gSA Paint fofHkUu VwYl nsrk gS] ftudh enn ls vki rLohjksa esa cnyko Hkh dj ldrs gSA Calculator izksxzke dbZ rjg dh x.kuk vklkuh ls dj nsrk gSaA bl Application esa nks rjg ds Calculators gksrs gSa&Standard Calculator ,oa Scientific CalculatorA Accessories Programme esa ,d Notepad izksaxzke Hkh gksrk gSA ;g ,d Text Editor djus ds fy, iz;qDr izksaxzke gS] ftldk mi;ksx NksVs i=ksa] esekst vkSj VsDLV Qkbyksa dks fy[kus esa gksrk gSAysfdu Notepad esa Text dk izk:i.k djuk ,d lhek rd gh laHko gS] D;ksafd ;g dsoy Text izosak djus ds fy, gh cuk izksaxzke gSA oMZiSM izksxzke dks kq: djuk (opening the WordPad Program)&WordPad ,d ljy oMZ izkaWlslj izksaxzke gS] tks Accessories izksaxzkEl es ls ,d gS bldk mi;ksx ge vusd rjg ds MkaW D;wesaV~l cukus esa dj ldrs gSA dqN dekaM~l ftud bLrseky csgrj oMZ izkaWlslj izksaxzkEl tSls&Microsoft Word essa gksrk gS] oks Hkh WordPad esa miyC/k gSaA,slk ,d Qhpj gSa& gesa gj ykbu ds ckn Entry Key dks nckuk ughsa iM+rk gSAtks Hkh VasDlV vki Vkbi djrs gSa] oks vius&vki gh cjkcj ykbuksa esa O;ofLFkr gksrk jgrk gSA blls igys fd vki WordPad ds vU; QhplZ dks tkus vkSj mlesaq dke djsa] WordPad Programme dks kq: djrs gSA ,slk djus ds fy, vkidksa fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djuk gksxk& 1. vius daI;wVj dk fLop vkaWu djsaA 2. dqN {k.kkas ds ckn Me/Xp dk Logo vkids Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkAmlds ckn foaMkst Me/Xp dks MsMdVaWki fn[kkbZ nsxkA

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3. Taskbar ij Start cVu ij ck;kaW ekml cVu nck,aWA rqjUr gh Ldzhu ij iqk&vi esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 4. iqk&vi esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Programme fodYi ds ij ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aWA rqjUr gh ,d nwljk esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 5. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks nwljs esU;w ds Accessories fodYi ij ys tk,aW vkSj mlds ij ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aWA rqjUr ,d rhljk esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 6. ekml ikaW,aVj dks rhljs esU;w ds WordPad fodYi ij ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aWArqjUr WordPad foaMksa vkids Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xhA oMZiSM esa VsDlV izfoV djuk (Entering Text in WordPad)& WordPad Window esa lcls ij rjQ dksus ij ,d Blinking Cursor gksrk gSA ;g dlZj crkrk gS fd WordPad VsDLV ysus ds fy, rS;kj gSaSA Microsoft Windows Xp Microsoft Windows Me Microsoft Office 2003 Text Vkbi djrs le; vkidksa fuEufyf[kr ckrksa dk /;ku j[kuk gksxk& Text dks Capital esa Vkbi djus ds fy, Caps Lock Key dks ,d ckj nck,aW Text dh igyh ykbu dks Vkbi djsa&Microsoft Windows Xp nks kCnksa ds chp txg NksaM+us ds fy, dh&cksMZ dh Spacebar Key dks gj kCn Vkbi djus ds ckn nck,aWA tSls&

Microsoft Windows Xp txg NkM+us ds fy, Spacebar Key dks nck,aW vxyh ykbu Vkbi djus ls igys ,d ckj Entrt Key nck,aWA tc dlZj vxyh ykbu esa vk tk,aW rc Microsoft Windows Me Vkbi djuk kq: djsaA

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blh rjg vius Text dh vafre ykbu Microsoft Office 2000 dks Vkbi djus ls igys Enter Key dks fQj nck,aWA Vkbi djrs le; vkils dqN Text NwV ldrk gSA eky yhft, fd vkils rhljh ykbu Microsoft Office 2003 dks Text Office NwV x;kAvkidksa bl Text dks Mkyus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djuk gksxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Microsoft kCn ds ckn ys tk,aWA 2. fQj ck,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj nckdj NksM+ nsaArqjar gh vki ml txg ,d Blinking Cursor ns[ksxsaA 3. vc Spacebar Key dks ,d ckj nck,aWaA vkids Ldzhu ij Microsoft and 2003 ds chp esa ,d [kkyh txg vk tk,xhA 4. vkf[kj esa vki dh&cksMZz ls Office Type djsaA vc Text Office vkidh visf{kr txg ij vk tk,xkA ,slk Hkh gks ldrk gS fd vkius ,d kCn esa ,d ;k ,d ls T;knk v{kjksa dks xyr Vkbi fd;k gksA tSls&vkius nwljh ykbu esa Microsoft kCn dh txg Microsoft Type dj fn;k gksA Liasfyx dh bl xyrh dks vki bl dze ls lq/kkj ldrs gS& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Microsoft kCn ds E v{kj ds igys yk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj fDyd djsaA rqjar gh ,d Blinking Cursor ml txg tj fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. vc Delete Key ,d ckj nck,aWA E v{kj gV tk,xkA blds ckn O v{kj Vkbi djsaA Text fy[kus ds ckn foaMkst Me/Xp esa WordPad MkaWD;wesaV dh rjg fn[ksxkA oMZiSM esa VsDlV dh QkaWesZfVax djuk (Formatting Text in WordPad)& dkxt ij fy[krs le; vki dHkh&dHkh dqN dke djrs gSa] tSls&egoiw.kZ VsDlV dks js[kkafdr djuk ;k fQj egoiw.kZ ykbuksa ;k fdlh fok; ds khkZd dks nkkZusa ds fy, cksYM djuk] rkfd os vyx ls utj vk ldsA MkaWD;wesaV dh bl :ikadu fdz;k dks Formatting dgrs gSA WordPad Hkh vkidksa rjg&rjg ds Formatting ds dke djus esa leFkZ cukrk gSA vki Text ds egoiw.kZ Hkkxkas dks Centralize e/; esa

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O;ofLFkr] Underline,Boldface and Italecize dj ldrs gSA ysfdu Text dh :i&ys[kk dks cnyus ls igys vkidks ml Text dks Select djuk iM+rk gSA VsDlV dks flysDV djuk (Selecting the Text)& fdlh Text dks pquus dh izfdz;k dks Selection dgrs gSA vki viusa Document ds fdlh ,d v{kj@uacj ;k ,d kCn@okD;@iSjkxzkQ dks pqus ldrs gSA vc Selection izfdz;k ds ewy dze dsk le>usa dk iz;kl djasA vki vius daI;wVj ij bl dze dk vH;kl vHkha ugha djsaA vHkh flQZ i<+sA 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks fn, x, v{kj] kCn]iafDr ;k lewpsa iSjkxzkQ] ftls vki lysDV djuk pkgrs gS] dh ckbZ vksj yk,WA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsa A rqjar ,d Blinking Cursor ekml ikaW,aVj ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blincking Cursor ij yk,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[kdj ekml dsk ekml iSM ij nkbZ vksj Msx djsa]rkfd visf{kr v{kj] iafDr ;k iSjkxzkQ lsysDV gks tk,aW 4. vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks NksaM+ nsaA 5. v{kj]kCn]iafDr ;k iSjkxzkQ ls gkbZykbV gVkus ds fy, ck,aW ekml cVu dks vius Document ij fdlh vkSj txg ij Click djsaA vkb,] vc vki Selection izfdz;k dk vH;kl v{kj] kCn] iafDr vkSj iSjkxzkQ dks Select djds ckjh&ckjh ls djsaA vki bl izfdz;k dks Vkbi fd, gq, Text ij djsaA Text dks Select djus ds fy, vkidks fofHkUu rjhdksa dk ikyu djuk gksxkA ,d v{kj ;k uacj dks Select djuk (Selection an Alphabet or Number)& fdlh v{kj ;k uacj dks Select djus ds fy,gekjsa mnkgj.k esa igyh iafDr dks v{kj W vki bl dze dk ikyu djsa: 1. Microsoft Windows Xp iafDr ds kCn Windows ds v{kj W dh ckbZ vksj ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA ,d Blinking Cursor ekml ikaW,aVj ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Cursor ij ys tk,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[krs gq, ekml dks MSx djsa] rkfd v{kj W v{kj gkbZykbV gks tk,A 4. W ds gkbZYkkbV gksrs gh ck,aW ekml cVu dks NkasM+ nsaA

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v{kj Select djus ls igys gh vxj vki xyrh ls ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsrs gSa] rks ,d v{kj ;k uacj dks Select djuk khkZd ds dze 1 ls nqckjk kq: djasA 5. W v{kj ls gkbZykbV gVkus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks WordPad Document ds vanj gh dgha Hkh ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA ,d kCn dks flysDV djuk (Selection a Word)& ;fn vkidkssa nwljh ykbu ds Windows kCn dks gkbZykbV djuk gks] rks blds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. nwljh ykbu ds Windows kCn dh ckbZ rjQ ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tk,aW 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaaA ,d Blinking Cursor rqjar gh ml txg ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blinking Cursor dh txg ij j[kasA fQj ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[krs gq, ekml dks nkbZ rjQ MSx djsa] rkfd Windows kCn gkbZykbV gks tk,A 4. vc ck,aW ekml dks NkasM+ nsaA 5. Windows kCn ls gkbZykbV dks gVkus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks WordPad Document ds vanj dgha Hkh ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA vc vki Selection lh[k pqds gSA blds ckb vki fuEufyf[kr dk;kZH;kl djsa& ,d iSjkxzkQ dks flysDV djuk (Selectiong a Paragraph)& Document dh rhuksa ykbuksa dks ,d iSjkxzkQ ekudj] mUgsa Select djus dh dksfkk djsaA ,salk djus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks igyh iafDr Microsoft Windows Xp dh ckbZ vksj y tk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaArqjar gh ekml ikaW,aVj ds lkFk ,d Blinking Cursor fn[ksxkA

126

3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blinking Cursor dh txg ij j[kasA fQj ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[krs gq, ekml dks uhps dh rjQ ys tk,aW vkSj lHkh rhuksa ykbuksa dks gkbZykbV djsaA 4. iwjsa iSjkxzkQ ds gkbZykbV gksrs gh ck,aW ekml cVu dks NkasM+ nsaA 5. iSjkxzkQ Microsoft ....Office 2003 ls gkbZykbV gVkus ds fy, ekml dks WordPad Document ds vanj dgha Hkh ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA pwaWfd vc vki Text dks Select djuk tku pqds gS] blfy, vc ;g vkids fy, vklku gks x;k gS fd vki fdlh Hkh rjg dh Formatting tSls&Centering, Boldfacing, Underlining, Italicezing vkfn dks Select fd, x, Text ij dj ldrs gSA vkb,] vc fofHkUUk Formatting izfdz;kvksa dk vH;kl ckjh&ckjh ls djsaA VsDlV dks e/; esa O;ofLFkr djuk (Centering the Text)& vkerkSj ij Document esa khkZd ist ds chp esa jgrk gS] ysfdu Text ij QkaWesZfVax djus ls igys vki Text dks Select/Highlight djsaA vkb, vc vki Microsoft Windows Xp dks lsVj djus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze dk vuqlj.k djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Text Microsoft Windows Xp dh ckbZ vksj yk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj nck,aWA rqjar gh ,d Blinking Cursor Microsoft Windows Xp ls igys fn[ksxkA 3. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blinking Cursor ds ij yk,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aW vkSj mls nck, j[kdj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Text Microsoft Windows Xp dh nwljh vksj rd MSx djds bls gkbZykbV djsaA 4. tc vkidk Text Highlight gks tk,] rks ck,aW ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsaA 5. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Formatting Toolbar ij ys tk,aW vkSj Cursor cVu ij j[ksaA 6. Center Button ij ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA ,slk djus ls Highlight Text gekjsa mnkgj.k esa Microsoft Window Xp ist ds chp esa pyk vk,xkA

127

7. vki ik,aWxs fd Text Microsoft Window Xp Center esa tkus ds ckn Hkh Highlight gSA bl gkbZykbV dks gVkus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks WordPad Document esa dgha Hkhs ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA 8. dksbZ Hkh QkaWesafVax fdz;k tSls&Text dks Bold, Italic, Underline bR;kfn djus ls igyss gesa Text dks gkbZykbV djuk gksrk gSA 9. tc Hkh Text Highlight gks] rks dh&cksMZ ls dksbZ Hkh dh us nck,aW] vU;Fkk lkjk Text fMyhV gks tk,xkA VsDlV dks js[kkafdr djuk(Underlining the Text)& izk;% Document esa egoiw.kZ Text dks vki Underline dj nsrss gSaA eku yhft, fd vki Text Microsoft Window Xp dks Underline djuk pkgrs gSA ,slk djus ds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djuk gksaxk& 1. ftl Text dks Underline djuk gks]mls gkbZykbV djsa bl mnkgj.k esa Text gS Microsoft Window Me ekml ikaW,aVj dks Microsoft Window Me dh ckbZ vksj yk,aWA 2. ,d ckj ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aWA ,d Blinking Cursor Microsoft Window Me ds igys utj vk,xkA 3. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blinking Cursor ds ij yk,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[krs gq,] ekml ikaW,aVj dks Text ds nwljs fdukjs rd MSx djsaA Text Microsoft Softwares Me gkbZykbV gks tk,xkA 4. vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsA 5. Text Microsoft Windows Me dks gkbZykbV djus ds ckn ekml ikaW,aVj dks Formating Toolbar ds Underline Button ij yk,aWA 6. tc vki ekml ikaW,aVj dks Formatting Toolbar ds fdlh Hkh cVu ij ys tkrs gSa] rc ,d Text tks ml cVu }kjk fd, tkus okys dke dks le>krk gS] Ldzhu ij fn[krk gSA bl Text dks Toolbar dgrs gSa Under Button dh ;g Tooltip vki ns[k ldrs gSA ,sls gh vxj vki Center ;k Italic cVu ij ekml iakW,aVj j[ksxs] rks mudh Tooltip, Hkh vkidks a Ldzhu iu utj vk,aWxhA 7. vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks Underline cVu ij Click djsaA Text rqjar gh Underline gks tkxk vkSj gkbZykbV gh jgsxkA

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8. tc Text Highlight gks] rks Enter ;k dksbZ vU; Key u nck,aW] vU;Fkk lkjk Text fMyhV gks tk,xkAflQZ Ldzhu ij dgha vkSj ekml cVu }kjk Click djs nsaA 9. vc gkbZykbV gVkus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks WordPad Document ds vanj dgha Hkh ys tkdj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA Text ls gkbZykbV gV tk,xhA VsDlV dks cksYM djuk (Making Entries in Bold)& eku yhft, fd vkidksa dqN yksxksa ds lkeus viuh izkstsDV fjiksVZ ij cksyuk gSaA iwjs Document esa ls egoiw.kZ Text dks [kkstus ds ctk; vki mls rqjar gh tku ldrs gSa] vxj vkius bls nwljs QkaWesaZV esa Vkbi fd;k gSA blds fy, ,d mi;qDr QkaWesV gS Bold QkaWesaVA vxj vki egoiw.kZs Text dks cksYM dj nsrs gS] rks mls [kkstus vklku gks tkrk gSA vc vki vius Document ds dqN Text dks cksYM djus dh dksfkk djsaA mnkgj.k ds fy,&Microsoft Office 2000 iafDr dks cksYM djsaA ,slk djus ds fy, vki bl dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Microsoft Office 2000 ds ckbZ vksj yk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aWaA ,d Blinking Cursor ekml ikaW,aVj ds lkFk vk tk,xkA 3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blinking Cursor ds ij nck,aWA 4. ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[krs gq, ekml dks nkbZ rjQ rc rd MSx djsa] tc rd vki iafDr ds var rd u igqaWp tk,aWA bl rjg ls Microsoft Office 2000,Highlight gks tk,xkA 5. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Formating Toolbar ds Bold cVu ij ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA 6. Microsoft office 2000 vc Highlight gS vkSj cksYM QkaWeasZV esa fn[kkbZ ns jgk gSaA vki vius Document esa dghs Hkh Click djds Highlight dks gVk nsaA 7. fdlh Hkh QkaWesZfVx fdz;k tSls& Centering, Underling, Boldfacing, Italicizing vkfn dks djus ds fy, vkidks lcls igys Text dks gkbZykbV djuk gksxkA bl rjg ds dke djus ds ckn Hkh Text gkbZykbV gh jgsxkA bl gkbZykbV dks gVkus ds fy, Document ds vanj dgha Hkh Click djsaA

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8. Entry Key ;k fdlh Hkh vU; Key dks u nck,aW] vU;Fkk Text fMyhV gks tk,xkA VsDLV dks bVSfyDl djuk(Making Entries In Italics)& Italicizing ,d vkSj QkaWesaZfVax fdz;k gS] tks vkidks viuh Project Report ds egoiw.kZ Text dks tYnh i<+us esa enn djrk gSA bl izfdz;k ds vuqlkj dke djus ds dkj.k v{kj FkksM+k frjNk gks tkrk gSA vkb,] vc ge WordPad esa cuk, gq, vius Document ds iwjs Text dks Italic QkaWesZV es fy[kuk lh[ksaA ,slk djus ds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj pyuk gksxk& 1. ekml iakW,aVj dks Microsoft Window Xp dh ckbZ vkSj yk,aWA 2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj nck,aWA ,slk djus ls ,d Blinking Cursor Microsoft Window Xp ds lkeus utj vk,xkA 3. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks Blinking Cursor ij nck,aWA ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck, j[krs gq, ekml dks ekml iSM ij uhps dh vksj yk,aWA ,slk djus ls Text Microsoft Windows ....Office 2003 Highlight gks tk,xkA 4. tc Text gkbZykbV gks tk,] rks ck,aW ekml cVu dks NksM+ nsaA 5. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Formatting Toolbar ij ekStwn Italic cVu ij ys tk,aWA 6. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Italic cVu ij Click djsaAText Italicized gks tk,xkA 7. Text ls Highlight gVkus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks Document esa ys tkdj] ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjUr gh iwjk bVSfyDl ls fn[kkbZ nsxkA oMZiSM MkD;wesaV dks lso djuk(Saving a WordPad Document)&Document dks Save djus dk vFkZ gS] bls viuh gkMZ&fMLd ij ,d uke nsdj lso djukA Document dks fMLd ij lso djus dk ykHk ;g gS fd vki bldk bLrseky Hkfo; esa Hkh dj ldrs gSA vius Document dks lso djus ds fy, vki fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks esU;w ckj ds Qkby fodYi ij ys tk,aWA 2. blds ij ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w Ldzhu ij vk tk,xkA

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3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj lso fodYi ds ij ys tk,aWA 4. ck,aW ekml cVu dks lso fodYi ij Click djsaA rqjar gh ,d Save As Box vkids Ldzhu ij utj vk,xkA ;g Box vkils Document ds fy, ,d uke nsus dks dgsxk vkSj fQj iwNsxk fd Document dks vki fdl QkasYMj esa j[kuk pkgrs gSA 5. ,d Document dks nwljs Document ls vyx j[kus ds fy, lHkh Document dks ,d [kkl ukek fn;k tkuk t:jh gSA Document dks mlesa fy[k fok; ds eqrkfcd uke ns] rkfd vkidksa blds dUVsUV~l dk irk rqjar py tk,A 6. Document dks lso djus ds fy, mls ,d uke nsuk t:jh gSA vki vius Document dks Creative uke nsa vkSj bls Desktop ij lso djsaA ,slk djus ds fy, igys Creative Bkbi djsaA File Name fodYi ds lkFk okys Box esa ;g uke fy[kk tk,xkA 7. vc ml QkaasYMj dks pquas] ftlesa vki bl Qkby dks lso djuk pkgrs gSA vki viuh Qkby Desktop uked QkasYMj esa lso djsaASave in fodYi ds lkFk cus Box esa vki ,d Mkmu ,sjks cVu ns[ksxsA vius Document dks Desktop QksYMj esa lso djus ds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dk Mkmu ,sjks cVu ij ys tk,aWA 8. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA ,d iqy Mkmu esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 9. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Desktop fodYi ij ys tk,aWA 10.ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Desktop ds dUVsUV~l ,d vk;rkdkj Box ds vanj fn[kkbZ nsxsA 11.ekml ikaW,aVj dks lso cVu ds ij ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Save As Box Ldzhu ls gV tk,xk vkSj WordPad fosaMkst ds TitleBar ij Creative uke fn[kkbZ nsxkA 12.izk;% oMZiSM esa cuh Qkbyksa dk dksbZ Extension ugha gksrk gS] og WordPad izksxzke essa gh [kqyrh gSA ysfdu vxj Microsoft Word vkids flLVe es Installed gS] rc lHkh WordPad QkbYl ,d Doc Extension ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA 13.Microsoft Word esa cuh QkbYl ds lkFk Extension gksrk gSblds ckjs es ckn esa crk;k x;k gS vr% ,slh WordPad Qkbysa WordPad

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izksxzke esa [kqyus ds ctk; dsoy Microsoft Word izksxzke esa gh [kqysxhA 14.viuh Qkby dsk ,d ckj lso dj ysus ds ckn Hkh vki dqN&dqN le; ij Ctrl and S Keys dks nckrs jgsa] rkfd vkidh Qkby fu;fer varjky esa lso gksrh jgsaA MkaWD;wesaV dks can djuk vkSj oMZiSM ls ckgj vkuk (Closing Document and Quitting WordPad)& fofHkUu QkaWesZfVax QhplZ dks vc vki Hkyh&izdkj tku pqds gksaxsA vc vki Document dks can djuk vkSj mlls ckgj vkuk lh[kasA 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks File Menu ckj fodYi ds ij ys tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj Exit fodYi ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks ys tk,aWsA 3. ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA vki ns[ksaxs fd WordPad izksaxzke vkids Document Creative ds lkFk can gks tk,xkA 4. eku yhft, fd vkius vius Document esa dqN cnyko fd;k gSA vxj vki bu cnykoksa dks fcuk lso fd, Exit fodYi dks pqurs gS] rc ,d Message Boxs fn[kkbZ nsxkA ;g vkils iwNsxk fd vki vius Document ds cnykoksa dks lso djuk pkgrs gSa ;k ughA vxj vki cnykoksa dks lso ugha djuk pkgrs] rks No cVu ij Click djsa] vU;Fkk Yes cVu ij Click djsaA MkaWD;wesaV dks fizaV djuk vkSj foaMkst ls ckgj vkuk (Printing a Document and Quitting Windows) & tc vki MsLdVkaWi ij vius Document dks lso djsaxs] rc vkidk Document Creative ,d Icon ds :i esa Desktop ds nwljs Icons ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsxkA vc Document Creative dks Desktop ls gh fizaV djus dh dksfkk djsaA blds fy, vki bl dze ls vkxs c<+sA fdlh Hkh Icon dks gkbZykbV djus ds fy, ck,aW ekml cVu dks mlds fp= ;k uke ij Click djsaA vxj vkids daI;wVj ij Microsoft Word izksaxzke bULVkaWy gS]rks WordPad izksaxzke esa cus lHkh Document Microsoft Word esa gh [kqysaxsA

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1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks vius MsLdVkaWi ij Creative Icon ij yk,aWA 2. nk,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj Click djsaA ,d iqy&Mkmu esU;w Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks fizaV fodYi ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA blls rqjar gh WordPad foaUMks [kqy tk,xh vkSj vkidk Document Creative fn[kkbZ nsus yxsxkA Message Boxs ;g crk,xk fd vHkh Document fizaV gks jgk gSA dqN gh {k.kkas ds ckn vkidk Document fizaV gks tk,xk vkSj Message Boxs Ldzhu ls gV tk,xkA WordPad Programme Hkh can gks tk,xk vkSj vki vius Desktop ij okil vk tk,aaWxasA vxj vkids flLVe esa dksbZ fizaVj Installed ugha gSa] rc ,d Message Boxs vkids Ldzhu ij vk,xkA Message Boxs ds vksds cVu ij Click djsaA Message Boxs Screenls gV tk,xkA vxj vki fizaVj bULVkaWy djuk pkgrs gS] rks v/;k; 4 ,DlIyksjj esa Qkbyksa dks O;ofLFkr djuk ds fizaVj dks bULVkaWy djuk fok; esa fn, x, dze dk ikyu djsaA FILE MENU:-bles ds lkjs Option ihNs Example esa fd, tk pqds gS tSls fd New, Open, Save, Save As, Paint, Preview, Page Setup, Print Etc. EDIT MENU:- bles ds lkjs Option Undo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Select All, Clear Etc. ;s lkjs Option Hkh Mentioned gSA VIEW MENU:Tool Bar:- bles ge Tool Bar dks fNik vkSj fn[kk ldrs gSA Format Bar:- bl Option ls ge Format Bar fNik&fn[kk ldrs gSA Rular:- bl Option ls ge Rular fNik&fn[kk ldrs gSA Status Bar:- bl Option ls ge Status Bar dks fNik&fn[ks ldrs gSA INSERT MENU:Date & Time:- bl Option ls ge tgkaW dlZj gS ogkaW ij System dh Current Date vkSj Time dks yk ldrs gSA Object:- bl Option ls ge viuh File esa Paint ls dksbZ Hkh Figure cuk ldrs gSA

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FORMAT MENU:Font:- bl Option ls ge viuh File esa fdlh Selected Text dh fy[kkoV mldk Style, Size, Colour vkfn cny ldrs gSA Paragraph:- bl Option ls ge File esa Selected Paragraph esa Indentation (Margin ds vykok Extra Space) vkSj Alignment (Left, Center, Right) Set dj ldrs gSA Bullet Style:- bl Option ls ge Selected Paragraph ds kq: esa Bullet (Dut) yxk ldrs gS vkSj gVk ldrs gSA Tab:- bl Option ls ge Tab Button dh vyx&vyx Setting dj ldrs gSA;gkaW WordPad dk v/;k; lekIr gksrk gSA dqN le; ckn vki Accessories ds nwljsa izksaxzke ij dke djsxs] ftldk uke gS PaintA vxj vkidks foaMkst Me/Xp ls ckgj vkuk gS] rks fuEufyf[kr dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. Start Button ij Click djsaA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj Shut Down fodYi ij Click djsaA 3. Yes Button ij Click djsaA dqN {k.kkas ds ckn Message Its now safe to turn off your computer Screen ij fn[kasxkA vc flLVe dks can dj naasA

M.S. DOS
vkWijsfVax flLVe D;k gSa?
vkWijsfVsx flLVe ,d rjg dk dEI;wVj dk dUVksy izksxzke gSaA ftl rjg VSfQd iqfyleSu vius {ks= ds VSfQd ij fu;a=.k j[krk gSa, mlh rjg vkWijsfVax flLVe Hkh dEI;wVj ij fu;a=.k j[krk gSaA ;g vkidks Qkbyksa ij fu;a=.k j[kus esa enr djrk gSa rFkk fofHkUu isfjQsjy ;a= tSls , fizUVj, ekWuhVj bR;kfn dks Hkh tkap dj iwjs dEI;wVj ij fu;a=.k djus esa lgk;rk djrk gSaAdEI;wVj Lo;a vkils okrkZyki lk/ku pkfg,, tks vkWijsfVax flLVe nsrk gSaA okLro esa, vkWijsfVsx flLVe Lo;a gh dqN foksk izksxzkeks dk laxzg gSaA

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DOS (Disk Operating System):-Dos Computer dks fn, tkus okys funsZkksa dk lewg gS tks dEI;wVj dks dk;Z djus dh fLFkfr esa ykrk gS] dEI;wVj esa lwpukvksa dk vknku iznku Dos ds dkj.k gh lEHko gksrk gSA Dos Computer ds ekbdzksizkslslj (CPU) dks fu;af=r djrk gS vkSj dk;Z djus ds funsZk nsrk gS ;g Computer vkSj User ds chp ,d InterpreternqHkkfk;k dk dk;Z djrk gSA tc ge vius dEI;wVj dks ON djrs gS rks Computer loZizFke vius leLr Hardware dh tkap djrk gS] bl izfdz;k dks Computer dh Hkkkk esa Post(Power on Self Test) dgk tkrk gSA bl tkap ds ipkr~ dEI;wVj Boot gksdj C:\> ij vk tkrk gS ;gkWa ls gh ge Computer dks Operating dj ldrs gSA dEI;wVj dks C:\> ij ykus dk dk;Z Dos ds }kjk gh lEiUu gksrk gSA ;fn Dos esa dksbZ [kjkch gS rks Computer Boot ugha gks ldrk gSA M.S.Dos Booting Process:- tc ,d dEI;wVj dks ON fd;k tkrk gS rks mls ugha ekywe gksrk fd mls D;k djuk gS bldh Memory esa fdlh dk;Z dks djus ds fy, mi;qDr Programme ugha gksrkA blizdkj igys ls gh cus gq, nks Programme ftles ls ,d rks ;g tkap djrk gS fd Computer ds lHkh Hkkx Bhd izdkj ls dk;Z dj jgs gS ;k ugha bl fdz;k dks Post dgrs gSA nwljk Programme okg~; External Memory ls Operating System dks Load djus esa enn djrk gSA ;gkaW Lo;a ls izkjEHk gksus okyk Programme gS ftls Boot Strap Loader dgrs gSA Post dh fdz;k Hardware dh tkaWp djrk gS] mlds ckn Boot Strap Programme tks fd Boot Sector es gksrk gS] Computer ds eseksjh esa vk tkrk gS blds lkFk gh rhu vkSj t:jh Files Hkh Load gks tkrh gS oks gS& 1. I.O.Sys 2. M.S. Dos Sys 3. Command Com nksa vkSj lgk;d Files Hkh Load gksrs gS tks fd& 1. Config.Sys 2. Autoexec. Bat files gSA Config.Sys lHkh izdkj ds Device dh tkaWp djrk gS fd oks lHkh izdkj ls Computer ls tqM+s tks vkSj Authexec.Bat lHkh Command dk Lopfyr :i ds dk;Z djus dh lqfo/kk nsrk gSA

Booting Process:-

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Post Boot Strap Loader Loads Boot Sectar Programme Loads I.O.Sys Loads MS Dos Sys Loads Command. Com Check Config.Sys Executes Autoexec.Bat Display Dos Prompt Dos ds dek.M %& Dos ds dek.M nks HkkXkksa esa caVs gksrs gS %& 1. Internal Command (vkUrfjd dek.M) 2. External Command (ckg~; dek.M)

vkUrfjd dek.M (Internal command) D;k gksrs gSa ?


bu dek.M~l dks ykxw djus ds fy, fdUgha foksk Qkbyksa ds dEI;wVjksa esa gksus dh vko;drk ugha gksrhAmnkgj.k ds fy, Copy, Del, Dir ,Type ,Cd, Md ,Cls ,Date ,Time ,Rd vkSj Path etc.bu dek.Mksa }kjk vki MkWl ls ljy izdkj ds dk;Z tSls fdlh Qkby ;k Mk;jsDVjh (Directory) dks feVkuk vkfn dj ldrs gSaA

DIR
DIR Vkbi djrs gh lkjh Qkbyksa dh fyLV rFkk pkyw Mk;jsDVjh, es LVksMZ lHkh lc-Mk;jsDVjh Hkh iznfkZr gks tk;sxhA;fn vkidks dksbZ [kkl Mk;jsDVjh pkfg, rks LVksj dh xbZ Qkbyksa esa ls <w< ldrs gSaA ;fn fMLd Mkbo ds ySVj dks Vkbi djsaxsa rks nwljh fMLd ds Hkh dkWUVsUV vki ns[k ldrs gSaaA ysfdu vkidks fMLd Mkbo ySVj Vkbia djus ds ckn ,d dksyu : bl dek.M ds ckn yxkuk vko;d gSaA Syntex:-C:\Dir(Press Enter key)

COPY
dkWih dek.M dk bLrseky ,d ;k vf/kd Qkbyksa dks mlh Mk;jsDVjh ;k fdlh nwljh Mk;jsDVjh rFkk nwljh fMLd esa dkWih djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA dkWih dek.M Vkbi djus ds ipkr~ tks Qkby vki dkWih djuk pkgrs gS mldk iwjk uke ikFkuse nsa vkSj ml Mk;jsDVjha dk iwjk ikFkuse nsa, ftlls vki ;s dkWih mBkuk pkgrs gSaA;fn ,d gh

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Mk;jsDVjh esa ,d iwjh Qkby dh duplicate dkWih djuk pkgrs gSa rks mlds ewy uke esa ls fdlh nwljs uke ij bls dkWih djuk iM+sxkA Syntex:-C:\Copy[Source file Name] [Target file Name] (Press Enter)

DEL
Msy Vkbi djus ds ckn Qkby dk uke nsus ls Qkby fMyhV gks tkrh gSa, ftlls vkidh gkMZ fMLd ;k ykWih fMLd esa T;knk txg cp tk;sxkA Syntex:-C:\Del [File Name] (Press Enter key)

MKDIR OR MD
tc vki fMLd ij u;h Mk;jsDVjh cukuk pkgsa , rks MKDIR ;k MD Vkbi djus ds ckn ml Mk;jsDVjh dk uke fy[ks tks vki cukuk pkgrs gksaA Syntex:-C:\MD [Directory Name] (Press Enter key)

CHDIR OR CD
vki bl le; ftl Mkbo rFkk Mk;jsDVjh esa dke dj jgs gSa , mldk uke iznfkZr djus ds fy, CD dek.M dk iz;ksx djsaaA;fn ml Mk;jsDVjh dks iqu: ifjofrZr dj fdlh nwljh Mk;jsDVjh esa tkuk pkgrs gSa rks CD Vkbi djds nwljh Mk;jsDVjh dk ikFkuse Vkbi djrs gSaA :V-Mk;jsDVjh ij igqpus ds fy, CD ds ckn cSdLysk (\) yxk nsaA Syntex:-C:\CD [Directory Name] (Press Enter key) CLS CLS dekaM dk iz;ksx Ldzhu Clear djus rFkk dekaM izkSEIV dks lcls ij ck;sa rjQ ys tkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Syntex:-C:\Cls (Press Enter key) DATE Date dekaM ls gesa og rkjh[k feyrk gSa tks PC ds bUVuZy dys.Mj }kjk fjdkWMZ dh x;h gSaA ;fn xyr MsV gks rks vki bldks lgh dj ldrs gSaaA Syntex:-C:\Date (Press Enter key) TIME

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Time dekaM ls PC dh vkUrfjd ?kM+h }kjk pkyw Ldzhu ij vk tk;sxkAbl le; dks vki cny Hkh ldrs gSaA Syntex:-C:\Time(Press Enter key) TYPE Vkbi dekaM ds tfj, ,d VSDLV Qkby ds lkjs dkWUVsUV vkidh Ldzhu ij ns[k ldrs gSa ysfdu Vkbi dekaM ds ckn Qkby use Hkh Vkbi djsA Syntex:-C:\Type File Name (Press Enter key) RD RD deksM ds }kjk ge fdlh Hkh Mkbo esa j[kh Mk;jsDVjh dks gVk ldrs gSa ;k Remove dj ldrs gSaA Syntex:-C:\Rd [Directory Name] (Press Enter key)

ckg~; dekaM (External Commands) D;k gksrs gSa ?


bu dekaMks dh ckgjh [kkl Qkbysa gksuk t:jh gSaAbu specification Qkby dk ogha izkbejh uke gsa tks dekaM vkSj ,DlVsaku dk gksrk gSa- tSls Com ;k .EXE ysfdu tks dekaM ;gk tks dekaM fn;s tk jgs gSa og flLVe esa rHkh dke djsaxsa tc fd specification Qkbysa flLVe esa miyC/k gksAvU;Fkk file not found ,jj eSlst Ldzhu ij vk tk;sxkA DOS ds dqN ,DlVuZy dekaM gSa: CHKDSK, PRINT rFkk DISK COPY,CHKDSK tc gkMZ fMLd vkSj ykWih dk STATUS irk djuk gks rks CHKDSK dk iz;ksx djsaAvkidks crk;sxk fd fMLd esa fdruh Hkjh ;k [kkyh txg gSa ,fMLd esa fdruh Qkbysa gSa vkSj D;k fMLd ds dqN fgLls [kjkc gks pqds gSaA

DISKCOPY
bl dekaM ds }kjk ,d ykWih fMLd ls nwljs ykWih fMLd ij daVsV~l dk MqIyhdsV cuk;k tk ldrk gSaA Syntex:-C:\DISKCOPY A:A (Press Enter key) TREE ;g dekaM rc iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSa tc pkyw Mk;jsDVjh ds uhps Vh LVDpj lesr iwjh Mk;jsDVjh iznfkZr djuh gksAvxj vki :V dh Mk;jsDVjh bLrseky gks rks fMLd dk iwjk LVDpj iznfkZr gks tkrk gSaA

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Syntex:-C:\TREE (Press Enter key)

ATTRIB
Syntex:- ATTRIB [String] [File name] String:+H (Hide attribute) -H (Cancels the Hide attribute) +R (Make it read only) -R (Cancels the Make it read only )
1-Cls 2-Cd 3-Cd.. 4-Md 5-Copy Con 6-Dir 7-Date 8-Time 9-Cd-dos 10-Cd\dos 11-Type 12-Color 13-Color? 14-vol 15-Vol? 16-Ver 17-Ver? 18-Attrib (+H,-H,+R,-R) 19-Copy 20-Move 21-Ren 22-Edit 23-dir/w 24-Dir/P 25-dir/O-N 26-Dir/ON 27-Dir/P/OD 28-Dir/P/O-D 29-Dir/P/W 30-DirX* 31-Dir *-Kum 32Dir/S 33-Dir/AD 34-Dir/A-D 35-Dir/AH 36-Dir/A-H(37)Dir/As (38) Dir/A-s) (39) Dir /AR (40) Dir/A-R (41) Dir /AA(42) Dir/A-A (43)Dir/os(44Dir /o-s (45) Dir /0E (46)Dir/0-E (47) Dir/0G(48) Dir /0-G (49) Dir /OD (50) Dir/o-d (51) Dir -??(52)Dir?? File Name,(53)Dir -* (54) del (55) Rd (56)Exit
Commands ADDUSERS ARP ASSOC ASSOCIAT AT ATTRIB BOOTCFG BROWSTAT CACLS CALL CD CHANGE CHKDSK CHKNTFS CHOICE CIPHER CleanMgr CLEARMEM Details Add or list users to/from a CSV file Address Resolution Protocol Change file extension associations One step file association Schedule a command to run at a later time Change file attributes Edit Windows boot settings Get domain, browser and PDC info Change file permissions Call one batch program from another Change Directory move to a specific Folder Change Terminal Server Session properties Check Disk check and repair disk problems Check the NTFS file system Accept keyboard input to a batch file Encrypt or Decrypt files/folders Automated cleanup of Temp files, recycle bin Clear memory leaks

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CLIP CLS CLUSTER CMD COLOR COMP COMPACT COMPRESS CON2PRT CONVERT COPY CSCcmd CSVDE DATE Dcomcnfg DEFRAG DEL DELPROF DELTREE DevCon DIR DIRUSE DISKCOMP DISKCOPY DNSSTAT DOSKEY DSADD DSQUERY DSMOD Copy STDIN to the Windows clipboard. Clear the screen Windows Clustering Start a new CMD shell Change colors of the CMD window Compare the contents of two files or sets of files Compress files or folders on an NTFS partition Compress individual files on an NTFS partition Connect or disconnect a Printer Convert a FAT drive to NTFS. Copy one or more files to another location Client side caching (Offline Files) Import or Export Active Directory data Display or set the date DCOM Configuration Utility Defragment hard drive Delete one or more files Delete NT user profiles Delete a folder and all subfolders Device Manager Command Line Utility Display a list of files and folders Display disk usage Compare the contents of two floppy disks Copy the contents of one floppy disk to another DNS Statistics Edit command line, recall commands, and create macros Add user (computer, group..) to active directory List items in active directory Modify user (computer, group..) in active

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directory ECHO ENDLOCAL ERASE EXIT EXPAND EXTRACT FC FDISK FIND FINDSTR FOR /F FOR /F FOR FORFILES FORMAT FREEDISK FSUTIL FTP FTYPE GLOBAL GOTO HELP HFNETCHK IF IFMEMBER IPCONFIG KILL LABEL Display message on screen End localisation of environment changes in a batch file Delete one or more files Quit the current script/routine and set an errorlevel. Uncompress files Uncompress CAB files Compare two files Disk Format and partition Search for a text string in a file Search for strings in files Loop command: against a set of files Loop command: against the results of another command Loop command: all options Files, Directory, List Batch process multiple files Format a disk Check free disk space (in bytes) File and Volume utilities File Transfer Protocol Display or modify file types used in file extension associations Display membership of global groups Direct a batch program to jump to a labelled line Online Help Network Security Hotfix Checker Conditionally perform a command Is the current user in an NT Workgroup Configure IP Remove a program from memory Edit a disk label

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LOCAL LOGEVENT LOGOFF LOGTIME MAPISEND MEM MD MKLINK MODE MORE MOUNTVOL MOVE MOVEUSER MSG MSIEXEC MSINFO MSTSC MUNGE MV NET NETDOM NETSH NETSVC NBTSTAT NETSTAT NOW NSLOOKUP NTBACKUP NTRIGHTS PATH PATHPING Display membership of local groups Write text to the NT event viewer. Log a user off Log the date and time in a file Send email from the command line Display memory usage Create new folders Create a symbolic link (linkd) Configure a system device Display output, one screen at a time Manage a volume mount point Move files from one folder to another Move a user from one domain to another Send a message Microsoft Windows Installer Windows NT diagnostics Terminal Server Connection (Remote Desktop Protocol) Find and Replace text within file(s) Copy in use files Manage network resources Domain Manager Configure network protocols Command line Service Controller Display networking statistics (NetBIOS over TCP/IP) Display networking statistics (TCP/IP) Display the current Date and Time Name server lookup Backup folders to tape Edit user account rights Display or set a search path for executable files Trace route plus network latency and packet

142
loss PAUSE PERMS PERFMON PING POPD PORTQRY PRINT PRNCNFG PRNMNGR PROMPT PsExec PsFile PsGetSid PsInfo PsKill PsList PsLoggedO PsLogList PsPasswd PsService PsShutdow PsSuspend PUSHD QGREP RASDIAL RASPHONE RECOVER REG Suspend processing of a batch file and display a message Show permissions for a user Performance Monitor Test a network connection Restore the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD Display the status of ports and services Print a text file Display, configure or rename a printer Add, delete, list printers set the default printer Change the command prompt Execute process remotely Show files opened remotely Display the SID of a computer or a user List information about a system Kill processes by name or process ID List detailed information about processes n Whos logged on (locally or via resource sharing) Event log records Change account password View and control services n Shutdown or reboot a computer Suspend processes Save and then change the current directory Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern. Manage RAS connections Manage RAS connections Recover a damaged file from a defective disk. Registry: Read, Set, Export, Delete keys and values

143
REGEDIT REGSVR32 REGINI REM REN REPLACE RD RDISK RMTSHARE ROBOCOPY ROUTE RUNAS RUNDLL32 SC SCHTASKS SCLIST ScriptIt SET SETLOCAL SETX SHARE SHIFT SHORTCUT SHOWGRPS SHOWMBRS SHUTDOWN SLEEP SOON Import or export registry settings Register or unregister a DLL Change Registry Permissions Record comments (remarks) in a batch file Rename a file or files. Replace or update one file with another Delete folder(s) Create a Recovery Disk Share a folder or a printer Robust File and Folder Copy Manipulate network routing tables Execute a program under a different user account Run a DLL command (add/remove print connections) Service Control Create or Edit Scheduled Tasks Display NT Services Control GUI applications Display, set, or remove environment variables Control the visibility of environment variables Set environment variables permanently List or edit a file share or print share Shift the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file Create a windows shortcut (.LNK file) List the NT Workgroups a user has joined List the Users who are members of a Workgroup Shutdown the computer Wait for x seconds Schedule a command to run in the near future

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SORT START SU SUBINACL SUBST SYSTEMINF TASKLIST TIME TIMEOUT TITLE TOUCH TRACERT TREE TYPE USRSTAT VER VERIFY VOL WHERE WHOAMI WINDIFF WINMSD WINMSDP WMIC XCACLS XCOPY Sort input Start a separate window to run a specified program or command Switch User Edit file and folder Permissions, Ownership and Domain Associate a path with a drive letter List system configuration List running applications and services Display or set the system time Delay processing of a batch file Set the window title for a CMD.EXE session Change file timestamps Trace route to a remote host Graphical display of folder structure Display the contents of a text file List domain usernames and last login Display version information Verify that files have been saved Display a disk label Locate and display files in a directory tree Output the current UserName and domain Compare the contents of two files or sets of files Windows system diagnostics Windows system diagnostics II WMI Commands Change file permissions Copy files and folders

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M.S.WORD
Introduction To Word Processor:vxj gesa dksbZ Letter Type djuk gS rks ge mls Type Writer dh enn ls Type dj ldrs gS] ysfdu vxj mlh Letter esa ges dqN cnyko djuk iMs+ rks ges fQj u;s fljs ls og Letter Type djuk iMs+xkA ij Computer es ge WordProcessor dh lgk;rk ls mlh dke dks dj ldrs gS] fcuk dksbZ Extra esgur fd,A blizdkj ge dg ldrs gS fd Word-Processor ,d ,slk Software Package gS tks fd User ds kCnksa es ,d dzec) rjhds ls lacksf/kr djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA blds }kjk fdlh izdkj dh Report,News,Composing,Document, Creation ;k Magazine Composing fd;k tk ldrk gSA,slk ugh gS fd bles flQZ Type ls Realated dke gh gks ldrk gS] cfYd blesa Graphic Option dk Use djds User bles Graphical Designing Hkh dj ldrs gSA Microsoft Word An Introduction:M.S.Word ,d ,slk Word Processor gS tks Windows Operation System ds vUrxZr dk;Z djrk gS M.S.Word tSls lHkh Word Processors yxHkx ,d gh izdkj dh [kwfc;ksa ls Hkjs gSA bles ,d ist gS ftls Document dgrs gS] ftl ij Type djds ge mls eupkgh Formatting nsdj mls pkgs rks Print djok ldrs gSA bl Note esa ge Word dh lHkh Menus dks ,d foLr`r fooj.k ds lkFk le>k jgs gSA ist tSlk Structure fn[kkbZ nsxkA ;gha M.S.Word dk Window gSA Control Tool Box:- ;g Tool Box,Title Bar ds Extreme Left Corner ij gksrk gSA bles ge Word Window dh Controlling dj ldrs gSA bles dqN Options gSA ftudk Use uhps fn;k tk jgk gSA

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Move:- bl Option dk Use djds ge Word Window dks Desktop ij ?kqek (Scroll) djk ldrs gSA

Restore:- bl Option dk Use djds ge M.S.Word ds Window dks mlds Actual I.E.default Size esa yk ldrs gSa] vxj og Full Size esa gS rksa&

Size:- bl Option dk Use djds ge Word-Window dh Size ?kVk cM+k ldrs gSA

Minimise:-bl Option dks ij Click djus ls Word Window bruk NksVk gks tk,xk fd og Taskbar ij Place gks tk,xkA Maximise:- bl Option dk Use djds ge Word-Window dks Full Screen ij Place dj ldrs gSA

Close:- bl Option ij Click djus(Environment) ls ckgj vk ldrs gSA I.E.Word dks cUn dj ldrs gSA

DESCRIPTION OF MENU:- M.S.Word esa Menus dk ,d Strong Base gS] bl Menu dh lgk;rk ls gh ge Processing dk lkjk dk;Z djok ldrs gSa budk Brief Description vkxs fn;k tk jgk gS

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FILE MENU:- bl Menu ls ge File dks Handle djus ds lkjs dk;Z dj ldrs gSA 1. New:- bl Option dk Use djds ,d ubZ Blank File [kksy ldrs gSA 2. Open:- bl Option dk Use djds igys ls cudj Save dh gqbZ File dks [kksy ldrs gS] vkSj Modify dj ldrs gSaA 3. Save:- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Hkh File dks First Time Save dj ldrs gS] vkSj gj Modification dks Hkh blh Option ls mlh File esa Save dj ldrs gSA 4. Save As:- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh File dks First Time Set dj ldrs gSA lkFk gh bl Option ls igys ls Saved File dk Duplicate cuk ldrs gSA 5. Close:- bl Option dk Use ge fdlh Hkh [kqyh File dks cUn dj ldrs gSA 6. Page Setup:- bl Option dk Use djds ge File dss ist dk Size, Margin, Line, Number bR;kfn O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSA 7. Print Preview:- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Hkh File dks Print ls igys Preview djds ns[k ldrs gS] fd lHkh lsafVx Bhd ls gks x, gS fd ughaA ;fn ugha gq, gSa rks mlh oDr mls lgh dj ldrs gS] rkfd Print esa dksbZ xyrh u jg tk,A 8. Print:- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Hkh File ds eSVj dks eupkgh Formatting ds lkFk dkxt ij Nki ldrs gSA 9. Exit:- bl Option dk Use djds ge Word dks can dj ldrs gSA

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EDIT MENU:-bl Option ds Use ls ge File es vyx&vyx izdkj ls lakks/ku dj ldrs gSA Undo(Ctrl+Z):- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge File esa Save ds ckn ds lkjs dk;ksZ dks ckjh&ckjh lekIr dj ldrs gSA 2. Redo:- ;g Option flQZ M.S.Office es gh feyrk gSA bles ge Undo }kjk dh x;h lkjh fdz;kvksa ds Qy dks lekIr dj ldrs gSA eryc fd Undo dk fojks/kh dk;Z Redo djrk gSaA 3. Cut(Ctrl+C):- bl Option dk Use djds ge Selected Text ;k Figure dks ml txg ls xk;c djds Clipboard esa j[k ldrs gS] rkfd bls ckn esa okil yk;k tk ldsA 4. Copy(Ctrl+C):- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Selected Text ;k Figure dks ml txg ls xk;c djds Clipboard esa vkxs ds bLrseky ds fy, j[k ldrs gSA 5. Paste(Ctrl+V):- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge tgk dlZj gS ogk ij Clipboard ds Contents dks j[k ldrs gS] ftruh ckj pkgs mruh ckjA 6. Paste Special:- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Text dh lgk;rk ls nks Application ds chp ,d Link cuk ldrs gSA,slk djus ls tks Change Original Document esa djsxs ogha nwljs Application esa Automatically gks tk,xkA 7. Paste As Hyperlink:- bl Option dk Use djds ge M.S.Word dh fdUgh nks Qkbyksa ds e/; Link cuk ldrs gSA 8. Clear:- bl Option dk Use djds ge Select fd, gq, Matter dks Delete dj ldrs gSA 9. Select All:- bles ist ij fd, x, lkjs Work dks ,d ckj esa Select dj ldrs gSA 10. Find:-bl Option dk Use djds ge File ls fdlh Particular Text dksa <waW<+ ldrs gSA 1.

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11. Replace:- bl Option ds iz;ksx ls ge fdlh Particular Text dh [kkst dj mls nwljs Text ls cny ldrs gSA 12. Go To:- bl Option dk iz;ksax djds ge fdlh Specified, Page, Line, Book Mark bR;kfn ij rqjUr Cursar igqpk ldrs gSA VIEW MENU:- bl Menu dh lgk;rk ls File dks vyx&vyx rjhds ls ns[k ldrs gS] ftlls ges mldh Formatting vkfn djus es vklkuh gksrh gSA 1. Normal:- bl View esa ge flQZ File mldk Matter vkSj Formatting ns[k ldrs gSA Column, Header, Footer, Margins bl View esa ughsa fn[krs gSA 2. Web Layout:-bl Option dk Use djds ge File dks T;knk vPNs ls i<+ ldrs gS] D;ksfd blesa Font Size dqN cM+h vkSj ykbuks ds chp dh nwjh dqN T;knk fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA 3. Print Layout:-bl View esa Page Bhd oSlk fn[krk gS] tSlk fd Print esa Ni ds vk;sxkA;gkaW ge Header, Footer, Page Break vkfn lkjh phts ns[k ldrs gSA blfy, ge bls WYSIWIG (What You See Is What You Get) View dgrs gSaA 4. Toolbar:-bl Option esa cgqr lkjs Toolbar feysxs] ftUgsa ge tc pkgs Nqik ldrs gS vkSj tc pkgs fn[kk ldrs gSA 5. Ruler:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Word esa fn[krs Horizontal vkSj Vertical Rules(Scale) dks fn[kk ;k Nqik ldrs gSA 6. Header & Footer:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Header(Top Margin) vkSj Footer ( Bottom Margin) esa dqN Type dj ldrs gS] tks fd gj ist ij Ni dj vk ldrk gSA 7. Foot Note:- bl Option ls ge fdlh Text ds fy, Insert Menu ds Footnotes }kjk fn;s x, Footnote Area esa vius Cursr dks ys tk ldrs gSA 8. Comments:- ;g Option Hkh Insert Menu ls fn;k tkrk gS vkSj View Menu ls mls ns[k ldrs gS vkSj mles lakks/ku dj ldrs gSA 9. Full Screen:- bl Option ds Use ls gesa File dk ist gh iwjs Screen ij fn[kkbZ nsxk] u Menu vkSj u gh Toolbars. 10.Zoom:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge File dks viuh lqfo/kkuqlkj NksVs ;k cM+s Size dk djds ns[k ldrs gSA

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INSERT MENU:- bl Menu ls ge Required Cursor Position ij dqN Hkh Text Place dj ldrss gSA 1. Break:- bl Option dk Use djds ge eupkgs dlZj Position ls ,d u;k ist Column ;k Section cuk ldrs gSaA

2. Page Number:- bles ge ist ds Header ;k Footer esa ist Numbering dj ldrs gS] tks fd izR;sd ist ij vk;sxkA 3. Date & Time:- bl Option dk iz;ksx djds ge dlZj Position ij vyx&vyx Formates esa Date vkSj Time Place dj ldrs gSA 4. Auto Text:- bl Option esa igys ls cus cuk, dqN Text feysxs ftu ij Click djrs gh lkFk bl Option dk iz;ksax ge Lo;a ds Autotext cukus ds fy, dj ldrs gS] tks fd fdlh uke ls Store gksxk vkSj ogh uke fy[kdj F3 Key nckus ls Lor% izdV gks tk;sxkA 5. Foot Note:-bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Word ;k Text ds fy, dksbZ uksV tSls mldh Meaning Etc. ist ds vkf[kj esa ;k Document ds vkkf[kj esa fy[k ldrs gSA 6. Comment:- bl Option dk Use djds ge fdlh Word ds ckjs esa Comment ns ldrs gSA Footnote dh rjg gh Comment nsrs gS] QdZ ;gh gS fd Comment ds fy, ,d vyx Window feyrk gS] ftls t:jr ds vuqlkj cUn dj ldrs gSA 7. Index & Tables:- bl Option dk Use djds ge viuh File esa Specified List dks Alphabetically Arrange dj ldrs gSA blesa lHkh Similar Alphabet dks ,d lkFk j[k ldrs gSA 8. Picture:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge viuh File esa Clipart, Wordart, Autoshape ;k fdlh Saved File dh Picture yk ldrs gSA

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9. Text Box:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Recently Open File esa fdlh nwljs File ds Matter dks yk ldrs gSA 10. File:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Recently Open File eas fdlh nwljs File ds Matter dks yk ldrs gSA 11. Object:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh nwljh Application ls Object cuk ldrs gS] viuh File esa lkFk gh igys ls cus Object dks File esa yk ldrs gSA 12. Book Mark:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge viuh File dh fdlh Hkh Curror Position ij dksbZ Dentif Mark yxk ldrs gSA bl Mark ij ge t:jr ds vuqlkj Edit ds Go To Optiion ls igqaWp ldrs gSA 13. Hyperlink:-bl Option dh lgk;rk ls Paste As Hyperlink dh rjg nks Qkbyksa esa Link cuk ldrs gSS] ijUrq ;s Option fdlh Word ds Through ugha] cfYd File Name ds Through Link cuk ldrs gSA

FORMAT MENU:- ;s Menu M.S.Word dk lcls Strong Menu gS] ftldh lgk;rk ls File ds Matter esa gj rjg dh Formatting ;kfu dh File dk lqUnjhdj.k fd;k tk ldrk gS] blds Options fuEufyf[kr gSa%& 1. Font:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Selected Text eas fuEu ifjoZru dj ldrs gS] tks fizaV Hkh gksrk gSA A. fy[kkoV (Font) fy[kkoV dk Style fy[kkoV dh Size. B. Underline Options vkSj mlds Colours. C. Font Effects As Shadow, Super Script Etc. D. v{kjksa ds chp dh nwjhA\

2. gS

Paragraph:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ;fn geus ist esa Paragraph fy[kk rks mles fuEu ifjorZu dj ldrs gSA A. Indent:- Margin ds vykok ist ij Extra Space.

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B. Alignment:- ist ij Text dh Position. C. Line Spacing:- Lines ds chp dh nwjhA D. Paragraph Spacing:- iSjkxzkQ ds chp dh nwjhA

3.

Bullet And Numbering:- bl Option ls ge iSjkxzkQ ds kq: esa Bullet(Any Symbol) ;k Number yxk ldrs gSA

4.

Borders & Shading:-bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Selected iSjkxzkQ ds pkjksa vksj Border yxk ldrs gSA lkFk gh ist ds Back Ground dks Shaded(Coloured) Hkh dj ldrs gSA

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5. Columns:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Page dks Reticlly dbZ Hkkxksa esa Divide dj ldrs gSA 6. Tab:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Tab Button dh vyx&vyx Position ij Setting dj ldrs gS lkFk gh gj Tab Stop ij vyx Alignment Hkh Set dj ldrs gSA 7. Drop Cap:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls Paragraph ds igys v{kj dks Highlight ;k Big dj ldrs gSA bldk mnkgj.k ge fdlh Hkh Magazine ;k Newspaper esa ns[k ldrs gSaA

8.

Text Direction:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Text Box esa fy[ks x;s Text dh fnkk cny ldrs gSA

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Change Case:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ge Selected Text dk Case cny ldrs gSA eryc mls Smaller, Capital Letter vkfn esa cny ldrs gSA 10. Style:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ge vius eupkgs Font,Paragraph,Border Etc dks ,d uke ls ,d txg ij j[k ldrs gS] ftls ge tc pkgs Use dj ldsA bl Name dks tgkaW gekjk Favourite Option j[kk gS] Style dgrs gSA 9. TOOLS MENU:1. Spelling & Grammer:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge viuh File esa fy[ks x, Text dh Spelling vkSj Grammer dh xyfr;ksa dks [kkst ldrs gSaA vkSj mUgsa lq/kkj ldrs gSA

2. 3. okys 4.

Thesaurus:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge tc fdlh Word dh Meaning Synonymus vkSj vxj gS rks mldk Antonym Hkh tku ldrs gSA Hyphenation:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Line ds Last esa vkus cM+s kCnksa dks Dash yxk dj vyx dj ldrs gSA Word Count:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge ist ij fy[ks x;s Text esa Words, Letters, Pages, Lines vkfn dh la[;k Kkr dj ldrs gSA Auto Summarize:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge ist ij fy[ks x;s Text dk lkj cuk ldrs gSA Auto Correct:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls User ls vDlj gks tkus okyh

5. 6.

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xyfr;ksa lq/kkjk tk ldrk gSA ek= dqN Options dks Check djus ds lkFk gh dqN Lisky Type dh Formating Hkh dj ldrs gSA 7. Protect Document:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge vklkuh ls viuh File ds Text, Section vkSj Comment dks Password (dksbZ Hkh dksM+ tks flQZ nsus okys dks ekywe gks ;k fcuk Password fn, lqjf{kr dj ldrs gSA 8. Mail Merge:-;fn ges ,d gh eSVj okys Letter dks dksbZ vyx&vyx irs ij Hkstuk gS rks bl dk;Z dks Mail Merge dh lgk;rk ls dj ldrs gSA 9. Envelopes & Labels:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fyQkQs ij irs dks Nkius ;k ,d gh irs dk dbZ lkjk Label cukus ds fy, djrs gSA lkFk gh ge Envelope ;k Label ij fy[ks x, irs mldh Size vkfn dks Format Hkh dj ldrs gSaA 10. Letter Wizard:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge ,d Letter esa kkfey fd, tkus okys lkjs fcUnw izkIr dj ldrs gS vkSj mls ist ij Include dj ldrs gSA tgkaW ge ckn esa Letter fy[k ldrs gSA 11. Macrto:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Autotext dh rjg fdlh Text dks fy[kus ds lkFk gh Record Hkh dj ldrs gSA ftls tc pkgs Use dj ldrs gSA 12. Customeze:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Lo;a dk Toolbar ;k Menulear rS;kj dj ldrs gS] tgkaW gekjs eupkgs Option gksA TABLE MENU:1. Draw Table:- ;s ,d Toobar gS] ftldh lgk;rk ls ge Manually Table cuk ldrs gS vkSj mldh Formatting dj ldrs gSA

2. ldrs 3. 4.

Insert:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge System ls ,d Table eupkgs Row Column ds lkFk cuk ldrs gS vkSj mlds Column dh Size Adjust dj gSA Delete:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Table dh fdlh Hkh Row, Column ;k Cell dks Delete dj ldrs gSA Select:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Table mlds Row, Column ;k Cell dks Select dj ldrs gSA

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5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

Merge Cell:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Table dh Selected Cells dks ,d esa feyk ldrs gSA Split Cell:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls fdlh ,d Cell dks Row vkSj Columns esa rksM+ ldrs gSA Split Table:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Table dks nks Parts esa Break dj ldrs gS tgkaW Cursor j[kk gks ogha lsA Table Auto Format:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Table esa igys ls Set Style Apply dj ldrs gSA ;s Style MS-Word ds lkFk Attached vkrs gSA Distribute Rows Evenly:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge mu Row dh Width dks cjkcj dj ldrs gS] tks vkil esa NksVs&cM+as gSaA Distribute Columns Evenly:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge mu Columns dks cjkcj dj ldrs gS] tks vkil esa NksVs&cM+as gSaA Heading Row Repeat:-;fn ges Table dh fdlh Row dk Matter gj ist ij pkfg, rks bl Option dks Check dj nsus ij Selected Row gj ist ij Repeat gksxk] tSls&tSls Page cusA Convert:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls geus ;fn dksbZ Text Table esa ughas fy[kk gS] rks mls Table esa dj ldrs gSA lkFk gh ;fn Table dks Normal Text esa djuk gS rks ;g Hkh dj ldrs gSA Sort:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Table esa fy[ks x, Text dks Ascending ;k Descending Order esa j[k ldrs gSA Formula:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge Table ds Text esa Sum, Average, Count vkfn Formula dk mi;ksx djds Result izkIr dj ldrs gSA Hide/Show Gridlines:- ;fn geus Table dh Formatting dh gS rks bl Option ls ml Table dh Row ;k Column dh Divider Lines(Grid Lines) dks fn[kk ;k Nqik ldrs gSaA

11.

12.

13. 14.

15.

WINDOW MENU:1. New Window:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Text dks ,d nwljh Screen esa Hkh ns[k ldrs gSA 2. Arrange All:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge dbZ [kqyh gqbZ File dks ,d lkFk Screen ij ns[k ldrs gSA 3. Split:- bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge isst dks nks Window esa rksM+ ldrs gS] tgkaW Cursor gS ogkaW lsA

157

Track Changes (ctrl +shift)=> bl ij Click djus ls U;w Vsd feyrk gSAEnter djus ij taxt ds igys ykbu vkrk gS A ;s taxt red es fy[kuk gS AReviewing page par click djrs gh tks ist ij R fy[krs gS A ftl ;wtj ij ge work djrs gS A bl ;wtj dk chp es uke gS A tSls -------Inserted Kri 9-11-08 6:44:00pm blds vUrZxr Header and Footer changes/ text + Box +changes /Header and Footer tex +Box chanes footnote changes ;Endnote change ; bR;kfn izdkj taxt gksrs gS A;s Hkh ,d izdkj dk U;w taxt fMtkbu gksrk gS A Letters and Mailings =>Mail Merge cuku => Mail Merge ij click djrs gS ,d U;w ist izkIr gksrk gSA ftlesa ck;s lkbM esa Mail Merge dk Box open gksrk gS mlesa lcls fups ++++++++++=> stape 1 oF 6 ds fups => Next; startingdocument ij click gS Next; select Recipients ij click djrs gS A Next ; write your letter ij click djrs gSA blha Box Select recipients esa Type a New Address List dk ,d Box Open gksrk gSaA blesa dk;Z dks Hkjus ds fy, cgqr lkjs taxt fn[krk gS ftl taxt dks gVkuk pkgrs gSA Castomize Address List Box open gksrk gSa taxt dks gkVkuk A mls select djds Delete ij click djrs gh yes ij Click djrs gh yes ij Click rqjUr dj nsrs gS A ftls ge taxt dks gVkuk pkgrs gSA og taxt gV tkrk gS fdlh Hkh taxt dks mij j[kuk ;k fups djuk gS rks Move UP mij ds fy,s Move Down fups ds fy,s ;s lc djus ds ckn Customize AddressLast Box es OK ij click dj nsxs A Now AddressList --- Box es ftruk select Taxt j[ks jgsxs ogh Taxt fn QkeZ ds fy,s fn[krk gS Amlh QkeZ dks Fil UP djrs gS A vkSj nks ckj Enter djrs gh New farm feyrk gS ftls ge fQj Fit up djrs gS A ;g fdz;k rc rd djsxs tc rd vkidks ftrus yksxks dks ,d fg eSlst dbZ yksxks dks Hkstuk gS AlHkh QkeZ dks Hkj ysrs gS rks Now Farm fn[krk gS A vkSj ge vzzzzzc QkeZ ugh Hkjuk gS rks Delete Entry ij ,d Click djrs gh Delete This Entry ij yes djuk gksrk gS A Close djrs gh Save Addres List dk Box open gksrk gS --- File name es dksb Hkh uke fy[k dj Save ij Click dj nsrs gS A Mail merge recipients dh Box open gksrk gS bles Select All ij Click djrs gS vkSj ok dj nsrs gSAMail Merge tool box eas nk;s lkbZM ls 6 os ij Insert merge fields ij Click djrs gS A Insert merge fildes dk iSdst es ls ftrus Taxt fn[krk gS A lc ij ,d ckj Select djds Insert T;ks gh djrs gS A

158

gekjs ist ij og Select taxt vk tkrk gS AlHkh taxt dks Insert djus ds ckn Closedjrs gS A ist ij lHkh taxt ,d ykbu es gksrk gSA Enter ds lkFk ,d ds fups ,d dj nsrs gS A ftls ges viuk uke ds lkFk iqjk irk Hkjus ij gh lHkh esy eZt ij tk;sxk A esy eZt tool bar ij ck,s lkbM ls 4 os Marge to now docoument ij click djrs gS A All vkSj ok djrs gS A T;ks gh djrs gh lHkh ds ikl fy[kk gwvk eSlst igqp tkrk gS A lHkh dks ns[kus ds fy,s Scoral bar ls fups djsxs A Customize (fgUnhvxzth ,d lkFk fy[kuk ) customize dks ok djrs commands is click djrs gS keyboars es tkdj cate gories es Font ij click djrs gS vkSj Font es Arial ij click djrs gS parss now shortcut key es F2 nck dj Assign ij Click dj nsxs vkSj og current keys es pyrk gS kurti dev 010 dks select djrs gS vkSj press new shortcut key f3 nckdj Assigh ij click djrs gh Curren key es pyk tkrk gS A vkSj dksb Hkkkk dks Select djuk gS A rks blh rjg djrs gS vkSj djus ds ckn fQj Close djrs gS rc ge New page ij fy[krs gS rks Arial vkSj f3 nckdj fy[krs gS rks Kruti dev 010 fy[krs gS Arial (vxzsth ) Kuti dev 010 (fgUnh )A

Auto Correct Opetions (fgunh fy[kus ls psUt gks jgk gS rks lgh djuk ) Aut corred optionsij click dj nsxs vls 6 Box ij Chak yxk gksrk gS ml ij ls Chak dks gVk nsxsA Correct Two Initial Capi tals Capitalize First Letter of Sehtences Capitalize Fist lettes of table calls Capitalize nema of boy Capitalize accidental usage of caps look kay Replaca text as you type 6 box eas Chak yxk gksrk gS A blh 6box dks [kkyh djds ok dj nsxs A

Auto Correct Options es --Auto text ---Enter Auto Text entiries here bls box es Krishan KumarSingh fy[k dj Add dj ds ok dj nsus ls ist ij dgh Hkh uke fy[kuk krishan (press enter to insart) ;gk ij enter key dks nckrs gSA ;gk ij iwjk uke krisha kumar singh fy[k nsaxkA

159

Insert Hiyperlink ==>lcls igys View ;wed liyout ok djrs gS Name fy[krs gS name dks select djds Insert Hyperink nsrs tSls Photo data filie save djus ds fy;s file name krishan save as types wed page Save ---open enter net explorer krishana File ;open ;browse ;name ;open -----SHORTCUT KEY

Shortcut

Command ( MICROSOFT WORD )

In the Help task pane


Microsoft Word 2003

F1 F6 TAB SHFT+TAB ENTER DOWN ARROW and UP ARROW RIGHT ARROW and LEFT ARROW ALT+LEFT ARROW ALT+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+SPACEBAR CTRL+F1 RIGHT ARROW

Display the Help task pane. Switch between the Help task pane and Word. Select the next item in the Help task pane. Select the previous item in the Help task pane. Perform the action for the selected item. In a table of contents, select the next and previous item, respectively. In a table of contents, expand and collapse the selected item, respectively. Move back to the previous task pane. Move forward to the next task pane. Open the menu of task panes. Close and reopen the current task pane. Expand a +/- list.

160

Shortcut LEFT ARROW

Command ( MICROSOFT WORD ) Collapse a +/- list.

In the Help window


Microsoft Word 2003

TAB

Select the next hidden text or hyperlink, or Show All or Hide All at the top of a topic. Select the previous hidden text or hyperlink, or the Browser View button at the top of a Microsoft Office Web site article. Perform the action for the selected Show All, Hide All, hidden text, or hyperlink. Move back to the previous Help topic. Move forward to the next Help topic. Print the current Help topic.

SHFT+TAB

ENTER

ALT+LEFT ARROW ALT+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+P

UP ARROW AND DOWN ARROW PAGE UP AND PAGE DOWN ALT+U

Scroll small amounts up and down, respectively, within the currently displayed Help topic. Scroll larger amounts up and down, respectively, within the currently displayed Help topic. Change the Help window from being separate from (untiled) to connected to (tiled) Word. Display a menu of commands for the Help window; requires that the Help window have active focus (click an item in the Help window).

SHFT+F10

161

Access and use menus and toolbars


Microsoft Word 2003

F10 or ALT

Select the menu bar (menu bar: The horizontal bar below the title bar that contains the names of menus. A menu bar can be the built-in menu bar or a custom menu bar.), or close an open menu and submenu at the same time. Select a task pane or toolbar after pressing F10 or ALT to select The menu bar. Pressing the keys repeatedly moves the focus among the open toolbars, menu bars, and task pane. When a toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, press ALT and then SHIFT+F10.) or menu bar is selected, select the next or previous button or menu. Open the selected menu, or perform the action for the selected button or command. Display the shortcut menu (shortcut menu: A menu that shows a list of commands relevant to a particular item. To display a shortcut menu, right-click an item or press SHIFT+F10.) for the selected item. Display the title bar shortcut menu. When a menu or submenu (submenu: A menu that appears when a user points to a command on a higher-level menu.) is open, select the next or previous command. Select the menu to the left or right. When a submenu is open, switch between the main menu and the submenu. Select the first or last command on the menu or submenu.

CTRL+TAB or CTRL+SHFT+TAB

TAB or SHFT+TAB

ENTER

SHFT+F10

ALT+SPACEBAR DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW

LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROW HOME or END

162 ESC Close an open menu. When a submenu is open, close only the submenu. Open the selected menu.

SHFT+DOWN ARROW CTRL+DOWN ARROW ALT+CTRL+= (equal sign)

When a shortened menu is open, display the full set of commands

Add a toolbar button to a menu. When you type this shortcut key and then click a toolbar button, Microsoft Word adds the button to the appropriate menu. For example, click Bullets on the Formatting toolbar to add the Bullets command to the Format men Remove a command from a menu. When you type this shortcut key and then select a menu command, the command is removed. You can add the menu command back to the menu if you change your mind. Customize the shortcut key for a menu command. When you type this shortcut key and then select a menu command, the Customize Keyboard dialog box opens so you can add, change, or remove the shortcut key.

ALT+CTRL+- (dash key)

ALT+CTRL++ (plus key on numeric keypad)

Access and use task panes


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+F1 F6

Open the task pane or hide the current task pane.

Move to a task pane (task pane: A window within an Office application that provides commonly used commands. Its location and small size allow you to use these commands while still workin on your files.) from another pane in the program window. (You may need to press F6 more than once.) Note If pressing F6 doesn't display the task pane you want, try pressing ALT to place focus on the menu bar, and then pressing

163 CTRL+TAB to move to the task pane. In addition, if you open a dialog box from the Reveal Formatting task pane, the focus may be in your document after you close the dialog box, rather than in the task pane. You can use F6 or CTRL+TAB to return to the task pane. CTRL+TAB When a menu or toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, press ALT and then SHIFT+F10.) is active, move to a task pane. (You may need to press CTRL+TAB more than once.) Open the menu of task panes. Go to the Getting Started task pane. Reverse the sequence of task panes you opened. Repeat the sequence of task panes you opened.

CTRL+SPACEBAR ALT+HOME ALT+LEFT ARROW ALT+RIGHT ARROW ESC TAB or SHFT+TAB

Close a menu if one is currently open, or go back to the document When a task pane is active, select the next or previous option in the task pane. Move among choices in a selected submenu; move among certain options in a group of options. Open the selected menu, or perform the action assigned to the selected button. Open a shortcut menu (shortcut menu: A menu that shows a list of commands relevant to a particular item. To display a shortcut menu, right-click an item or press SHIFT+F10.) in a document; open a drop-down menu for the selected gallery item. When a menu or submenu is visible, select the first or last command on the menu or submenu.

DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW SPACEBAR or ENTER SHFT+F10

HOME or END

164 PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN CTRL+RIGHT ARROW or CTRL+LEFT ARROW CTRL+HOME or CTRL+END Scroll up or down in the selected gallery list.

Expand or collapse a collapsible item in the gallery list.

Move to the top or bottom of the selected gallery list.

Use dialog boxes


Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+F6

Move from an open dialog box back to the document for dialog boxes such as Find and Replace that support this behavior. Move to the next option or option group. Move to the previous option or option group. Switch to the next tab in a dialog box. Switch to the previous tab in a dialog box. Move between options in an open drop-down list, or between options in a group of options. Perform the action assigned to the selected button; check or clear the selected check box. Open the list if it is closed and move to that option in the list.

TAB SHFT+TAB CTRL+TAB CTRL+SHFT+TAB Arrow keys

SPACEBAR

First letter of an optn in a drop-down list ALT+ the letter underlined in an optn

Select an option; select or clear a check box.

165 ALT+DOWN ARROW ESC Open a selected drop-down list. Close a selected drop-down list; cancel a command and close a dialog box. Run the selected command.

ENTER

Use edit boxes within dialog boxes


Microsoft Word 2003

HOME END LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROW CTRL+LEFT ARROW CTRL+RIGHT ARROW SHFT+LEFT ARROW SHFT+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+SHFT+LEFT ARROW CTRL+SHFT+RIGHT ARROW SHFT+HOME SHFT+END

Move to the beginning of the entry. Move to the end of the entry. Move one character to the left or right.

Move one word to the left. Move one word to the right.

Select or unselect one character to the left. Select or unselect one character to the right.

Select or unselect one word to the left.

Select or unselect one word to the right.

Select from the insertion point to the beginning of the entry. Select from the insertion point to the end of the entry.

166

Use the Open, Save As, and Insert Picture dialog boxes
Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+F12 F12 ALT+1 ALT+2

Display the Open dialog box. Display the Save As dialog box. Go to the previous folder (). Open the folder up one level from the open folder (Up One Level button ). Close the dialog box and open your World Wide Web (World Wide Web (WWW): The multimedia branch of the Internet that presents not only text, but also graphics, sound, and video. On the Web, users can easily jump from item to item, page to page, or site to site by using hyperlinks.) search page (Search the Web button ). Delete the selected folder or file (Delete button ). Create a new subfolder in the open folder (Create New Folder button ). Switch between List, Details, Properties, Preview Thumbnails, Tiles, and Icons views (click the arrow next to Views ). Show the Tools menu (Tools button). Display a shortcut menu (shortcut menu: A menu that shows a list of commands relevant to a particular item. To display a shortcut menu, right-click an item or press SHIFT+F10.) for a selected item such as a folder or file. Move between options or areas in the dialog box. Open the Look in or Save in list.

ALT+3

ALT+4 ALT+5

ALT+6

ALT+7 or ALT+L SHFT+F10

TAB F4 or ALT+I

167 F5 Update the files visible in the Open or Save As dialog box (File menu).

Common tasks done in a Microsoft Word document


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+SHFT+SPACEBAR CTRL+HYPHEN CTRL+B CTRL+I CTRL+U CTRL+SHFT+< CTRL+SHFT+> CTRL+SPACEBAR CTRL+C CTRL+X CTRL+V CTRL+Z CTRL+Y

Create a nonbreaking space. Create a nonbreaking hyphen. Make letters bold. Make letters italic. Make letters underline. Decrease font size. Increase font size. Remove paragraph or character formatting. Copy the selected text or object. Cut the selected text or object. Paste text or an object. Undo the last action. Redo the last action.

Speech and handwriting recognition


Microsoft Word 2003

168 Left ALT+SHFT +V +T +C +H ALT+~ Switch between languages or keyboard layouts. Switch microphone on or off. Switch between Voice Command mode and Dictation mode. Display a list of correction alternatives. Turn handwriting on or off. Turn Japanese Input Method Editor (IME) (IME: A program that enters East Asian text (Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, or Korean) into programs by converting keystrokes into complex East Asian characters. The IME is treated as an alternate type of keyboard layout.) on 101 keyboard on or off. Turn Korean IME on 101 keyboard on or off. Turn Chinese IME on 101 keyboard on or off.

Right ALT CTRL+SPACEBAR

Sending e-mail messages


Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+S

Send the active document (active document: The document in which you're working. Text you type or graphics you insert in Microsoft Word appear in the active document. The title bar of the active document is highlighted.) or message. Open the Address Book.

CTRL+SHFT+B ALT+K, CTRL+K

When the insertion point is in the message header, check the names on the To, Cc, and Bcc lines against the Address Book. Open the Address Book in the To field.

ALT+. (period)

169 ALT+C When the insertion point is in the message header, open the Address Book in the Cc field. If the Bcc field is visible, open the Address Book in the Bcc field. To display the Bcc field, open the Address Book for any field, and insert or type a name in the Bcc box. Go to the Subject field. Open the Microsoft Outlook Message Options dialog box. Create a message flag. When the insertion point is in the message header, move to the next box in the e-mail header. When the last box in the e-mail header is active, TAB moves the insertion point to the body of the document or message. Select the previous field or button in the e-mail header. When the insertion point is in the message header, select the Send button. You can then use the arrow keys to move to the other buttons. To perform the action for the selected button or command, press ENTER.

ALT+B

ALT+J ALT+P CTRL+SHFT+G TAB

SHFT+TAB CTRL+TAB

Create, view, and save documents


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+N

Create a new document of the same type as the current or most recent document. Open a document. Close a document. Split the document window.

CTRL+O CTRL+W ALT+CTRL+S

170 ALT+SHFT+C CTRL+S Remove the document window split. Save a document.

Find, replace, and browse through text


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+F ALT+CTRL+Y CTRL+H CTRL+G

Find text, formatting, and special items. Repeat find (after closing Find and Replace window). Replace text, specific formatting, and special items. Go to a page, bookmark, footnote, table, comment, graphic, or other location. Switch between documents or sections of a document, and between a document and an open e-mail message if you use Word as your e-mail editor. Open a list of browse options; use the arrow keys to select an option, and then press ENTER to browse through a document by using the selected option.

ALT+CTRL+Z

ALT+CTRL+HOME

Undo and redo actions


Microsoft Word 2003

ESC CTRL+Z CTRL+Y

Cancel an action. Undo an action. Redo or repeat an action.

Switch to another view

171

Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+CTRL+P

Switch to print layout view (Print Layout view: A view of a document or other object as it will appear when you print it. For example, items such as headers, footnotes, columns, and text boxes appear in their actual positions.). Switch to outline view (outline view: A view that shows the headings of a document indented to represent their level in the document's structure. You can also use outline view to work with master documents.). Switch to normal view (normal view: A view that shows text formatting and a simplified page layout. Normal view is convenient for most editing and formatting tasks.). Switch to Reading View. Expand or collapse subdocuments in a master document.

ALT+CTRL+O

ALT+CTRL+N

ALT+R CTRL+\

Outline view
Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+SHFT+LEFT ARROW ALT+SHFT+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+SHFT+N ALT+SHFT+UP ARROW ALT+SHFT+DOWN ARROW

Promote a paragraph.

Demote a paragraph.

Demote to body text. Move selected paragraphs up.

Move selected paragraphs down.

172 ALT+SHFT+PLUS SIGN ALT+SHFT+MINUS SIGN ALT+SHFT+A The slash (/) key on the numeric keypad ALT+SHFT+L ALT+SHFT+1 ALT+SHFT+n CTRL+TAB Expand text under a heading.

Collapse text under a heading.

Expand or collapse all text or headings. Hide or display character formatting.

Show the first line of body text or all body text. Show all headings with the Heading 1 style. Show all headings up to Heading n. Insert a tab character.

Printing and previewing documents


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+P ALT+CTRL+I

Print a document. Switch in or out of print preview (print preview: A view of a document as it will appear when you print it.). Move around the preview page when zoomed in. Move by one preview page when zoomed out.

Arrow keys PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN CTRL+HOME CTRL+END

Move to the first preview page when zoomed out. Move to the last preview page when zoomed out.

173

Reviewing documents
Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+CTRL+M

Insert a comment (comment: A note or annotation that an author or reviewer adds to a document. Microsoft Word displays the comment in a balloon in the margin of the document or in the Reviewing Pane.). Turn track changes (tracked change: A mark that shows where a deletion, insertion, or other editing change has been made in a document.) on or off. Close the Reviewing Pane if it is open.

CTRL+SHFT+E

ALT+SHFT+C

Reading layout view


Microsoft Word 2003

HOME END Number, then ENTER CTRL+] CTRL+[ ESC

Go to beginning of document. Go to end of document. Go to page number. Increase the size of selected text by one point. Decrease the size of selected text by one point. Exit reading layout view.

References, footnotes, and endnotes


Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+SHFT+O ALT+SHFT+I

Mark a table of contents entry. Mark a table of authorities entry (citation).

174 ALT+SHFT+X ALT+CTRL+F ALT+CTRL+D Mark an index entry. Insert a footnote. Insert an endnote.

Working with Web pages


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+K

Insert a hyperlink (hyperlink: Colored and underlined text or a graphic that you click to go to a file, a location in a file, a Web page on the World Wide Web, or a Web page on an intranet. Hyperlinks can also go to newsgroups and to Gopher, Telnet, and FTP sites.). Go back one page. Go forward one page. Refresh.

ALT+LEFT ARROW ALT+RIGHT ARROW F9

Delete text and graphics


Microsoft Word 2003

BACKSPACE CTRL+BACKSPACE DELETE CTRL+DELETE CTRL+X CTRL+Z

Delete one character to the left. Delete one word to the left. Delete one character to the right. Delete one word to the right. Cut selected text to the Office Clipboard. Undo the last action.

175 CTRL+F3 Cut to the Spike (Spike: A special AutoText entry that stores multiple deletions. Microsoft Word appends one item to another until you paste the contents as a group in a new location in your document. You can also use the Microsoft Office Clipboard to get the same result.).

Copy and move text and graphics


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+C CTRL+C, CTRL+C F2 (then move the insertion point and press ENTER) ALT+F3

Copy text or graphics. Display the Office Clipboard. Move text or graphics.

Create AutoText (AutoText: A storage location for text or graphics you want to use again, such as a standard contract clause or a long distribution list. Each selection of text or graphics is recorded as an AutoText entry and is assigned a unique name.). Paste the Office Clipboard contents. Paste the Spike (Spike: A special AutoText entry that stores multiple deletions. Microsoft Word appends one item to another until you paste the contents as a group in a new location in your document. You can also use the Microsoft Office Clipboard to get the same result.) contents. Copy the header or footer used in the previous section of the document.

CTRL+V CTRL+SHFT+F3

ALT+SHFT+R

Insert special characters


Microsoft Word 2003

176 CTRL+F9 ENTER (after typing the first few characters of the AutoText entry name and when the ScreenTip appears) SHFT+ENTER CTRL+ENTER CTRL+SHFT+ENTER ALT+CTRL+MINUS SIGN CTRL+MINUS SIGN CTRL+HYPHEN CTRL+SHFT+HYPHEN CTRL+SHFT+SPACEBAR ALT+CTRL+C ALT+CTRL+R ALT+CTRL+T ALT+CTRL+PERIOD CTRL+`, ` CTRL+', ' CTRL+`, SHFT+' A field An AutoText (AutoText: A storage location for text or graphics you want to use again, such as a standard contract clause or a long distribution list. Each selection of text or graphics is recorded as an AutoText entry and is assigned a unique name.) entry A line break A page break A section break An em dash An en dash An optional hyphen A nonbreaking hyphen A nonbreaking space The copyright symbol The registered trademark symbol The trademark symbol An ellipsis A single opening quotation mark A single closing quotation mark Double opening quotation marks

177 CTRL+', SHFT+' Double closing quotation marks

Insert characters by using character codes


Microsoft Word 2003

The character code, ALT+X

The Unicode character for the specified Unicode (hexadecimal) character code. For example, to insert the euro currency symbol (), type 20AC, and then hold down the ALT key and press X. The ANSI (ANSI character set: An 8-bit character set used by Microsoft Windows that allows you to represent up to 256 characters (0 through 255) by using your keyboard. The ASCII character set is a subset of the ANSI set.) character for the specified ANSI (decimal) character code. For example, to insert the euro currency symbol, hold down the ALT key and press 0128 on the numeric keypad.

ALT+the character code (on the numeric keypad)

Extend a selection
Microsoft Word 2003

F8 F8, and then press LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROW F8 (press once to select a word, twice to select a sentence, and so on) SHFT+F8 ESC SHFT+RIGHT ARROW

Turn extend mode on. Select the nearest character.

Increase the size of a selection.

Reduce the size of a selection. Turn extend mode off. One character to the right

178 SHFT+LEFT ARROW CTRL+SHFT+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+SHFT+LEFT ARROW SHFT+END SHFT+HOME SHFT+DOWN ARROW SHFT+UP ARROW CTRL+SHFT+DOWN ARROW CTRL+SHFT+UP ARROW SHFT+PAGE DOWN SHFT+PAGE UP CTRL+SHFT+HOME CTRL+SHFT+END ALT+CTRL+SHFT+PAGE DOWN CTRL+A CTRL+SHFT+F8, and then use the arrow keys; press ESC to cancel One character to the left To the end of a word

To the beginning of a word

To the end of a line To the beginning of a line One line down One line up To the end of a paragraph

To the beginning of a paragraph

One screen down One screen up To the beginning of a document To the end of a document To the end of a window

To include the entire document A vertical block of text

179 selection mode F8+arrow keys; press ESC to cancel selection mode To a specific location in a document

Select text and graphics in a table


Microsoft Word 2003

TAB SHFT+TAB Hold down SHFT and press an arrow key repeatedly Click in the column's top or bottom cell. Hold down SHFT and press the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW key repeatedly CTRL+SHFT+F8, and then use the arrow keys; press ESC to cancel selection mode SHFT+F8 ALT+5 on the numeric keypad (with NUM LOCK off)

Select the next cell's contents. Select the preceding cell's contents. Extend a selection to adjacent cells.

Select a column.

Extend a selection (or block).

Remove the selection. Select an entire table.

180

Move the insertion point


Microsoft Word 2003

LEFT ARROW RIGHT ARROW CTRL+LEFT ARROW CTRL+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+UP ARROW CTRL+DOWN ARROW SHFT+TAB TAB UP ARROW DOWN ARROW END HOME ALT+CTRL+PAGE UP ALT+CTRL+PAGE DOWN PAGE UP

One character to the left One character to the right One word to the left One word to the right

One paragraph up One paragraph down

One cell to the left (in a table) One cell to the right (in a table) Up one line Down one line To the end of a line To the beginning of a line To the top of the window

To the end of the window

Up one screen (scrolling)

181 PAGE DOWN CTRL+PAGE DOWN CTRL+PAGE UP CTRL+END CTRL+HOME SHFT+F5 SHFT+F5 Down one screen (scrolling) To the top of the next page To the top of the previous page To the end of a document To the beginning of a document To a previous revision After opening a document, to the location it was in when the document was last closed

Move around in a table


Microsoft Word 2003

TAB SHFT+TAB ALT+HOME ALT+END ALT+PAGE UP ALT+PAGE DOWN UP ARROW DOWN ARROW

Next cell in a row Previous cell in a row First cell in a row Last cell in a row First cell in a column Last cell in a column Previous row Next row

Insert paragraphs and tab characters in a table

182

Microsoft Word 2003

ENTER CTRL+TAB

New paragraphs in a cell Tab characters in a cell

Copy formatting
Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+SHFT+C CTRL+SHFT+V

Copy formatting from text. Apply copied formatting to text.

Change or resize the font


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+SHFT+F CTRL+SHFT+P CTRL+SHFT+> CTRL+SHFT+< CTRL+] CTRL+[

Change the font. Change the font size. Increase the font size. Decrease the font size. Increase the font size by 1 point. Decrease the font size by 1 point.

Apply character formats


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+D

Change the formatting of characters (Font command, Format menu).

183 SHFT+F3 CTRL+SHFT+A CTRL+B CTRL+U CTRL+SHFT+W CTRL+SHFT+D CTRL+SHFT+H CTRL+I CTRL+SHFT+K CTRL+EQUAL SIGN CTRL+SHFT+PLUS SIGN CTRL+SPACEBAR CTRL+SHFT+Q Change the case of letters. Format letters as all capitals. Apply bold formatting. Apply an underline. Underline words but not spaces. Double-underline text. Apply hidden text formatting. Apply italic formatting. Format letters as small capitals. Apply subscript formatting (automatic spacing). Apply superscript formatting (automatic spacing).

Remove manual character formatting. Change the selection to the Symbol font.

View and copy text formats


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+SHFT+* (asterisk) SHFT+F1 (then click the text whose formatting you want to review)

Display nonprinting characters.

Review text formatting.

184 CTRL+SHFT+C CTRL+SHFT+V Copy formats. Paste formats.

Set line spacing


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+1 CTRL+2 CTRL+5 CTRL+0 (zero)

Single-space lines Double-space lines Set 1.5-line spacing Add or remove one line space preceding a paragraph

Align paragraphs
Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+E CTRL+J CTRL+L CTRL+R CTRL+M CTRL+SHFT+M CTRL+T CTRL+SHFT+T CTRL+Q

Center a paragraph. Justify a paragraph. Left align a paragraph. Right align a paragraph. Indent a paragraph from the left. Remove a paragraph indent from the left. Create a hanging indent. Reduce a hanging indent. Remove paragraph formatting.

185

Apply paragraph styles


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+SHFT+S ALT+CTRL+K CTRL+SHFT+N ALT+CTRL+1 ALT+CTRL+2 ALT+CTRL+3 CTRL+SHFT+L

Apply a style. Start AutoFormat. Apply the Normal style. Apply the Heading 1 style. Apply the Heading 2 style. Apply the Heading 3 style. Apply the List style.

Performing a mail merge


Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+SHFT+K ALT+SHFT+N ALT+SHFT+M ALT+SHFT+E ALT+SHFT+F

Preview a mail merge. Merge a document. Print the merged document. Edit a mail-merge data document. Insert a merge field.

Working with fields


Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+SHFT+D

Insert a DATE field (field: A set of codes that instructs Microsoft

186 Word to insert text, graphics, page numbers, and other material into a document automatically. For example, the DATE field inserts the current date.). ALT+CTRL+L ALT+SHFT+P ALT+SHFT+T CTRL+F9 CTRL+SHFT+F7 F9 CTRL+SHFT+F9 SHFT+F9 Insert a LISTNUM field. Insert a PAGE field. Insert a TIME field. Insert an empty field. Update linked information in a Microsoft Word source document. Update selected fields. Unlink a field.

Switch between a selected field code (field code: Placeholder text that shows where specified information from your data source will appear; the elements in a field that generate a field's result. The field code includes the field characters, field type, and instructions.) and its result (field results: Text or graphics inserted in a document when Microsoft Word carries out a field's instructions. When you print the document or hide field codes, the field results replace the field codes.). Switch between all field codes and their results. Run GOTOBUTTON or MACROBUTTON from the field that displays the field results. Go to the next field. Go to the previous field. Lock a field.

ALT+F9 ALT+SHFT+F9

F11 SHFT+F11 CTRL+F11

187 CTRL+SHFT+F11 Unlock a field.

Function keys
Microsoft Word 2003

F1 F2 F3

Get Help or visit Microsoft Office Online. Move text or graphics.

Insert an AutoText (AutoText: A storage location for text or graphi you want to use again, such as a standard contract clause or a long distribution list. Each selection of text or graphics is recorded as an AutoText entry and is assigned a unique name.) entry (after Microsoft Word displays the entry). Repeat the last action. Choose the Go To command (Edit menu). Go to the next pane or frame. Choose the Spelling command (Tools menu). Extend a selection. Update selected fields. Activate the menu bar. Go to the next field. Choose the Save As command (File menu).

F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12

SHIFT+Function key
Microsoft Word 2003

188 SHFT+F1 SHFT+F2 SHFT+F3 SHFT+F4 SHFT+F5 SHFT+F6 SHFT+F7 SHFT+F8 SHFT+F9 SHFT+F10 SHFT+F11 SHFT+F12 Start context-sensitive Help or reveal formatting. Copy text. Change the case of letters. Repeat a Find or Go To action. Move to the last change. Go to the previous pane or frame.

Choose the Thesaurus command (Tools menu, Language submen Shrink a selection. Switch between a field code and its result. Display a shortcut menu. Go to the previous field. Choose the Save command (File menu).

CTRL Function key


Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+F2 CTRL+F3

Choose the Print Preview command (File menu). Cut to the Spike (Spike: A special AutoText entry that stores multipledeletions. Microsoft Word appends one item to another until you paste the contents as a group in a new location in your document. You can also use the Microsoft Office Clipboard to get the same result.). Close the window.

CTRL+F4

189 CTRL+F5 Restore the document window size (for example, after maximizing it). Go to the next window. Choose the Move command (title bar shortcut menu). Choose the Size command (title bar shortcut menu). Insert an empty field. Maximize the document window. Lock a field. Choose the Open command (File menu).

CTRL+F6 CTRL+F7 CTRL+F8 CTRL+F9 CTRL+F10 CTRL+F11 CTRL+F12

CTRL+SHIFT+Function key
Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+SHFT+F3

Insert the contents of the Spike (Spike: A special AutoText entry that stores multiple deletions. Microsoft Word appends one item toanother until you paste the contents as a group in a new location in your document. You can also use the Microsoft Office Clipboard to get the same result.). Edit a bookmark. Go to the previous window. Update linked information in a Microsoft Word source document. Extend a selection or block (then press an arrow key). Unlink a field. Unlock a field.

CTRL+SHFT+F5 CTRL+SHFT+F6 CTRL+SHFT+F7 CTRL+SHFT+F8 CTRL+SHFT+F9 CTRL+SHFT+F11

190 CTRL+SHFT+F12 Choose the Print command (File menu).

ALT Function key


Microsoft Word 2003

ALT+F1 ALT+F3

Go to the next field. Create an AutoText (AutoText: A storage location for text or graphics you want to use again, such as a standard contract clause or a long distribution list. Each selection of text or graphics is recorded as an AutoText entry and is assigned a unique name.)entry. Quit Microsoft Word. Restore the program window size. Move from an open dialog box back to the document for dialog boxes such as Find and Replace that support this behavior. Find the next misspelling or grammatical error. The Check spelling as you type check box must be selected (Tools menu, Options dialog box, Spelling & Grammar tab). Run a macro. Switch between all field codes and their results. Maximize the program window. Display Microsoft Visual Basic code.

ALT+F4 ALT+F5 ALT+F6

ALT+F7

ALT+F8 ALT+F9 ALT+F10 ALT+F11

ALT+SHIFT+Function key
Microsoft Word 2003

191 ALT+SHFT+F1 ALT+SHFT+F2 ALT+SHFT+F9 Go to the previous field. Choose the Save command (File menu). Run GOTOBUTTON or MACROBUTTON from the field that displays the field results. Display the menu or message for a smart tag. If more than one smart tag is present, switch to the next smart tag and display its menu or message. Start the Microsoft Script Editor.

ALT+SHFT+F10

ALT+SHFT+F11

CTRL+ALT+Function key
Microsoft Word 2003

CTRL+ALT+F1 CTRL+ALT+F2

Display Microsoft System Information. Open command (File menu).

CURICULLAM-VITAE
Krishan Kumar Singh H. NO Warighari Ramnagar Varanasi-221008 Mo. No.9335476980

192

Educational Qualification
High School 62.83% U.P. Board ,year 2006 Subject Hindi, English , Mathematics, Science, Social Sciece, Drawing Inter-midiate65% U.P. Board, year 2008. Subject Hindi, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology B.A Oparing

Extra Curricular activities


DCA DDA TALLY TYPING ACHNP Programming 1 Years Computer Fandamental, M.S.DOS, M.S.Office, Windose-XP, Internet,E-Mail, Multimedia Photoshop 7.0, Corel Draw 11.0, Pagemaker 7.0 Ver. 5.4, 6.3, 7.2, With Vat etc. Hindi - 45. English 60. Hardware & Networking

C/C++
Deploma Elactronic Cours

Personal Data
Name Address Fathers name Mothers name Date of Birth Category Marital Status Language Known Hobby Contact No. Date : Place : Signature : : : : : : : : : : Krishan Kumar Singh H.N.Warighari, Ramnagar Varanasi-221008 Sri .Bir Bhadur Singh Smt .Sabetri Devi 16-11-1990 O.B.C Unmarried Hindi and English Listens music and Dance 9335476980

CURRICULUM VITAC
Alok Kumar Gautam
Add: - H. No. Behind R.K.G. Govt. Inter College Ramnger, Varanasi. Mob No: Email Add: -

193

Career Objective:To obtain a challenging growth oriented position where in I can prove my worth to the organization with my knowledge.

Work Experience:
Computer teaching & lad assistant in OM-HI TECH COMPUTER Ramnager, Varanasi. From 1st June 2008 to 31st August 2008. Computer teaching & lad assistant in INTERNATION COMPUTER INSTITUTES Ramnager, Varanasi. From 1st August 2008 to till now.

Educational Profile: B.Com 1st years Appears from H.P.G. College Maidagin Varanasi.(2008-09) Intermediate (Comers) from U.P.Board with 2nd division (2007-2008). High School from U.P.Board with 2nd division (2004-2005) Special Qualities:
Being on time and prepared Willing to Learn Problem Solving

PERSONAL DETAILS
Name Fathers Name Date of Birth Address Gender Marital Status Hobbies Date:- Place:- Signature : : : : : : : Alok Kumar Gautam Ashok Kumar Gautam 08 Aug 1990. H. No. 4/490, Behind R.K.G. Govt. Inter College Ramnger, Varanasi. Male Unmarried Cricket

EXCEL
M.S.-EXCEL:-,d ,slk Application Software gS ftlls Document dh txg Work Book feyrh gS] ftles dbZ lhV gksrh gSA izR;sd khV esa 65536 Rows vkSj A ls IV rd Colums 256 gksrh gS Excel dk iz;ksax Record Maintainence Paybill cukus vkSj Record dks Conditionally [kksyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

194

Title Bar Menu Bar Standard Bar Formatting Bar Formula Bar odZkhV

U;wuee vf/kdre cUn

Microsoft office excel =>


Microsoft office excel dk iz;ksx lHkh izdkj ds calulation djus rFkk lqpukvksa dh lwfp;ksa dks dzec) lwfp;ksa esa O;ofLFkr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS A bldk Extension name . XLS gksrk gS A

data base =>

data ;k lwpukvksa ds lewg dks data base dgk tkrk gS A


Range =>
,d work sheet esa 2;k 2 ls vf/kd cells ds selection dks range dgrs gS ftlesa ,d gh row rFkk column tMs dksrs gS A

Cell reference =>


dbZ cell ds lewg dks cell reference dgrs gS ,ftlesa 2;k 2ls vf/kd row rFkk column tqMs gksrs gS A

Farmula =>
Microsoft office excel esa bldk iz;ksx calculation djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS A formula geskk cjkcj ds fpUg ls izkjEHk gksrk gS A rFkk blesa vkijsVjks ( +, - , / , x) dk i;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A

Name box =>

195

;g Formulabar ds ck;s rjQ gksrk gS ,blesa select fd;s gq;s call , chart drawing object iznZfkr gksrs gS A

Formulabar =>
;g farmation toolbar ds Bhd fups gksrk gS ftlesa farmula Hkjs jgrs gS A

Calculation operator =>


farmula ds izR;sd rRo ds ifj.kke ds fy, operatoer dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A ;g 4 izdkj ds gksrs gS -: 1. Arithmetic operator 2. Comparision operator 3. Text operator 4. Reference opertor

1. Arithmetic opertor

=> bl izdkj ds opertor dk iz;ksx vadxf.kr x.kukvksa dks djuks ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS A

Ex-> symbol ( +, -, x, /, ) etc 2. Comparision operator => bl izdkj ds opertor dk iz;ksx


fn;s gq, ekuks esa rqyuk djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS A

Ex => ( less <, greater >) 3, Text operator => bl izdkj

ds operator dk iz;ksx 2 text dks tksMus ds fy, rFkk la;qDr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gD A ftlesa 1;k 1 ls vf/kd text tqM dj single text esa ifjoZfrr gks tkrk gS A

Ex => & Ampersand 4. Referenece operator =>


bldk iz;ksx calculation djrs le; dbZ cells dks ,d range esa tksMus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

Ex => ( coma , space, coln, : vuqikr )


Numbar of colum => 256 Numbar of row => 65536 Numbar of sheet => 255 Numbar of call => 166777216 =16777216 Fill charactor of one cell => 32,000

196

Funcation => bl option ds vUrZxr lHkh formula microsoft office excel ds vUnj vkrs gS tks fdlh foksk e gksrk gS ftldh lgk;rk ls dksbZ x.kuk dj ldrs gS A Ex => sum , average, count , max, min , etc ;s 8 izdkj dj ldrs gS A
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Math Matical Funcation Date And Time Funcation Statistical Funcation ( Logical Funcation Text Funcation Financial Funcation Database Funcation

8. Lookup And Reference Funcation,Hlookup,Vlookup,

1.Math Matical Funcation


Functions SUM SUMPRODUCTExcel ROUND ROUNDUP SUBTOTAL TRUNC INT ABS , truncates ) )

197 MOD POWER SQRT Excel 2007 SUMIFS (SUMPRODUCT )

( 2 SUM = SUM (A1, -6, G6) . " " . ) ,

A1 Excel 2.1456 . 4

Excel B1 (2.1456)

2.15

= A1 .

INT, TRUNC, ROUND, ROUNDUP ROUNDDOWN

SUM = (A1 + A1

-6 + G6) A1

-6 G6

= SUM (A1: A23) A23

= SUM (A1: A23, F3: F34) F34

F3

A1 A23

B2 . = TRUNC B2 + B2 +

B2 " B2 ... : 2 : = SUM ( ", " " .... + B2 ) :!

198 INT A1 (12,000) . . ROUNDDOWN . TRUNC = TRUNC (A1, 0) 2 , . B1 TRUNC = TRUNC (B1, -3) TRUNC . 2.2 2.7 12,345

. A1 ROUNDUP , ROUND, ABS = ABS (A1) 5 MOD modulo 2 .. SUMIF SUMPRODUCT Microsoft Excel SUMPRODUCT : . = MOD (20,6) 2 . A1 -5 5. A1 4.126 A1 4.123 = (A1, 2) ROUNDUP 4.13 A1 4.126 4.12 . = (A1, 2) 4.123

5 4.13

. 4.13 .

20

199 A5 B5 B1 A1

. SUMPRODUCT

: = SUMPRODUCT (A1: A5, B1: B5 ) SUMPRODUCT 20 . . SUMPRODUCT 13 SUBTOTAL ( . 2) Excel SUBTOTAL SUBTOTAL "1" , . ( ) . "1" "11" ( , "2" . . . , A1: B2 Excel SUMPRODUCT . Excel B1 A2 ......... SUMPRODUCT

functionalities

"9" ) = SUBTOTAL (9, B2: B45) SQRT

. = (16) SQRT = (A1) SQRT 4 4 44 A1 16 . 16 . . : 3

200 Excel . .

( . = (4,2) 16 (4 4 = (A1, 2) / 3) SUM, = (SUM (A1: A5), 2) , MOD TRUNC 106 B1 C1 : 12 . "8 : " " & (A1, 12) MOD " "8 . " 96 "8 : " 0 " = (A1/12) TRUNC 10 " (&) A1 = TRUNC (0 A1/12,) = MOD (A1, 12) ? : A1: A5 2 . , 16 . 16 = (16,1 / 2) . , = (16,1 ) A1 4 .

201 = IF (MOD (A1, 12) = 0, TRUNC (A1/12) & " " & MOD (12 A1) " INT, TRUNC MOD, . , "C3" ) : " TRUNC (/ 30 (((B3-A3) MOD 365))) A3 "" "B3" ( " " A3 B3 C3 = () = INT ((B3-A3) / 365) " ") ", TRUNC (A1/12) & "

2.Date
: DATEDIF Excel 2007 2 . 9 ). 21 , . " " Excel (

Functions DATE DATEDIF DAY HOUR MINUTE MONTH SECOND TIME

202 TODAY YEAR NOW WEEKDAY : , = 6 C1 : B1 B1-A1 C1 C1 A1 " " : = A1 +1 : = A1: 7 Excel 38,394 ( ) , (:) . , CTRL . CTRL A1 . . 2005/02/01 " " Excel " " A1 2005/01/22 : " " ( " ") B1 " " 2005/01/16 .

1900/01/06

203 Microsoft Excel PM 0.5 /" , 18373 , 24 0.25 . 2004/12/26 . , ? , "Format/Cells/Time/37: 30:55" 38347 . , 2004/12/25 12:00:01 PM 38346 12:00:00 .,, .

. Excel DATEDIF . . Excel A1 DATEDIF = (A1, B1, "y") 1 DATEDIF = (A1, B1, " ") 12 DATEDIF = (A1, B1, "") 365 , , , A1 . . "

. .

" . B1 :

2006/01/16 2005/01/16

2005/12/15

(A1), =

(A1)

= (A1)

15, 12 2005 , , ,

204 A1 1:31:45 PM . = (A1), , = (A1)

MINUTE = HOUR (A1) 1, 31 45 WEEKDAY A1 . , , DATE , , , ( 2006/01/16 1 1

= WEEKDAY (A1) 2 . .

, .

A1 : = DATE ( = DATE ( = DATE ( = DATE ( A1 = DATE ( A1 = DATE ( , (A1), MONTH (A1) 1, , ,, IF ( . = ((( 1 ) (D1) = 0, (B1 ) (D1) = 0), " (= ) : ","") ) . (A1), MONTH (A1), ( : (A1), MONTH (A1) : (A1), MONTH (A1) 1, : (A1) , MONTH (A1), ( (A1), MONTH (A1), : (A1) (A1)) : (A1) ( A1)) A1)) (A1:)) ,( A1) 7) A1) 1)

205 :
= IF (AND (month (B1) ( (( 1 ) (D1) = 0, (B1 (B1) ) (D1) = 0), " (D1) <7), " ", ", "")) (D1) = 0 (D1)> 0, (B1)

30 .

7 .

3.Statistical
AVERAGE COUNT AVERAGEA COUNTA RANK LARGE Excel 2007 AVERAGEIF AVERAGEIFS (SUMPRODUCT COUNTIFS (SUMPRODUCT , : (A1: A5, 2) . . ) ) (SUMPRODUCT ) K, )

= LARGE (A1: A5, 2) = LARGE (A1: A5, 3) =

206 MIN MAX = LARGE (A1: A5, 1) = SMALL (A1: A5, 1) COUNT COUNTA = COUNT (A1: A5) 4 = COUNTA (A1: A5) 5 , 5 . , . 5 , . , COUNT COUNTA . A5 A1 . :

AVERAGE AVERAGEA ! . . . .... AVERAGE AVERAGEA ,

4.Logical Funcation
TRUE Excel 2007 IFERROR TRUE TRUE

TRUE

207

. = ( 8 . 7 IFS IFS = IF (A1> = 90, " IFS A1 ' ' " " Excel . IF , 90 A1 80 ,

. . A1 , 1

).

= IF (1,9,8 = A1) 9

" ").

. ", IF (A1:> = 80, " " : " " . IFS

= IF (= A1: 100,9,8) A1 100 " (<) " 100 = IF (A1 <> 100,9,8) " (>) .9 8 ." . 9 8 . A1

208 . : = IF (A1 = " nee ", 9,8). 9 1 = IF = IF (A1: = 1 ",", 8) ( = IF (A1 = 1, "8,) , . boggling . . : (= 1, 8, A1). . A1 1 = IF (A1 = 1, " ", 8). 8 . 8 . A1 = 100 . . A1 (=> 100,9,8 A1) 9 A1 8

= ( (A1 = 1, A1 <2>) 9,8) A1 9 . 21 : = (A1: = 1,9,8) IF =( (A1: = 1, A1 <2>) 9,8) A1 9 1 A1: , 1

29 1

29

8 .

. 12

209 : = (A1 <> 2,9,8) , ? : = IF (OR (A1: = <85, A1 => 75), " ", ") = IF ( (A1: = <85, A1 => 75), " ", ") . 75 35 85 75 85 30 . IF ( . . A1 = IF (A1 = 1, " . 5, "" , IF (A1 = 6, " A1 C1 : ", ")))))) 6 . . . B1 , ) , =2 , A1: 1 12 : = 7 6 33 . . 78 . . . . 95 . 75 85 .

" IF (A1: = 2, " ", IF (A1: = 3, " ", IF (A1: = 4, ' ', IF (A1: =

210 = IF (A1: = 7, " (A1: = 11, " C1 = B1 C1 . ", IF (A1: = 8, " ", ", IF (A1: = 9, " " " ")))))) B1 C1 (A1: = 10, " "

(A1: = 12, "

, " " . = IF (D1 <() " : C1 ", ") ( () Excel ("Excel = IF (D1 <30 (), " G2 = IF (D1 <G2, " ", "") 30 ", "") : ) ). : " " ' ' ,

: = IF (A1> = 90, " " ", "")) )) IF, ISNUMBER , MID . . " (A1> = 80, " ", (A1> = 70, "

, ", IF (A1> = 60,

211 2 = IF (ISNUMBER (MID (A1:, 2,1) * 1), : (A1:, 1) . . . , . , : ISNUMBER (MID (A1:, 2,1) 1 *). , MOD TRUNC 106 B1 C1 : 12 . "8 : " " & (A1, 12) MOD " "8 . " 96 "8 : = IF (MOD (A1, 12) = 0, TRUNC (A1/12) & " " & MOD (12 A1) " , MOD TRUNC 106 ? ") ", TRUNC (A1/12) & " " 0 " = (A1/12) TRUNC 10 " (&) A1 = TRUNC (0 A1/12,) = MOD (A1, 12) ? : 1 , . (A1, 2 ) MID (A1, 2,1) Excel . (A1:, 1), 2 (A1, 2))

212 B1 C1 : 12 . "8 : " " & (A1, 12) MOD " "8 . " 96 "8 : = IF (MOD (A1, 12) = 0, TRUNC (A1/12) & " " & MOD (12 A1) " DATEDIF, , . = ((( 1 :
= IF (AND (month (B1) ( (( 1 ) (D1) = 0, (B1 (B1) ) (D1) = 0), " (D1) <7), " ", ", "")) (D1) = 0 (D1)> 0, (B1)

A1

= TRUNC (0 A1/12,) = MOD (A1, 12)

10

" (&)

= (A1/12) TRUNC "

"

", TRUNC (A1/12) & "

")

. (= ) : (D1) = 0), " ","")

(D1) = 0, (B1

30 .

7 .

5.Text Funcation

213 LEN MID leftmost

TRIM FIND REPT TEXT ( )

CONCATENATE: , . : (+) concatenating . 13

. concatenating A1 2

. A2 (&) . 1 = A1 + A2 3

= A1 A2 13

Excel reformatting

" ,

"

. Excel

. TEXT

uploadable

214 (Oracle, Sybase, SQL . Excel . Excel TEXT CONCATENATE A1 " (&) " B1 " " C1 " , ...) Excel (JDEdwards,

, PeopleSoft, SmartStream ...)

" : = CONCATENATE (A1, "", B1) Excel ) = A1 & "B1 (&) C1 .

, : Excel

A1

. .

CONCATENATE

A1 .

"

" . FIND . , A1 " " " " "

= FIND ("", A1) 6 FIND

, = (A1, 2) = (A1, 5) = =

B3 B1

(A1, 2) " " (A1, 5) "

215 = MID (A1:, 7,3) " . LEN LEN : = LEN (A1) A1 " . LEN " Excel 3

LEN

"

,"

"

11

REPT Excel 3.35 ( = (0,8) REPT A1: 0000000335 TEXT . A4 3567 , A1 REPT . )

A/S400 . " " 10 0000000335

Excel

= TEXT (A4 ,"@") 3567

. SUMPRODUCT / TRIM " " . . TRIM .

" "

A1 , = (A1) "

" " TRIM "

216

= 1- = A1 "," 2- " ". C1 : = TRIM (A1) "TRIM (B1) 3A1 3 B1 =( (A1: 7) 3) , "305" . B1 : (A1) A1 1 " , .

B1 .

C1

C1 :

A1 " " B1

" . C1

(SKU) . SKU "888" " " :

: . A305888765 " 765 " .

6.Financial Funcation
FV NPER PMT

Excel

Toolpack

2007

" .

Excel

217

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..

. Excel "0" 50 (0) . .


: " " 2 .

. "0"

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5.00% RATE
6

A6

: 12 * (A2), 12 , ......; A6

= (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5) :

218 " " A4 A5 0.05 ,

= (A1, A2, A3) * 12 PMT PMT -

: ?

15.00%
: "

.
" 2 .

248

,)

324,000 40 . Excel "0" . 50 (0) . (1) . "0"

PMT 550.41 . 6

A6 : = PMT (A1/12, A2, A3, A4, A5)

219 : , 4 (A1) A5 , A4, A5)) FV ( FV ? ) : , , = PMT 4 (A1: / 4) " " 52 (A1/12, A2, A3) A4 12 (A1/12) (A1/52), A1: 0.05 ,

(=- PMT (A1/12, A2, A3

15.00%
: " "

.
. 2

248 3$ 550 4$ 0

( .

,)

Excel "0" 51 . FV 6FV

(1)

. (0) Excel "0" .

"1" . .

29,279.68 $
A6 : = FV (A1/12, A2, A3, A4, A5)

220 : , 4 (A1) , A5 , A4, A5)) NPER NPER ? : , 4 (A1: / 4) = FV (=- FV (A1/12, A2, A3 " " 52 (A1/12, A2, A3) A4 12 (A1/12) (A1/52), A1: 0.05 ,

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= NPER (D1/12, D2, :

7.Database Funcation
Frequency * Rarely Used DAVERAGE Rarely Used DCOUNT Rarely Used DCOUNTA Rarely Used DGET Rarely Used DMAX Rarely Used DMIN Rarely Used DPRODUCT Rarely Used DSTDEV Rarely Used DSTDEVP Rarely Used DSUM Rarely Used DVAR Rarely Used DVARP

222

RefWorks = A1 T1 = JF = = = = VO = = = = K1 = = = = A2 2= , = =

Abbrev

223 = = = = A3 A4 = = A5 T3 = . . = ISSN / ISBN = . . = = = Subfile / . .= = = CN = DB = .= =

224 = = U1 = 1 U2 = 2 U3 = 3 U4 = 4 U5 = 5 = = =

SL = = = WT = A6 = WV = WP =

225 5 . = 0RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT0 1RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT0 = 0RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT1 = 1RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT1 = = 0RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT2 1RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT2 = = 0RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT3 1RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT3 = = 0RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT4 1RW1S34RfeSDcfkexd09rT4 =

8. Lookup And
ReferenceFuncation,Hlookup,Vlookup,
Excel
Functions INDEX MATCH (INDEX / MATCH INDIRECT )

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231

File Menu:New:- bl Option esa ge ,d u;h Work Book [kksy ldrs gSA Open:- bl Option esa ge igys ls cuh fdlh Saved File dks [kksy ldrs gSA Save:- bl Option esa ge fdlh Unsaved File dks Save dj ldrs gS] lkFk gh ;fn fdlh File ls Change fd;k x;k gS] rks ml Change dks Hkh bl Option esa Save djsxsA Save As:- bl Option esa ge fdlh New File dks Save dj ldrs gS]lkFk gh fdlh Saved File dk MqIyhdsV cuk ldrs gSA Save As Work Space:- bl Option esa ge dbZ Files dks ,d lkFk Open djds Window Menu ls mUgsa Arrange djds ,d lkFk Save dj ldrs gS] ftlls fd os lc ,d lkFk [kqy lds bl File dk Extension(.XLW)gks tkrk gSA Page Setup:- bl Option esa ge Page dk Size vksfj,&Vsku](urientation) gsMj QwVj bR;kfn lsV dj ldrs gSA

Print Area:- bl Option esa ge ftl Area dks Select djsxs ogh flQZ gksxk ckdh dqN Hkh ugh pkgs oks nl Page D;ks uk fy[kk gks blh Option ls ;g Setting gVk Hkh ldrs gS Clear Print Area dk Use djdsA Print Preview:- bl Option esa ge Shut dk og Preview ns[k ldrs gS tSls fd Print vk;sxkA Print:- blesa ge fy[ks gq;s Matter dk Print Out ys ldrs gSA 1. tgkaW ij dlZj j[kk gks ;k tks Cell, Select gks A 2. tgkaW ls Text dkih ;k Cut fd;k x;k gksA

EDIT MENU:1.Undo:-fiNys dk;Z dks lekIr djrk gSA 2.Redo:-Undo ds dk;Z dks lekIr djrk gSA 3.Cut:-Selected Text dks dkV dj Clipboard esa j[krk gSa 4.Copy:-Selected Text dh MqCyhdsV Clipboard esa j[krk gSA 5.Paste:-Clipboard ds Content dks Cursor Position*ij j[krk gSA 6.Paste As Hyperlink:-Clipboard Content dks As a link paste djrk gS] ftl ij Click djds ge Soures+ ij igqaWp ldrs gSA 7. Fill:-

232

fdlh lsy esa dqN fy[kdj ;fn mls uhps ij nk;sa]ck;sa ds lsy esa Hkjuk gks rks bldk iz;ksax djsa

Across Work Sheet:- ,d Sheet dk Matter nwljsa Sheet ij ys tkus ds fy,A 0 Format:-Format ls flQZ Formating tk;saxkA Content:-Content ls flQZ Matter tk;sxk Formating ugha All:-All ls Text & Formating nksauks tk;sxkA Series:-Series Option ls fdlh Number dksas dbZ Cell esa Expand djok ldrs gS ij ,d Fixed Gap ls c<+rs gq,A

0 Liner ls Number esa Step Add gksrk gSA 0 Growth esa Step dk Multiplication gksrk gSA 0 Date fy[kdj mls Several Type ls c<+k ldrs gSA 0 Automatically Fixed Value tSls fd Month,Name,Date vius vki Hkj ysxk dksabZ Hkh ,d Value nsus ij (Justify:- bl Option ls Text dksa Left Button of Cell and Number dks Right Button of Cell j[kk ysrk gSA)

233

Clear- A-All:- bl Option ls tks Area Select djsxs ml Area ds Text o Formatting Permanently Delete dj ldrs gSA B-Format:- bl Option ls Selected Area dh flQZ Formatting gVk ldrs gSaA C-Content:- bl Option ls Selected Area dh flQZ Text gVk ldrs gSaA D- Comment:-vxj geus fdlh Cell es Comment fn;k gS rks bl Option ls mls lekIr dj ldrs gSA Delete:-bl Option ls Selected Cell dks Delete dj ldrs gS ftlls fd mlds uhps okyk Cell ij ;k nk;s okyk Cell ml txg ij vk tkrk gSA Delete Sheet:-bl Option ls ftl Sheet ij ge Work dj jgs gS ml Sheet dks Permanently Delete dj ldrs gSA Move or Copy Sheet:- bl Option ls Sheet dh Position Change dj ldrs gS mldk Duplicate Hkh cuk ldrs gSA

;gkaW ls ge crk,xas fd fdlh Qkby dh khV dks gVkuk ;gkaW ls ge crk,xs fd ml khV dks fdl nwljh khV ls igys j[kuk gSA bl Option dks Check dj nsus ls Excel Sheet dks mBk ugha cfYd mldh ,d MqCyhdsV cuk nsxkA

;gkaW ij ftl Row vkSj column dk uke fy[kasxs dlZj ogh igqaWp tk;saxkA Exp-x 2578 ls dlZj x Column ds 2578 ij pyk tk;saxkA

VIEW MENU:Normal:- bl Option ls ge Page dks Normal rjhds ls ns[k ldrs gS Page Break Preview:-bl Option ls ge Page esa Change dgkaW dgkaW gqvk gS mls Clearly ns[k ldrs gS blls Page dk Break View fn[kkrk gSA

234

Tool Bar:-bl Option ls ge Standard Bar Formatting Bar etc.dks Nqik ldrs gS vkSj fn[kk Hkh ldrs gSaA Formula Bar:-bl Option ls Formula Bar dks fn[kk o Nqik ldrs gSaA Header & Footir:-bl Option ls Header & Footer dks ns[k ldrs gS vkSj vxj Change djuk pkgs rks dj ldrs gSA Comment:-bl Option ls Insert Menu ds Comment fn, tkus ds ckn ns[kk tk ldrk gSA Custom View:- bl Option ls ge Sheet dks Gridline ds lkFk ;k Gridline ds fcuk ckjh&ckjh ls ns[k ldrs gSA bl Option ls ckjh&ckjh nksauks Preview ns[k ldrs gSA

Add ij Click djds Gridline ds lkFk okys ist dks dksbZ uke ns ldrs gS vkSj fQj fcuk Gridline okys dks Hkh uke ns ldrs gSA Full Screen:-;s gekjh Excel ds Window dks iwjs Screen ij izLrqr dj nsrk gSA Zoom:- bl Option ls ge viuh Sheet ds eSaVj dks eupkgs Size ess cM+k djds ns[k ldrs gSA

INSERT MENU:Cell:- bl Option ls ge tgkaW dlZj gS ogkaW ,d u;k Cell yk ldrs gS ftlls fd ml Position okyk Cell uhps ;k nk;s f[kld tkrk gSA Row:- bl Option ls Cursor Position ds ij ,d u;k Row yk ldrs gSA Coloumn:- bl Option ls Cursor Position ds Left es ,d u;k Column yk ldrs gSA Sheet:- bl Option ls ge viuh Book esa ,d u;k Sheet yk ldrs gSA Chart:-vxj geus dksbZText fy[kk gS vkSj mls Chart ds ek/;e ls nkkZuk gS rks bl Option dk iz;ksax dj ldrs gSaA Page Break:- bl Option ls ge Cursor Position ls Page dks Horizantaly vkSj Vertically pkj istks es rksM+ ldrs gS vkSj gekjk dlZj mlh Position ij gS rks Page Break dks gVk Hkh ldrs gS D;ksfd Page Break cny ds Pemave Page Break gks tkrk gSA Function:- bl Option ls ge Cell dh Numberic Value dks Various Mathmatic Function dk Use djds Calculation djok ldrs gSA Name:- bl Option ls Text ds Top Row vkSj Column ds fy, Name cuk ldrs gS ftlls fd ge le>us es vklkuh gksrh gSA

235

Exp:- Salary ds 5%dks Generally =B2*5% fy[krs gS Enter ij Name ls ge mls Salary*5%ns[k ldrs gSA Comment:- bl Option ls Selected Cell ds fy,s dksbZ Hkh Comment ns ldrs gSA Picture:- bl Option ls ge Sheet es Clip,Art,File,Auto Shape etc ls Picture Place dj ldrs gSA Object:- bl Option ls ge Paint Brush ;k Other Application ls Picture yk ldrs gS pkgs u;k cuk ds ;k igys ls cuh Qkby dksA Hyper Link:- bl Option ls ge nks File ds chp Link muds uke ls cuk ldrs gS ftl ij Click djus ls ge ml File esa igqaWp ldrs gSA

FORMAT MENU:Cell:- bl Option ls Cell dks eupkgs <ax ls [kwclwjr cuk ldrs gSA bl Option ls Number ds vkxs ftruk pkgsa kwU; ds fy, Space NksaM+ ldrs gSA

bl Option ls Text dksa Cells ds Left,Right,Top,Center esa lsV dj ldrs gSA bl Option ls ge Text dks ftruk pkgsa mruk fMxh frjNk dj ldrs gSaA bl Option dks Check djus ls Text ,d gh Cell esa vkrk jgrk gSA blesa dbZ lsy dks ,d esa feyk ldrs gSA blesa ,d lsy esa vxj T;knk eSVj fy[krs gSa rks mls fldksM+ ds lkFk esa lc ysrk gSA bl Option ls ge vius eSlst dk Font cny ldrs gSA

236

lsy ds pkjksa vksaj ds Border dks set djus ds fy,A bl Option ls ge vius eSVsj dk Pattern cny ldrs gSA

Row:A- Hight:- bl Option ls ge Row dh eksVkbZ ls c<+k ldrs gSA B- Auto Fill:- vxj Row dh Size,Text dh Size ls ph gks rks bl Option ls ge Row dks Text ds cjkcj Adjust dj ldrs gSA C- Hide:-fdlh ,d Row dks fNik ldrs gSA D- Unhide:-lHkh Hidden Row dks okil ykus ds fy,A

Column:A-Width:- bl Option ls Column dh pkSM+kbZ lsV dj ldrs gSA B-Auto Fit Selection:-vxj Text Column ls T;knk ;k de gS rks bl Option ls Adjust dj ldrs gSA C-Hide:-Selected Column dks fNikus ds fy,A D-Unhide:-fNis gq, Column dks okil fn[kkus ds fy,A E-Standard Width:-vxj fdlh File esa dqN fy[ks fcuk lHkh Column dh Width dks dqN c<+kuk ;k ?kVkuk gS rks Standard Width ls djsxsA

Sheet:A-Rename:-fdlh Hkh Sheet dks Select djds mldk uke cny

237

ldrs gSA B-Hide:-fdlh Sheet dks fNik ldrs gSA C-Unhide:-fNih gqbZ Sheet dks okil fn[kk ldrs gSA D-Back Ground:-Sheet ij White dh txg ij eupkgs Back Ground Set dj ldrs gSA Table Auto Format:- Matter dks Select djds ij Format dks Apply dj ldrs gSA Conditional Formatting:-Text dks Select djds Condition ds vuqlkj ls mldh Formatting dj ldrs gSaA tSls fd&Marks<<c dks Bold Under Line dj ldrs gSA Style:-dksbZ Hkh uke nsdj Cell dh lkjh Option Use djds ,d Style cuk ldrs gS ftls tc pkgs bLrseky dj ldrs gSA TOOLS MENU:Spelling:-bl Command ds Through ge vius Text esa gqbZ Spelling dh xyfr;ks dks lq/kkj dj ldrs gS tSls fd MS-Word esa djrs FksA Auto Correct:-bl Command ls ge dqN Automatic Setting Check dj ldrs gS ;s Command Hkh MS-Word esa gSA

PROTECTION:1. Protect Sheet:bl Option ls ge vius Sheet dks ykaWd dj ldrs gSA

238

2. Protect Work Book:bl Option dksa Check djds bl Option ls Window ge flQZ Text dksa ikloMZ ns ds Protect gksaxk ftlls mlsa lsaQ dj ldrs gSA Minimise ;k Maximise ;k Close ugha dj ik;saxasA

NOTE:- Protection djus ds fy, tks Password ij fn[kk;s Window esa nsxs mls ;kn j[ksxs D;ksfd ckn esa Unprotect djus ds fy, mls Password dh t:jr iM+sxhA Gool Seck:-bl Option ds }kjk ge viuh eu pkgs Value ij eu pkgs Result ik ldrs gSA Exp:-ekuk geus pkj Subject fy, ftlesa ,d uEcj ugha ekywe gS ij Percent ekywe gS rks Gool Seck ls ge ml Subject dk Marks ekywe dj ldrs gSaA ftruk lsy esa oSY;w ekywe gksaA ftruk oSY;w pkfg,A ftldk oSY;w ugha ekywe gksaA

Scenario:-bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge fdlh Hkh Cell es fy[kh Value ij vyx&vyx Value Set djds vyx&vyx Result Check dj ldrs gSA bl fy, ckj&ckj Cell dh Value dks Delete ugha djuk iM+rk gSA Auditing:-bl Option dh lgk;rk ls ge ;s Check dj ldrs gS fd fdlh Cell Value ij vkSj dkSu&dkSu lh Value Depend djrh gS ;k dkSu&dkSu lh Value fd fdl Cell ls feydj cuh gSA Macro:-bl Option ls ge tks Hkh Text,Type dj jgs gS mls lkFk&lkFk Record djrs jg ldrs gS vkSj t:jr iM+us ij okil Recell dj ldrs gSA Customise:-bl Option ls ge viuk eupkgk Tool Bar ;k Menu Bar cuk ldrs gS

239

DATA MENU:Sort Menu:- bl Option ls ge Records dks ?kVrs ls c<rs gq, dze (Asending) ;k c<+rs ls ?kVrs dze (Descending)esa Arrange dj ldrs gSA Fitter:1. Auto Fitter:- bl Option ls gekus Text Area esa gh Choice Arrow vk tkrk gS ftlls fd ge eupkgs Condition ls Record dks vyx&vyx djds ns[k ldrs gSA 2. Show All:-Advanced Fitter ls fNik;s x;s Record dks okil fn[kkus ds fy, bl Option dk Use djrs gSA 3. Advanced Fitter:- bl Option ls ge viuh Sheet ij gh Condition fy[krs gS vkSj viuh Text dks Conditionally fn[kkrs gSA

bl Option ls ge Record ds iqjkusa txg ij gh Fitter dj ldrs gSA bl Option ls ge Record Place ls dgha vkSj Fitter dj ldrs gSA ;gkaW ls iwjs fjdkMZ dks Select djrs gSA ;gkaW Condition Select djrs gSA

Form:- bl Option ls ge iwjs Record dks ,d Screen esa ns[k ldrs gS lkFk blesa ge Record dks c<+k&?kVk ldrs gSA u;k Record c<+kus ds fy, Record Delete djus ds fy, Record esa Change djds] iqjkuk okil yk ldrs gSA vxys fjdkMZ dks ns[k ldrs gSA fiNys fjdkMZ ij tk ldrs gSA

240

fjdkMZ dks Conditionally ns[k ldrs gSA

Subtotal:-vxj geus fdlh File esa Records dks vyx&vyx Groups ls Related fy[kk gS rks Subtotal ds }kjk ge vyx&vyx Groups dh Values dks fdlh Function dks Use djds Sum,Average,Etc djds j[k ldrs gSA blds gj Group dk Total mlds uhps ;k ij j[k ldrs gSSA Validation:- bl Option ls ge Sheet ls dqN Area Select djds mls fdlh fufpr Value ds fy, Fix dj ldrs gS ;g Hkh lsV dj ldrs gS fd ml Value ls vyx Value nsus ij D;k Message Show djsaA Select,Area esa D;k Value allow djuh gSA Value dh Range

fdlh Filed ds vuqlkj Subtotal djukA dkSu lk Function Use djuk gSA Subtotal fdl Field dk djuk gSA gj Group dk Subtotal vyx&vyx Page ij djsaxkA

241

gj xzqi ds ij Subtotal vk,xkA Table:- bl Option dk Use djds Table fy[k ldrs gS Formula fy[ksxs ijUrq Formula esa Cell dk Actual uke u nsdj Referecne Name nsaxsA Exp- = *.9% ij Value esa ugha Hkjh tkuh pkfg, vkSj ftl Row ;k Colour eas Formula fy[kk gS mls Empty NksM+uk pkfg,A vxj Table Row esa Hkjuk gSA vxj Table Column esa Hkjuk gSA

Text To Column:- bl Option ls ;fn ge Text dks fdlh ,d gh Cell esa dksbZ Separator yxkdj fy[krs gS rks mls vyx&vyx Cell esa j[k yssrk gSA Consolidate:-vxj geus Texts dh nksa List cuk;h gS vkSj nksauksa List esa dqN Text Comman gS rks ;s Option nksuks List dks feykdj ,d dj ysrk gS vkSj Common Value dks ,d lkFk fdlh Function ls Merge dj ysrk gSA WINDOW:New Window:- bl Option ls Text dks ge ,d uhps Screen esa ns[k ldrs gSA Arrange:- bl Option ls dksbZ [kqyh gqbZ File dks bl rjg Arrange dj ldrs gS fd lHkh File fn[kkbZ nsA Hide:- bl Option ls fdlh Hkh File dks fNik ldrs gSA Unhide:-blls fNih gqbZ File dks okil fn[kk ldrs gSA Split:- bl Option ls Screen dks rksM+ ldrs gS vkSj VwVh txg ls Screen dks NksVk&cM+k dj ldrs gSA Freeze Panes:- blls VwVh Screen ds Adjustment dksa jksdus ds fy, ml Freeze Panes tek ldrs gSA Excel Functions:-

242

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

ABS:- ;g Function fdlh Hkh la[;k ij yxk;s gq, vfrfjDr Value dks gVkdj mldh okLrfod la[;k dks iznfkZr djrk gSA tSls& 12 ij ;fn izfrkr dh Formatting dj nh tk, rks Value cnydj 1200% gks tk,xh] ijUrq ABS Function ds tfj, mldh okLrfod la[;k] tks fd 12 gksxh] izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA Average:- ;g nh xbZ dbZ la[;kvksa ds vkSlr ewY; dks iznfkZr djrk gSA Count:- ;g Numbers ,oa Characters nksuks dh fefJr Value esa ls flQZ Numbers dks fxudj mudh la[;kvks dks iznfkZr djrk gSA Concatenate:-;g fofHkUu Cell esa j[ks Text dks tksM+dj ,d lkFk feyk ldrk gSA Days 360:- ;g nks fofHkUu Date ds ek/;e fdrus fnu gS \ mUgsa iznfkZr djrk gSA tSls& ;g Function 3 October 2006 ls 16 September 2006 rd ds chp mifLFkr fnuks dh la[;k dks crk ldrk gSA blh izdkj vU; fnukadks ds chp ds fnuksa dh la[;k dks HkhA Even:-;g fdlh Hkh nkeyo la[;k dks mlds utnhdh lela[;k rd iw.kakZd esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA tSls& 12.56 dk Even Value 14 gksxk] D;ksfd 13 ,d foke la[;k gSA Int:- ;g fdlh Hkh nkeyo la[;k es lss nkeyo dks gVkdj flQZ mlds iw.akkZd Value dks fn[kk,xkA tSls& 12.56 dk iw.kakZd Value flQZ 12 gksxkA If:-;g ,d Logical Function gS] tks fn, gq, Condition ds vk/kkj ij Result Show djrk gSA Large:- ;g nh la[;kvks eas ls fdlh foksk LFkku dh lcls cM+h la[;k dks iznfkZr djrk gSaA tSls& 5 6 8 9 es ls rhljs LFkku dh lcls cM+h la[;k 8 gksxhaA 10 12

243

10. Left:- ;g fdlh Cell es mifLFkr Text es mlds ck;ha vksj ls crkbZ xbZ la[;k rd ds gh Text dks Show djrk gSA tSls& Danger es ;fn Left ls 4la[;k nh tk, rks flQZ Dang Value dks Show djsxkA 11. Len:-;g fdlh Cell es mifLFkr Text es mifLFkr leLr Characters dh la[;k dks fxu dj crkrk gSA tSls& Defence kCn dh Len Value 7 gksxkhA 12. Lower:- bl Function ds }kjk fdlh Hkh Capital Litter es fy[ks Text dks Small Letters esa Change fd;k tk ldrk gSA 13. Max:- ;g Function nh gq;h la[;kvks ds lewg es ls lcls cM+h la[;k dks fn[kkrk gSA 14. Min:-;g Function nh gq;h la[;kvks ds lewg es ls lcls NksVh la[;k dks fn[kkrk gSA 15. Mod:-;g Function nks la[;kvks es Hkkx djus ds ckn kskQy dks fn[kkrk gSA tSls& 55 es 6 ls Hkkx nsus ij Mod Value-1 gksxhA 16. Mode:-;g Function nh gq;h la[;kvkas es ls ftl la[;k dh vko`fk lcls vf/kd ckj gS] mls nkkZrk gSA 17. Odd:- ;g fdlh Hkh nkeyo la[;k dks mlds utnhdh Odd foke la[;k dks iw.kakZd es cnyrk gSA tSls& 11.56 dk Odd Value 13 gksxkA 18. Power:-bl Function ds tfj, fdlh la[;k dh ?kkr ewY; dk irk yxk;k tk ldrk gSA tSls& 5 ds ij 2dk ?kkr yxkus ij mldh Power Value 55=25 gksxhA 19. Product:- ;g nh gq;h la[;kvks dks vkil esa ijLij xq.kk djds fn[kkrk gSA tSls& 2,3,4,2 dk Product Value 48 gksxk (2342=48) A 20. Proper:- ;g fdlh Hkh fn, x, Text Sentence es mlds kCn ds izFke v{kj (Character) dks Capital Letter esa cny dj fn[kkrk gSA 21. Round:- ;g fdlh Hkh nkeyo la[;k dks iw.kakZd eas cnyrk gS] ;fn nkeyo ds rqjar ckn dh la[;k 5 vFkok blls vf/kd gS rks mls 1 ekudj iw.kakZd es tksM+ nsrk gSA tSls& 50.5dk Round Figure -5 gksxkA 22. Round Up:- ;g fdlh Hkh nkeyo la[;k dks utnhdh iw.kakZd esa cnyrk gSA tSls& 50.1 dk Round Up 51 gksxkA 23. Sum:-;g nh gq;h la[;kvks dks vkil es tksM+dj fn[kkrk gSA 24. Sum If:-;g nh la[;kvks ds ij Condition yxkrk gS] vkSj tks la[;k mu Condition dks iwjk djrh gS flQZ ogh tqM+rh gSA 25. Sqrt:-;g fdlh Hkh la[;k dk oxZewy fn[kkrk gSA
Function Shortcut Keys Key
F1 CTRL+F1

Description
Displays the Help task pane. Closes and reopens the current

244
task pane. ALT+F1 ALT+SHIFT+F1 Creates a chart of the data in the current range. Inserts a new worksheet. Edits the active cell and positions the insertion point at the end of the cell contents. It also moves the insertion point into the Formula Bar when editing in a cell is turned off. Edits a cell comment. Pastes a defined name into a formula. Displays the Insert Function dialog box. Repeats the last command or action, if possible. Closes the selected workbook window. Restores the window size of the selected workbook window. Switches to the next pane in a worksheet that has been split (Window menu, Split command). Switches to the previous pane in aworksheet that has been split. Switches to the next workbook window when more than one workbook window is open. Note When the task pane is visible, F6 and SHIFT+F6 include that pane when switching between panes. Displays the Spelling dialog box to check spelling in the active worksheet or selected range. Performs the Move command on the workbook window when it is not maximized. Use the arrow Keys to move the window, and when finished

F2 SHIFT+F2 F3 SHIFT+F3 F4 CTRL+F4 CTRL+F5

F6

SHIFT+F6 CTRL+F6

SHIFT+F6

F7

CTRL+F7

245
press ESC.

F8

Turns extend mode on or off. In extend mode; EXT appears in the status line, and the arrow Keys extend the selection. Enables you to add a nonadjacent cell or range to a selection of cells by using the arrow Keys. Performs the Size command (on the Control menu for the workbook window) when a workbook is not maximized. Displays the Macro dialog box to run, edit, or delete a macro. Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks. F9 followed by ENTER (or followed by CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER for array formulas) calculates the selected a portion of a formula and replaces the selected portion with the calculated value. Calculates the active worksheet. Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks, regardless of whether they have changed since the last calculation. Rechecks dependent formulas, and then calculates all cells in all open workbooks, including cells not marked as needing to be calculated. Minimizes a workbook window to an icon. Selects the menu bar or closes an open menu and submenu at the same time. Displays the shortcut menu for a selected item.

SHIFT+F8

CTRL+F8 ALT+F8 F9

F9 SHIFT+F9

CTRL+ALT+F9 CTRL+ALT+SHIFT+F9

CTRL+F9

F10 SHIFT+F10

246
Displays the menu or message for a smart tag. If more than one smart tag is present, it switches to the next smart tag and displays its menu or message. Maximizes or restores the selected workbook window. Creates a chart of the data in the current range. Inserts a new worksheet. Opens the Visual Basic Editor, in which you can create a macro by using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Opens the Microsoft Script Editor, where you can add text, edit HTML tags, and modify any script code. Displays the Save As dialog box.

ALT+SHIFT+F10 CTRL+F10 F11 SHIFT+F11

ALT+F11

ALT+SHIFT+F11 F12

CTRL + Key Shortcut Description Key


CTRL+( CTRL+) CTRL+& CTRL+_ CTRL+~ CTRL+$

Description
Unhide any hidden rows within the selection. Unhide any hidden columns within the selection. Applies the outline border to the selected cells. Removes the outline border from the selected cells. Applies the General number format. Applies the Currency format with two decimal places (negative numbers in parentheses). Applies the Percentage format with no decimal places. Applies the Exponential number format with two decimal places. Applies the Date format with the day, month, and year.

CTRL+% CTRL+^ CTRL+#

247
Applies the Time format with the hour and minute, and AM or PM. Applies the Number format with two decimal places, thousands separator, and minus sign (-) for negative values. Displays the Delete dialog box to delete the selected cells. Selects the current region around the active cell (the data area enclosed by blank rows and blank columns). Enters the current time. Enters the current date. Alternates between displaying cell values and displaying formulas in the worksheet. Copies a formula from the cell above the active cell into the cell or the Formula Bar. Copies the value from the cell above the active cell into the cell or the Formula Bar. Displays the Insert dialog box to insert blank cells. Displays the Format Cells dialog box. Applies or removes bold formatting. Applies or removes italic formatting. Applies or removes underlining. Applies or removes strikethrough. Alternates between hiding objects, displaying objects, and displaying placeholders for objects. Displays or hides the Standard toolbar. Displays or hides the outline

CTRL+@

CTRL+! CTRL+-

CTRL+* CTRL+: CTRL+;

CTRL+`

CTRL+

CTRL+ CTRL++ CTRL+1 CTRL+2 CTRL+3 CTRL+4 CTRL+5

CTRL+6 CTRL+7 CTRL+8

248
symbols. CTRL+9 CTRL+0 CTRL+A Hides the selected rows. Hides the selected columns. Selects the entire worksheet. If the worksheet contains data, CTRL+A selects the current region. Pressing CTRL+A a second time selects the entire worksheet. Applies or removes bold formatting. Copies the selected cells. CTRL+C followed by another CTRL+C displays the Microsoft Office Clipboard. Uses the Fill Down command to copy the contents and format of the topmost cell of a selected range into the cells below. Displays the Find dialog box. Displays the Go To dialog box. F5 also displays this dialog box. Displays the Find and Replace dialog box. Applies or removes italic formatting. Displays the Insert Hyperlink dialog box for new hyperlinks or the Edit Hyperlink dialog box for selected existing hyperlinks. Displays the Create List dialog box. Creates a new, blank file. Displays the Open dialog box to open or find a file. Selects all cells that contain comments. Displays the Print dialog box. Uses the Fill Right command to copy the contents and format of the leftmost cell of a selected

CTRL+A CTRL+B CTRL+C

CTRL+C

CTRL+D CTRL+F CTRL+G F5 CTRL+H CTRL+I

CTRL+K CTRL+L CTRL+N CTRL+O CTRL+SHIFT+O CTRL+P

CTRL+R

249
range into the cells to the right. Saves the active file with its current file name, location, and file format. Applies or removes underlining. Inserts the contents of the Clipboard at the insertion point and replaces any selection. Available only after you cut or copied an object, text, or cell contents. Closes the selected workbook window. Cuts the selected cells. Repeats the last command or action, if possible. Uses the Undo command to reverse the last command or to delete the last entry you typed. Uses the Undo or Redo command to reverse or restore the last automatic correction when AutoCorrect Smart Tags are displayed.

CTRL+S CTRL+U

CTRL+V CTRL+W CTRL+X CTRL+Y

CTRL+Z

CTRL+SHIFT+Z

Other useful shortcut Keys Key


ARROW KEYS

Description
Move one cell up, down, left, or right in a worksheet. Moves to the edge of the current data region (data region: A range of cells that contains data and that is bounded by empty cells or datasheet borders.) in a worksheet. Extends the selection of cells by one cell. Extends the selection of cells to the last nonblank cell in the same column or row as the active cell.

CTRL+ARROW KEY SHIFT+ARROW KEY

CTRL+SHIFT+ARROWKEY

250
LEFT ARROW or RIGHT ARROW selects the menu to the left or right when a menu is visible. When a submenu is open, these arrow Keys switch between the main menu and the submenu. DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW selects the next or previous command when a menu or submenu is open. In a dialog box, arrow Keys move between options in an open drop-down list, or between options in a group of options. Opens a selected drop-down list. Deletes one character to the left in the Formula Bar. Also clears the content of the active cell. Removes the cell contents (data and formulas) from selected cells without affecting cell formats or comments. In cell editing mode, it deletes the character to the right of the insertion point. Moves to the cell in the lowerright corner of the window when SCROLL LOCK is turned on. Also selects the last command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible. Moves to the last cell on a worksheet, in the lowest used row of the rightmost used column. Extends the selection of cells to the last used cell on the worksheet (lower-right corner). Completes a cell entry from the cell or the Formula Bar,

CTRL+SHIFT+ARROWKEY

CTRL+SHIFT+ARROWKEY

CTRL+SHIFT+ARROWKEY ALT+DOWN ARROW BACKSPACE BACKSPACE

DELETE

DELETE END

END

CTRL+END

CTRL+SHIFT+END ENTER

251
and selects the cell below (by default). In a data form, it moves to the first field in the next ENTER record. Opens a selected menu (press F10 to activate the menu ENTER action in the bold ENTER ALT+ENTER CTRL+ENTER SHIFT+ENTER ESC for the default command button dialog box (the button with the outline, often the OK button). Starts a new line in the same cell. Fills the selected cell range with the current entry. Completes a cell entry and selects the cell above. Cancels an entry in the cell or Formula Bar. It also closes an open menu or submenu, dialog box, or message window. Moves to the beginning of a row in a worksheet. Moves to the cell in the upperleft corner of the window when SCROLL LOCK is turned on. Selects the first command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible. Moves to the beginning of a worksheet. Extends the selection of cells to the beginning of the worksheet. Moves one screen down in a worksheet. bar) or performs the action for a selected command. In a dialog box, it performs the

ESC HOME HOME

HOME CTRL+HOME CTRL+SHIFT+HOME PAGE DOWN

252
Moves one screen to the right in a worksheet. Moves to the next sheet in a workbook. Selects the current and next sheet in a workbook. Moves one screen up in a worksheet. Moves one screen to the left in a worksheet. Moves to the previous sheet in a workbook. Selects the current and previous sheet in a workbook. In a dialog box, performs the action for the selected button, or selects or clears a check box. Selects an entire column in a worksheet. Selects an entire row in a worksheet. Selects the entire worksheet. Displays the Control menu for the Excel window. Moves one cell to the right in a worksheet. Moves between unlocked cells in a protected worksheet. Moves to the next option or option group in a dialog box. Moves to the previous cell in a worksheet or the previous option in a dialog box. Switches to the next tab in dialog box. Switches to the previous tab in a dialog box.

ALT+PAGE DOWN CTRL+PAGE DOWN CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE DOWN PAGE UP ALT+PAGE UP CTRL+PAGE UP CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP

SPACEBAR CTRL+SPACEBAR SHIFT+SPACEBAR CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR ALT+SPACEBAR TAB TAB TAB

SHIFT+TAB CTRL+TAB CTRL+SHIFT+TAB

253

LESSON-1 A
Name Hindi Math English So.science Science Drawing Total Maximum Minimum Average Division Ram 45 37 55 52 55 50 294 55 37 49 second Mohan 55 39 40 55 35 36 260 55 35 43.33 third Sita 35 38 25 35 28 35 196 38 25 32.67 fail Gita 89 54 60 57 54 75 389 89 54 64.83333 first Kavita 70 58 62 65 57 35 347 70 35 57.83 second Sohan 27 33 35 35 20 30 180 35 20 30.00 fail Mukesh 63 70 86 88 53 42 402 88 42 67 first Krishan 43 90 88 92 59 85 457 92 43 76.17 first

1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

Calculate the Total =SUM(B2:B7) Enter Calculate the Maximum =MAX(B2:B7) Enter Calculate the Minimum =MIN(B2:B7) Enter Calculate the Average =AVERAGE(B2:B7) Enter Calculate the Division Enter

=IF(B11>=60,"first",IF(B11>=45,"second",IF(B11>=33,"third","fail")))

10th
500 400

number

Hindi Math English So.science Science

300 200 100 0

So ha n M uk es h Kr ish an

Ra m

Ka vit a

oh an

G it a

Si

Drawing Total

ta

student

254
Name Anita Suman Rakesh Sony Amit Annu Anamika Khushi Hindi 56 89 46 12 45 54 87 58 Math 45 75 75 45 47 37 54 25 English 26 15 12 58 65 69 80 55 Science 59 69 79 70 65 49 42 50 Drawing 86 78 76 60 58 99 82 90 Total Maximum Minimum Average Division

1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

Calculate the Total =SUM(B2:B6) Enter Calculate the Maximum =MAX(B2:B6) Enter Calculate the Minimum =MIN(B2:B6) Enter Calculate the Average =AVERAGE(B2:B6) Enter Calculate the Division

=IF(B10>=60,"first",IF(B10>=45,"second",IF(B10>=33,"third","fail"))) Enter

12th
120

number

100 80 60 40 20 0

Hindi Math English Science Drawing

Ra ke sh

An nu

Su m

student

An am

Kh us hi

an

So ny

An ita

Am

ika

it

255
Name Shonu Mohan Sani Hindi 56 65 History 69 51 English 45 56 Total Maximum Minimum Average Division Kamlesh Rohit 60 55 49 Suresh Rinki Mina 69 45 54 66 47 58 55 45 55

69 58 41

58 60 47

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. =IF(B8>=60,"first",IF(B8>=45,"second",IF(B8>=33,"third","fail"))) Enter

Calculate the Total =SUM(B2:B4) Enter Calculate the Maximum =MAX(B2:B4) Enter Calculate the Minimum =MIN(B2:B4) Enter Calculate the Average =AVERAGE(B2:B4) Enter Calculate the Division

BA
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

number

Hindi History English

R oh it

oh an

ho nu

an i

ur es h

le sh

LESSON-2
R in am
student

D
Name Hindi History Math Total Maximum Minimum Average Division

Amit 55 54 47

Sohan 25 58 58

Kamlesh 24 56 69

Krishan 28 69 63

Satish 89 25 52

in a

ki

Kalu 87 47 41

Anita 45 69 45

priyanka 47 80 56

256

E
Name Hindi History English Total Maximum Minimum Average Division

Sures 52 45 54

Mani 65 58 58

Sema 35 57 52

Rekha 15 59 53

Suraj 57 59 57

Suni 58 58 59

Anup 59 52 58

Mehesh 56 54 57

F
Name Hindi Art English Total Maximum Minimum Average Division

Anil 84 65 35

Divya 85 68 38

Neha 81 67 30

Priya 83 62 32

Priti 89 63 31

Sani 85 69 36

Sabita 80 67 39

nilam 75 61 38

LESSON-2 A
Name Omkar Vijay Shivan Loan Installment Rate Monthly Payment 200000 50 5% 150000 100 4.50% 60000 150 6% Total Payment Interest

B
Name Rajan Ranjeet Rahul Loan Installment Rate 1500000 60 1200000 120 90000 90 Monthly Payment 3% 4% 5% Total Payment Interest

C
Name Ravi Pawan Anita Rashid Loan Installment Rate Monthly Payment 2500000 70 2% 1900000 50 2.50% 100000 60 3% 1200000 100 3.50% Total Payment Interest

1=>Calculate the Monthly payment =PMT(Rate/12,Installment,Loan) press enter key

257 2=>Calculate the total payment =(Monthly Payment*Installment)*-1 press enter key 3=>Calculate the Total Interest =Total Payment-Loan, press enter key

D
Name Lone Installment Rate Monthly payment Total payment Interest

Soni Samim Sneh Sama


Name

2580000 650000 1050000 5000000


Lone

30 25 100 75
Installment

3% 4% 3.5% 2.5%

E
Rate Monthly payment Total payment Interest

Kajal Kamal Karan kalu


Name

50000 700000 900000 1000000


Lone

20 30 40 50
Installment

3.5% 4.5% 5% 5.5%

F
Rate Monthly payment Total payment Interest

Anita Amit Aasu Anil

30000 40000 50000 60000

30 40 50 60

2% 2.5% 2% 3%

LESSON-3
A
Purchase Price Name of Item Quantity COLGATE 25 200 OIL 80 150 FAIR&LOVELY 80 300 Total Purchase Price Sale Price 30 100 90 Total sale Price Net Charge Net Profit

B
Purchase Price Quantity 25 250 80 10 20 150 45 60 Total Purchase Price Total sale Price

Name of Item Fair And Handsome Saloni Oil Clinic Plus Pantene

Sale Price 35 95 28 52

Net Charge

Net Profit

258

C
Purchase Price Quantity 10 50 38 60 22 90 15 72 18 45 30 18 10 100 40 120 Total Purchase Price Total sale Price

Name of Item Lux Pears Soap Navratna Oil Neem Soap Supriya Dove Soap Pepsodent Vicco Cream

Sale Price 15 45 25 18 20 35 15 45

Net Charge

Net Profit

1=>Calculate the Total purchase price=Purchase Price*Quantity,press enter key 2=>Calculate the Total Sale price =Sale Price*Quantity,press enter key 3=>Calculate the Net Charge=(Sale Price-Purchase Price)/Purchase Price,press enter 4=>Calculate the Net Profit=Net Charge*Total Purchase Price

D
Name of item Tata namak Tata tea Agerbati Clinc plus Machis Sansilk Lux soap Nirma surf Nirma soapn Purchase price 8 15 4 1.40 1.30 1.45 9 7 12 Quantity 100 100 200 500 100 500 50 200 100 Total pu.pr. Sale price 10 16 5 1.50 1.50 1.50 10 8 14 Total sa.pr. Net ch. Net pr.

E
Name of item Surya namak Mohani tea complon Nirma 20 20 biskit Purchase price 8 15 180 9 4.50 Quantity 100 100 10 100 100 Total pu.pr. Sale price 10 16 200 10 5 Total sa.pr. Net ch. Net pr.

259
Coconet bis. Sunfeast biskit Dark fanlasy Krackjack Marie gold Marie light 8.50 4.20 4.30 4.30 4.30 4.30 100 100 50 50 50 50 10 5 5 5 5 5

F
Name of item Tata tea Agerbati Clinc plus Machis Sansilk Cadbury Dairymilk 5star Toomuch Kitekat Bigbabol mintofresh Purchase price 8 15 4 1.40 1.30 1.45 9 19 4 4 14 2.10 2.10 Quantity 100 100 200 500 100 500 20 20 20 20 20 100 100 Total pu.pr. Sale price 10 16 5 1.50 1.50 1.50 10 20 5 5 15 3 3 Total sa.pr. Net ch. Net pr.

LESSON-4
A
Name Of State U.P. Bihar Punjab Fo 55 100 115 Co Fo

B
Name Of Country America Australlia England F
o

Co 80 60 95

Fo

C
Name Of State M.p Kerala Mumbai F
o

Co 120 86 75

Fo

1=>Calculate the Temperature in Celcius=(F0-32)*5/9,press enter 2=> Calculate the Temperature in F0=(C0*9/5)+32,press enter F0=>FO,Select o FORMAT=>CELLS=>EFFECT=>SUPERSCRIPT,CHEK OK

260

D
Name of state
Andra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana

Fo 60 65 70 80 85 90 95

Co

E
Name of state Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Fo 60 62 68 72 78 92 96 Co

LESSON-5
A
Name Sapana Shivam Rajesh Rajan Radha Priti Kalpana poonam Scale 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 Basic Salary H.R.A 7500 7000 7200 5500 5200 4500 4200 3500 D.A T.A P.F Net salary

HRA=>HOUSE RENT ALLOWANCE, IT=>INCOME TEX DA=>DEARLY ALLOWANCE, PF=>PROVIDENT FUND TA=>TRAVEL ALLOWANCE, BS=>BASIC SALARY MA=>MEDICAL ALLOWANCE

261

B
Name Scale Basic Salary H.R.A Nilam 1 10000 Sumit 1 9500 Kavita 1 9200 Rohit 1 9000 Akash 2 7000 Rahul 2 6500 Anil 2 6400 Anita 2 6000 Neha 2 5800 Priya 3 5000 Prite 3 5800 Amit 3 5500 Krishan 3 5200 Shivchran 3 5000 D.A T.A P.F Net salary

1=>Calculate the H.R.A= Basic salary*40%,press enter key 2=>Calculate the D.A= Basic salary*15%, press enter key 3=>Calculate the T.A= Basic salary*10%, press enter key 4=>Calculate the P.F= Basic salary*15%, press enter key 5=>Calculate the Net salary = Basic salary+H.R.A+D.A+T.A-P.F, press enter key

C
Name Rohit Amit Sunil Sagar Asha Uma Nitu Nilam Suman Kavita Name Kamlesh Aasu Akhlesh Umesh Suhel Sani Scale 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Scale 1 1 1 1 1 2 Basic salary 11000 11500 11200 11300 11400 7000 7500 7400 7800 7900 Basic salary 12000 12555 12400 12450 12800 8000 H.R.A D.A T.A P.A Net Salary

D
H.R.A D.A T.A P.A Net Salary

262 Shrukh Anita Kajal priya Name Jyoti Sarita Sunita Sanjay Rakesh Parkash Neha Vandana Salni Wasim Pawan Ajay Amit Kamlesh Sahid Safe Ved Chandan 2 2 2 2 Scale 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8500 8300 8200 8100

E
Basic salary 13000 13500 13400 13600 13200 9000 9100 9300 9500 9400 7000 6900 6800 6400 6500 7200 7100 7200 H.R.A D.A T.A P.A Net Salary

LESSON-6
A
Name Honda Citi @ Honda Twister@ Honda Cbr @ Honda VFR @ Honda VTR @ First Reading Second Reading Liter Mileage Total Cost Petrol Rate Km Travel 1000 2100 22 60 1222 2322 30 60 1025 2058 25 60 1400 2254 52 60 1290 2300 45 60

B
Name Hero Honda@ Hunk@ Passion Pro@ CBZ@ Karizma@ Splendor@ First Reading Second Reading Liter Mileage Total Cost 1100 2200 20 1500 2500 38 1200 2400 25 1300 2300 35 1350 2100 40 1400 2400 30 Petrol Rate Km Travel 60 60 60 60 60 60

263

C
Name xcd@ Discover@ Kawasaki@ KTM@ Ct100@ First Reading Second Reading Liter Mileage Total Cost Petrol Rate 1050 2100 25 1100 2210 23 1400 2522 35 1500 2300 45 1200 2400 40 Km Travel 60 60 60 60 60

1=>Calculate the Km Travel =Second Reading-First Reading, press enter key 2=>Calculate the Mileage = Km Travel/Liter, press enter key 3=>Calculate the Total Cost = Liter*petrol Rate press enter key

D
Name Honda activa Honda sine splender h.honda.supar Tvs victor Tvs sport Bajaj xcd Bajaj pletina Bajaj supar splender pro First reading 1022 1030 1050 1045 1078 1026 1052 1059 1089 1059 Second reading 2058 2078 2042 2100 2160 2500 2300 2800 2400 2500 Liter 18 20 24 20 29 20 25 24 21 29 Mileage Total cost Petrol rate 60 60 61 63 63 65 65 65 65 65 Km travel

E
Name plueser Yamaha 100 Karizma Honda ambition Passion plus Palsur 100cc Palsur 150cc Palsur 220cc Palsur 250cc Passion pro Name Tata safari Tata nano Tata indico Tata somu Tata boloro Tata magic Tata mazo Honda cb Honda sine Active First reading 1200 1300 1255 1200 1100 1420 1254 1452 1425 1234 First reading 2000 2200 2400 2100 2510 2451 2632 2130 2842 2100 Second reading 2210 2230 2255 2451 2654 2789 2314 2543 2651 2583 Liter 23 25 28 26 23 21 24 28 27 29 Mileage Total cost Petrol rate 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 rate 35 356 36 36 36 38 38 60 60 60 Km travel

F
Second reading 4500 4751 4589 4512 4125 4785 4562 4356 4851 4985 Liter 50 55 60 63 65 68 69 68 65 62 Mileage Total cost Km travel

264

G
Name Pulsar Kawasakhi splender h.honda.supar Tvs victor Tvs sport Bajaj xcd Bajaj pletina First reading Second reading Liter Mileage Total cost Petrol rate Km travel

Tvs xl
Honda cb Honda sine Active Bajaj pletina Bajaj supar splender pro plueser Yamaha 100 Karizma

1203 1400 1200 1300 1400 1520 1425 1478 1254 1321 1265 1248 1295 1925 1255 1209 1267 1240

3200 3562 3541 3698 3025 3698 3547 3685 3698 3586 3920 3289 3254 3201 3258 3692 3258 3265

50 54 58 56 65 42 50 52 54 58 57 58 56 59 52 50 54 57

62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62

LESSON-7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 ij click , =iv1*iv2,enter, 1 fd txg ij 0 gks tk;sxk, table dks lysDV, data click,table click ok click

265

iwjk table izkIr gks tkrk gSA

file esa password nsukA file click ,save as click, tools click, genral option click password to open 123 password to modify 456 reenter password to proceed 123 reenter password to modify 456 ok click,save click
1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Microsoft PowerPoint
ekbdzksalkaWV ikojikaW,aV 2003 (Microsoft Power Point 2003)& izksaMsDV izksaQkby] fjlpZ isij vkSj kksa/k&fuca/kksa tSls O;kolkf;d izLrqrhdj.k dks rS;kj djus ds fy, Microsoft PowerPoint izksaxzke vktdy cMs+ iSekusa ij bLrseky fd;k tk jgk gSA bl rjg ds Presentation esa Jksarkvksa dks lwpuk nsus ds fy, Slides dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA ;s Physical Slides gks ldrh gSa] ftUgssa pykus ds fy, Overhead Project dh t:jr gksrh gS ;sa Electronic Slides Hkh gksa ldrh gS] ftudksa fn[kkus ds fy, daI;wVj dk bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA vktdy daI;wVj ls pyus okysa Slide Shows cgqr yksadfiz; gSA ;s Dynamic Slides ds Qk;nsa nsrs gSA Dynamic Slides ,slh Slides gkssrh gS tksa ,d fufpr le; ds ckn viusa vki cny tkrh gSA bl rjg dh

266

Presentations usaVodZ ij Hkh pykbZ tk ldrh gS vkSj izLrqrdrkZ }kjk fd, x, ifjorZu lHkh dksa ,d lkFk usaVodZ ij fn[kk, tk ldrsa gSA bldsa vykok Dynamic Computer Slide Shows esa Sound, Animation and Colorful Graphics dksa Hkh kkfey fd;k tk ldrk gSA Dynamic Presentations pykus vkSj rS;kj djusa ds fy, PowerPoint cgqr izHkkokkyh lkaWVoas;j gSA ;g Presentations cukusa rFkk izLrqr djusa ds fy, lHkh lk/ku vkSj rduhds iznku djrk gSA bld bLrsaeky Slides rS;kj djusa] muessa Text Mkyusa] xzkfQDl vkSj Objects tSls WordArt, Lines bR;kfn Mkyusa ds fy, Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA vkb, vc ikojikaW,aV izksaxzke kq: djsA ikaWojikaW,aVj kq: djuk (Starting PowerPoint)& PowerPoint esa dke djusa ds fy, vki ;g dke uhpsa fy[ksa dze }kjk dj ldrsa gSA 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Task Bar dsa Start cVu ij ysa tk,WA blds ckn ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsALdzhu ij iqk&vi esaU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. bl iqk&vi esaU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks izksaxzke fodYi ij yk,aWA Ldzhu ij ,d vkSj esU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. bl esaU;w ds vanj ekml ikaW,aVj dks Microsoft PowerPoint fodYi ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks nck,aWA 4. PowerPoint dh igyh Ldzhu fn[kkbZ nsxhA 5. bl Ldzhu es ,d Dialog Boxs fn[kkbZ nsaxk ftlesa vki igysa ls ekStwn Presentations [kksat ldrsa gS ;k fQj u;k Presentation Hkh rS;kj dj ldrs gSA D;kssfd vHkh rd geusa ,slk dksabZ Presentation rS;kj ugha fd;k gS] blfy, ge ,d u;k Presentation cuk,aWxsaA bldsa fy, PowerPoint rhu fodYi miyC/k djkrk gS] ftUgsa bl Dialog Boxs lsa pquk tk ldrk gSA ;g fodYi gSS& AutoContent Wizard Design Template Blank Presentation vkb, lclsa igya ge PowerPoint Window dksa le>saA Power Point Window esa cgqr ls mi;ksaxh Tools gSa] bu Tools dk laf{kIr fooj.k fuEufyf[kr gSa& VkbVy ckj (Title Bar)& Maximize,Restore and Close cVu ds vykok ;g bl le; [kqysa gq, Presentation dk uke nkkZrk gSA esaU;w ckj (Menu Bar)& ;g PowerPoint esa fofHkUu dk;ksaZ ds fy, bLrsaeky fd, tkusa okysa dekaWM~l dh lwph miyC/k djrk gSA LVSaMMZ Vwyckj (Standard Toolbar)& blesa Open,Save vkfn tSlsa dekaWM~l ds cVu gksars gSA bllsa budsa p;u esa vklkuh gksarh

267

gSA gj cVu ,d fp= dsa :i esa izLrqr jgrk gSa ftllsaq blsa igpkuusa esa enn feyrh gSA QkaWEksaZfVax Vwyckj (Formatting Toolbar)& blesa ckj&ckj iz;ksasax esa vkusa okysa QkaWesaZfVx cVu tSlsa& Bold,Italic vkfn fLFkr jgrsa gSA O;w cVu~l (View Buttons)& ;g vkidsa Presentation dksa Ldzhu ij fofHkUu O;wt easa iznfkZr djusa dh lqfo/kk iznku djrsa gSA uksaV~l isau (Notes Pane)& LykbM ds fy, Notes fy[kusa dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA Mkbax Vwyckj (Drawing Toolbar)& vkidsa Presentation esa fofHkUu Objects dksa Mkyusa dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA vkmVykbu isau (Outline Pane)& bldk iz;ksax Presentation dksa O;ofLFkr vkSj fodflr djusa esa gksark gSA ;gkaW ij vki Presentation ds Text dks Bullet Points bR;kfn QkaWesaV esa Mky ldrsa gS] iSjkxzkQ vkSj LykbM dks iqu% O;ofLFkr dj ldrsa gSA;

izstsUVsku rS;kj djuk (Creating Presentation)& PowerPoint Windows vkSj bldsa fofHkUu VwYl dh ppkZ djusa ds ckn vkb, gc ge Presentation rS;kj djsaA ge igysa gh bl ckr ij ppkZ dj pqdsa gSS fd& AutoContent Wizard Design Template Blank Presentation dk bLrsaeky djrsa gq, ikaWojikaW,aV esa Presentation rS;kj dh tk ldrh gSA ge ,d&,d djdsa bu rhuksa ls Presentation rS;kj djsaxsaA vkb, lclsa igysa AutoContect Wizard lsa kq:vkr djsA vkaWVksadUVsUV fotkMZ dk iz;ksax djrsa gq, izstsUVsku rS;kj djuk (Creating A Presentation Using AutoContent Wizard)& izHkkokkyh Presentation rS;kj djusa ds fy, vki AutoContent Wizard dk iz;ksax dj ldras gSA AutoContent bl izfdz;k ds fy, vkilsa dqN izu iwNrsa gq, ekxZnkZu djrk gSa] vkSj mkjksa dsa vk/kkj ij iwjh Presentation rS;kj djrk gSA AutoContect Wizard }kjk Presentation rS;kj djusa ds fy, uhpsa fn, x, dze dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks esaU;w ckj ds Qkby fodYi ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dksa Click djsA Ldzhu ij ,d MkaWi&Mkmu esaU;w fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. bl Mki&Mkmu esaU;w esa U;w fodYi ij Click djsA New Presentation Dialog Boxs fn[kkbZ nsaxkA

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3. vc AutoContent Wizard ij Click djs vkSj fQj vksads cVu Click djsA 4. AutoContent Wizard dh igyh Ldzhu fn[kkbZ nsaxhA 5. ml Jsa.kh ij Click djs ftldsa vk/kkj ij vki Presentation cukuk pkgrsa gSA Dialog Boxs dh nkbZ vksj vkidsa }kjk pquh xbZ Jsa.kh esa miyC/k Presentation dh lwph fn[kkbZ nsaxhA 6. vkxsa c<+usa ds fy, Next cVu ij Click djsA 7. vc ml vkmViqV ij Click djsa tksa vki viuha Presentation esa pkgrsa gSA vkxsa c<+us ds fy, Next cVu ij Click djsA 8. ,d vU; Dialog Boxs Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA bl Boxs esa viuha Presentation ds fy, khkZd Vkbi djsA 9. bldsa ckn Footer Text Boxs esa QqVj Text Vkbi djsA ;g vkidh Presentation esa gj LykbV dsa uhpsa fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 10.vxj vki viuha LykbM esa og frfFk tc blsa vkf[kjh ckj Update fd;k x;k Fkk rFkk izR;sad LykbM dh la[;k Mkyuk pkgrsa gSa rksa vxysa Boxs esa bu fodYiksa ds vkxsa fn, x, Boxs esa Click djsA vkxsa c<+us ds fy, Next ij Click djsA Auto Content Wizard Ldzhu fn[kkbZ nsxhA 11.vc fotkMZ vkidksa ;g crk,xk fd Presentation rS;kj djusa ds fy, lHkh lwpuk,aW ysa yh xbZ gSA blfy, Finish cVu ij Click djsA 12.vc vkidsa fy, Presentation rS;kj gksa pqdh gSA ckbZ vksaj gj LykbM ds fy, Text fn;k tkrk gS ftlsa vki viuh t:jr dss vuqlkj cny ldrsa gS] rFkk nkbZ vksaj igyh LykbM fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA VsEiysay dk iz;ksax djrsa gq, izaslUVsku rS;kj djuk (Creating Presentation Using Templates)& Template igysa lsa fufpr ikaWojikaW,aVj Presentation gksarh gSa] ftlsa vk/kkj cuk dj vki viuha Presentation rS;kj dj ldrsa gSA Template ds Text ;k xzkfQDl dksa cny ldrsa gSSA VsEiysaV dk bLrsseky djrsa gq, izLrqfr rS;kj djusa ds fy, vxyh ykbu esa fn;k x;k dze viuk,aW& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks esaU;w ckj ds Qkby fodYi ij ysa tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dksa ,d ckj fDyd djsA Ldzhu ij ,d MkaWi&Mkmu esaU;w fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 2. MkaWi&Mkmu esaU;w esa U;w fodYi ij Click djsaA Ldzhu ij New Presentation Dialog Boxs fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 3. New Presentation Dialog Boxs esa Gender VSc fMQkYV }kjk pquk jgrk gSA ijarq vki Blank Presentation ;k Auto Content Wizard Hkh pqu ldrsa gSA 4. Presentation VSc eas fMtkbu dh lwph gkasrh gS ftlsa BackGround ds :i esa bLrsaeky fd;k tk ldrk gSA tc Hkh vki fdlh fMtkbu ds Preview ds fy, Click djrsa gS rksa ;g nk,aW isau esa fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA

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,asfPNd fodYi ij Click djsa vkSj fQj vksads cVu ij Click djsA ;fn vki fMtkbu dk Preview ugha ns[k ik jgsa gS rksa bldk eryc ;g gS fd pquk x;k fMtkbu vkidsa flLVe eas Ukgha gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa vki blsa Office 2003 Lkh-Mh- lsa bUlVkaWy dj ldrsa gS ;k fQj dksabZ vU; fMtkbu pqusaA 5. bl Dialog Boxs esa fMtkbu Templates ij ck,aW ekml&cVu dks aClick djsaA ikaWoj ikaW,aV VsEiysaV fMtkbu dh lwph fn[kkbZ nsaxhA 6. fdlh ,d Templates ij Click djsaA 7. ekml ika,aVj dksa tc ge fdlh Hkh VsEisyV ds uke ij j[krsa gSA rks fizO;w fosaMksa es bldk fizO;w fn[kkbZ nsrk gSaA ;g gekjh Presentation ds fy, lgha fMtkbu dk p;u djusa esa enn djrk gSA 8. vksads cVu ij Click djsaA Presentation ds fy, igyh LykbM dh :iysa[kk pquusa dksa dgrsa gq, New Slide Mk;ykaWXk Boxs fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 9. LykbM ds fy, :ijs[kk dk p;u djsa vkSj vksads cVu ij ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsaA bl rjg LykbM ukeZy O;w esa fn[kkbZ nsxhA 10.bl rjg Presentation dh igyh LykbM cukusa dk dke iwjk gkasrk gSA vc vki bl Presentation esa fdruh Hkh LykbM~l tksaM+ ldrsa gSA CySad izstsUVsku rS;kj djuk (Creating A Blank Presentation)& ;g fodYi vkidksa Presentation esa viuh bPNkuqlkj fMtkbu vkSj dUVsUV fy[kusa dh iwjh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA Blank Presentation rS;kj djusa ds fy, uhpsa fn, x, dzeksa dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks esaU;w ckn ij Qkby fodYi ij ysa tk,aW vkSj bl ij ck;kaW ekml cVu Click djsA Ldzhu ij ,d iqy&Mkmu esaU;w fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 2. MkaWi&Mkmu esaU;w ls U;w fodYi ij Click djsA 3. Ldzhu ij New Presentation Dialog Boxs [kqy tk,xkA Blank Presentation fodYi ij Click djsA 4. ekml ikaW,aVj dksa vksads cVu ij ysa tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dksa Click djsA 5. ikoj ikaW,aV :i jsa[kk p;u djusa dh lqfo/kk nsarh gSA vko;drkuqlkj :ijsa[kk dk p;u djsaA 6. vUr esa vksads cVu ij Click dj nsaA blh ds lkFk ikoj ikaW,aV Blank Presentation rS;kj dj nssrk gSA vc vki izLrqfr rS;kj djusa ds fy, fofHkUu rjhssaads lh[k pqdsa gSa] ,d&,d dj dsa budk vH;kl djsaaA izsatsUVsku lsao djuk (Saving A Presentation)& tc vki Presentation cukusa dk dke iwjk ysa rksa blsa gkMZ fMLd esa lso dj ysauk pkfg,

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rkfd ckn esa Hkh vki bls bLrseky dj ldsaA Presentation dks lso djus ds fy, uhpsa fy[ks dzeksa dk ikyu djsa& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks esaU;w ckj ij Qkby fodYi ij ysa tk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsA Ldzhu ij ,d MkaWi Mkmu esaU;w fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 2.bl MkaWi&Mkmu esU;w lsa lsao fodYi ij Click djsA ,d Save As Boxs Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxk ftlesa vkilsa viuha Qkby ds fy, ,d uke nsausa dks dgk tk,xkA ;fn vkiusa Qkby dks igysa ls gh lso dj j[kk gSA rks Save As Boxs fn[kkbZ ugha nsxkA ysafdu vkidh Qkby lso gks tk,xhA 2. Dialog Boxs flQZ rHkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSa tc vki Save fodYi dk igyh ckn Qkby lsao djusa ds fy, pquko djrsa gS ;k fQj vki viuh Qkby dks gkMZ fMLd esa fdlh vU; uke ls ;k fdlh vU; LFkku ij LVksaj djuk pkgrsa gSA ikoj ikaW,aV esa lHkh QkbYl Extension.ppt ds lkFk lsao gksrh gSA 3. viuh Qkby dks lgh uke nsa vkSj Save cVu ij Click djasA Qkby ml uke lsa lso gks tk,xhA 4. ;fn vki viuh dYiuk dks ikoj ikaW,aV }kjk fn, x, VwYl ds lkFk feyk,aW rks vki bruh izHkkokkyh Presentation rS;kj dj ldrsa gS tksa ns[kus okyks ij gesakk ds fy, ,d vfeV Nki NksaM+ nsaxhA

Power Point [ Presentation]


Power Point- ;g ,d ,slk Application Software gSa ftlesa dbZ Slide gksrk gSa] ftlesa ge viusa Presentaiton dksa vPNsa rjg ls izLrqr dj ldrsa gSA Title Bar Menu Bar Drawing Tool Bar Standard Formatting Slide Preview

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File Menu:New:- bl Option lsa ge ,d ubZ Slide ysa ldrsa gSA Open:- bl Option lsa ge igysa ls cuh Slide [kksay ldrsa gSA Save:- bl Option lsa ge fdlh Unsave File dksa Save dj ldrs gSa] ;fn ckn esa dksbZ Changing File esa djrsa gSa] rksa mlsa Hkh Save dj ldrsa gSA Save As:- blesa Option ls ge MqcyhdsaV Qkby cuk ldrsa gSA Package For C.D.:- bl Option lsa ge viusa Qkby dksaa lh0Mh0 esa yksaM+ djdsa lh0M+h0 ea pyk ldrsa gSA Page Setup:- bl Option lsa viusa Slide Page Size Set dj ldrsa gSa Edit Menu:Undo:- fiNysa dk;Z dks lekIr djrk gSA Redo:- Undo dsa dk;Z dksa lekIr djrk gSA Clear:- bl Option lsa ge vius All Slide dksa ,d lkFk Select dj ldrsa gSA Duplicate:- bl Option lsa ge viusa Slide dks Duplicate cuk ldrsa gSA Delete Slide:- bl Option lsa ge viusa Slide dk Delete dj ldrsa gSA View Menu:Normal:- bl Option lsa gesa Normal fn[kkrk gSA Slide Sorter:- bl Option esa lkjsa Slide dksa ,d txg Sorter djdsa fn[kkrk gSA Slide Show:- bl Option lsa gekjsa cuk, gq,sa Slide dksa Desktop ij Show djrk gSA Master:- Master Slide lsa ge Start esa gh Editing dj nsars gSA og lkjsa Slide ij Show djrk gSA Color/Grayscale:- bl Option lsa ge viusa Object dks Color ;k Grayscale dj ldrsa gSA INSERT:New Slide:- bl Option lsa ge New Slide cuk ldrsa gSA Slide Number:- bl Option lsa ge Slide dk Date, Page Number Etc. Set dj ldrsa gSA Picture:- bllsa ge viusa Slide ds cSad xzkm.M lsaV dj ldrsa gsA vkSj Photo Album cuk ldrsa gSA ftllsa gekjk QksaVksa lkjk ,d&,d izLrqr gksrk gSA Sliders From Files:- bllsa ge dksbZ Qkby dks Slide cuk ldrsa gSA

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Movies and Sounds:- bl Option lsa ge viusa Slide ij Song and Movies dk Effect yxk ldrsa gSA FORMAT:Slide Design:- Slide Design esa Slide ds Design cuk, gksarsa gSA Slide Layout:- bl Option esa cusa cuk, Layout gksrsa gS] ftlesa ge viuk Slide rS;kj djrsa gSA Back Ground:- bl Option ls ge viuk Background eupkgk cuk ldrsa gSA SLIDE SHOW:View Show:Set Up Show:- bl Option lsa ge viusa Slide ds dqwN Editing dj ldrsa gS ftlesa viusa Slide Show vkkkuh gksarh gSA Rehearse Timings:Record Narration:- bllsa ge vius vkokt ;k Movies,Song Etc dks Record dj izLrqr dj ldrsa gSA Animation Schemes:- bl Option lsa ge Animation dh lsafVax djrsa gSA Custom Animation bl Option lsa ge Text dh lssfVax dj ldrsa gSA Slide Transition:- Slide Transition lsa ge Slide esa Editing dj ldrsa gSA Hide Slide:- bl Option lsa ge Slide dksa Nqik ldrsa gSA Custom Show:- bl Option lsa ge fNisa gq, Slide dksa fQj lsa fn[kk ldrsa gSA Action Bottons:- bllsa ge viusa Slide ij Bottons dk Effect nsa ldrsa gSA Acting Setting:- blesa ge Bottons dh Setting Acting Setting ns ldrsa gSA
Navigating in Text Blocks Character Left Character Right Line Up Line Down Word Left Word Right End of Line Beginning of Line Paragraph Up Paragraph Down End of Text Block Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow Down Arrow CTRL+Left Arrow CTRL+Right Arrow END HOME CTRL+Up Arrow CTRL+Down Arrow CTRL+END

273
Start of Text Block CTRL+HOME

Navigating and Working With Objects To Previous Object To Next Object Select All Objects Drag and Drop Copy Create a Duplicate Object Create another Duplicate with same offset as first TAB Shift+TAB CTRL+A CTRL+Select and Drag CTRL+D CTRL+D, move new copy to desired location, then use CTRL+D repeatedly to create more copies

Outlining, in All Views Promote Paragraph ALT+Shift+Left Arrow or TAB from beginning of Paragraph ALT+Shift+Right Arrow or Shift+TAB from beginning of Paragraph ALT+Shift+Up Arrow ALT+Shift+Down Arrow

Demote Paragraph Move Selected Paragraphs Up Move Selected Paragraphs Down

Outlining, in Outline View Collapse to Titles Expand Text under a heading Collapse Text Under a Heading Show All Text and Headings Display Character Formatting ALT+Shift+1 ALT+Shift+Plus ALT+Shift+Minus ALT+Shift+A Keypad / (numlock off) Selecting, in Text Character Right Character Left End of Word Beginning of Word Shift+Right Arrow Shift+Left Arrow CTRL+Shift+Right Arrow CTRL+Shift+Left Arrow

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Line Up Line Down Select All Select Any Text Select Word Select Paragraph Drag and Drop Drag and Drop Copy Shift+Up Arrow Shift+Down Arrow CTRL+A or F2 Drag with left mouse button depressed Double-Click Triple-Click Select and Drag CTRL+Select and Drag

Working with Slides and Presentation Files New Presentation Open a Presentation Save Save As Print Find Replace New Slide (menu) New Slide like last one, no menu Exit/Quit Move from Title to Text Move from Body text to Title of Next Slide CTRL+N CTRL+O, CTRL+F12 CTRL+S, F12 F12 CTRL+P CTRL+F CTRL+H CTRL+M Shift+CTRL+M CTRL+Q or ALT F4 CTRL+Enter CTRL+Enter

Working with Presentation Windows Go to Previous Window Go to Next Window Size Presentation Window CTRL+Shift+F6 CTRL+F6 ALT+F5 (Un-Maximize) Maximize Application Window Maximize Presentation Window Restore Presentation Window to Previous ALT+F10 CTRL+F10 CTRL+F5

275
Size Put Presentation in its own Window

CTRL+F5

Drawing & Formatting Show/Hide Guides (toggle) Switch from Normal View to Master View Group Ungroup Regroup Resize while Maintaining Proportions Resize from Center Resize from Center while Maintaining Proportions Rotate in 15 degree increments Rotate from Corner Rotate in 15 degree increments from Corner Extend Line along same angle Make Straight Segment while Using Curve Tool Nudge object one grid unit Nudge object one pixel Temporarily Release Grid/Guide Snap Create Multiple Guides CTRL+G Shift+Click Slide View Button CTRL+Shift+G CTRL+Shift+H CTRL+Shift+J

Shift+Resize CTRL+Resize

CTRL+Shift+Resize Shift+Rotate tool CTRL+Rotate tool

Shift+CTRL+Rotate tool Shift+Resize CTRL+ALT+click (using curve tool) Arrow Key CTRL+Arrow Key ALT CTRL+Drag Guide

Controlling Slides in Slide Show Go to Slide Black/Unblack Screen White/Unwhite Screen ENTER B or Period W or Comma

276
Show/Hide Pointer End Show Erase Screen Annotations Advance to Hidden Slide A or = ESC, CTRL+Break, Minus, END E H Mouse Click, Spacebar, N, Right Arrow, Down Arrow, Page Down Backspace, P, Left Arrow, Up Arrow, Page Up

Advance to Next Slide Return to Previous Slide

Getting Help & Programming Tools Help Menu and Dialog Explanations Right Mouse Click without Mouse Bring up Visual Basic Editor Macro Recorder F1 Shift+F1 Shift+F10 ALT+F11 ALT+F8

PowerPoint shortcut keys Action Bold Close Close Copy Find Italics Menu bar New slide Next window Open Paste Print Repeat Find PowerPoint shortcut Ctrl-B Ctrl-W Ctrl-F4 Ctrl-C Ctrl-F Ctrl-I F10 Ctrl-N Ctrl-F6 Ctrl-O Ctrl-V Ctrl-P Shift-F4

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Repeat/Redo Replace Save Slide Show: Begin Slide Show: Black screen show/hide Slide Show: End Slide Show: Erase annotations Slide Show: Go to next hidden slide Slide Show: Hide pointer and button always Slide Show: Hide pointer and button temporarily Slide Show: Mouse pointer to arrow Slide Show: Mouse pointer to pen Slide Show: Next slide Slide Show: Previous slide Slide Show: Set new timings while rehearsing Slide Show: Stop/restart automatic slide show Slide Show: Use mouse-click to advance (rehearsing) Slide Show: Use original timings Slide Show: White screen show/hide Spelling and Grammar check Switch to the next Ctrl-Y Ctrl-H Ctrl-S F5 B Esc E H

Ctrl-L

Ctrl-H Ctrl-A Ctrl-P N P

M O W F7 Ctrl-F6

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presentation window Switch to the next tab in a dialog box Switch to the previous presentation window Switch to the previous tab in a dialog box Turn character formatting on or of Underline Undo

Ctrl-Tab / Ctrl-Page Down Ctrl-Shift-F6 Ctrl-Shift-Tab / Ctrl-Page Up Num / Ctrl-U Ctrl-Z

Text Formatting To do this: Windows Keyboard: CTRL+Shift+F, then use up/down arrow keys, click Enter when done CTRL+Shift+P, then use up/down arrow keys, click Enter when done CTRL+Shift+> CTRL+Shift+< CTRL+B CTRL+U CTRL+I ALT+CTRL+Shift+> ALT+CTRL+Shift+< CTRL+Shift+Z F7 CTRL+E CTRL+J CTRL+L CTRL+R Shift+F3 toggles selection through lower case, upper case, initial caps with each press of keys

Change Font

Change Point Size Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Bold Underline Italic Superscript Subscript Plain Text Spelling Checker Center Paragraph Justified Paragraph Left-Aligned Paragraph Right-Aligned Paragraph

Change Case

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Create Hyperlink CTRL+K Deleting and Copying Delete Character Left Delete Word Left Delete Character Right Delete Word Right Cut Copy Paste Undo Create a copy of the text Backspace CTRL+Backspace Delete CTRL+Delete CTRL+X CTRL+C CTRL+V CTRL+Z CTRL+Drag

Internet
baVjusV ,d ifjp;& vki vius ls nwj&fonsk ;k fdlh lqnwj nsk esa&jgus okys fe=ksa ;k lacf/k;ksa ds ikl vdlj i= Hkstrs jgrs gksxsA i= fy[kus ds ckn vki mls Mkd esa Mkyrs gSA ijUrq bllsa vkids eu esa ,d kadk cuh jgrh gSA fd vkidk i= ogkaW le; ij igqaWpsxk ;k ughaA vc vkidksa ,slh fpark djus dh t:jr ugha gSa]D;ksafd vki baVjusV dh lgk;rk ls vius fe=ksa dks >ViV vkSj vklkuh ls i= Hkst ldrs gSA baVjusV Mkd esa i= [kks tkus dh fpark ls eqDr djkus ds lkFk&lkFk vkidksa Mkd esa gksus okys [kpZ ls Hkh cpkrk gSA baVjusV }kjk fuHkkbZ tkus okyh Mkfd;s dh Hkwfedk baVjusV ij miyC/k vU; vla[; lqfo/kkvksa es ls ,d gSA okLro esaa ;g vlhfer lwpukvksa dk HkaMkj gSA blds vfrfjDr bu lwpukvksa dks fu;fer :i ls Update Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA baVjusV D;k gS (What in Internet)&baVjusV fooHkj ds foofo|ky;ksa] vuqla/kku laLFkkuks]ljdkjh ,tsafl;ksa vkSj O;kolkf;d

280

izfrBkuksa bR;kfn ds gtkjkssaa daI;wVj dks vkil esa tksM+rk gSA vius ?kj] nrj ;k nqdku esa ,d NksVs ih0lh0 vkSj ,d VsyhQksu ykbu ds }kjk vki baVjusV ds ek/;e ls nqfu;k ds fdlh Hkh dksus esa viuh ckr rqjar igqpkaW ldrs gSA f[kykSuk cukus ls ysdj ijek.kq ce cukus rd vki gtkjks fok;ksa ij lwpuk,aW izkIr dj ldrs gSA baVjusV ls tqM+k izR;sd daI;wVj nwljs daI;wVjksa ds lkFk laidZ LFkkfir dj ldrk gSA baVjusV ij lwpukvksa ds bl vknku&iznku ds fy, ;g t:jh gS fd daI;wVj ,d nwljsa ds lkFk laidZ LFkkfir dj ik,aWA ,slk djus ds fy, ,d rduhdh Hkkkk dk iz;ksax fd;k tkrk gSa] ftls Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) dgk tkrk gSA ;g Hkkkk vla[; baVjusV daI;wVjkssa ds chp laidZ LFkkfir djus dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSA Hkkjr esa baVjusV (Internet in India) & Hkkjr tSls fokky nsak esa baVjusV dk ego cgqr vf/kd gSA vius fe= ls i= }kjk laidZ LFkkfir djus ds dze ds ckjs esa lksfp,A mlds ikl vkidk i= igqaWpus esa dbZ fnu yx tk,aWxsA vdlj bl ckr dh dksbZ xkjaVh Hkh ugha gksrh fd vkidk i= vius irs ij igqaWpsxk Hkh ;k ugha vkSj vxj igaWpsxk rks dc rdA ;fn i= fdlh vU; nsk esa igqaWpuk gks] rks fLFkfr vkSj Hkh [kjkc gks tkrh gSA baVjusV ds }kjk vki viuk lansk nqfu;k esa dgha Hkh rqjUr Hkst ldrs gSA vius nsk esa gh i= dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd igqaWpus es 4-5fnu rks yx gh tkrs gSa] fdarq baVjusV }kjk nqfu;k ds fdlh Hkh Nksj esa lansk igqaWpus esa eqfdy ls dqN gh feuV yxrs gSA blds fy, dsoy bruk t:jh gksrk gS fd nksauksa vksj ds daI;wVj baVjusV ds lkFk tqM+s gksaA tc ls Hkkjr esa baVjusV us dne j[kk gS] rc ls Hkkjr esa lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku esa dkQh izxfr gqbZ gSA O;f Drxr lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku ds vfrfjDr vc baVjusV dk iz;ksax O;kikj] nwjLFk fk{kk] j{kk] vuqla/kku bR;kfn dk;ksZ es Hkh cM+s iSekus ij fd;k tk jgk gSA okLro esa] baVjusV fofHkUu laLd`fr;ksa] jkVkas vkSj O;fDr;ksa dks ,d&nwljs ds fudV ykus esa egoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgk gSA baVjusV dk mi;ksax (Scope of Internet)&baVjusV ij mifLFkr ,IyhdskUl dh cM+h la[;k ij /;ku nsaA vki ik,aWxs fd blesa ekStwn Kku dh dksbZ lhek ugha gSA vki dgha Hkh gks] baVjusV dusDku }kjk fdlh Hkh {ks=&daI;wVj] [ksy] fk{kk] fQYe vkfn ds ckjs esa foo ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx ls tkudkjh Hkh dj ldrs gSA baVjusV dh ,d fnypLi ckr ;g gS fd] ;g fdlh laxBu ;k laLFkku dk fgLlk ugha gSA dksbZ Hkh ljdkj ;k laLFkk baVjusV ij mifLFkr lwpukvksa dks lslj ugha dj ldrhA vkb, vc ge baVjusV ds }kjk fd, tkus okys dqN dkeksa dks ns[ksA

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bysDVkaWfud esay bZ&esy (Electronic Mail) &Electronic Mail ;k E-mail lansk Hkstus dh rst rFkk vklku izfdz;k gS] vxj vkids ikl baVjusV ,dkmUV gS rksA ;g baVjusV dk lcls vf/kd bLrseky gksus okyk Qhpj gS] tks vkids lanskksa dks vkids ifjtuksa] nksaLrksa vkfn ds ikl iwjs lalkj esa dgh Hkh Hkstus esa vkidh enn djrk gSA vki lansk ds lkFk QksVks] vkaWfM;ksa rFkk ,sfueskUl Hkh Hkst ldrs gSA lwpukvksa dk HkaMkj (Information Storehouse)& baVjusV ,d ykbczsjh dh rjg gS] tks fdlh Hkh fok; ij tkudkjh iznku djrk gSaA vki ;s tkudkfj;kaW vklkuh ls izkIr dj ldrh gSA lkaWVos;j rFkk izkasxzke (Software and Programme) & baVjusV ij gtkjksa izksxzkEl rFkk lkaWVos;j eqr miyC/k jgrs gS]ftUgsa vki File Transfer Protocol dh enn ls vius gkMZ fMLd ij LVksaj dj ldrs gSA euksjatu (Entertainment)&baVjusV ij lSdM+ksa eqr xzsEl tSls&Chess,Football vkfn miyC/k gSA baVjusV vkidks fQYeksa ds fjO;w crk ldrk gS] lkFk gh vki baVjusV ds }kjk fdlh O;f Dr ls ckr Hkh dj ldrs gSA vkaWuykbu [kjhnkjh@bysDVkaWfud dkaWelZ(Online Shopping/Electroic Commerce)&Online Shopping dk vFkZ gksrk gSa&baVjusV ij gh [kjhnuk ;k cspukA vki baVjusV ij t:jr dh oLrqvksa rFkk lsokvksa] tSls&daI;wVj] lkaWVos;j] fdrkcs] iksakkdaas]lfCt;kaW vkfn [kjhn ldrs gSA usV ij lfQax djuk (Surfing the Net) &usV ij lfQZx ;k czkmftax ds ckjs es rks vkius lquk gh gksxk] dbZ yksx lfQZx dk vFkZ Sites dks ns[kuk gh ekurs gSA baVjusV fofHkUu tkudkfj;kaW ,d vklkuh ls mi;ksx fd, tkus okys flLVe esa j[krk gSA bl flLVe dks ge World Wide Web (WWW) ;k osc dgrs gSA ;g lwpukvksa ist esa foHkkftr jgrh gSA bles dbZ ist gksrs gS] ftuesa lwpuk] rLohj] vkaWfM;ksa rFkk ohfM;ksa vkfn LVksj jgrs gS] ftUgs vki lalkj esa dgha Hkh ns[k ldrs gSA gj ist tks WWW ij gksrk gS] mls ge osc&ist dgrs gSA tks Site Web-Page dks LVksj djrh gS] mls osclkbV dgrs gSA fofHkUu daifu;ksa] foofo|ky;ksa] ljdkjh laLFkkvksa vkfn dh viuh Website gksrh gSa]ftuesa muls lacaf/kr lwpukvksa ds Web-Pages gksrs gSA muesa muds }kjk iznku dh tkus okyh lsokvksa ds ckjs es vkidksa tkudkjh nh xbZ jgrh gSA fdlh Website ds igys ist dks ge gkse ist dgrs gSA osc fofHkUu osc&lkbV rFkk osc&ist dks ekml ds flQZ ,d fDyd ij [kksy nsrk gSa] vkSj muesa miyC/k tkudkjh dk ykHk vki mBk ldrs gSA tSlk ge igys crk pqds gSa]

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bls usV lfQZx dgk tkrk gSA ge vkidks t:jh lkbV dks [kksyus ds ckjs esa crk,aWxssA baVjusV dusDku ds fy, vko;d midj.k(Equipments Required for an Internet Connection)& baVjusV dks bLrseky djus ds fy, vkidksa fuEufyf[kr midj.kksa dh vko;drk iM+rh gSa& daI;wVj (Computer) &ekaWMe og lk/ku gS] tks baVjusV ij MkVk LFkkukarfjr djrk gSA daI;wVj MkVk dks ckbujh dksM esa vkids ekaWMe esa igaWqpkrk gS] tks mls ckbujh ls ,ukykaWx flXuy esa cnyrk gSA ;g MkVk fQj VsyhQksau usVodZ }kjk pyrk gSA tc MkVk visf{kr daI;wVj ij igqaWprk gS] rks ml daI;wVj ls tqM+k gqvk ekaWMe mls Analogue Signal ls Binary Code esa cny nsrk gS] tks vkids daI;wVj }kjk i<+k tkrk gSA blizdkj ekaWMe] MkVk dks usVodZ rd igaWqpkrk gSA ekaWMe nksa izdkj ds gksrs gSa& External Modem rFkk Internal ModemA External Modem vkids daI;wVj ls VsyhQksau ykbu dscYl ls tqM+k gksrk gS] tcfd Internal Modem vkidksa daI;wVj esa igys ls gh LFkkfir jgrk gSA vkids VsyhQksu dk Billing Meter ml le; kq: gksrk gS] tc vki baVjusV ls laidZ LFkkfir djrs gSA vPNh xfr dk ekaWMe VsyhQksu dk de fcy c<+krk gSA ekaWMe dh xfr 20,000Bps gksuh pkfg,] ij vki 14,000Bps xfr Hkh bLrseky dj ldrs gSA osc czkmtj (Web Browser)&tks lkaWVs;j osc dks [kkssyus ds fy, vFkok ml ij dksbZ Hkh dk;Z djus ds fy, bLrseky gksrk gS] mls czkmtj dgrs gSA vktdy lcls yksdfiz; czkmtlZ Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01 gSA baVjusV ij dke djus ls igys vki ;g tkaWp dj ys fd vkids daI;wVj esa osc czkmtj gS ;k ugha] vU;Fkk vki baVjusV ugha [kksy ldrsA Microsoft Internet Explorer,Ms Office 2000/Xp ds lkFk gh vkrk gSA VsyhQksau ykbu (Telephone Line)&baVjusV ls tqM+us ds fy, VsyhQksau Connection dh Hkh vko;drk gksrh gSA ;fn vkius dkaWy oasfVax lqfo/kk j[kh gS] rks lHkh MkVk rFkk lwpukvksa VsyhQksau ykbu ds ek/;e ls ,ukykaWx flXuy }kjk ikl gksrh gSA baVjusV lfoZl izksokbVj(ISP)&;fn vkids ikl osc czkmtj ds lkFk daI;wVj gS vkSj VyhQksau ykbu rFkk ekaWMe Hkh vkids daI;wVj esa mifLFkr gS] rks vkidks cl baVjusV Connection dh vko;drk gSaA vki fofHkUu Internet Services Providers(ISP) }kjk baVjusV Connection izkIr dj

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ldrs gSA igys] Hkkjr esa baVjusV Connection flQZ fonsk lapkj fuxe fyfeVsM (BSNL) }kjk gh gksrk Fkk] ij vc vki mu 120 ISP daifu;kas es ls fdlh dks Hkh pqu ldrs gS] ftudks xzkUVsM ISP ykblsal (Granted ISP Licenses) Hkh izkIr gSA buesa lcls yksdfiz; ISP gSa& BSNL,MTNL and Mantra Online A baVjusV dh ewy tkudkjh(Getting Started with the Internet)&vkb,] vc ge baVjusV ls laidZ djsa rFkk fofHkUu osclkbVl dks usV ij lQZ djasA ge baVjusV ij bysDVkaWfud esay ds bLrseky ls kq:vkr djsaxs] ijUrq blls igys vkidksa baVjusV ls laidZ LFkkfir ls laidZ djuk gksxkA blds fy, vkidksa vxys i`B ij fn, x, dze ds vuqlkj vkxs c<+uk gksxk& 1. daI;wVj ds lkFk&lkFk ekaWMe dks Hkh vkaWu djsaA foaMkst Me/Xp MsLdVkaWi vkidks Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 2. vc MsLdVkaWi ds My Computer Icon ij Mcy Click djsaA rqjar gh Icon Window esas [kqy tk,xkA 3. vc ck,aW ekml cVu dks Dial-Up-Networking Icon ij Mcy Click djsaA MsLdVkzaWi ij Dial-Up Networking foaMks [kqy tk,xhA 4. Dial-up Networking foaMks ds vanj Vsnl Icon dks <waW<+sA 5. vc igys MsLdVkaWi ij blds fy, ,d Shortcut Icon cuk ns] rkfd Dial djuk vkids fy, vklkuk gks tk,A blds fy, nk,aW ekml cVu dks Vsnl Icon ij Click djsaA rqjar gh vkidks a Ldzhu ij iqy&Mkmu esU;w fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 6. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj Create Shortcut fodYi ij nk,aW ekml cVu ls Click djsaA rqjar gh vkidksa Ldzhu ij Shortcut Boxs fn[kkbZ nsxkA tks vkils iwNsxk fd vkidkas MsLdVkaWi ij kkaWVZdV cukuk gS ;k ughaA 7. Shortcut Boxs ds vanj ;k fodYi ij Click djsaA rqjar gh MsLdVkaWi ij Vsnl Shortcut Icon fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 8. geskk ;gh csgrj gksrk gS fd MsLdVkaWi ij Vsnl Icon dk kkaWVZdV cuk fy;k tk,] D;ksfd blls vf/kd lqfo/kk gksrh gSA baVjusV ls laidZ LFkkfir djuk (Getting Connected to the Internet)&Bsnl Shortcut Icon ds bLrseky }kjk baVjusV ls Connected gksus ls igys vPNk gksxk fd [kqyh gqbZ foaMks] tks gekjs mnkgj.k

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esa My Computer and Dial-Up Networking gS] dks can dj nsaA igyh foaMks dks can djus ds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dke djuk gksxk& 1. ck,aW ekml cVu }kjk Dial-up Networking foaMks ds Close cVu vkSj fQj My Computer foaMks ds Close cVu ij Click djsaA rqjar gh nksauksa foaMks can gks tk,aWxhA 2. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks MsLdVkaWi ij fn[kus okys Vnsl Icon ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu }kjk Mcy Click djsaA rqjar gh Connect To Boxs vkidks Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. bl Boxs esa ekml ikaW,aVj dks Connect Button ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks ml ij Click djsaA rqjar gh vU; Box Connecting to vnsl Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA bl Box ds Ldzhu ij vkrs gh ,d /ofu vkidksa lqukbZ nsxh] ftldk vFkZ ;g gksaxk fd vkidk daI;wVj vc Service Provider ;kfu Vsnl ls tqM+us dk iz;kl dj jgk gSA 4. Connect gks tkus ds ckn ,d vU; Box ftl Post-Dial Terminal Screen dgrs gSa] Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA ISP ls laidZ cukrs le; vkids Ldzhu ij ,d Error Message fn[kkbZ ns ldrk gSA blesa vkidks flQZ vksds cVu ij Click djuk gksrk gS vkSj nksackjk ISP ls Connect djuk gksrk gSA dbZ ckj ekaWMe ds <hys gksus dh otg ls vki vPNh rjg ISP ls Connect ugha gks ikrsA bldkj.k og ,d Error Message Ldzhu ij fn[kkrk gSA tc og Error Message fn[kkrk gS] rc vki igysa vksds cVu ij Click djsaA fQj viusa ekaWMe dks fLop vkaWQ djsa vkSj lHkha Connections dh tkaWp djsaA tkaWp dj ysus ds ckn bls nksckjk vkaWu djsaA ekaWMe VsyhQksau ykbUl }kjk Connect gksrs gS vkSj VsyhQksau dh rjg dke djrs gSA dbZ ckj vkidks Phone Exchange Tone lqukbZ nsrk gS] ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS fd vko;d ykbu O;Lr gSa blh izdkj dk ,d O;Lr lansk dk ,d O;Lr lansk vkids daI;wVj Ldzhu ij Hkh fn[kkbZ ns ldrk gSA ,slk gksus ij nksackjk Mk;y djus ds fy, Entry Key dks nck,aWA tc rd vki baVjusV ls laidZ ugha cuk ysrs] rc rd bl izfdz;k dks djrs jgsaA 5. vc vkidh Ldzhu fn[kkbZ nsxhA gj mi;ksaxkkZ (User)Net ij ,d Identity Code ls igpkuk tkrk gSA bl Idectity Coes dks ge User Name dgrs gSA Net ls tqM+uss ds fy, fdlh dks Hkh igys User Name dks izfoV djuk gksrk gSA

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blfy, vki Hkh igys ;wtj use dks Vkbi djsaA gekjs mnkgj.k esa ;g Idgbooks@Vsnl.com gSA fQj Enter Key nck nsaA rqjar gh dlZj vxyh ykbu esa pyk tk,xkA 6. gj mi;ksaxdkkZ dks uke ds lkFk ,d ikloMZ Hkh fn;k tkrk gSA vki ikloMZ Vkbi djsa] fQj Enter Key nck nsaA vxj vki xyr ikloMZ Vkbi djrs gS] rks vki baVjusV ls Connect ugh gks ikrs] rc ,d lansk vkidksa Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gSa& User Name/Password IncorrectA vc User Name nksckjk Vkbi djsa vkSj fQj ikloMZ Vkbi djsaA var eas Enter Key nck,aWA 7. fQj Post-Dial Terminal Screen ij mifLFkr Continue[F7] cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Connecting to vsnl Boxes vkidksa ,d lansk Verifying User Name and Password.....ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsxkA dqN gh {k.kksa ds ckn ,d vU; lansk Connecting to vsnl Boxs esa fn[kkbZ nsxk] tks vkidksa Logging on to network lansk fn[kk,xkA dqN gh {k.kksa ds ckn vkidks Connecting to vsnl Boxs Screen ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA ;g Boxs dqN nsj ckn viusa vki gh Taskbar ij Minimize cVu ds :i esa fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 8. vc vki czkmtj dks [kksys tSls&Microsoft Internet Explorer ;k Netscape NavigatorA ;gkaW ge Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 dks [kksysaxasA blds fy, MsLdVkaWi ij mifLFkr Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 Icon ij Mcy Click djsaA rqjar gh Microsoft dk gkse ist vkidks Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 9. bl gkse ist ds }kjk blesa mifLFkr vU; ist ij Hkh tk ldrs gSA vki fdlh Hkh ist ij gkse ist ij fdlh fyad ij Click djds igqaWp ldrs gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,& ;fn vki Ldzhu ij lekpkjkaas dks ns[kuk pkgrs gS] rks vkidks flQZ ml fok; ij Click djuk gksxkA gekjs mnkgj.k esa ;g U;wt gSA rqjar gh U;wt ist vkids lkeusa fn[kkbZ nsaxkA baVjusV ls laidZ VwV tkus ij vkidksa ,d Message Boxs Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA ;fn vki nksckjk laidZ LFkkfir djuk pkgrs gS] rks Reconnect cVu ij Click djsa vkSj fQj baVjusV ls laidZ LFkkfir djuk fok; ds 2 ls 9 rd ds dze ds vuqlkj dke djsaA

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vkmVyqd ,DlIyksjj }kjk bZ&esy Hkstuk rFkk izkIr djuk (Sending and Receiving E-mail using Outollk Express)&Outlook Express ,d lansk ;k Email Hksatus ds fy, bLrsaeky gksus okyk lkaWVso;j gSA ;g Internet Explorer Programme ds lkFk vkrk gSA Electronic Mail,Text ;k fp=ksa ds :i esa nwljs Users ds ikl Hksth tk ldrh gSA Outlook Express ftls Internet Explorer dk Mail vkSj News izksaxzke Hkh dgk tkrk gS] ewY;r% E-mail Hkstus ds fy, gh bLrseky gksrk gSA uhps fn, x, Hkkx esas vki Outlook Express }kjk esay Hkstuk rFkk izkIr djuk lh[ksaxsA bZ&esy djuk (Receiving ac E-mail)&E-mail dks i<++us ds fy, tks vkius vHkh izkIr fd;k gS] vkidksa fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dk;Z djuk gksxk& 1. Internet Explorer ds Standard Toolbar ij mifLFkr esay cVu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks yk,aWA 2. fQj ck,aW ekml cVu dks ml ij Click djsaA rqjar gh vkidksa mlds lkFk iqy&Mkmu esaU;w fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 3. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj Read Mail fodYi ij Click djsaA igys Microsoft Outlook Express dk Logo Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA fQj Outlook Express fosaMks Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xhA 4. lHkh E-mail dks ns[kus ds fy, vki ekml ikaW,aVj dks Folders Boxs ds vanj Inbox fodYi ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA vkids Address ij Hksts x, lHkh E-mails rqjar gh Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxA gekjs mnkgj.k esa dsoy ,d esy tks fd Microsoft Outlook Express ls gh izkIr gqbZ gSa fn[k jgh gSA 5. vxj vki fdlh fufpr esay ds dUVsUV~l tksa gekjs mnkgj.k esa Microsoft Outlook Express gS dks i<+uk pkgrs gSa] rks ekml ikaW,aVj dks ml ij yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Mcy Click djsaA rqjar ,d Message Boxs vkids Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xk] tks Click fd, gq, esay ds dUVsUV~l dks fn[kk,xkA bZ&esy dk tokc nsuk (Replying an E-mail using Outlook Express)&vkb,] vc ge ml bZ&esy dk tokc nsa tks Microsoft Outlook Windows ess fyLV Boxs esa fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSA blds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dke djuk gksaxk& 1. ftl fufpr esy dk tokc vkidks nsuk gS] ml ij Click djsaA mnkgj.k ds fy, vki List Boxs ds vanj Microsoft Outlook Express esay dk tokc nsaA

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rqjar gh bZ&esy gkbZykbV gks tk,xhA ;fn esay igys ls gh gkbZykbV gks rks vki dze 2 ls vkxs c<s+A 2. vc Reply Button ij Click djsaA Repl Button ij Click djrs gh Re: Welcome to Outlook Express 5 Boxs vkids Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA dqN Text tks To fodYi ds lkFk Vkbi fd;k gqvk gS fn[kkbZ nsxkA bl LFkku ij vkidksa ml txg dks Address Vkbi djuk gksxk] tgkaW vkidksa bZ&esy Hkstuh gSA gekjs mnkgj.k eas ;g Microsoft Outlook Express Team gSA Subject fodYi ds lkFk bZ&esy dk la{ksi.k Hkh fn[kkbZ nsxkA

3. vc Microsoft Outlook Express Team dks esay Hkstus ds fy, Send cVu ij Click djsaA rqjar gh Re:Welcome to Outlook Express 5 Boxs Ldzhu ls gV tk,xkA bldk vFkZ gksxk fd vkius bZ&esy Hkst fn;k gSA vkids }kjk Hksts x, lHkh esay] Outlook Express foaMks ds Outbox esa bdV~Bs gksrs gSA ge Outbox ds vanj ckn esa ns[kssxsA vkb,] vc ge Outlook Express fosaMksa es u;k bZ&esy cukuk vkSj mlsa Hkstuk lh[ksaA vkmVyqd ,Dlizsal }kjk bZ&esy Hksatuk (Sending an E-mail Using Outlook Express)&u;k bZ&esy cukus vkSj mls Hkstus ds fy, vkidksa uhps fy[ksa dze ds vuqlkj pyuk gksxk& 1. Standard Toolbar ij ekStwn U;w esy cVu ij Click djsaA rqajr gh iqy&Mkmu esU;w vkids Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 2. iqy&Mkmu esU;w ds vanj Holiday Letter fodYi ij Click djsaA rqajr gh vkidks U;w eSlst Box fn[kkbZ nsxkA 3. vki ftl O;fDr ds ikl bZ&esy Hkstuk pkgrs gS] ml O;fDr dk bZ&esy irk Vkbi djsaA irk tSls&Yoanji@123india.com dks To fodYi ds lkFk fn, x, Box esa Vkbi djsaA vki ;gha esay fdlh vU; irk ij Hkh Hkst ldrs gSA ,slk vki ml irk dks CC: fodYi ds lkeus cus Box esa Vkbi djds dj ldrs gSgekjsa mnkgj.k es ;g (Shwetasharma47@rediffmail.com gSA

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4. nksa ckj Tab Keys dks nck,aW] rkfd fok; ds lkFk cusa Boxs esa dlZj vk tk,A 5. E-mail ds fok; ds ckjsa esa FkksaM+k l fooj.k tSls VsLV esay Vkbi djsaA 6. Vkbi djus dh txg ij dlZj dks ykus ds fy, dh&ckMZ }kjk Tab Key dks nck,aWA 7. vc iafDr dks gkbZykbV djsa vkSj fQj How about a short vacation ? Vkbi djsaA 8. tc lansk dks Hkstus ds fy, rS;kj gks tkrs gS] rks Send Message cVu ij Click djsaA rqjar gh New Message Boxs Ldzhu ls gV tk,xkA 9. tc vki Send Message Button ij Click djrs gS] rks vkidk Mail Outbox esa LVksaj gks tkrk gSA ;g esay vius vki Outbox ls Hkst fn;k tkrk gS] tc vki Outbox Express dks vxyh ckj LVkZV djrs gSA 10.vkb,]vc ge Outbox esa lHkh esay dks ns[ksA blds fy, Outbox foaMksa esa ekStwn Outbox fodYi ij Click djsaA Outbox esa mifLFkr lHkh esay vkidksa rqjar fn[kkbZ nsaxsA gekjs mnkgj.k esa Outbox esa nksa esy gSa] tks vkius Microsoft rFkk Yoanji@123india.com ds ikl Hksth tkrh gSA 11.;fn vki esay dks rqjar Hkstuk pkgrs gS] rks Send acd Receive Button ij Click djsaA ,slk djus ls vkidk esay rqjar gh Outbox esa LVksaj gksus dh ctk; Hkst fn;k tk,xkA,d eSlst Boxs Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA vkmVyqd ,Dlizsal foaMks dks can djuk(Closing the Outlook Express Window)&vc vki Outlook Express es dke djuk vkSj bZ&esy Hkstuk lh[k pqds gSA vc vki Outlook Express Windows ls ckgj vk,aWA blds fy, vkidks fuEufyf[kr dze ds vuqlkj dke djuk gksaxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Outlook Express foaMks ds Close Button ij yk,aWA 2. fQj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Outlook Express can gks tk,xhA

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3. Microsoft Outlook dks can djrs le; ;fn vkidk bZ&esy Outbok es gSa] rks vkids Ldzhu ij ,d eSlst Boxs fn[kkbZ nsxk] tks vkils iwNsxk fd vki esay dks vHkh Hkstuk pkgrs gS ;k ughaA WWW dks czkmt djuk (Browsing the WWW)&tc vki Internet Explorer dks [kksyrs gSa] rks Microsoft dks Home Page vius vki gh [kqy tkrk gSA vxj vkids ikl Netscape Browser gS] rks Netscape Incorporation dk Home Page vius vki Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xkA gj osc ist dk osc ij vyx irk gksrk gSA bl osc irk dks ge URL(Uniform Resource Locator) dgrs gsSA osc ist dks URL http:// lss kq: gksrk gSa] tgkaW http dk vFkZ gksrk gS Hyper Text Transfer ProtocolA fdlh fufpr Website dks ns[kus ds fy, vkidksa ml osc lkbV dks URL ;k irk fy[kuk gksrk gSA ;g rks vki tkurs gSa] fd gj osc ist esa dqN Text] dqN osc ist ij fp= rFkk Text ml ist dks vU; osc ist ls tksM+rk gSA ftl Text }kjk nwljsa osc ist ij tk;k tk ldrk gS og vf/kdrj js[kkafdr ;k fdlh vU; jax esa fn[krk gSA dqN rLohjs Hkh fdlh vU; ist ij tkus esa vkidh enn djrh gSA tc ekml dlZj bu rLohjksa ij vkrk gSa] rks ;g gkFk ds ,d fukku esa cny tkrk gSSA osc ist ij miyC/k fofHkUu fyadl dks ekml ikaW,aVj dks mu ist ij ?kqekdj <waW<+k tk ldrk gSA vxj ekml dlZj cny dj gkFk dk fukku cu tkrk gS] rksa bldk vFkZ ;gk gksxk fd bl Text ds }kjk vki fdlh vU; lkbV~l ;k vHkh [kqyh gqbZ lkbV~l ds fdlh vU; iast ij tk ldrs gSA vki buesa ls fdlh Hkh fyad ij Click dj ldrs gS vkSj mllas tqM+k osac ist [kqy tk,xkA vkb,] vc ge viuh viuh visf{kr lkbV~l dks osc ij lQZ djsaA dqN izfl) lkbV~l blesa vkxs gSA ubZ lkbV~l dks [kksyus ls igys baVjusV ls laidZ LFkkfir djuk fok; dh enn ls baVjusV ls Connect gksuk gkasxkA 1. vki Microsoft dk gkse ist ns[k ldrs gSA orZeku ist ls fiNys ist ij tkus ds fy, Internet Explorer 5 Window ds cSad cVu ij Click djsaA rqjar gh fiNyk ist gekjsa mnkgj.k esa Microsoft dk gksae ist [kqy tk,xkA 2. gkse ist dk irk ckj ml lkbV~l dks ;w vkj ,y fn[kk,xk] tks ml le; [kqyh gqbZ gSA vU; lkbV~l ij tkus ds fy, vkidksa mlds ;w vkj ,y dks Vkbi djuk gksxkA mnkgj.k ds fy,& vki ,d vU; lkbV~l dks ;w vkj ,y tSls&http:// www.google.com Vkbi djsaA blds fy, ekml ikaW,aVj dks

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irk ckj ds vanj yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh ml txg ij Blinking Cursor fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 3. URL http:// www/google.com dks Vkbi djsa vkSj fQj Enter Key dks nck,aWA ;g irk gkbZykbV gks tk,xk vkSj dqN {k.kksa esa Web site google.com Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsus yxsxkA 4. vc ekml ikaW,aVj dks iwjs Ldzhu ij ?kqek,aWA vki nsa[ksaxs fd dqN txgksa ij ekml ikaW,aVj gkFk ds fpUg esa cny tk,xkA gkFk ml txg dks nkkZ,xk ftl Click djds vki vU; ist ij tk ldrs gSA bls fyad dgk tkrk gSA vU; ist ij tkus ds fy, vki ck,aW ekml cVu dks ml fyad ij Click djsaA 5. osc ist esa dqN Image rFkk Text, Link ds :i esa ftudk vU; istksa ls fyad gS] ;k rks js[kkafdr gksrs gS ;k ksk Text ls fHkUu jax esa gksrs gSA Link Image dks mu ij ekml ikaW,aVj dks j[kdj vki tku ldrs gSA ;g gkFk ds fukku eas cny tk,xkA 6. vkb,] vc ge google.com site esa fn, x, Search Qhpj dks bLrsaeky djrs gq, fdlh fok; ls lacaf/kr vU; lkbV~l dks [kkstsaA eku yhft, fd vki Books dh fofHkUu lkbV~l dks ns[kuk pkgrs gSa]rksaa bldsa fy, lpZ cVu ds lkFk Boxs esa ekml ikaW,aVj dks yk,aW vkSj ck,aW ekml cVu dks Click djsaA rqjar gh Blinking Cursor ml txg ij fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 7. vc Books Vkbi djsa vkSj Enter Key nck,aWA rqjar gh Books ls lacaf/kr lkbV~l vkidks Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxhA 8. vc vki fdlh cqd lacaf/kr lkbV~l dks ns[kus ds fy, fdlh Hkh fyad ij Click djsaA mnkgj.k ds fy, vki List of Best Selling Books ij Click djsaA rqjar gh vkidksa Ldzhu ij vU; isat fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 9. vc rd vius ml lkbV~l ds rhu ist dks Ldzhu ij [kksyk gSA vc vki bl lkbV~l ds gksae ist ij tk,aWA blds fy, Ldzhu ij ekStwn cSad cVu ij ,d ckj Click djsaA rqjar gh vki fiNys ist ij vk tk,aWxsA 10.google.com.site ds gkse ist ij tkus ds fy, vkidks nksckjk bl lkbV~l ds nwljsa ist ds cSad cVu ij Click djuk gksxkA rqjar gh google.com dk gkse ist Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsxkA 11.vxj vki vU; lkbV~l [kksayuk ugha pkgrs gSa] rksa czkmftax dks can djus ds fy, LVkaWi cVu ij Click djsaA

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12.vki osc ij fofHkUu xzkfQDl tSls fdlh Album dk doj] ekgwj O;fDr;ksa ds QksaVksa ;k fo[;kr isafUVax dks Hkh ns[k ldrs gSaA xzkfQd QkbYl Ldzhu ij [kqyus ds fy, dqN le; ysrh gSa] D;ksfd budk lkbt cgqr cM+k gksrk gSA bZ&esy ,dkamV [kksyuk (Opening an E-mail Account)& blls igys fd vki dksbZ bZ&esy Hksats] vkidksa igys ,d E-mail Account [kksyus dh vko;d iM+rh gSA baVjusV esa ,slh vusd LkkbV~l miyC/k gSa] ftuesa vki viuk E-mail Account [kksy ldrs gSA dqN egoiw.kZ lkbV~l tgkaW vki E-mail Account [kksy ldrs gS] fuEufyf[kr gS& www.rediffmail.com www.yahoomail.com www.hotmail.com www.indya.com vc vki www.indya.com uked osc lkbV~l esa viuk ,dkmUV [kksy dj ns[ksaA tSLkk vki tkurs gSa] baVjusV esa ist ds lcls ij ,d Address Bar gksrk gSA i`B ds lcls ij cus bl Address Bar es vki Address www.indya.com Vkbi djsa vkSj Enter Key nck nsaA bl ist esa nks Boxs fn[kkbZ nsaxs ,d Box Login ID ds fy, rFkk nwljk ikloMZ ds fy, gksrk gSA bu Boxs ds Bhd uhps pkj fodYi jgrs gSa] tks bl izdkj gSa& New User? Sign Up Change Password Forget Password New? Try Chatting ,d u;k bZ&esay ,dkmUV [kksayusa ds fy, vki uhps fy[ksa dze dks viuk,aW& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks New User?Sign Up fodYi ij yk,aWA rqjar dlZj dk vkdkj cny dj gkFk ds :i esa fn[kkbZ nsaxkA

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2. ck,aW ekml cVu dks ,d ckj Click djsaA ,d u;k ist [kqy tk,xk ftlesa khkZd jftLVj foFk bafM+;k fy[kk fn[kkbZ nsxkA bl ist ij fy[ksa VsDlV dks i<+s vkSj Continue Button ij Click djsaA blds ckn ,d u;k ist fn[kkbZ nsaxkA ;g ist Registration Form gSA 3. bl Registration Form esa Login ID ds fy, dqN Hkh uke tSls&Asimchowdhury_3 Vkbi djsa vkSaj ,d ikloMZ Hkh Vkbi djsa nsaA ;gkaW vkidksa ;g ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd mfpr Login ID ogha gksrk gS] tksa vkidksa vklkuh ls ;kn jgsaA nwljh vksj ,d mfpr ikloMZ esa 6 ls 10 dSjsDVlZ rd gksus pkfg,aWA bldsa lkFk gh vkidksa Login ID fy[krs le; ;g lko/kkuh cjruh pkfg, fd vki foksk dSjs DVlZ tSls&%,!,@,# bR;kfn dk iz;ksax u djasA 4. Registration Form Hkj pqdusa ds ckn ist ds var esa cusa Submit cVu ij Click djsaArqjar ,d u;k ist fn[kkbZ nsxk] ftlesa vkidk Registration gks tkus dh iqfV dh tk,xhA 5. tc Hkh vkidksa viuk Account [kksayuk gks rks] lkbV~Lk dk irk tSls www.indya.com Vkbi dj nsaA ,slk djus ij Ldzhu ij ,d Form fn[kkbZ nsaxkA bl QeZ esa viuk ID vkSj og ikloMZ Vkbi djsa] ftldk bLrsaeky vkius Registration Form Hkjrs le; fd;k FkkAblds ckn viusa E-mail Account esa tkus ds fy, Go cVu ij Click djsaA vki blh rjhds ls fdlh Hkh vU; lkbV~l esa viuk Account [kksay ldrs gSA iwjh izfdz;k ,slh gh gksrh gSA gkykaWfd] izR;sad lkbV~l ds cVu vkSj Lisl ,d leku gksa&;g t:jh ugha gksrkA izR;sad lkbV dh fM+tkbu esa varj jgrk gS] D;ksafd izR;sad lkbV~l vius vuwBs fM+tkbuksa ls iz;ksaxdkkZ dks yqHkkusa dk iz;kl djrh gSA baVjusV fjys pSV(Internet Relay Chat) &Internet Relay Chat baVjusV dk ,d Qhpj gSA lalkj esa dgha Hkh fdlh ls Hkh ckrphr djusa esa ;g vkidksa enn djrk gSA IRC vkidksa usV ij ,d ;k ,d ls T;knk O;fDr;ksa ls dsoy cSd ;k QksajFk fy[kdj ckr djk ldrs gSA ;g yksaxkas ls feyusa rFkk mudsa fopkjksa dks tkuusa dk vPNk rjhdk gSA baVjusV ij ckrphr ds nkSjku ;fn vki Text dks Vkbi djrs gSa] rksa ;g rqjar gh mu yksxksa ds Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxk] tks ml ckrphr esa kkfey gSA Qksu ij ckrphr djus ls fHkUu IRC vkidksa vkidsa fe=ksa]lxsa&lacaf/k;ksa]tks vU; nsk es gSa] mulsa T;knk [kpZ fd, fcuk ckrphr djokrk gSA

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pSV ds izdkj (Types of Chat) &pSV fuEufyf[kr izdkj ds gksrs gSa& d Text Based Chat:- baVjusV ij pSV djuk lclssa iqjkuh rFkk izfl) fof/k gSA ;g fof/k ,d ;k ,d ls T;knk yksaxksa ls vkidh ckrphr djokrh gSA pSV ds le; ;fn vki Text Vkbi djrs gSa] rks og Text mu lHkh yksaxks ds Ldzhu ij fn[kkbZ nsaxk] tks ml ckrphr esa Hkkx ys jgs a gSA og Text baVjusV esa ekaWMe dh lgk;rk ls tYnh ls ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij Hkstk tk ldrk gSA blds fy, vkidksa gkbZ LihM ds ekaWMe dh vko;d ugha gSA [k Web Based Chat:- bl izdkj dh ckrphr esa vki baVjusV dh ,d ubZ foksakrk Multimedia dk bLrseky djrs gSaA ;g Qhpj vkidks baVjusV ij Live Video }kjk ckrphr djokrk gSA vki Web Based Chat ds fy, gkbZ LihM ekaWMe dks bLrseky djsaA Web Based Chat Hkkjr es vf/kd yksadfiz;k ughsa gSA Indya.com ij pSV djuk (How to Chat Using the Size India.com)&le; O;rhr djus dk ,d cgqr vPNk lk/ku pSV djuk gSA Hkkjr esa Text Based Chat vf/kd yksdfiz; gSA ;g Kkuo/kZd vkSj jksekapd Hkh gSA vkb,] vc ge pSV dSls fd;k tkrk gS& ;g tkus viuh lqfo/kk ds fy, vki Indya.com site ij pSV djsaA blds fy, fuEufyf[kr dze viuk,aW& 1. Explorer [kkaasydj Address http:/Indya.com Type djsaA rqjar gh Ldzhu ij bl lkbV~l dk gkse ist [kqy tk,xkA 2. Home Page esa Login ID and Password fy[kusa ds LFkku dks <+aWw<+sA pwaWfd gekjs ikl igys ls gh bl Website dk E-mail ID Asimchowdhury_3 gS blfy, bls Login ID ds lkeusa fn, x, LFkku ij Vkbi djsaA 3. vc og ikloMZ tks vkius E-mail Account [kksyrs le; fn;k Fkk] Vkbi djsa (Password dks gesakk ;kn j[ksa)A 4. vc nksa fodYiksa ;kuh E-mail vkSj pSV esa ls pSV ij Click djsa vkSj fQj xksa cVu ij Click djsaA dqwN gh le; esa pSV ist vkids Ldzhu ij [kqy tk,xkA bl ist esa ID gekjs mnkgj.k ds varxZr Asximchowdhury_3 nkbZ rjQ vU; IDs ds lkFk fn[kkbZ nsaxhA ;g lkjh vkbZ0 Mh0 mu ;wtj dh gS] tks bl le; ml lkbV~l ij pSfVx dj jgs gSA 5. pSV ist ds ckbZ rjQ vkidksa ,d ckaWDl fn[kkbZ nsaxk] ftlesa vki dksbZ Hkh eSlst tksa vki Hkstuk pkgrs gS Vkbi dj ldrs gSA

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6. dksbZ Hkh lansk&tSls& Hello Everybody! Anyone for a Chat? Vkbi djsa] fQj Enter Key nck,aWA ;g lansk rqjar gh cM+s Boxs esa fn[kkbZ nsaxkA bldk eryc ;g gS fd vkidksa lansk vU; ;wtj ds ikl tk pqdk gSA 7. pSfVax fofHkUu fok;ksa ij dh tk ldrh gSaA ;s fok; :El ds varxZr foHkkftr jgrs gSA vHkh ge Politics uked Room esa gSA vxj vki vyx :e esa tkuk pkgrs gS] rks ck,aW ekml cVu dks nkbZ rjQ Change Room fodYi tks User Options ds uhps fn[k jgk gS ij Click djsaA 8. vkids Ldzhu ij ,d u;k ist fn[ksaxk] ftlesa dqN vU; fodYi ftu ij vki pSV dj ldrs gS] fn[ksaxsA vki dksbZ Hkh fodYi ;k :e ekml cVu ds ,d fDyd ls pqu ldrs gSA Chatting vkidks dqN vU; fodYi Hkh miyC/k djkrh gSA tSls& vki fdlh fokask O;fDr dks pqudj mlds ikl lansk Hkst ldrs gSa] viuk :e cuk ldrs gS] viuh izksaQkby cny ldrs gSa] bR;kfnA vU; lkbV~l esa Hkh blhizdkj dh pSfVx dh lqfo/kk miyC/k gSA cl mudh :ijsa[kk FkksaM+h lh vyx gksrh gSA baVjusV ls iFkd gksuk(Disconnecting from the Internet)& vc vkidks baVjusV ds fofHkUu vi;ksaxksa ds ckjs es irk py pqdk gSA blls vkidks baVjusV dk Bhd bLrseky djus esa enn feysxhA vkb,] vc ge baVjusV ls ckgj vkrs gSA blds fy, vkidksa bl izdkj pyuk gksaxk& 1. ekml ikaW,aVj dks LVkaWi cVu tks Microsoft Internet Explorer ds Standard Toolbar ij ekStwn gS] ij fDyd djsaA 2. vc cVu esa ifjofrZr Connected to Vsnl Boxs ij Click djsaA rqjar gh Connected to Vsnl Boxs fn[kkbZ nsaxkA 3. ekml ikaW,aVj dks Connected to Vsnl Boxs ds Disconnect Button ij yk,aW] vkSj ml ij Click djsa vki ns[ksaxs fd ekaWMe dk Icon Taskbar ls gV tk,xk] tks ml nkkZ,xk fd vkidk baVjusV ls laidZ VwV x;k gSA vc viuk ekaWMe can dj nsaA dqN yksdfiz; osclkbV~l (List of Popular Websites)& Hkkjr esa izpfyr dqN izeq[k osc lkbV~l fuEufyf[kr gS& www.thecpmail.com www.ibm.com

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www.rediff.com www.hindustantimes.com www.filmfare.com www.google.com www.bluemountains.com www.idgbooks.com www.yahoo.com www.indiancookery.com www.screensaver.com www.sun.com www.hotmail.com www.mailcity.com

www.cnn.com www.silchar.com www.britannica.com www.timesofindia.com www.sbpprojectfinder.com www.navbharattimes.com www.msn.com www.cards4you.com www.dummies.com www.jokes.com www.shareware.com www.dreamtechsoftware.com

Shortcut Keys Alt + F Alt + E F1 Ctrl + A Ctrl + X Shift + Del Ctrl + C Ctrl + Ins

Description File menu options in current program. Edit options in current program Universal Help in almost every Windows program. Select all text. Cut selected item. Cut selected item. Copy selected item. Copy selected item

296

Ctrl + V Shift + Ins Home Ctrl + Home End Ctrl + End Shift + Home Shift + End Ctrl + Left arrow Ctrl + Right arrow

Paste Paste Goes to beginning of current line. Goes to beginning of document. Goes to end of current line. Goes to end of document. Highlights from current position to beginning of line. Highlights from current position to end of line. Moves one word to the left at a time. Moves one word to the right at a time.

TYPING - ENGLISH
LESSON-1
ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF JKL; ASDF

LESSON-2
ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL;

297 ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL; ASDFGF JHJKL;

LESSON-3
ALL ASS ASK ADD HAS HAD SAD LAD KAD LAS FAG GAS HAG ALL ASS ASK ADD HAS HAD SAD LAD KAD LAS FAG GAS HAG DALDA FALL GLAD FLAGS HALDA DASH FLASH LAKH LAGH DALDA FALL GLAD FLAGS HALDA DASH FLASH LAKH LAGH

LESSON-4
QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP QWERT YUIOP

LESSON-5
SEA FEE SEE TRY HIT WRIT EAT RAT HAT LOT DID ALL KID OIL POT TOY EAT TEA TEST SIT FILL PAT ARE OUT ARK LIFE PITY SEA FEE SEE TRY HIT WRIT EAT RAT HAT LOT DID ALL KID OIL SAID TAIL TRIAL EASY RIGHT HIGHT WHITE LARGE ROUTE POT TOY EAT TEA TEST SIT FILL PAT ARE OUT ARK LIFE PITY SAID TAIL TRIAL EASY RIGHT HIGHT WHITE LARGE ROUTE

LESSON-6
ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,. ZXCV BNM,.

LESSON-7
HAND SMALL CHEST VERY HEN PENTIME AROUND HANGS

298 LAZY SON NETUON RIGHTS WOMAN MORL BIRD MEN HABIT POWERS BORROW NARROW CATCH VAN EARNS SCHOOL COLLEGE VILLAGE CERTAIN CURTAIN ZEBRA CURTTER HAND SMALL CHEST VERY HEN PENTIME AROUND HANGS POWERS BORROW NARROW CATCH VAN EARNS SCHOOL

LESSON-8
140 145 150 155 156 147 178 190 210 213 245 265 275 290 234 255 212 140 145 150 155 156 147 178 190 210 213 245 265 275 290 234 255 212 1243 2354 6547 6894 3564 2589 5478 6545 6985 4785 2587 4587 59865 1243 2354 6547 6894 3564 2589 5478 6545 6985 4785 2587 4587 59868 12345 587456 47589 698754 2569 45789 36541 325698 25874 12345658 78965 123456 98745 369 5247 5648 356 5476 89745 6974 5879 6548584

LESSON-9
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ LESSON-10 SUN HEN BUT PUT CUT HOT WIR WIT EYE SHY LIE PIE FOR BUY DIE CRY TRY DRY BUS HIS HER YOU NUT ANT GET FAT EAT SIT ILL PEN PAY RAM YET BOY MOHAN CYCLE PRADESH BILL ROIL VIDHAN SADLY HOT POT LOT ESSAY RULER WHILE DREAMES MAP CHARTS VESSEL NOT MEN VAN EAM LOWER KNIFE GITA MARKETS SONS SANTOSH ASHOK MANE HAI WRITE OLD SITA RING FIVE LINE NINE PILE FILE READ SITS ROAD BORE SAVE TIME BARE NEST NEXT MUST FISH WISH GIVE WORK WARM TAME BALL HALL LOVE SICK FROM FARM ONCE HILL TOYED ENJOY VOUCH COWED ROWED OFFER OTHER LEAVE FLERY TUNIC WEARY AWOKE TIMES WOULD RIVER MAKER USUAL OWNER SWAIN FEVER REIGN CACTCH MONEY SOARS FRESH RACES SMALL STYLES TEACH BELOW RUSTY POWER STATE

LESSON-11

299 PRINTS SILVER GASSED LAPSED WASTES PLAYED WEIGHT SELLOR LUSTER WINNER JOINER PREACH DRIVER BAFFLE FIGURE AFRAID WINTER MARKET DOCTOR LABOUR SICKLE MATTER DOUBLE HONOUR FLOWER RASER SACRED AGENCY BRIGHT FINISH TRIFLE OFFICE WORKER PLENTY FALLEN DRINKER ENQUIRY PEACOCK CERTIFY BUTTONS NATIVES PROVOKE EXENSE BREAKER STATION PROBLEM OPENING OFFENCE REQUIRE ENDORSE BOYHOOD TOUGHER THRONES PERFECT ERASION JEALOUS CRICKERT PLAYFUL BALLOON ENFORCE MANSION ZEALOUS CRICKET FLAVOUR CAVALRY APPROCH ECONOMIC BACKWORD FOOTBALL MOVEMENT CAACITY ESTIMATE CONTINUE NATIONAL PRACTICE COUNCIL PROBLEMS DRAWINGS THRTEEN ENGINEER ENDORSED QUESTION RELIGION INCREASE MEASURES COMARED ADVOCATE SERVICES PRIORITY FRACTION NEWSPAPPER FUNCTION EDUCATION DIRECTORS CORPORATE ESTABLISH PROGAMME RESOURCES FUNCTIONS EXERCISES RESOURCES AVAILABLE AUTOMATIC ENCOUTER PUBLISHED EXISTENE REPRESENT THEREFORE NATURALLY FORWARDED MACHINERY FINANCIAL ACCRETION INFLAT ION EMPLOYEES

LESSON-12
GRIEVANCES MANAGEMENT ASSUMPTION ALLOCATION PREFERENCE ACCORDANCE INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUGGESTION EMPLOYMENT MOTORCYCLE EFFICIENCY COMMISION VICTORIOUS STRUCTURE GOVERNMENT PRODUCTION DISCIPLINE ASSISTANCE INVESTMENT LEADERSHIP MAGISTRATE ADDITIONAL FEDERATION WAVELENGTH CONTROLLING TYPEWRITING FUNCTIONING BUREAUCRACY RECOGNITION REQUIRMENT RESTRICTION EXPECTATION CORPORATION ESTABLISHED UNDERTAKING INTRODUCING LIMITATIONS CONSUMPTION DEPARTMENTS

300 TECHNOLOGY SUBSTANCIAL TRANSLATION APPRECIATED ENVIOURMENT SAFEGUARDING IMPROVEMENTS BACKWARDNESS PRODUCTIVITY CONSERVATION ANNOCEMENT CHAMPIONSHIP UNDERTAKING DEVELOPMENT EXAMINATIONS CIRCUMSTANCES METROPOLITANS ORGANISATION CONTRIBUTION UNSCIENTIFIC REQUIRMENTS

LESSON-13
I have no wish to impose my views upon the ambassador or to embarrass Him by aksing for reasonable improvement, but it is important I should impress upon him.if miss nelson wish to see the works she can come to the office on Tuesday or Wednesday of this week and I shall be happy to show all the details she may desire to see. Amoung these factors I would maintain the increase in the prices of many raw materials . the prices of rice also rose sharply during the past twelve months . the excise duties imposed in the budght have let to increase in the costs of the supplies of different goods .There were two other things . one was that the existing ban on export of groundnut under open general licence was lifted aban which was prevailing in gujrat this state produces one fourth of the groundnut crop of the country.The conference plan of action among other things called on the international community for increases in financial contribution extension of cooperation for the implementation of high priority and programmes and greater emphasis on social benefits. Thank you for your favour lf the first of april and for mailing me your price lists and samples of blue and black inks and glue in the several sizes of bottles I think the labels are better and brighter now. centres

LESSON-14
Try to fix your mind to the work you have taken up or you will not succed and if you take it lightly I fear you may fail to pick it up and if you do it will be too late for everything has its own right time. Those who prefer to work without often do things not desired but it is true the such persons put in true work and honest labour . tanking before an action and rooer thinking are equally useful. Young boys often indulge in acts of indisciopline and take it to be an exrission of liberty. They should know that these acts will invite stern punishment and liberty which they love so much may completely lost. How do we account for this strange behaviour of our student . the compulsory introduction of N.C.C. was expected to mend matters but the situation has only worsend . convocation which are supposed to present hallmarks of discipline and solemnity are marked by rowdy scenes and unbridled behaviour. Save some part of your salary for a rainy day else you will go begging and I think you will remember the days when you were down with fever for over a month and all your relaton refused help as well es sympathy. We earn money to buy things we need and do only those things that brings us money or give pleasure to hearts otherwise we see person refusing to do anything those who are born idlers or work for others can of course be excepted in all this we see that man acts to his thing

301 . your firm knows that our fresh plan is a master plan of this year and shall show marked stages of progress as and when it is taken up in good and ablemen with sincerity . bank specialize in short term loans granted at low interest but they demand first class security or a surety bank advise us on investment procure information about financial condition of customers and act as trustees of our proerty. Branches are opened to finance village industries small scale undertaking for small loans.for the purpose of system control the country has been dovoded into seven each having a grid control centres te overall oppration of these seven control centres is countrolled and supervised by national contral centre in London the seven grid control centres are located in Manchester.

LESSON-15
The standard tabulator is mainly intended for other forms and special layouts it can be used independently or in conjection with the mechanical memory if additional stops are required. During freedom struggle, freedom fighters hope that after freedom being achieved, India shall be all round prosperous country ,having all ,lackings nothing if anything .but their hopes were all over dupes and dreams false. Freedom came but with what problems finds its solution ,when other crops. We have problems here and there .The country is rest with problems on all sides but of all unemployment problem is much the worst that demands its solution first. Never before in the hietory of India was unemployment so acute as is today .It hangs like sword of democles over our head and endangers the law and orders in the society. It is the hand made of corruption, for, there is no religion for empty belly. To this say be added necessity knows no law its nature assumes three typical forms such unemployment in the field of education ,ariculture & industrial unemployment .lacs and crores of our people have fallen victim to this deadful giant, it is growing grimly at our society.There are several causes that account for the unemployment. Our country is more thickly populated than any other country in the world . overpopulation has proved curse upon us ,everymonth we have thousands of months to stand.Even today the same as was introduced by britishers. They were in dire need of clearks so they set up institutions and which could afford them clerks so our institutions serve as factory of clerks only clerks. Consequenty lack of graduates thousands of engineers and post graduates so on & so forth have fallen victim to unemployment . the most defective form of our education system is that it lays stress on thereticle teaching. It has nothing to do with practicle one and this is all and one reason when unemoloyment puts forth. Defective and oriental methods of agriculture also cause unemployed our peasants are mostly uneducated & backward. Giant machines have been put to use and they can do the work more thea is expected of thousand of men. This being so thousands of laboures are victimsed to unemployment . more over capitalism lays an important role in the organization of the industry caatalists want laboures as much the cheapest wages and thus cause unemployment .

302 Our population should be checked up through family welfare. education system should be overhauld & stress be laid on ractile teaching farmers should be familarised with scientific instruments.

LESSON-16
National intrgration is the intemal defence of the country,the domestic and civilian counterpart the work ,the defence service do to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation .no country can ignore defence.it cannot assume that just because It is soveregine ,its neighbours will not attack.it has to be ever vigilant ,ever careful not to lon behind technologically. Similary , we should not imagine that merely because we are free and have a constitution,the social cohesion will remain on it own.it has to be guarded just as the nation `s frontiers are guarded .but in one case we have the defence forces and in the other it has to be all the citizens. Several forces are work within and outside the country trying to destabilize us sowing seeds of suspicion berween followers of different religions languages regions and caste look around the globe are not most if not all developing countries subject to the sama dangers and difficulties We in India are ancient people ; the world has always recognized our land As India or Hindustan or bharat varsh but let us not forget that as a modern nation we are still quite toung throughout our long history we have had problema between large and small loyalties we are fortunate that the greatest Our saints and rulers always regardedThe entire country as one we have the example of such shining lights as guru Nanak ashoka akbal sankaracharya guru govind singh and so on.

LESSON-17
The bank of England was founded in 1894, and it is the most important nationalbank in the world it issues bills drawn on itselffor any amount between 10 s100and its directors fixe the bank rate to encourageporson of limited means to save there are save there are seving bank and penny bank bankruptcy disqualifies bank rupt from member shi9p of a twon concil senytary atourity education athourity of vestry these disqualliffication may Cease in the bankrupt can provethatehis bankruptcy wase due to misfortune The embank ment know as the thames embankment is the next to same sea embankments . the fines in the world. I should like to call attention of the fact that special attention must now be given by book keepers to the system which enables the merchant to ascertain wether ,say , the silk department , the shipping department,or the foregine ,department of his business in making a profit or aloss. A large number of excellent positions in the election department, the paving department or the cleaning department of our corporations are open to those Who have a good knowledge of book keeping

303 My attention has been called to a youth who gave secial attention to book keeping ehen at school and who is now reaping the reward of his zeal Advertisements appear regularly in the accountant s journal the journal Of commerce and other weekly journal for persons Qualified to acts as book keepers

LESSON-18
Rapid strides are made in the field of space and satellite technology During the past decade Indian space scientists have launched several space ventures Some of them have proved failures partially or completely eithet at Initial stage or ofter going into orbit but the task of failures loses Much of its relevance considering that both USA and soviet union The leading space power also had to face several failures it is all a part of the game the success have to be taken with the failures like sweet with the sour. Telephone conversation telegraph message and tv programmes can be relayed all over the earth by means of communications satellite. Earth station has both the transmitting and receiving facilities. The signals are first beamed fron a tranasmiting aerial and carried by altra high frequency waves traveling aerisal of satellite . satellite . receives signal in a narrow beam the electronic circuits built in the satellite change the frequency of received signal and amplify the signal before retransmitting it back to earth station . the satellite offers great advantage of height covering large global surface . it is now national TV system through satellite communication system. Agriculture es a very important sector . I find that the budgetary support for the central plan so for as the Agriculture and allied sectors are concerned is going to be reduced from Rs.949 crores in 1980 to Rs.800 crores in 1981-82 . for rural development it is going to be reduced from Rs. Ten crores to rupees fifty crores . I am giving this figure from the economic survey and the budget document. Typing Tutor Notes: The best typeing tutor, spelled typing. You can do typing at home, at typing class or a typing course, do typing exercise. Best tutorial to learn to type, its free typing software is not required. Try practice typing test for qwerty, qwerty keyboard and qwerty keyboard

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HINDI TYPING
vH;kl 1
asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj asdfg ;lkj

vH;kl 2
asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk

307

asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk asdfggh ;lkjk

vH;kl 3
dkj dkd jkl ljk dkl lkj flag gkj jk; jad dksj gfj gkjs lsd dgh lgkjk dkj dkd jkl ljk dkl lkj flag gkj jk; jad dksj gfj gkjs lsd dgh lgkjk jgh lhj jkg jkl fdl flj lgh flgj gal jgl ljl gsj dadj fd;k fljk jgh lhj jkg jkl fdl flj lgh flgj gal jgl ljl gsj dadj fd;k fljk fjgk lkjh jkgh fgald ljk; dslj fdlh fdjk;k dksjk ljdkj gfj fgjk jk; fjgk lkjh jkgh fgald ljk; dslj fdlh fdjk;k dksjk ljdkj gfj fgjk jk;

vH;kl 4
q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu q werty ][poiu

vH;kl 5
er ty ui op ry ou t; er rt ru eu iy uy dy y; lp ewu er ty ui op ry ou t; er rt ru eu iy uy dy y; lp ewu pqu fryd ek;k lqj dqy lquuk dje edj ljy iyd ldy p;u ikol pqu fryd ek;k lqj dqy lquuk dje edj ljy iyd ldy p;u ikol dwdr gfjr fuyh ikuh jkuh pquuk ohjrk ewjr lwjt rqedks twu ikjl ydhj dwdr gfjr fuyh ikuh jkuh pquuk ohjrk ewjr lwjt rqedks twu ikjl ydhj thou eqyk;e ykyph lekt yk;d uk;d dydy iyiy ifjokj lfjrk thou eqyk;e ykyph lekt yk;d uk;d dydy iyiy ifjokj lfjrk pqu fryd ek;k lqj dqy lquuk dje edj ljy iyd ldy p;u ikol

vH;kl 6

308

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vH;kl 7
xn osn nx mc ,x ,oa nxa vn id mu bu cp cy nu yn rc fny dqy xn osn nx mc ,x ,oa nxa vn id mu bu cp cy nu yn rc fny dqy eqy cfy jsy uhy vksyk ykb ikb cky vku cku xzsx izu izdkj xzg.k dzkd eqy cfy jsy uhy vksyk ykb ikb cky vku cku xzsx izu izdkj xzg.k dzkd fcdzh felz ,sud cslu xwtj xktj xwyj fctyh vdsyh fcuuk cscl miou mypuk xhyh fxjuk chekj xcu tkequ frryh ysssssssssssstj ohyj gkfl;k ify;k kyte blfy, eyey dljr vkthfodk vxzlj ,glku cukjl

vH;kl 8
d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky c`tyky e`r u`Ik ln`k izd`fr d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky c`tyky e`r u`Ik ln`k izd`fr d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky c`tyky e`r u`Ik ln`k izd`fr d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky c`tyky e`r u`Ik ln`k izd`fr d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky c`tyky e`r u`Ik ln`k izd`fr d`ik c`t g`n; d`iky

vH;kl 9

309

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vH;kl 10
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vH;kl 11
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vH;kl 12
I;kt Toj dYi lUr HkO; dPpk jkT; ekWaaa lEeu y{; tUe pEep mPPk Qy fgUn iEi xkWao y[kum jRu mu m[k vkoayk m[kyh lPps vkWapy ogkaW ;gka djk,Wa eUn E;ku R;kx cPpk Rofjr ewY; LoIu uUgk vkWa[k nkWar eqag mpkWaa

vH;kl 13
XCVB ?><MN ZXCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVBN ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB ?><MN XCVB

310

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vH;kl14
?kj xaxk cCcw >kx >juk udNsn Xokyk NkN [k.M bUVj Mkdw Mkfd;k Mkd Vc ioZ lw;Z n.M ewfrZ /kwrZ rhFkZ dhfrZ VkV Nkuuk fBBksyh VeVe bf.M;k liZ fcNkSuk >wB /kqykbZ niZ Bsyk ?kqeuk ?kqlk LVsku <Ddu fiykbZ ykBh VUM feBkbZ?kj xaxk cCcw >kx >juk udNsn Xokyk NkN [k.M bUVj Mkdw Mkfd;k Mkd Vc ioZ lw;Z n.M ewfrZ /kwrZ rhFkZ dhfrZ VkV Nkuuk fBBksyh VeVe bf.M;k liZ fcNkSuk >wB /kqykbZ niZ Bsyk ?kqeuk ?kqlk LVsku <Ddu fiykbZ ykBh VUM feBkbZ

vH;kl 15
jkV _=) ckj ckj ;q) ;q) dzq) dzq) ;ks)k f=ikBh +=srk =Lr _fk _rq vr% Lor% f=yksdh Me c`tsk fyQ~V f=kwy jkV _=) ckj ckj ;q) ;q) dzq) dzq) ;ks)k f=ikBh +=srk =Lr _fk _rq vr% Lor% f=yksdh Me c`tsk fyQ~V f=kwy

311

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Computer Fundamental....................................1..........75 Windows XP Basic............................................75.........83 Paint...................................................................83.........97 Calculator..........................................................98.........99 Notepad.............................................................100.......109 Wordpad...........................................................109.......122 M.S.DOS...........................................................122.......133 M.S Word.........................................................133.......180 M.S Excel..........................................................181.......251 M.S Powerpoint...............................................252.......265 Internet............................................................265.......279 Typing English................................................280.......290 Typing Hindi...................................................290.......294