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CATALOGUE OF
EGYPTIAN ANTIOUITIES
--
INTHE BRITISH MUSEUM
VII
TOOLS ANDWEAPONS I
AXES
BY
W. V. DAVIES
WITHCONTRIBUTIONS
BY
R. COWELL. R. S. LANG.
RICHARD BURLEIGH, ROWENAGALE.
ANDMAVIS BIMSON
DRAWINGS BY
MARION COX
BliP
..:::::..
1111111
PUBUSHED FOR
TIfETRUSTEES OFTIfEBRITISHMUSEUM
BY
BRITISH IvnJSEUMPUBUC\TIONS
The British Museum collection ofancient Egyptian axes. in its range of date and type. lacks
little to make it complete in the truest sense. This catalogue. therefore. prepared by Mr. W.
V. Davies. Deputy Keeper in the Department of Egyptian Antiquities. amounts in fact to a
general survey of the whole fieldof Egyptian axes. and represents a comprehensive treat-
ment of the subject on the levels of archaeology. technology and scientific examination.
Mr. Davies has greatly refinedexisting typologies of the Egyptian axe. basing his results
on a very wide examination of surviving material in museums throughout the world. His
corpus of axes. ifnot complete. is far more wide-ranging than any previously attempted. In
securing information about axes elsewhere he has relied on the help and co-operation of
an army of Egyptologists and museum curators. the magnitude of which is to be
appreciated from his list of acknowledgements.
A notable aspect of the studies embodied in this catalogue is the amount of scientific
information obtained. chiefly through the work of colleagues in the Research Laboratory
of the British Museum. some of whom have provided written contributions to the volume.
The metallurgical findings are of very special importance for the history of Egyptian
industrial technology.
By his exhaustive study of epigraphic evidence. some of it in the British Museum. Mr.
Davies has also provided a useful contribution to Egyptian lexicography. clearing away
many misconceptions concerning the ancient words for axes and related material.
In the preparation of this catalogue for publication much help was given by Mrs.
Christine Barratt. Graphics Officer in this Department. Most ofthe drawings were prepared
by Mrs. Marion Cox. and photography was carried out by Mr. Peter Hayman.
For technical and organizational reasons flint and other stone hand-axes. of which
many examples mostly of predynastic date are to be found in the departmental collections.
are not included here. They will be published in future volumes of the Catalogue oJEgyptian
Antiquities in the British Museum.
British Museum
December. 1986
T. G. H. JAMES
Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities
T VI tco ~ l I \ 6 t-i 0 VI
The British Museum's collection of ancient Egyptian axes is the lar gest outside Cairo.
Incl uding a small group of axe-components (nos. 170-2) and one modern cast (no. t 6S).
it consists of 200 individual items. the majorit y never before illustra ted and nearly half
with no previous bibliograph y. All are fully published in the 172 entries of this cat alogue.
The bulk of the material is native Egyptian or of Egyptian type. but there is also a small
number of axes of Asiatic form. which have an Egyptian provenance (nos. 167-8). All the
pieces are held in the Department of Egyptian Ant iquities. save one (no. 162 ). an Egypt ian
type from outside Egypt. which belongs to the Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities.
The collection is not only lar ge but comprehensive. Every major type of axe is represented .
as well as many uncommon forms. Such gaps as do exist are not particular to this
collection but reflect the general state of the extan t material. I
The first Egyptian axes to enter the Museum were obtained from old private sources:
Salt (in 1835). Lan e (in 184 2). Athan asi (in 184 5). The majority of the present holdings
had already been acquired before the First World War. mainl y by purc hase between the
years 1870 and 191 2 from dealers in this country and in Egypt. From the 1880s on. with
the growth of scientific archaeo logy. provenanced pieces were also gradually acquired
through the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund/Society and the British School of
Archaeology in Egypt. the sites in question being Khatarana (1885). Naucratis (1885).
Kahun (1890). Abydos (1901-3. 191 3. 1926). Deir el-Bahri (1907). and <Amarna
(19 24). Other sourc es ofexcavated material have been the University of Oxfordexpedition
to Faras in Nubia (1912). the Boston Museum/Harvard University expedition to El-Kurru
and Nurt in the Sudan (1922 ). the British Museum expedition to Mostagedda (1929- 3 ).
and the Wellcome excava tions at Jebel Moya (1946).
Abydos has been the most fruitful of the sites. yielding a wide range of import ant
contexted specimens for the collection: four Early Dynastic axes (nos. 3-6 and II ).
including two from the tomb of King Khasekhernwy: a group of models of the lat e Fifth
Dynasty (no. 12): a full-size carpe nter's axe (no. 15). which may be among the earliest
exampl es of its type: a battl e-axe of the earl y New Kingdom (no. 157): and a foundation-
deposit model of Tuthmosis ill (no. 120 ): additionally from Abydos is a curious iron
implement (no. 92) of uncertain date and function but interpreted by its finder as a
'halberd' . Mostagedda is also well represented. with a series of model axes. of different
types. from graves of the First Intermediate Period and early Middle Kingdom (nos. 29-3 1
and 89 ). and an important group of four full-size axes from 'parr-graves of the Second
Intermedi at e Period (nos. 102,104-5. and 106). one inscribed with a king's name . The
mat erial from E1-Kurru and Nuri isscarcely less extensive and is also well dat ed (nos. 137-
46 ) but it is not so informati ve typologically. as it consists entirely of models and these of a
very schematic form. The same may be said of the models from Naucra tis (nos . 147-8). Of
the specimens from other sites. the axe from Faras. from an A-grou p context. is worth
noting (no. 2). as are the workmen 's stone tools from Kahun, probably of the late Middle
Kingdom (nos. 27- 8). and the closely-dat ed axe from <Arnarn a (no. 123 ) of the lat e
Eighteenth Dynasty. The socketed battle -axe from Khatarana (no. 167). for so long the
only provenanced exampl e of its type known from Egypt. has recentl y gained in interest
from the discovery of several well-contexted parallels from the same area: The potenti al
import an ce of the pieces from Naucratis (no. 130 ). Jebel Moya (no. 149 ). and Deir el-Bahri
(no. IS 0). is vitiated by their lack of meaningful context.
To tum to the unprovenanced material , parti cular interest attaches to nos . 101. 1I 7-
18. 12 1, lSI and 156. all of which are inscribed with royal names (Djedankhre.
Tuthmosis ill. Kamose and Amenophis II) . The inscriptions on nos. II 7-I8 allow their
original location to be identified as Deir el-Bahri. The text on no. 156 identifies it as an
actual ' gift of the king' to the owner. who is also named . Other pieces worthy of special
att enti on are: no. I . a stone imitati on of an early metal type: no. 90 . a rare varia nt of the
tanged battle-axe; no. 95, a fine tanged battle-axe with a hafting tube made of silver: nos.
49 -50 and 163 -5. all of whi ch bear openwork decoration, the motif in the case of no.
163 being particularly rare and important. Mention should also be made of the
considerable number bearing 'owners' mar ks' and other signs (nos. 3. 13. 18-23. 43. 45,
,VrJ{fll)\ ~ ( ~ I ' J ( ) I \
22
The axe occupied a prominent, if not pre-eminent, position among the tools and
weapons of ancient Egypt. It was a stock woodworking and carpenter's tool throughout
Egyptian history and was the main hand-weapon of the Egyptian soldier up to the New
Kingdom and through the Eighteenth Dynasty (after which it appears to have been
gradually supplanted by the scimitar or hps-sword), If the study of ancient implements
is concerned 'to regard the purpose of each form, the mode of its use, the reasons for its
changes ... '.' the axe offers a particularly interesting and potentially very rewarding
subject of research. No other comparable implement has survived in such quantity (over
I soo specimens are known)' and because of its dual role as tool and weapon no other
implement exhibits such a variety of forms. several susceptible to unusually close dating.
The first comprehensive treatment of the Egyptian axe was that of Petrie in his
pioneering Tools awl Weapons (London. 1917), pp. S-11, an account that is still of value
for its publication of the fine collection of axes in University College London, which
provided a sound basis for the author's many shrewd typological observations. Most of the
subsequent surveys of the subject have been superficial to a greater or lesser extent. being
largely derivative and usually rather limited in scope.! A notable exception is Eva
Kuhnert-Eggebrecht. Die Axt als Walle und Werkzeug il11 alten Agyptell (Berlin, 19(9). an
impressive detailed study in which earlier typologies arc extended and refined. Nine major
types of axe (Types A. B. A-B, C. D, E, E-F, F. G) and numerous sub-types are identified and
dated in this work, with the evidence systematically organized in concise catalogue form.
This present catalogue owes much to Kuhnert-Eggebrecht's study, but inevitably there
arc areas of disagreement between the two works-some of them, it should be said,
arising out of evidence that has only recently become available. The various points of
difference. many concerning matters of small import. will emerge from a reading of the
main text below and need not be considered in detail in this introduction. It is appropriate,
however. that some of the more significant points should be briefly noted here.
I, Modification is possible of several of Kuhnert-Eggebrecht's datings. Most importantly,
her suggestion that the lugged splayed axe (her type G) was introduced by the 'pan'-grave
people during the Seventeenth Dynasty is untenable (see pp. 48-9 below). It is also
seriously to be doubted that the lugged round axe (her type D) survived as a functional
form into the New Kingdom (see p.p below).
2. lIer typological scheme docs not reflect the full range of surviving axe forms. An
important early splayed type (see no. I) is omitted, as is a variant of the ranged battle-axe
(sec nos. 90-1). Conversely. two quite distinct types, one with a hafting device, and the
other without (sec nos. sand 6-10) are subsumed under one (her type A-B).
.3, lIer subdivision of types is, in my view. excessive. Too many 'variants' of dubious
typological validity are identified. Thus. for example. six Valiants of the tanged battle-axe
(her Type C) are distinguished. and no fewer than [1 of the lugged splayed axe (her Type
G). My experience in attempting to accommodate the British Museum material to these
schemes has been that several of these sub-classes (for example. Types C-II and III, Types
C-IV and V, Types G-I and Il, and Types G-IVand V) are in practice indistinguishable.
Questionable on other grounds are the sub-types E-IJI (see no. 67) and D-II (not
represented in this catalogue).' all the full-sizeexamples of which known to me are non-
functional and bear signs of modern working. Note also that there is no extant
representative of her Type E-I!. a shallow, straight-edged battle-axe. The axe cited as such
in her catalogue has been misidentified and is actually a conventional tanged battle-axe. h
In the following catalogue the axes have been arranged into broad typological groups,
descriptively labelled along simple practicable lines, with a minimal subdivision of type.
The organization of the corpus of extant material at the end of the volume (see Appendix
III) follows the same pattern. The axes in anyone major group share distinct
characteristics. whether of hafting-method, function, or form (often two of these, and
sometimes all three. in combination). that serve to distinguish them from those in other
groups. The variants within a group differ from each other normally only in form. Metal
axes in general fall on good technological grounds into two main categories: flat axes and
shaft-hole axes. In the first. the axe is attached to. or mounted into, the haft: in the second,
the haft is mounted into the axe. The former is made by casting in a one-piece open mould:
the latter requires a two-piece closed mould. All Egyptian axes belong to the first category.
Axes with cast sockets have been found in Egypt (see nos. 167-8) but they are of foreign
origin or inspiration. There is no evidence that a purely native shaft-hole form was ever
developed in Pharaonic times.
The earliest metal axes from Egypt are simple plain blades like nos. 1-5, dating to the
late I'redynastic and Early Dynastic Periods. They take three main shapes: splayed.
rcctangular and round. Not all arc purely Egyptian, the splayed and the narrow
rectangular forms being widely attested elsewhere in the Near East. The central
characteristic of the group is the lack of any device to facilitate attachment to a haft. Such

a device was not long in being developed, however. By the late Second Dynasty, a form
incorporating a hole for bindin g the blade to a haft was well esta blished (see nos. 6-10
and the models 11-14) and appear s to have been continued in use throughout the Old
Kingdom. In this form the sides of the blade tend to be more or less convex, though there is
considerable variation in the degr ee of roundness: some blades are almost rect angular and
there is a suggestion that towards the end of the period a fully angular form was developed
(see the mode l no. 14). There is never more than one hole, its distance from the bull
indicating that the blade was set deeply into the haft. In earlier specimen s the hole was
cast into the blade at the time of initial fabrication: lat er , the hole was drilled. By the First
Intermediat e Period, the single hole had given way as a hafting -device to rear projections
or lugs, whi ch similarly served as points of binding. At the same time there was a change
in the shape of the blade , from a slightly convex to a deeply rounded form (nos. I S- 34).
Like all the types already mentioned, this form functioned primaril y as a tool. as the
thickness and weight of the vast majorit y of specimens clearl y indicat e, but slighter.
thinner examples were also produced (see nos. ;q - 61 and these ar e probably to be
regarded as weapons. The form survived throughout the Middle Kingdom but probably
not much beyond.
Axes designed specifically to function as weapons are known from representat ions to
have been in use already by the latt er ha lf of the Old Kingdom, ' but the earli est extant
battl e-axes dat e from the First Int ermediate Period, a warlike lime which saw the
development of a number of different vari eties. There arc four maj or categor ies. The first
has a fully rounded form wit h lugs at the rear like the carpent er 's axe previously
men tioned but its blade is always relativel y light and it has perforations as well as lugs
(nos. 3S-48). The lugs are sometimes hooked. Three is the favoured number of
perforations. The second category is superficially similar to the first but in reality is quite
distinct. The blade is segment-shaped, the arc of its curvature being always less than a
semi-circle, and it can be very shallow (nos. SJ -67). It is thick for its size. and the culling
edge, thou gh sha ped and hard ened, is rarel y very sharp. The lugs are usua lly hooked.
Again, three is the most popular number of perforati ons, the number tending to incre ase
with the width of the blade. The third category is made up of slashing axes , some
symmetrical. others asymmetrical. all with shallow blades and very wide cult ing edges
(nos. 68 - 78 ). The butt is alwa ys concave and the blade is usually strengthened by a raised
rib running centrally from tip to tip. Only the symmetrical form (no. 68) has lugs. The
number of perforati ons varies with the width of the blade. The final category is that of the
ranged axe, so designated because it was attached to a haft by means of tangs at the rear,
usually three in number. each of the tangs being perforat ed with one hole or more (nos.
79-10 0). The type was foreign in origin, the simple crescentic for m being indistingu isha-
ble from the Asiati c epsilon-axe, but the other varietie s-the crescentic form with the long
centra l tang (nos. 90-1 l, the wide-edged crescentic form with large tang s expanding
toward s the butt (nos. 93 -S), and the shallow form with a virtually straight CUll ing edge
(nos. 9(,-1 00)- are nati ve developments. The simple and wide-edged crescentic var ieties
always have flanges on the rear edges. The stra ight-edge d variety usually has a central
rib. Their hafts were often heavily armoured and the blades were somet imes atta ched by
rivets. Lugs are consistently present only on the wide-edged crescentic form, and then
only when the meth od of hafting was lashing. The crescentic forms of the tanged axe
appear to have supplanted almost all the other battle-axe varieties by the end of the Middle
Kingdom.
By the beginning of the Second Int ermed iate Period, a major typological change had
taken place. The 'ro und' forms of axe, whic h had predominated since the end of the Early
Dynastic Period, were replaced both as tool and weapon by a splayed type with st raight or
lncurved sides (nos. 101- 66). This new type has lugs at the rear but is never perforated.
The reason for the change is a matter ofspeculation. though one feasible suggestion is that
the new form, its shape being more suited for penetr ation , was initially developed in
reaction to mor e effective body-armour. ' There arc two main divisions to the splayed axe
with lugs: symmet rical and asymmetrical. The symmetrical family consists almost
enti rely, though not wholly, of tools: the asymmetr ical of weapon s. The earliest variet y of
the former, funct ionin g as both tool and weapon, has relatively short lugs (the width of the
butt as a whole being less than that of the cutting end )and the narrowest part of thc blade
is always nearer to the butt than the cutt ing end (nos. 101-8). These cha racteristics
distinguish it from a part ly contemporary form (almost certainly a batt le-axe ) with a
distinctive wai st in the centre of the blade and longer lugs (nos. 109-16). Neither type
seems to have survived much beyond the Second Intermediate Period. The subsequent
evolution of the symmetrical axe was towards an increasingly more robust form. Durin g
the cour se of the Eightee nth Dynast y, it developed a broad wa ist and strong lugs (the
cutting end by now always noti ceably narrower than the butt ) (nos. 117-30). fly the latcr
New Kingdom the central waist had disappeared and the narrowest part of the blade had
24
rcvcrled t(l beillg vrrv ncnr the butt (uos, I) 1-(,). In this lorm the lugs arc vcry
prominr-nt. and somelimcs hooked, and the central section 01the butt is heavily flanged
'1I,d ",panded.
Thc asvmmctrtcal lamllv mos. 1 'i I-()(,) emerged towards the end of the SCClllld
Illtermediate Period. possibly as a result 01the warlike conditions of the period and the
comequcnt impetus lor the development of more effirienr weapon limns. The skew in the
b"'dc 01such 'Ixes seems to have been designed to compensate for curvature in their hafts.
though why it should have been thought so advantageous to have a haft with a curve is
unrlrur. The asymmetrical group was short-lived in rompnrison with its symmetrical
relative. there being no evidence for its continued use after the New Kingdom. The earliest
vurlcttcs have central waists. like one of the contemporary symmetrical axes (nos. 109-
1(,). but c'lIllw distinguished from the latter by their sloping butts mos. 151-55); in one.
rather bizarre. form the slope is exaggerated and the wuist very narrow (nos. 154-<;). Out
or these waisted tormx there soon developed il more markedly asymmetrtral axe (nos.
15(,-(,2). This retains the sloping butt but combines it with" skewed cutting end. There is
<I distinct disparity in length between the two sides and the waist has all but disappeared.
Its curting end is milch narrower than the butt. This skewed axe had become the prevalent
battle-axe form by the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty. The lines of its development
thereafter remain to be clearly determined.
In the catalogue below. each major axe-grouping is followed by an extended comment.
ill which I have attempted to gather together the available evidence bearing on the datlng
of the axe-types in question. Where appropriate. other points of interest. concerning
typology. composition. hafting. and decoration are also discussed. Unprovcnnnced or
undatable parallels are not as a rule individually cited in the text. unless they exhibit some
fC<lture of unusual significance or arc in some way of particular relevance to the flritish
Muscum matcriul. Considerable refining of many of the dates given below will certainly be
possible in dill' course. not only with the unearthing of new evidence. as this may occur.
but also from the closer study of older excavated material. some of it relatively well
recorded even by modern standards but much of it still unpublished or badly published
and yet to be properly exploited. To name one or two obvious sources. mucb of value could
be expected to emerge from a detailed treatment of the excavations of Fisher <It Dcndcru
(I') 1')- LK) and of Reisner at Naga cd-Dcr/Shclkb Farag (I ')() 1- '). 1') I 0- [2 and 1')2}-
41.11is also to be hoped that something might still be made of the extensive material. now
all in Cairo, from the work of the Egyptian Antiquities Organization at K6m el-llisn
(I ')4 ,-7)
While this ratalogu W<lS in preparation, the opportunity was taken to submit the axes
to a series of scientific examinations. mostly carried out in the Research Laborutory ofthe
British Museum. As was expected. a great deal of information was obtained, pertaining
not only to the axes but to Egyptian materials and technology in general. The results arc
incorporated in the individual catalogue entries and arc also published at the end of the
volume in Appendices written by the scientists who carried out the work. The nature of
tbis work and the main findings may be summarized here.
I. Every metal piece that was not too heavily corroded was analysed to determine its
chemical composition; for comparison. other metal objects. from the British Museum. the
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. and the Petrie Museum. University College London. were
also analysed (see Scientific Appendix I). This large series of analyses has shown beyond
reasonable doubt that arsenical copper was employed by the Egyptians as a deliberate
alloy' from an early date. Arsenical copper is attested already in the late Prcdyuastic
Period or very early First Dynasty (see axe no. 2, and the harpoon from Mabasna. BM
4')()07) and was widely employed thereafter, from the Early Dynastic Period up to the
New Kingdom. II has also been shown tbat bronze (as well as leaded bronze) was in use
from <I much earlier date than bas hitherto been realized. '" Tin is present, at a significant
level. in a number of Early Dynastic tools. including a model axe (llC .)OoKo). and in bigh
quantity in two vessels dating from the Second Dynasty (BM,S')71-2). both ofwbicb
also contain a significant level of lead. The usc of bronze was on <I limited scale. however.
until the Middle Kingdom. when it began to supplant arsenical copper. a process virtually
complete by the beginning of the New Kingdom. That an impressive degree of control over
alloy content was exercised by the smiths is evident from a comparison of the cbemical
composition of the different axe-types. fn particular. there is a discernible relationship
between composition and function. which clearly reflects the differing hardness
requirements of tool and weapon. Thus the typical carpenter's axe of the First
Intermediate Period-Middle Kingdom (the lugged round form. see 1 <;-2) is invariably
made of unalloyed copper or low-arsenic copper. whereas the contemporary battle-axes
(24-6 and 35-100) are almost all made oJ'high-arsenic copper or of bronze. sometimes of
leaded bronze. A similar distinction is noticeable in tbe later splayed axe. Compare, for
example. the difference in composition between nos. 14 and lOS: both are from the same

gra ve. but one is a battl e-axe (made of a high-tin bronze). the other a tool (mad e of a very " THlIlllll' IWN
low-ar senic copper ). Note also how the slightly lat er asymmetrical batt le-axes (nos. 151-
(1) have a consistently higher tin content (usually over 10 per cent) tha n the
contemporary symmetrical tools (nos. 117-35).
2. A representati ve selection of the British Museum axes. 2 1 in number (nos. ot. 6. 15.51 .
55. 57.58.60. 6ot. 70. 80. 93. 97. r oq, lOS. 123. 13ot. 135 . 136. 152 . 159). was
exa mined metallu rgically in order to invest igate the techn ical processes involved in their
manufacture (see Scientific Appendix 11). All the specimen s were mad e of copper or a
copper-base alloy, except for one made of a ferrous mat er ial. The results are consistent
with the accepted view, based on earlier examinations, that copper implements were cast
in open moulds ." The kind of mou ld employed by the Egyptia ns is shown in plate ~ 5, figs.
.3- ot. " It consists of a crude rect an gul ar block made of baked day. which had been
impress ed. evidently when the day was wet. with the shape of the requi site type of axe. in
this case a New Kingdom battl e-axe. Severa l other such mou lds have been found. some
made of baked clay like this one ,I I others of stone.14 An axe made by such a method, even
tho ugh correctly sha ped in face-view. would. of course . have ha d a !lat upper sur face on
leaving the moul d an d would have required fur ther wor k to effect its finished form. The
exa mina tions have shown that after casting the axes were usuall y cold-forged and
annea led (or occasionally hot-forged). often with a final cold workin g. especia lly at the
cut ting end in order to increase its hardness. Where measurement was possible.
rema rkably high hardness values wer e recorded for some of the battl e-axe edges. There is
a sug gestion that the carpenters' axes were not worked to the same ext ent. Following the
hammer-work. grinding was often resorted to, both to sharpen the cutt ing edge and to
produce a polished finish in oth er are as. When decor ation was required, it was achieved
by the tech nique of chasing. As it happens. all the know n extant axe-mou lds are designed
for the product ion of the lugged splayed type. but there is no reason to believe tha t a more
complicated form of mould woul d hav e been needed for any of the other types. A peg
incorpor ated into the mould at the appropriate place would ha ve sufficed to produce the
hole 'cas t in' to the Secon d Dynasty axes (nos. 6-10). The holes in the subsequent forms
were invariably produced by drilling after the final shapi ng. The ferro us axe (no. 136 ).
unfortunately undated. is more adva nced technologically than the copper-base axes. It
was shaped by hot-for ging from bloomery iron. The iron was carburized (in effect . being a
mild steel) and the cutt ing edge had been hardened by quenching.
3. Seven wooden objects. allunprovenan ced, consisting of six axe-ha fts. each associated
with a metal head (nos . 45. 63. 97. 108. 121 and 122 ), and one weapon-box decorated
with an axe-r epr esentation (EM .w 64S). were submitted for radiocarbon da ting (see
Scient ific Append ix Ill), In four cases. the radiocarbon dat es obtained wer e consistent with
those proposed on ot her gro unds (nos . 45. 63 . 97 an d BM20(48). and usefully confirmed
the ori ginal association of the haft s with thei r blades. In the th ree ot her cases. the wood
was shown to be an cien t but of an age incompatible with that of the blade-types. In at least
one of these latter cases (no. ro8) and per ha ps in all. it is very likely that the ha ft and blade
were joined in modern times.
4. All the wooden compo nents (nos . 45. 63 . 9ot. 97. 108. 11 7. 118. 12 I . 122. 163 . 166.
170. 172 ) togeth er wit h the woode n weapo n-box WM 20(48) were sampled in order to
iden tify thei r wood (see Scienti fic Appendix [V). Pigment ana lysis was also carried out
where appropriat e (nos. 163. 166 . 170. 171 : see Scientific Appendix VI. Most of the
woods turned out to be well-kn own nati ve species (acacia. tamar isk. sldder). but the box is
made of fig. one of the hafts of cedar (no, 121) , two oth ers (nos . 97 and 170 ) of plum. and
one of the terminal plaques (no. 172) pro bably of ebony." Among the pigments lhe
presence of huntite (no. 166) and orpiment (no. 170) are particularly worth not ing.'"
The museum' s record of the Egyptian axe is compl eted by a series of representations
from various sour ces- tomb- and templ e-walls, tomb-stelae, coftin-sides. a weapo n-box. a
' Book of the Dead ' , and a bovine skull. These are cited in the appropriate places ill the
Catalogue and are published. some for the first time. in plates ~ 6 - o t l . Most arc no more
than gener ally infor mative but a few. in par ticular the tomb an d coffi n scenes from Bcrsha
and Thebes (pl. 38 , fig. 3 and pl. 39. figs. 1- 6), are import ant for their clari ty of detail. The
inscriptio nal labels writte n above the represent ations in some of these scencs arc taken
into acco unt in a st udy of the lexicograph y of the Egyptia n axe, which forms Appendix II
to this Catalogue.
rl. Al t I
Plain Forms (1-5)
I SHill It) huve come from (kbd cl u ,
L 11 Is impossible 10 S<lYwhether the on' a k is ancteut or
modern.

I'I ,AI LI
I' I. ATI :.') I a nd 3I
3
100l>S
rJaIf': First hal f of the First Dyn ast y
Posslbly AbytlClS
I
M et/5flr r mm ts: Lengt h , r j . z cm: widt h <It bu tt . lJ . '-jnn ; at
cut ting edge. I I . CH'1ll
Wt'i!lht : I l. -\. \ i:
Mdterial: Copper
AnalySIS: ClI: '-j "}. t) ; Pb: < O. Hl. ; Sn : < 0 . 1 11; l \ g : 0 . 0 1 11;
I-'c: o .ol o: Sb: < O.I) I: Ni: < O.I) I; I\ U: < 11.III: t' U:
<o.c u a s. c. zz: < o.o z
Vatl' of 1l:l"}S
Hiblio1!'aplJu: Ellrly l)y 1l. Ohjs., t$4, fl O. pis.
Broad rect a ngula r a xe-head with con ca ve bun
and gently convex sides. which tu rn out slight ly
a t the corners of the cutti n g edge, As one of the
sides is more convex a nd sho rte r th an the ot her.
t he cu tti ng end . wh ich is moderat ely con ve x. is a
lilli e lcp-stdcd. The blade ha s been cleaned since
irs acqu isit ion: previou sly H wa s t hic kly co rrod ed
on one face, wh ere the s urface b now pitte d. The
sa me face ha s it n umber of fine cracks. which ar c
pro ba bly th e resu lt of t he process of ma nu fact ure .
Except for sma ll sur face Impcrfccuo ns und . 1 ga sh
on one side, the other face is in excellent co nd t-
lion , of the or igini.ll hammering are plai nly
visible on the edge . wh ich is quil l' sha rp
an d shows distinct signs of wcur . Til l' bet ter-
preserved face of th e a xe bears u motif or inscr ip-
tion, execut ed in a punched poin ti llc technique.
cOllsisti ng of thr ee sepa rate clemen ts. two of them
beari ng so me resemblance 1o th e hk l'oglyp hs \1utul
<C> l
4
I . The plt'te pu rc'hu......J a ...t11Wuf iI t ll . lll jn i, ...ud 10
ha ve cnrne (m Ol the ' prch b t lll il' hUrl, l1 IW.II
J\ hyd' l:\.' SI K h In(urmdl ioll dSIII pnl\'tII.lIln' b u nrd i .lh l l ' ,
b UI is VI'o' I' 1I ... " mt' sur r " n in th is l-.I M l'lr Ih.' d II' " I"
.I('lj u bi lion, which Amd illl' i1u...( I(( 'U;It ItHh ;.1
Aby Jr1S I I X'J4 - )(101.. i t rt", sJhJl' ;,UI l rn'
z . II Is. 1I1/ :.lfly H.IJII. Pbj:>.. lit ' . 'i ' , ..,. I II ,' l l hl
moti f m'IYn 'prt.'S!lIl .1111 '1"'>01111111 "i1ml'
372 76
J)lllr: Middl e of th u Dynas ty
PnWfWWCt': Abyd os. 't'cmcuo-, of Osiris Temple
,''.It'IIS11l't'1IIt'111 .' ' : Len gth . I l l . j cm: width , II bun. q.rr cm: ill
cUlti n g edge , nn
Wl!i!ll l/ : 5.l 6..l g
,\l tlln jid: Coppe r
.-t""l!l.. . ( ' II: ' JI) ."}: Ph: I I......H I; S ll : < CI. .l II : 1\ l!: t l .t ' 51' ; Ft :
t "'tOCI; Sh: l ).elll ); Ni: 11.1110; , \ 11: < 11.111; t ' l l: .... t U I I :
As: o .z : Zn: < . I.ll .!
I) tl/I' tlfi \ I'I/ II ;;,' i lirlll: I IJtl! (( :ih " f l ile 1:"p llll",,111I1I
Fund)
Ri b/iI"Yfllp ll y : i. .l \ . pl . I. :; i : 1\. 1-:.1/" 1 l . I) X, IIJ / h.
pI. v , l ; EddU 11!1/f. ON... S4 . lin. hOI . pI. Mol.
Ref la ngular , a lmo st square, wit h slight-
ly convex si(lcs, roughly made. The hUll is UIIL' \ ' t.' 1l
a nti o ne or th e sidt:s is lon ger [han l h l.' ol hL'r. The
blade is th ickly co rroded , especi a lly a t Ihe c liit ing
edge, which ap pcilrs or igilla lly 10 huvc hccn vcry
slightly convex wil h rounded COrfll' f S, Ml'l it I!o-
gra ph ic <.lIwl ysls Iws indica ted that Ihe a xe is <I
simple ca sting on which m ini llwl wor k WtlS
scqucn tly dOlle.
l ' I... \ n :r 2
The Catalogue
32 92
Dr.tlt ' ; Prob ably Late Predynastlc Period
I'nH'etllJtlce: Unc erta in I
M t' llSUU Hlt' 111S: Lengt h. I r . z crn: width ut buu . 3. 7 l:m: at
cutt ing edge. 7.s cm
Welgll t: I tJb . 5 g
,U .lla iul: Slone. red brecctu
Duft of :k quis/rio,,: 1899
BiblioyrapllY: 8 M Gllille(1 904 1. ..j. g. no. 8 5: HAr Guide
(J Cj .u.). 110 . 8 5; Cuit urrs. u. .15. n . I .
Hard-stone axe-head, carefully ground into shape
and polished. It has a nar row, very slightly convex
bu tt. a nd sp layed sides th at turn out wa rds slight ly
towar ds the cutti ng edge, whic h is moderately
convex. The sides an d th e but t arc sq ua red . At (he
rear end ar c two perfora tions. ru rrespoudiugly
position ed in a line pa ra llel tu t he butt . Th e
cull ing end is da maged at several poin ts a long its
width, though th e ch ipping is confined alm ost
entir ely to one face. Thi s same fHCC lUI S a weat h-
ered appearance at its bun end. On the other face
sma ll incl usions ha ve been displace.-d from the
ma trix, lea ving holes in t he sur face. The bla de hi
broken in two urross its cent re" a nd has been
repaired in modern t une s.
SI I HS
ThIll ' : l.ale Predynu snc Pcnod/ carl y Hrst Uynusr y
I'rovrnnncr : Furus. A-{;wup cemetery
Lengt h. 12.. Jem : widt h LIt bUH. go cm: at
cutting edge. S,7em
l VI' It/I, t: S..JI . I K
/I.' .ll t,jjJ l: Arsl' l lit' .. l n 'pper
.. 11ld/y."is: Cu: 11K 7: Pb: 1I,o l'Co ; Sn : -: 0.20; /1.0 40 ; 1-'1..' :
< ( ) .I) I ; Sb: Ni : c).cl ll ); :\ u : < 0 .0 1; e n : < ( 1.11I :
As: I , i : Zu : < 0 .0 2
[hUt" of Acquis i t ion: 191 2 ((; jf! ofthe Oxford Unive rsity
Expedi t ion ill Nubial
Htbl io!/mphy: Griffith. lAAA 8 I I 'Jll ), 9. I pis, il und
tv. 1 1; 97, Hj I I , pl . v, 1; N mill A-Gro llI'
Sires. I .q; l)yrl. Ob}s. S-\., 110. 607 , pI. 70.
Rcc.:w ng u la r a xc- head with na rrow. elongat ed
hlade a nd slight ly convex sides an d bu ll, The sides
(urn out sharply a t th e t't)rnc rs or th e clitt ing
cJ gc, wh ich is conve x alld a litt le The
t'Jgc <J ppca rs !O ha ve been hammered mor e fwm
one face tha n th e othe- f. The piece is th ickly
l'o rrodc d. Pr eservcd in t he corrosion prod tlrt on
onc fare a re the remlJins of a \\,o\,(.'n fibrolls
mat er iiil, prnbably mat - or hasket -work.

..
35574
Dale: LuteSecondDynasty
Provellanct': Abydos. Tombof King KhasekhcOlwy
Measurellll'n/s: Length, 1O.2cm; width at butt, 1.2.7cm
W('i9M: 546.1 g
Malrrfa/: Arsenical copper
Arwlusls:Cu: 97.S: Ph: n.o)o; Sn: <0.20: Ag: 0,020; Pc:
0.280: Sb: 0.5: Nl: 0.010: Au: < 0.0 T; Co: < 0.01;
As: I.); Zn: < 0.02
Dall' of Acquisillol1: '91 (Girt of the Egypt Exploration
Fund)
Bibliography: RT. Ii. J 2, 16. 19. pI. xlv. 7n: Early DUll
ObIs.. 84. no. 606. pI. 70.
Broad, squat axe-head with slightly concave butt
and rounded sides converging to form a convex
cutting end, In the centre ncar the butt is a large
round hole, which was cast into the blade during
the original manufacture. The cutting end, which
was hammered to a sharp edge, is cracked on both
fael'S and shows other signs of heavy wear. The
axe was once covered by corrosion product but
has now been completely cleaned. There is con-
siderable surface pitting. Metallographlc analysis
has Indicated that after casting the blade was
worked and annealed and then subjected to fur-
ther working.
N, 11II.f A.(;rtlIIJl Sitrs. 124. pis. 73. 'J, and 1':l'3, I. now
Pppsala. SJE l.'pil. J:9.
t \. N. allli A-{;roujI SlIrs. 1,;'-4.. pls. I 17 and I 't 1, I. now
llppsula. VM. SJE .!77/'i8:1.
14 See For. Rrk. 41.. nos. 2. and 4. pl. xxxv. 1.4. ':I find 12
I') AnI,. Slfn. '910-'9' r. vt. 11'1.2\4. pl. 22, b. I and a
r 6 Mdl,Sun', r 908 909. 1'14, pl. 38. c, 7. possibly broken
17. ('em. Arm.. L 117, ! 19. pis. xWI. I, xlvt, r . 1. One orthese
models Is Carro. IE <;7<;R4. another Oxford. Ash.. QI. r 212
IfL /Jr, 2.5. pls. tv. vll, bottom rtght. now Cairo. JE 11719.
19 As well RSour no. 4, Abydo.{.l. 17- I B, and 2 J. pl. I. M. r 3.
and rr". 4. ';. pis, Ill, 6. v. 7 and I 1. The lust two are tle.
16174. and Manchester. (1M, h7H4. resrecuvety.
20 Tarkh. I. R. z J. pis. tv. r I. q. vl. 1. h
2 I (;/"_ Tombs. I. SI 7. fig. 27, pI. 9, B: at least 41 now In Cairo.
SR I (,()'}I -731
See. for example. Early DI/Il, Obis.. pis. 4'1 end s;1-4. nos.
4SQand 4hl
1 J. Examples include London, (Ie.nv. pls. lll. 10.1-4. xvt.
;'0-1: Oxford. PRM. 1952.R.o 3 tunpubttshed): Swansea.
WM, W. 121.- J (unpublished): and. from Palestine. Heston
and Tadmor. lEI I 3 (IqfH), 271, 27"1, and 277. fig. 9. The
earliest example of the technique known to me Is on <Inadze
In the Ashmolean Muse-lim. no. I 895.9hq (P!\F:, SUN,I.. II.
tomb where It Is wrongly called an 'axe'}, which Is
datable to middle Naqoda II. The mollf on this adze closely
resembles the 1IlIke-dement In the motif on our no. 1
),4 Mal .. lh,21,2.1,pl.xv\'47.nowCalro.JE'i911h.
2-'j. Mood, J 9 FJ-_L'i. tig. 16, a, left: MIlf.. ],1: Cullllrrs. II. I 1.
l.h An-h_Sun". r 908. l, '; L pl. h<;.b. 9: cr. I'rehist. Eg..
20; Smith. Kush 14 119(6), 8h, nn. 8R-q. This axe is nuw
Carro. JE41502.
27. MaadI191o-,U. fig. 16, a. right; CuJturrs.ll. I J, n. J
211. Arth. Mast.. :1.3, (21 71). now Cairo, JE46t '; 3,
29 N/). I. 4Rff. 115. pl. 40. d. now Berkeley. 11.M 6-8B
In. ,\iF. il. 264. pl. xvlil. 6.
11 Cairo, IE 89397. excavated by the Egyptian AnllquHies
Organtratfon in 194':1.
t z, See Sw,ll:'1ll1f/ls!uudr. 34- <;.pl. 9. I
11. Sec. for example. 1m. All. Fnihzrll .. lil, pis. 144-"1: ftJrly Dyn
On/s.. pl. 'i4, no. 461.
H. Sup r.W" 124-'i. fig. 1L 1I -I \: Pyr. Ii /kg.. I, 232: II, pl.
xcvt. 4, All three are now In the Carro Museum. JE 6yflR8-
<)0.
35. In peruculer. MHK. 18. pl. xxIII. 2<; and 26. which are now.
I believe, Oxford, Ash., E. 8'::11.and Philadelphia, UM, E
9'19h< The other axes from this site. not 811 of which are
accounted for In MRK. I If, pls<xv and xvt. 21-2. arc more
certainly moods. They <Iredlstrlbuted among a number of
museums (Oxford. Ash.. R (,7.L E. 67R, E. h79. E. 6lfo. E
';114: Cairo, JE 77. a. and HR 78, a; Brussels, MR. E.
':114: Leldcn. RMOF 193/(1.7<): Oxford. PRM. CHI. III. 'iii).
i
,
,
i

,
,

I
PI.AIN HJR\fS
28
PLATE I
(l;r.;R
/)11/1': Early Dynustk- l'crtod
I'rO\'I'/Il/1ru": Abydos
AfI'll,mu'lIJotfs: Length. I ).6clI1: wtdth at butt. I )<)cm
t'r'l'iq/rl: q
r\fllfrrial: Copper
/\11111.11-\1-": Cu: yq,..\.: Ph: (),(J:;'O; Sri: < 0 ..2; o.ooo: Fe:
0.(\40: Sh: IUqO; Nl: n. I 10; Au: < o.o t : Co: < 0.0 I:
As: n.): Zn: < o.oz
nail' 01 AO/Ilisitillll: 11)0) rCift of the Egypt Exploration
FUlld1
1
Bib/loamJllty: r:arl.'lI>IJIL 0/1(\" H4, no. hoo. pl. hH.
Broad axe-head with slightly concave butt and
rounded sides converging 10 form a moderately
convex cutling end. Signs of the original working
arc disrernlhlc on the cutting edge, which has
been badly chipped. The damaged sections have
he-en infected by corrosion, which has also spread
widely over- one of the faces. On the other face,
one corner of the butt has been gashed and turned
over by a blow from a sharp implement.
From Pt'lrk's excavations at Abydos. season 1902-1, TIlt'
rlcn'ls nntruenttoncd In I'ctrtc's publication or the s1"flsoll':<;
work In A/>.I/,los, II
COl1lment (1-5)
No, I is closely paralleled by a specimen of the
same material found in an undisturbed grave of
the late Prcdynastk- Period at EIJ Amrah and
now in the Cairo Museum.' A third example is
known. also made of red breccia and similarly
shaped. though lacking the pcrforaucns.' The
form Is nil imitation in stone of a metal type
represented by a specimen of the laic Prcdynasttc
Period excavated in H settlement at EIJAdaima
l
and by three olhers from A-Croup graves in Nubia
dating to the late Predynastic Period and early
First Dynasty." The type is also well known from
earlier and contemporary contexts in Palestine
and further afield in the Ncar East Since none of
the known metal prototypes contains holes ncar
the bUlt for the purpose of binding, the perfora-
tions in the breccia copies arc probably best ex-
plained as suspension-holes to enable the blade to
he worn as etn amulet.
h
Narrow axes, like 2, first appear in
I\gypt lowards the very end of the Prcdynustic
Peflod and secm to have continued in usc up to
about the middle of the First Dynasty. The l'vi-
dellce of our Fams example is supplcmented by
severn I othef excavated specimens from Abusir cl-
Mcll'q.7 Klibftnich.<J and TarklHin
1u
in
Egypt. and by thrce other A-grollp axes from
Adelldan,l\ IJebeira 11 and l,Ialfa Dcghcim1 I in
Nubia, the latter representing a somewhat sqll{]t
variant showing sOlDe affinities in shape to the
splayed forlll excmplified by I. The narrow type
has a long history in the Near East hefore its
appearance In Egypt. being attested already in the
millennium In sOllthern Persia. as well
as lalcr in the same millennium in Palestine. '"
More or less contemporary with this narrow
type was a rectangular axe with a much broader
blade, which can probably be viewed as a native
development. as it docs not seem to have had any
Hntccedcnts in the Near East at large. There were
two basic varieties, one with sharp corners to the
cutling edge like ]. the other with rounded cor-
nas like 4. The earliest examples are two, or
possibly three. from A-Group cemeteries at Naga
and Kostamnch
1 h
in Nubia. Following
these, within Egypt. are four models from Aml-
anI. 17 seven full-si7-C specimens from Abadieh, II'
Ahydos,I'J and Tarkhan,lu and a very large num-
her (over 70, nHmy unfinished) from a single tomb
at Saqqara.
l1
All these Egyptian examples are
dated within the range early to middle First Dyn-
asty. The form is also represented In hleroglyphle
writing of the same dynasty." Tbe terhntque of
decoration on ] is readily paralleled on other
Implements. including axes, of the late Prcdynas-
tic and Protodynusrtc Periods. 1 T
Plain axes with rounded blades arc not so well
attested as the rectangular forms. though they
appear to have outlived them by some way, Again
two main varieties may he distinguished. The first
has a deeply rounded form with a relatively
narrow butt. known from two specimens, one of
the late Prcdynastic Period from Matmar, Hand
the other of the Early Dynastic Period from
Ma"adi.
H
The second is broader and shorter. In
addition to S. there are five known provenanccd
specimens of the latter. The earliest comes from
Shcllal in Nubia. from an A-group grave which is
probably contemporary with the late Predynastlc
Period and Is certainly no later than the first half
of the First Dynasty." The other datable examples
arc an Early Dynastic axe from Maadt" a
model. probably -of the Second Dynasty. from
Suqqara. HI and two axe." of the late Second Dyn-
asty from Naga ed-Dcr " and Abydos" respec-
tively. The remaining provenanccd piece, from
Korn Finn, is unfortunately without context. Jl To
those metal examples may beadded four flint axes
from Giza, 12 which are possibly to be dated as late
as the Fourth Dynasty. though they could be
earlier. It should be noted that. like the previous
rectangular axe. this round form appears in
hieroglyphic writing of the First Dynasty."
The last-mentioned axe from Abydos is from the
tomb of King Khasckhemwy. which also yielded a
large number of the more advanced round form
containing a hole for the purpose of binding (see
6-[0 below). This Improved type must have ren-
dered the plain fonn quickly obsolete, as there is
no hard evidence for its use In metal after the
Second Dynasty. A number of Third Dynasty axes
from Saqqfira 14 and Helt may represent
the plain type. but they are much smaller than the
axes noted in the last paragraph and their func-
tional vallie Is questionable. They are probably
best understood as models of the form with the
hole but lacking the hole. as models of this fonn
often do.
JE3S157:seeEl.Am,d/u{Ab.. 19.
I: SL Imp's.. 2]8. CG 64(,4H. pI. xlii.
2. UverpooLMCM, 197'. 2,2ql:seeMacGre!J(lr(1922).147,
lot 1115.
J. New York. Hr. M.. 07. 447.3: See Pm/Yll. alit! .1rch, f'1/ .. fl'j
and .2 lO. pI.44. no. I Ro, Pronably purchased In Egypl Is a
spt'dmen once contained In the Rustaijaell Collectlon; set'
Rllst. (19 f 1<:1, lot 440. pl. xxxlH. middle row, centre Itft.
A model of tht' type was dlscovcred loose In rf'dim ntRr the
flucheum: see BU(/'('llItl. I. 18): lll. pl. lxxxlv. I. now
Manchester. UM. 91
4 ArrIl.Surv.19o;,-r90R. L l l h. no 10 7. Pt. h <; . b. o: Arch.
Sur\'. 19' I, 207. l. no. R(called pl.l2. b.
11: ASAF, R(197). '40. pI. xi. now I..i\"crpo,ol.
MCM, 49. 47.t 018. A broader. ht'flvlcr splayed lype, ..... hlch
Is probably contemporary, Is represented by three
unprovenanced axes in the Petrie Museum. Uc. TW. pI. HI.
104-';. lind one without a number. to which add a po'%lblc
eXilmple from IIle'rakonpolls (:Ur. SI/WL 801. 'ntis latter
form may also be represented In a Nubian rock drawing
(Rnfk Drsq 1.,2. 376 a 9, pI. 67. 5, Corpus W 23).
'; This Is the Axe wllh Flaring Curved of For
Rrls.. 42. pl. XXXV. 5 and I 3. Add tu the latter's examples
the axes found al Kfar Monash (Hestrln and Tadmor, IE! 11
(1961). 266-8. fig. 2. I 6. pI. 24). though the date of the
hoard has been disputed (Ben-Tor, lEf 21 (/971),
101-0).
h. CII/tl/rrs. II, 3 '). It Is not untl! much later - on present
cddeme. the end oftlle Second Dynasty - that a binding
hole becomes a regular feature In Egyptian axes (see below,
6-10). An isolated example of the device possibly dRUng to
the First Dynasty ts to be found on an axe"h1"ad discovered
by Y. S<lad In the Early Dynastic cemetery at Helwan
(Cairo. IF. 87492, unpublished but menli-oned In' H,
14, wHh n. 9, and K-Eg.. 1J and 98. A--IIJ2/. This axe has
be-en assIgned to the First Dynasty on the basIs of Its
similarity In shEipeto Ill'. 16177 (re. ')-h, pIs>Ill. 8. v. 21),
which Is dated to the reign of DJer. but this latter does not
contain a hole.
7 A. rJ-M.. 45.14';. pl. 18. 2';6. now West Berlin AM, 19270.
R. Leklen. RMO. F 193R/R. 87. unpubHshed. from Petrie's
excavations at Abydos. via the Von Ri'>slngCollection
9, Kufr-SM.. J 16. pI. xxxIx. now Vienna. KM. 7187.
10. Tarkh., i, R, 23, pIs. v. 23-4. 27, vI. 8. The fullsize example
Is now Manchesler. UM. 10804.
Chicago, or. 2387I, unpublished (InforrnailoL as to date
kindly suppllffi by Dr. Bruce Williams).
Single-hole Forms (6-14)
6 PLATE I
3
0 07
5
I.AJ, ,,: Late Second Dynasty
Provenance: Probably Abydcs
.\ 1rilS/l n' 1IIi'nts: Le ngth. 9.9 s cm; width at but t. t j . f cm
Wt lyhr: 4 72g
,\ I/ll a iIl J; Arscruca l copper
" ,,"1ysis: Cu: Q7.b: Pb: 0.11 0 ; Sn: < 0 .20; Ag: 0 .4 0 0; Fe:
0.4-00; Sb: 0 ,1 ju: NI: 0. 0 50 ; Au: < 0.0 I; Co; < (l .l ) 1;
As: 1.3: Zn: <0 .02
lh, 11' of ';((lulsltl otl: 18y8
Hi bl io!Jrupll y : Earl y Dy l l . Objs. S4. no. 6 1, pis. hY- i o .
Axe- head alm ost identica l 10 7. It is thickly cor-
roded al ong the ed ges and around a nd in th e hole.
The r u t ting edge is inde nt ed t hro ugh usc.

lhUt' : Late Second Dynas ty
I' r uw'mUla: Proba hly /\bydos
,\fr ll!wn' mmls : LCIlt"h. K (H m : w i dlh ill butt . 1 \ .Ol'1II
Wriylll: .pq.Sg
I\ fll ll r ld (; Al'"sen k al ('upper
,111111ysi.o; : ClI; yO.4: Pb: U .U }O; Sn: < 0. 20 ; Ag: o .u }O ; Fe:
11..1. i O; Sb: O.OSI I; Ni : 0 ,04 ( 1: .\ u : <l Ul l ; Co; < O.t l l :
:h : 1. 7: Zn : < O.O.l..
I JI1I/' vJ:k tl " isllim.: I SyX
Wll /i /'HrIIl ,I,!! : /Jyll. Oll ;s.. H.f , nil. (10 5 , pb . ll ') - 7 0 .
Axc-hc i:l d similLJr to 6-9, but less ro u nded, more
squ at in fomL It has been cleaned of corrosion
prod uct and bea rs surface pitting at t he corners of
l he butt a nd illon g sides. Th e CUll ing edge has
heen hlllnkd .IIHl lt lrneJ lh rough usc.
30 (q o
/) a/(': Lale Second Dynasty
PrOV(/ UHla: Prohubly AbydlY,:;
MI'ww,.t'lII t'lIl s: I I .s cm: widlh a l bUH, I
Wt'ighl : .'i s....l:)K
," ,Il ,., /al: ArscniciJl copper
:\ lI ll lusis: e ll : yK .(I : Ph: 0 .0 5( 1;Sn: < 0 . 1(I ; Ag; 0 .0 16; Fc:
< . U ) I: CU: < 0. 0 1;
As: 2. Zn: < 0 .0 2
I>dlt" oj An,.,isilimr: I t{y 8
Ri"'iogrll l l/ly: K l:,g., I iI, n. 6: '.lS. A-U/ I ; ' ;ar l.'lIJUII . Olli s.
H-1- . no. 61q . pis . Olj -70 .
Axe-head very similar to 6- 8, but with an un even
butt a nd a n unusually lar ge und ir rcgulCir hole, It
was ollee quit e Lhlckly corroded but has now heen
completely cleaned. There is cOllsiderable pUling
un one f(;l ce. part icularly at th e CUll in g end a nd
al ong one One section of th e cu tti ng edge
rCla ins tra ces of the original gri nding.
SI]'o.; t ;r.E ! IOLf;
HHU.1S
I. Sai d \0 ha ve come from Abydos
Well-fashioned model axe-head made of sh eet
metal. It has a straight butt. slightly splayed side s.
and a mod era tel y convex cull ing end wi rh roun-
ded co rne rs. The sides a nd bUH hav e bee n gro und
to a smoo t h tinish a nd the cull ing en d gently
ham mered to a Ihi n edge. whlch has a n umber of
small crac ks. The blude is comp letely cleaned of
corros ion product . The line of the original ha fl is
visibl e.
Comment (6- 14)
Nos, 6 a nti 11 belon g to a group of Lwo full-size
a nd 15 model axes disco vere d by Pet rie in 190 I ill
t he tom b of King Khasckh emwy HI Abydcs.' The
second fun clional speci men from th e gr oup is 1I0W
in Chicago- and t he other models a rc widel y
di stnbuted among va rious museums, I A large
qu an tity of t he sam e t ype 118 full-size and at least
17 model s) was previously (J 896- 7) found by
Ame lineau in t he sa me tom b. ' In view of their
disti nctive shape, their da le of acqu isition and
th eir repu ted place of origin, it is likel y t hat 7- 1()
come from th e sa me general source. if not ncccs-
sartly from the tomb of Kha sekh cm wy itself. Pet rie
discovered (I model like l I in th e nearby tom b or
King Peribscn , whi ch indi cates th at it 100 mu st
once ha ve con tai ned simila r deposits und shou ld .
ther efor e. be consi dered as a possible alt ernative
sou rce for these and other purchased specimens.
Three full-size exa mples of the type ar e known
from sites ot her tha n Abydos. One wa s exca vated
at EsSiba'i ya
ll
from a context timI is thought 10
be more ur less contempo ra ry wn h the Abydos
axe s. Hld one a t Adend an 1 in Nu bia from a gr a ve
dated to t he end of the Earl y Dyna st ic Per iod or
begi nning of th e Old Kingdom . The th ird was
found in t he Leban on" and G ill be dat ed 0 11
insnipti onal grou llds to the Fourth or Fifth I>yll-
asty . Th e two form er ar c ver y simila r Lo th e
Khasckhcmwy axes a lld like the m huv e a large
binding-hole. The latt er is lllorC deepl y ro u ndcJ
a nd hil S.1 pcrfnrali oll ma de by a drill.
The bulk of the evidence on Lhe duratioll of t hc
(ype comes from IJuklc:ls. wh idl IliJVC been IC lUlH1
in great q ua n tit y in Old Kiugdnfl} tOlllhs. m <.UlY 0 1"
Lhem. Iih. C II -J 4. ollliu ing Lhe bind ing-hole of
t heir excmpla rs in the sa me wa y us modt.'1s of th e
laler luggett l yp e somelimes lad. the lugs." Thesc
mod els in dktl le 1I1t11 Ihe squall er furm or
ho le axe l'()existctl through ou t th e Olt.! Kingdom
wi t h Lhe deepe r , m or e fully-munded variety. In
additi on to 12 fmm Abydos, daled lIlodels of the
former a rc kno wn frulll Ahu Sir (Fifth DyJlilsty ),11l
Edfu (Fifth Dynllsty)." E1 -Kab WOllrth Ilynasty)."
Gebc lcin (Fiflh J)yniJ s l yJ ,1 1 Cizcl (Fourl ll , Fih h alltJ
Sixl h Uynasti cs ).It a nd Saqqa ra (Fiflh an d Sixl h
Dynasti es ).I ' The lau er . of \\-'hich l 1 is i.1ll cxmu
pie. is t1ttcslcJ , in cqua lly lar ge Ilumbers. from
Abu Sir Wifth Ilyn astr ). " Ik'it Khali M IThin l
DCIHJt.Ttl (Sixl h J)YlliISly ). 1M
(Fourth Dylli.Jsty), I " I.<' hilll (Third I)Yllilsl y). l<I
MeydulIl (Fifth Dynast yl." Naga ed-Ilcr {Third
Dyna sty),JJ <-l oti S<lqqiJra (Th ird an d Six th Dynas-
ties and Old Kingdom ),ll The lat es t cer lain
pic is from 1.:iIHin and is dated 10 t he l' lld of tht.'
Olt) Kingdom or First In tcrlllediale I'criod .
14
Bolh
foml s ca n a lso be iuclllil icJ in hieroglyphic \\' rit -
ing of t he Old Kingdtllll
H
{:ice pI. In. lig. I )1" an d
in tomb -scenes of Lhe sa me fJ\:r iod at l;i w
l1
(see pI.
l h, tig. l),lM Saqqa ra .1'f tln d dscwha e. ' ''l hc l't m -
(ext in the v.lsl majori ty of cases hdll g one of
woodworking a nd ca r pe n tr y. \I
Duri ng Lhe co urse of lh l' Sixt h Dynasly, the re
developed a dislinclly ilngular vari an !, SOIll CUIll CS
wit h spillycd sides. known so far only frol1l 1l1Odeb
like 14 <. 1JI0pos sibly frolll tomh-.sccncs. No. 1-1- 11<1 5
no ardltJc.. ... logit'L1I (oll te>.:l htll G il l he HlIrihlltt'u 10
the Sixt h Dynilsty. prohtlhly lO lh e Iilll l' r pa rI. on
PL An; .2
I'I .ATES 1. <lnd 11 13
5 10 27
Pro ba bly Old Kingd.om
Pmvmantf: tJnre cordt. :t1
MelJsur rmmls: Lengt h, s cm: width at bu tt . -1- .4cm
Wt';, ylll: l J .4-g
MaUri/II : Coppe r
.i l liJIusi s; Cu: 9Y.o; Pb: < 11.50 ; So; < I .U; Au: < 0 .0 1:
As: 0 .9; Zn: < 0 .02
Vult' vf AI'I/uisilitm: 19 12
Rihl i..ll /ra" hy : Nunc
Model axe-head mtltle of sheel mel al. II has slighl
Iy convex sides and bull a nd a deep ly-rounded
cutting en d. Tr aced in the surface of one face is a
represent ation of a sca ra b-beetle holdin g sun-discs
bel we en its front <..lI1d rea r legs. possibly a modern
addition, Both r<.KCS lire light ly cormdcJ .
12 PLAl'E l
58549
Vuf t : Late Flfth Dynast y trelgu of King Una s]
Provenance: Abydos
Mrasur t'fIl t.' t1LS: Leng ths. l . .2- .l... &cm; widths. 2.7- 2.9 c01
Wr iB"t : -1- - 7g
MaI jal: Coppe r
A,wlyo;is:
(' U:':t 'j .II: l'b : U l ; s,,; <." UOj ; f C: (Ll ; As; IL.l
Cu: '01'01 .<1; Pb: O . ./;: $ 11: < U. II ') : Fe: 0 . .1; As: 0 ."
eu: '::I LJ .O; Ph: 0.1 : xn: < 0 0 <;: : Fe: o.z : As: 0-4
Cu: "1':1.0; Pb: 0 .4 : Sn: < 0 .0 <;: ; Fe: 0 ..1: As : u-4
Cu: l,J/}. fl ; Pb: O,..!; Sn: < o.o c: Fe: O..i ; As: 0.,)
Cu: ':ly ,o : Ph: 0 ..2; Sn: 1.0: Au : -: 0 .0 I : As: o. '\: Z n: -: lU ll
e u : 'oI 'j, U; Ph: o.S : Sn : < 1 0; Ao: < O,HI ; As: II. }: Zn: < O,H2
t 'U: yq,l l; 1'b:I I. '/;: Sn 0:: I .U: Au: 1.111; /\ S: l ). , : ZI'l: < l ... . l
ell :"",U; l'b : u . a . SII: < 1.<1; Au : < n. n l : 7J I: < n. lI ..!
V.,r.e (lJ.. \cqll lsiLioll ; I q 2h (Gift of t he Egyp t Explorat ion
Sockly)
Hibli09r upJiy: Fra nkfor t. JEA 10 (J 91 0 ). I I 6-' 17, pl.
xxxiii. I ; K- Hg.. 115, MA-B/ .l.o .
(;roup of nin e iden tical mod el made of
shee t me tal. They arc rou ghly recLungulur in fon11
wit h rounded corner s to the cutt ing ends. As th e
profiles sho w, some ca re W<l S taken to slmulaLe the
finished form of a fnll-size axe, th on gh the binding
hole is lacki ng . All a rc Iighlly co rrode d and a few
have damag ed edges.
II PLATE J.
1557 5
IlJ u : LUIe Second Dynasty
Provenance: Abydos. Tomb of Kin g Khasckhernwy
MrI.l SUff l1h'ms: Length. 7.1 ern: width at butt. q.b cm
WI'ilJrI: 1 7 ./ g
.\ LHf r j" l ; Arsenical copper
Alllllysis: Cu: 90 .0 : Pb: <0 .07: So : < 0 , 10 : Ag: < 0 .0 7;
Fe: 0 .J90; Sb : 1,7J; Ni : 0 , I jo: Au : < 0.0 1: Co:
< U.OI ; As: 6. 7: Z1l: < 0 .0 2 ; 81: o. J 0
Date (if Acqllisilion: 1 l.)( l 1 {(; ift of th e Egypt Explora tion
Fundi
RiblhJlIrar1hy: RT. it J 2, 28, pl. ix. A: KEg. , 14. MA U/ I ;
Early Dy" . Ob;s., 85 , no. 608, pl. 70.
Model axe-h ead of rounded form with strai ght
bu tt. roughly r ut out of thin shee t metal. The
cutting end is dam ag ed and t here is a minute silt
in th e blade ncar the butt. Bot h faces arc lightl y
corroded.
14
60SJ
l>au: Shel h Ilynasl y
P" O\'ft W,, ':C: tJllccrlalll
l
MI 'a Sllf t'mell/s; Length . h.yc m; widlh <II but! . ):. }(m
Wi ' ifl/l! : J42 g
"'fat aia/: Arsc nlcal Cllppcr
eu : 9S .o; Fc: l r ; As: l .2
/)ull' of Acqui...ili", ,: r H\ ') It'tlrmcr ly Sa il Culh."t' tlnn)
Hihli .lflml )hy: S" II CIII . <J, lo l I q .
PLATE I
PLATE 2
l'I. An: 2
I' I.ATE .l
7
8
10
9
I0072
Uu r: La te SenJ IlJ Dyna st y
r r-ovefltIIlt,(; Probubly Abydos
,\ Jmsurr ll/r' ulS; Uriginul lcngth. abo u t lj .7cm; width ill
hu tt . I\ .2l'm
\Vt i!j ',f : -tb1 g
.t Idier/Ill: Arsemcal co ppe r
Cu: lJ7. 1; Pb: 0.0 l O; Sn: -c0 .10; Ag: 0 .0 10: Fe:
0. \ j o: Sb: o.nzo: Ni: 0.0 1O: Au: < 0.0 I: Co: 0 .0 I 0 ;
As: 1.0; Zn: <0 . 0 2
D/l lt' of Al'quisilloll: 1898
HiMiagraphy: edrly lhJn. Objs., no. 60 2. pis. 68 - '1.
Axe-head almost Identical to 6. wit h the hole
nea rer to t he mi ddle of t he bla de. A sizeab le chip
ha s been lost from the middle of t he cutt ing end
a nd one face bea rs a n umb er of light incisions.
made. perhaps. wit h the corn er of a chisel. The
blade is qui te th ickly corroded in parts. pa rticu-
la rly a t ih e cutting en d and along the side s.

SIO]]
Date:Sixth Dynasty (?) - Middle Kingdom
f'rovfllaflcr: llnrecorocd
MrasurrHll'rlts: Length. 15.1 em; widlh al butt. 15.1 em
I J28 g
Material: Ar:>cnical copper
Arwlysis: Cu; 98.5; Pb: 0.1 on; Sn: < 0.20; Ag: 0.020; Fe:
0.480: Sb: 0.020: Ni: 0.020: Au: <0.01: Co: (L010:
As: 1.2;2n: <0.02
Dateof Acqulsillorl: 1912
Bihliography: None
Axe-head very similar to 15. The cutting edge has
been indented and chipped through use and Is
14 lAlhun.ll.ols"o.pl.xlvIL 14"15
l 'j For exnntplc. pls. xxtx- xxxu: SrOK. pls. 1 L c: j z , b:
33. a; 49. h.end colour plate A. upper h'fl: Ml'Trr/lkil. L pi
17. left: and SII, S" pl, tv.
2:h C-r. 1/71'. pl.}. 2 (BM 1241)
.l7 II. uvso. tv. I 15. fig. 00. pis. IX-X: )rOK, 10.... pl. 4'1. b (K-
f>g. 11:2. R4and j}.
18 cr. ITT. L pl. xxv. llRM 9(4).
.19 Ilr-sy. 6. 21. fig. 4. pl. xvl. I 1- I 3: n. pl. cxxtx: NIa'1<'hrhnuln.
74. fig. R: NeJrrl1f1d Ka-hay. 27. pis. 20-1. 22, h:ExfS.
Sqq.lr<l L 29. flits. 11 (K-P.q.. t 21:. Roland
9'
fO /lrm.. pl. xiv. right: Melr, lv. pl. xtv (K-Fg., 12 J. R II); 1]). tt.
.. 121.R 17).
11 Once, ho ... vcver. in hunting. Ii ItlIVnquCtr. 109. pl.
16. bottom; and possibly once In warfare. TP.NS.
rrcnusprece (K-lig. 122. R B).
II II Is pert of a tomb-group belonging [0 the 'sole companton.
lector-priest. ltH:also named /dJ-MS. (jther Items in the
group Include <l heed-rest. razors.. vases. and a mode!
altar with associated vessels of metal tsome recently
published In KllfJfl'f-rmd Rrnn::l!gr(tifir Ag.. oZ. 110,16nA-Z,
pis. C 160. and p).
n. Exrs. fit Tell Ra.'<tlf, 72- 3. no. 10 J, figs. 140 and 14R.
l4- Seven In all. from Gha lomb 2}R r a jPM IB'. part I. 91
now In Boston. MFA 13. }060-7. 13,3070-8 and
I 1.30R1--4 (see Madd!n. SIKh, Muhly and Brovarskl. lEA
70 (19R41. 11ff.). Also deted to the reign or Pept II are nine
models from II tomb at Balat: gee' Velloggta. mf,10 80
(JgBol. I 12-1 \ and 120. where their type Is not specified
lr;. Kamal. ASAE l'i (Iq I <;1, 2'j7. who mentions five, At least
two of these are In Cairo, IE 43q77.
L-1.AA 2. f 190ql. I 1:7. pl. xvl: Mirrors. J 1. fig. 20;
nowCalro.JE4117'j
In. Culm. JE97072.
_J7. Cairo. TR 2o!7! I 6/10; see Barsanti. ASAE I h \ I q I 6), 218
lR, Calro. CG 176'); see lJt!nL il. 185, abt. j. f.
3Y. Mf'lr. v. pis. xvIII and Ivl. I (K-F,g.. 11.J. R 13).
40. D. HI Gebrdwi.I. pis. xiv-xvl: H. pl. x .. 123. R I 'j)
41 IXS}klSh ..h, pl. xxt {K-f;g .. 122, R 10J.
42 L D. II. II r . h: NI-Af/('h-Prpi. pl. xvt (K-r'11.. 12l. R 16!.
41 12J.R 19).
Round Form with Lugs (15-34)
J 5 PLATE J
07579
Dalt': Sixth Dynasty (?)
Provenallce: Abydos
Mrasllrfmenls: Length, J S, J em; width at butt, 1 ),.) em
Weight: 12S6.4g
Malrrial: Copper
Aualysis: Cu: q6,'1; Ph: 0,37; Sn: <0.20; 0.010: Fe:
0.710: Sh: <0.01; Ni: 0.040: Au: <0.01: Co: o.oy);
As: 0.4: Zn: 0.0.1
nate of Acquisition: 190) (Gift of the Egypt Exploration
Pund)
Bibliography:Ahydos. ll, }2. pI. xxiL 1; TW, 7. pI. iL (n:
RewaffTllwg. 22. pI. 2. 5: K-Eg. 18 and 102, D/J:
EisenprodukllorJ, 50.
Axe-head with deep well-rounded blade and a
straight butt elongated to fom1 angular lugs. The
blade Is slightly asymmetrical and the cutting end
consequently lop-sided. It has been completely
cleaned of corrosion product revealing surfHcc
Imperfections which are largely the result of the
process of manufacture. Most of the cutting edge
has been affected by corrosion but one section is
still quite sharp. It bears no obvious signs of wear.
A distinct burr. caused by hammering, is present
along one of the sides. Metallographic examina-
tion has shown that the axe was cast at a
relatively low temperature and that it was sub-
sequently heavily worked and annealed.
PLATE)
PI,ATFS ] and '3r
PLAU.": ) and 3I
17
18
19
ST007
Datr:Sixth Dynasty Ul- Middle Kingdom
Provenance:Unrecorded
M((1suremr11ls: Length. T4.icm; width at butt. 1 <.o crn
Weight: T075.5g
Malrrial: Copper
Analnsls: Cu: 99.5; Ph: 0.030; Sn: < 0.20; Ag: 0.0 I 0; Fe:
0.010; Sb: < 0.01; Nl: 0.020; Au; < 0.0 I; Co: < 0.0 I:
As: o.s: Zn: o.oj
Vale ofAcquisitiotl: I <}J 2
Bibliography: None
Axe-head very similar to 16. It has been com-
pletely cleaned of corrosion product revealing a
pattern of surface Irregularities and faults which
are probably the result of the casting process. The
cutting edge. which was hammered more from
one face than the other. Is cracked on one Iace
and shows other sIgns of heavy wear.
now corroded on both faces. The rest of the axe is
also lightly corroded. The axe bears a number of
surface Imperfections, including a narrow gash.
made by a sharp implement. ncar the edge on one
face.
30077
Doll': Sixth Dynasty (1) - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Measur(mrnls: Length. J 4.2 em; width at butt. 1 3.1 em
Weight: 191&
Material: Arsenical copper
Analysis: Cu: 94.0: Ph: o.oR: So: <0.20: Ag: 0.010; Fc:
0.800: Sb: o.uso; NI: 0.020: Au: < 0.01: Cu: < 0.0 I;
As; 1.6; Zn: < 0.02
Daft' oJAcqulsllioll: 1898
Bibliography: None
very similar to It has been com-
pletely cleaned of corrosion product. revealing on
one face a pattern of supcrlicial faII Its. resullillg
from the casting proccs.o;;. There Is a certain
amount of corrosion damage along the sides and
intermittently on the cutting edge, which Is also
quite blunted. Chased in the centre of the better
face is a large sign or mark of uncertain sig-
nifkance. It is surrounded by a number of small
triangular marks which have been punched into
the surface.
51010
Date:Sixth Dynasly Ul Middle Kingdom
Provetlona: tlnrrcorded
Mea.'wrflllenls: Length. lO.t; em: width at butt, 16, I em
Weight: IS51.5g
Material: Arsenlcfll copper
AnalysJ!i: Cu: 96.5: Ph: 0,0 lO: Sn: < 0,20: 0,020: Fe:
0.420; Sb: 0.030: NI: 0.020; Au: <0.01: Co: <tUlI;
As: 1.6; Zn: <0.02
Dateof Af'qlllsWon: I 9 I 2
Bibliography: K-Eg.. 102.0/0.
Heavy axe-head very similar to .6 and '7. It has
been completely cleaned of corrosion product and
is in good condition. The only damaged area is the
cutting edge. which has been cracked. chipped
and turned through tlSC but Is still quite sharp in
parts. The sides of the axe arc slightly bevelled and
bear the marks of a grinding tool. Chased In the
surface of one face arc two hieroglyphs. perhaps to
be understood as mor ;=:=:.
PLATT. 3 16
HT. II. 12. zx. ,h. '':1. pis. IxA and xlv. 70. Petrie' had
prevtnusly if full-slzc srectmen while vtstttng
Abydos during Amcttnceu's work, It Is now London. (JC
loo(Ji'. SeeRT. Jl. ''I; nv, pl. HI, lOR. The 'numeral' II
bears should hetreated with caution.
2 01. 024-0.
fll('s(' models are now: MM; If). 0 I, Ri: Boston.
MFA. Ill. 7' 31: Brtstcl. CM. M 11 10 (Cat Bristo/. 26. fig.
9); Brussels. MR, E. 166: Chtcngo. Or. 0.127: East Berlin.
AM. 1'j')21, I 'j')22. I ,))2l (A/urWm.. L n. no. 137, pl. 7):
Liverpool. MCM. 14. 10. 0 I. So: London, OC. InoRo: New
York. MMA. 01. 4, J2 (.\'ff'pln. L46. fig. 30): Oxford. Ash..
E. h 10; Oxford, PRM. Cat. m. ';3: Philadelphia. LIM, E ':1,"77
4 see Amellncuu. NF.II. I ';2-3. pl. xvHl. Only a small number
of these r-an now betraced wuh re-rtalntv. Three of the six
full-slzc spcctmens reputedly given 10 the Gi7,8Museum are
now In the Cairo Museum. IE 31R4.1 (AO. 279-Ro. pi, .')9.
lOG I 4'j22-4). together with four of thl:"models. IE 31 84 J
{AO. 1Ho- 1. n; 14';ol<; -10, Of the twclvr furtctlortnl <!Xl:"S
rctntned hy him. 01 least six WITC disposed of at the sille of
his coH('(,tion In 1'1114. (Ani. t?q. Ah.. 'y. lot II II. These six
were acquired by thl:"Louvre. though only one now r('malns
In Iht' colledlon. E. I 1025.6. three having been glvl"n 10 the
muscum al lind two lost. Other nxes
re-ported to have come from the Amellneau colleo:1lon
Indude one In !krlln, now West flerlin. AM 1&04q. and
once In the Muste Gulmet; on these lasl four,
AI/all/m., I. 72 -l. no, I l4. pI. 7
RT.ll, J 2. pI. xlv. 21,
New York. Br, Mus .. oy. l1H'1. llO: S('{' I'rrdytl. mul Ard .. ['11..
1HI-.l.r/.44.no. lSI
Chicago. 01. olll<Jq. unpublished (lnfoonaUon as to dating
kindly supplied by IJr. Bru('e
H. Mililoll. MUSI 10 (191:<;).49- ')4-. pI. L I: C<lt of f:-g. Scarabs.
2H3- 5. pl. xxxvi. I, now In the Pontifical Blblkallnstltute.
lerus-Hll'Ol. A full-sin>axe dlscovffed by Reisner at G17-3
IMw.. 21 f. pI. 6,;. L 10} mighl also have becn oUhls-type.
hut It Is Impossible to besure. as lllls- piece 1;<; hroken. Ills
now Boston. MFA, II. 7R4.
<J For l'xample, QR, l. 60, pI. xxxviiI. olO;Most., IOq, pI. IxL S,
IlOW Stockholm. fdM. lo67'i"7: Arnold. MDMK 2711971}.
I }O, pI. xxiI. c (seebelow. Appendix I. 00, 2).
W{"51 Ikrlio. AM. 10401-'4, from the tomb of
K<lhotep. noted In PM WI, 143: Cairo. JF: q 3
eJi:CllVllllons).
II rr-:(19P!. p.!lg.HI.pI.XJ:Xv.boUom.1
11.. IX 4. pI. ill. ol. lind xvllL 00
Il runn.ME, S, I l.971 rind I unpuhllshed. from
Schlilpardll's exca\atlons,
14 I!. (;/:n.IL pis. Hi and Iv: ilL I 39"''40. ol42--4. figs. 117- IR
Hnd 2:I 0-- 7. pis. xliv and Ixvillthese lAtter nnw Cairo. JE
72:lhHI: VI/2. 42: I" GI:n.1. Ilq. 1 JI, fig, 17: vII, 59, fig. 24
Hhese ltilter now Vienna. KM. 7)47-8): xL RI -2. fig. 40.
pI. lx, d: R.. GN.1. 49h-7, fig, l04, a. pI. 64, Land ')04.
'jil7, 3 rn. 14-4-1 I. pI. 09. e (one of these Is Cairo. IE
67,97). Two other old KlnjO(oom exampfes arc Included in
itg. Rr .. iH. figs. I S2'- l, pl 4 r. c. nos. 274 J and 2742. both
In IIHrJeshelm. PM. In the SHmc museum. nos. 1h4R and
JR}h are two olht'T'i ;<;llki In befrom the same source. Also
from (;"1,11. context unknown. Is Calro. TR 14/3/1]/1.
I 'j. TPC l. I fig. 6: I q. fig. 14-: 22. fig, 17 (two. now Ollro. IE
h lilil-Rl, Five other 5-p('Clmens llre now in the Cairo
Musellm. IE H70R I. They were found during the excavation
<It Ihe IInas Valley Temple by the Egyptian AnHqultles
.. 'l!lon in I <J44; set:' Ilrunton. ASAE. 47 f 1947), IlZ.
pI. :wl
I (,. Nr-usn-rt,. 129, flg. loq. 12. now West Rerlfn, AM. Ih46'j
17 &t' Ih(' refs- <lrn)\'t'". p. 2ELn. j'j.
IR 1', /ft!/I" .. (1-,. 2'). pI. xxII: nv. pl. Iv. 121. These twomode--ls
<Irenow Lonuon. Or. JOil74 anu Oxford. Ash .. E, 1742.
r(';<;f)l.'l.'tlvdy
19 I!. (;/:0. \'I!2. 42: J.. (;/:a. l. 12<; and 111, fig. r 7: All. Rr..
71Lng. I RI, no. 274U. pI. 41. c. !llIdt-sheim. PM.
'All1l//, Ii. 2')-0. pl, xlvI[. 7-H.
_\1M. 14. pI. xL ,_ orthl:"four one Is now London. UC,
JoH'jJ
ND. IL 47. flg. loR. pI. 4fL a. said 10 bein Ikrkeley. LMA
1. J Arc/L ,\fast.. 11. rl. xxxlli. J. Cairo. JE 0 13'i9. b; fPC I. I fl.
llFl. II: J.:I-'j.fig. l8: also Cairo. JE 3p19. from Lor1?(s
work (I H98-9). and IE h47')1l. from Ihe tomb of
)0 KaellTh0.'t't. both unpublished.
SINt;J.E-[I0IJi the basis of the material with which It Is as-
FOHMS soctatcd. II Excavated parallcls are known from a
lomb of the middle or later Sixth Dynasty at Tell
Basta. II from a tomb at Gi7.i1 dating to the end of
the reign of l'cpi II. H from a tomb of the late Sixth
Dynasty fit Mctr. H and from another of about the
same date at Abydos. Other such models have
been excavated at Mendes" and Matcrta " btit
rcmuin unpublished. Reportedly found at Saqqara
is a specimen complete with model haft, which
fonned part of a group of ritual implements con-
tained in an inscribed box. datable to the late Old
Kingdom or later.
l
" It may well be thls angular
type that is represented in a tomb of the late Sixth
Dynasty at Mcir in a scene showing carpenters at
work. J<i lind in similar scenes and in hieroglyphic
writing in tombs at Dclr cl-Gcbrawt.t'' Desha-
shch ..fI Z;:iwyct cl-Mcltin."" and Moralla." all
dating to the end of the Old Kingdom or First
Intermediate Period.
;1009
Dace: Sixth Dynasty In - MiddleKingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
.\ lt aSuremtnIS: Length. 16. 9 cm: width at butt. t r .o cm
tvt ight; 1694 Sg
.\ fat/r ial : Arsenical copper
.i nalysis: Cu: 97 .0: Pb: o. I 50: Sn: < 0. 10: Ag: 0.0 1S: Fe:
o..Jo: Sb: o.oo8: Ni: O.Oll :Au: < O.OI: CO: < o.o r:
As: 2.7: Zn: < 0. 0 2
[)au of Acquisition: 1 91.2
Bibliography: None
Heavy axe-head wit h sides slightly less rounded
than those of 19. Corrosio n ha s affected bot h faces
and one of the sides. an d there are surface faults
like those on 15. I ; and 18. The cuttin g edge has
been turned an d chipped at several points . The
axe bears wha t appears to be the same inscription
as t 9.
PLATE 5 2 0 PLATES 3 and 3I :lnalysiS: Cu: 9i .9: Pb: 0.040 : So: < 0.20: Ag: 0.0 20: Fe:
o. I 30: Sb: 0.0 I 0: !'Ii: 0.0 80 : Au: < 0. 0 r: Co: 0.0 10 :
As: I...: : ZIl.: < 0.02
[)a et of ,-!cquisition; 1961 (Former ly Michaihdis
Coilecnon!
8iblivgraphy: Kaplan ;'. .\ WAI K 20 t 196 51. pl. 10:
James. BMQ 2.,$. ( 19b II. 38- <) . pl. cou, 5: KEg.. r o z ,
0/1 0 and II.
I
Roughly fashioned axe-head more deeply rou nded
in form than the previous examples an d with
quite distinc t corners to the cutting edge. For-
merl y thickly corr oded. it has now been com-
pletely cleaned. It is badly pitted in part s. an d
quite deep casting faults are present on one face .
One lug is broken and the cutting edge has been
blunted by heavy wear. Chased on one race is a
group of signs repr esenti ng a number or numbers
of un certain significance. possibly a modern addi-
ti on.
27
67 6 17
DaU' : Probabl y Twelfth Dynasty
Provenance: Kahu n
.\ ft aSUTt mm LS: Length. r j.ccm: width at butt . 9.5em
Weight: J13g
.\ fau nal : Stone. chert
Datt' oj Acquisition: 189 0 Hj ih:of A. W. Franks !
Bibl iogTaphy: IKG. I z. j 1-2. pl. Prehist. Or.. ii.
[0 7. fig. 1 )1 : KhJJrga Oasis. 17 5: 1(-9. " ; - 9.
Pale-bro wn chert axe -head of deep roun ded form
with rou gh iugs. The blade. which is very thick in
section. has been flaked bifacially but the cutting
edge ha s been Iormed by flaking mainl y from one
race. The butt seems 10 have been slightly convex.
The cutting edge is uneven but sharp. One lug Is
al most completely lost , and one of the sides is
chi pped.
ROLJ SOF'ORM
LUGS
fl",'I""""', """' ,,nn!l'd
23 PLATES .. and 31
66210
D<l lf : Sixt h Dyna sty 1;) - Middle Kingdom
36773'
Dau : Sixth Dynasty (/1- Middl e Kingdom
Provenance: Uncertain-
,\ f eQSurtmtnLS: Length . I r.a cm: width at bun. 12.0cm
Wtight : 6 SJg
MaUrlaJ ; Copper
An4Jysis: Cu: 99.6 : Pb: 04 80: So: < 0. 20: Ag: 0 .030: Fe:
0 . 2 20 : Sb: 0.020 : Ni: 0, 0 30 : Au: < 0. 0 1 : Co: <0.0 1:
As: 0 .9: Zn: < 0, 0 2
Dateof Acquisit ion: 18 70
Bib1Jography: Budge. tl rchiltologiDS3 ([ 8921. 9 1. pl. il .
Bg.5
Axe-head similar to 20 an d 2 I but wi th slightly
convex butt. It is lightly corroded and bot h faces
are dama ged superficially. The cutting edge is
qu ite sharp . though inden ted and chipped
thr ough use. There is a distinct burr. caused by
hammering. alon g one side. Chased on one face is
a large sign or symbo l of uncert ain meaning.
1. Formerl y no. 6049b.
z, Said to beTt:1IeJ YahUdiya .
51008
Dal<: Sixth Dynasty (11- MiddleKingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
.\ft'Dsurt'mtnlS: Length. I 7.5em: width at butt . [ 7.3em
[ 94 8 g
.\faltrial : Arsenical copper
Analysis: Cu: 98 .3: Pb: 0.090: So: <0 .20 : Ag: 0.0 20 : Fe:
0 .490: Sb: 0.040 : Nt: 0.030; Au: 0.0 10: Co: 0 .0[0 :
As: r .o: 1n: < 0.02
Dateof Acquisition: 19 I 2
Bibliography: None
Very heavy axe-he ad similar in form and condi-
tion to 2 0 and beari ng. lightl y chased on one face.
what is probabl y meant to be the same inscription.
tho ugh readin g from left to right and carelessly
done . On the othe r face. near one of the corners of
the butt. a nu mber of smal l marks have been
pun ched indiscriminately into the surface. The
cuttlng edge has been turned and chi pped
thr ough use but is stlll qui te sharp. One of the
sides bears sha llow indentations ca used by a
roun d-headed implement.
PLATE 5
PUn. ;
28
6i618
Dau : Probabiy Twelfth Dynasty
Provenance: Kahun
,\ leasuremrnts: Length. s.a cm: wtdth at butt . 9.) cm
Weight: 402&
.\'lalt rfal: Stone. hornblende gabbroI
Dareof Acquisilion: 18 90 (Gift of A. W. Franks)
Bibliography: IKG. [ 2. 52. pl. vU. 3: KhargaDa.s ts. [ i s: K-
Eg.4j-9
Dark grey har d-st on e axe-head similar to 2;.
tho ugh not as deeply rounded. The blade. whic h Is
very thIck in section. ha s been roughly pecked and
flaked int o shape and left unpolished. The cutting
edge is blun t. The butt is straight and the lugs are
uneven.
29
62550 '
Date: First Intermedia te Period
ProVt mana: Mostagedda
Measurements: Length. 2.85- 3. 2em: width at butt. J .O-
3SClD
Weight: 4.0- 6.6 g
Maurlal: Metal . probably copper or arsenical copper
Analysis: Not possible owing to corros ion
Dauof Acquisition: 192 9 (Gilt orc. Brunton )
Bibliography: .\1os(.. 109. pl. bt , 2: K-Eg.. [ [ 7. MDI9.
Two model axe-he ads of roun ded form with lugs
made of thi n sheet metal. Both are thickly cor-
roded and bear traces of their origin al wooden
hafts. The smaUer wa s once broken in two but is
now repaired.
r . Iden tified by Or. I. C. Freest one o( th e British Museum
Researc h Laborato ry.
r. These ales share this number wt tn ( 5 other models from
the same sou rce.
30 PLATE;
62 554 '
Date: first Int ermedi a te Pertod - early Middle KIngdom
Provenance:Mostagedda
Measuremmrs: Length . 1.9 - 2.5em: width at butt . 1.8-
1 7crn
Weight: 1. 3- 3.8g
,\ f altri ol: Metal. probably copper or arsenical copper
Analysis: Not possible owing to corrosion
Dall of Acqllisllion: 1929 (Gift af G. Brunton )
Bibliography: M05l.. 10 9. pi. bt . I ; KEg.. 117. ,\10/4.
Group of six model axe -head s- similar [ 0 29. very
rou ehl v f;.l', hi rmed. On lv th e larccst hOI"; ful!v for med
PLATE ..
t . that the twoseparate entries. DI t0 and 0/ 1I. refer to
the same axe.
24 PLATE ..
688i O
Dal<: SIx[h Dynasty (i) - Kingdom
Provrnance: Unre corded
Meosurements: Length . 9.75em: width at butt . 11. 5 em
Weight: 297. 5g
l\1aCt rt al: Arsenical copper
Analysts: Cu: 94 .5; Pb: 0.040: So: 0 .30; Ag: 0. 0 30 : Fe:
0.3 10:Sb: 0.020: NI: 0.0 10: Au: <0.01: Co: <0.01 :
As: 3.6: Zn: < o. o r : BJ: <0.0 1
Dateof Acquisuum: 19 78 {Formerly wellcome Collection)
Bibliography: None
Axe-head with rounded blade similar to 16 in
shape. Unlike tbe previous axes of the type . It is
relatively thin with a flat. even. profile. It is
moderat ely corr oded. Mar ks of a grinding tool are
presen t on the cutti ng edge. as well as on the sides
and the edges of the butt. The cunlng edge has
been blunted thro ugh use .
25 PLATE ..
688 ; 1
Dart: Sixth Dynasty111- MJddle KIngdom
Pro\'t'nanu: Unr ecorded
MtiZSurtmtnls: Length . 9.55cm: width at butt. 1I -4Cm
Wright: 190.1 g
.\-w.lt rial: Arsenic al copper
Analysis: Cu: 98.4: Pb: 0.3 20 ; Sn: 0..2.0: Ag: 0.0 20: Fe:
o. r a o: Sb: 0.020: Ni: 0. 0)0: Au: <0,0 1: Co: < 0. 0 1:
As: 3.3: 20: <o.or . Bl: < 0.0 1
Daleof Acquisition: 197 8 (Formerly WeUcome Collection)
Bibliography: None
Axe-head almost Identical to 2 ... though thinner
in sectio n and less carefully fashi oned. It is quit e
thic kly corr oded and is pitted in parts. It bears
grinding marks like the pre vious axe and the re are
signs of wear on the cutt ing edge. Preserved In the
corrosion on one face are traces of what may ha ve
been matting or basket -work.
26
688i2
Dal t': Sixth Dynasty (: l - Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Measuremtn ls: Length. s. r cm: wtdth at burt. I r .b cm
\Vtight: 284.g
Maurial: Copper
:1nalysis: Cu: 88. 0: Pb: 0.6 50: Ag: o.ojo: Fe: 0.230: Ni:
0 .0 20: As: 0 . 1
PLATES 4 and 3I
PLATES .. and 3 1
21
22
J

j 1 )( ) LJ
Vate: Sixt h Dynasty l?l - Mtddlc Kingdom
Provenan ce: Unrec orded
,\ ft llSurrmt rHs: Length. Ib .9cm: widt h at butt. 1i .oem
Wt>igh(: 1694. 5 g
.\ fau nal: Arsenical co pper
.'l.nalysis: Cu: 9 ( .0: Pb: 0 . 150 : Sn : <O .lO: Ag: Fe:
0.4 0 : Sb: 0.001') ; :--li: 0 .0 1 1; Au: < 0 .0 I : Co : < 0 .0 1:
As: 2 .,: Zn: < 0 . 0 2
Dateof AcqUISition: 1 91 2.
Bibliography: None
Heavy axe-head wit h sides slightly 1= roun ded
tha n those of 19. Corrosion has affected both fac es
and one of the sides . and there are surface fau lts
like those on 15. 1i and 18. The cu tting edge ha s
been turn ed and chi pped at several points. The
axe bears what appears to be the same inscri ption
as 19.
As: 1.2: Zn: c 0.0 2
Dateof .1cqUlsWon: J 96 J tl'ormerly \1ichailidis
Collecti on )
Bibliography: Kaplony. .\ 1DAIK ,20 t IQ651. ...1. 6. pl. ro:
James. 8.\10241 1961 ).38-1.]. pI. cu. ; : K-Eg.. 10 2 .
Drt o and r r .'
Roughl y fashioned axe-head mor e deepl y rounded
in form th an the previou s examples and with
quite distinct corners to the cutt ing edge. For-
merl y th ickly corr oded. it has now been corn-
pletel y clea ned. It is badly pitted in parts. and
qui te deep ca sti ng faults are present on one face.
One lug is broken and the cutting edge has been
blunted by heavy wear. Chased on one face is a
group of signs representing a number or numbers
of un cerrain significance. possibly a modem addi -
tion .
DtlI e: Pro bably Twelfth Dynasty
Prownance : Kahun
.l J, asuremt nts: Length. I t .o cm: width at bun. q.; cm
Weight : 3 J .3g
.\f dru id': Stone. chen
Dau of .-\cquisit ion: r890 ,Gift or A. W. Franks !
Bibliography: [KG. I z. 5I pl. vii. .+: Prebist. Or.. li .
107 fig. 13 I : Khorgo Oasis. 175 : K-Eg.. 4.7- 9.
Pale-brown chert axe-head of deep rounded form
with rough lugs . The blade. whi ch is very th ick in
section. has been flaked bifacia lly but the cutti ng
edge has been formed by Oaking mainly from one
face. The butt seems to have been slightly convex.
The cu tti ng edge is uneven but sharp. One lug is
almost completel y lost . an d one of the sides is
chipped.
23 PL.'TES o!- and 3 1
662 10
Va,,: Sixt h Dynasty i?l - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Measuremerus: Length . I r . r cm: width at bun . 8 . 0 em
Wright: 52..J. g
Mau rial : Arsenical copper
5100 8
Vau : Sixt h DynastyIil - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrec orded
,\ 1t asuu ments: Length. I i . 5em: width at butt. I / .J em
Wt ight: I 94Sg
Material: Arsenica l co ppe r
Analysis: Cu: 98 .3: Pb: 0.090: Sn: <0.20 : Ag: 0.0 20: Fe:
0.490: Sb: 0 .040: NI: 0 .0 30: Au: 0 .010: Co: 0.010 :
As: 1. 0 ; 20: < 0.02
Datt of Arquisition: 1912
Bibliography: None
Very heavy axe-head similar in form an d condi-
tion to 20 and beari ng. lightl y chased on one face.
what is probably meant to be the same inscription.
though read ing from left to right and carelessly
done. On the other face. near one of the comers of
the butt . a nu mber of small marks have been
punched tndiscrim tnately into the surface. The
cutting edge has been turned and chipped
through use but is sUII qu ite sharp. One of th e
sides bears sha llow Indentations caused by a
rou nd-headed implement-
22 PLATES o!- andj r
J6in'
VaU: Sixth Dynasty(I) - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Uncertain-
MrQSurt mt nts: Length . I 1.4 em; widt h at butt. 12..0 em
Wright: 653S
t.faurlal: Copper
Analy sis: Cu: 99.6: Pb: 0 .4 80: Sn : < 0 . .20: Ag: 0.0 30 : Fe:
0 . 2 20: Sb: 0 .020: NI: 0.030: Au : <0.0 [ : Co: <0. 0 1:
As: 0.9 : Zn: < 0 .02
DaIC O! Ac.quisitton: I BiD
Bibliography: Budge. Archat' ologia S3 (1892). 91. pI. Il.
fig. ) .
Axe-head similar to 2 0 and 2 1 but wi th slightly
convex butt . It is lightly corr oded an d bot h faces
ar e damaged superficially. The cutti ng edge is
quite sharp. though indented an d chipped
through use . There is a disti nc t burr . caused by
ha mmering. along one side. Chased on one face is
a lar ge sign or symbol of uncert ain meaning.
I. Formerl y no. 6049b.
2. Said to beTell el-Yahedrye.
PLATE 4
1. These axes share rfus number with 15 other model" from
the same source.
28 PLATE 5
67 6 18
Date: Probably Twelfth Dynasty
Provt nonct: Kahun
Mt asurt mt nts: Length. 9.4 cm: width at butt . q. j cm
tVti ght: 4.02 g
Material: Stone. hornblende gabbro'
Dau oj Acquisilion: 1890 IGi{(of A. W. Franks)
Bibliography: IKG. 12. 52. pI. vii. 3; KlwrgaOasis. 17 5; K
Eg. 47 - 9
Dark grey hard-s tone axe- head similar to 27.
though not as deeply rounded. The blade. which is
very th ick in secti on . has been roughly pecked and
Ilaked into shape an d left un polished. The CUlling
edge is blun t. The butt is straight and the lugs are
uneven.
30 PLATE 5
62554 '
Dau: FIrst Intermediate Period - early Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Mostagedda
Measurrments: Length. L9-l.5 em: width at butt . 1.8-
2i cm
Wtight : 1.3-).88
Mater ial: Metal. probably copper or arse nical copper
.i nalysis: Not possible o....-tng to corrosion
Dilu oj Acquisition: 192 9 (Gift of G. Brunton)
Bibliography: .\lost.. 109. pl. be. I : K-Eg.. 1I 7. MD/.,J.
Group of six model axe-hea ds- similar to 29 . very
roughly fas hioned. Only the largest has fully formed
lugs. All are thickly corrode d. the largest bearing
clear tra ces of a wooden haft.
T. JdenUfied by Dr. I. C. Freest one of th e Britis h Muse um
Research Laborat ory.
2 9 PLATE 5
625 5 '
Dart: First Intermediate Period
Provenance: Mostagedda
.'\ 1tQSuuments: Length. 2.8S-3.2cm: width at butt. 3.0-
j . gcm
Wt lght : 4.0-6.6g
,\ farerlal: Metal. probably copper or arsenical copper
Analysis: Not possible owing to corros ion
Vau of Aqulsltion: 1929 (Gill of G. Brunton)
Bibliography: Most.. 109 . pI. lxi. 2: K-Eg.. II 7, MD/9 .
Two model axe-heads of rounded form with lugs
made of thin sheet metal. Both are thickly cor-
roded and bear traces of th eir original wooden
hafts . The smaller was once broken in two but is
now repaired.
I. These axes share thi s number with 21:1 other models {rom
the same source.
..I. The origin..! group . .ISdiscovered. contained orne iH t."" in ,111
25 PLATE 4
688il
DaU: Sixth Dynasty(I ) - Middle Kingdom
Provenanet: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 9.55 em: width at butt . J I. 4 CITI
Weight: 190. I g
l\1ater ial: Arsenical copper
,walysis: Cu: 98. 4: Pb: 0.320: So : O.lO: Ag: 0.020; Fe:
0.I40 : Sb: o.o zor Nf: 0.030: Au: < O.OI; CO: < O.OJ:
As: 3.3: Zn: <0.0 1; 81: < 0.0 1
DatEof Acquisition: 1978 (Formerly Wellcome CoUectlon)
BiblIography: None
Axe-head almost identical to though thlnner
in section and less car efully fashioned. It is qui te
thickly corroded and is pitted In parts. It bears
grindi ng marks like the previous axe and ther e are
signs of wear on the cutting edge. Preserved In the
corrosio n on one face are traces of what may have
been mat tin g or baske t-work.
I . Note t hat the two sepa rate entries , 0110 and OIl 1. refer to
the same axe.
24 PLAlEo!-
688i O
Dale: Sixth Dynasty (?) - Middl e Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
,\ ft asurnn tnts: Length. 9.7 5c m: width at butt . 1 1. ; CD1
29i . 5g
.\ falt riaJ: Arsenical co pper
Analysis: Cu: 94.;; Pb: 0 .0 40 : Sn: o. 30 : Ag: 0.0 30 : Fe:
0.31 0: Sb: 0.0 20 ; Ni: 0.010; Au: < 0 .0 1 : Co: <0.01;
As: 3.6: Zn: < o.o r : Bt: < o.o r
Dateoj Acquisition: 1978 (Formerly Wellcome Collection)
Bibliography: None
Axe-head with rounded blade simi lar to 16 in
shape. Unlike the previo us axes of the type. it is
relative ly thin with a Oat. even. profile. It is
moderat ely corroded. Mar ks of a grinding tool ar e
present on t he cutti ng edge. as well as on the sides
an d the edges of the butt. The culling edge has
been blun ted through use.
26
688i 2
VaU: Sixt h Dynasty(I ) - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Length. s .z cm. width at butt . I r. 6cm
Wtight : .284 g
MaUriQl: Copper
Analysts: Cu: 88.0; Pb: 0 .650: Ag: 0.0 30: Fe: 0. 230 ; Ni:
0 .0.20: As: O. I
Dalt oj Acquisitton: 1978 IFormerly Wellcome Collection)
Bibliography: None
Axe-head almost ident ica l to the two previ ous. It
is very thickly corr oded. The cutt ing edge ha s
been indent ed a nd chipped through USf;'.
PLArrs o!- an d 3 1 21
D

J't.A IT .'i
1'1-"11' . ';
ts \n t>e Undn-ShM,J d.-1mUII2!.
nom p.auhk >"lIh Ih.... ' U"'! IIl1l ll< d )l. hl " f 11M.'
1I01O' ell('f, l>< ,l h IIII' .U" <"i in QUl"il i.. " ar(' p lfd" Kl 'l;f
p...\:M. an d It I:; not mlp,-x .';:i"k Ih iJl tht"lr numer a ls
li re fri\ udukn l lIUd1IIoIlI. ' .
11lrt", I:; 110 t'1/kJ,('nc. In supp',, 1 IIII' vk-w !Iud
In.: 1}'f1<' nmlln uCl! a s U fun d il1llill !<)flll 11\1 0
Ill ", PJRh l ("(' lll h Th e round orIh ls
p.'r lo- It! are ll11l:tmnJ lllh>l' Ik f\n-41n.. ,tld ". wh, ....
st.;)""" .... "' 1 n pl ollllt"J li S: fra .bU"n al surviva l..,
Th e oft-quO(('l1 fun(' li"o ..1 'iJ'l'f" i,n.'1l h<- <I rin lt Ih'l'
n n nud lt' or Atn<'floph ls III til Ihc "{'Irit' Mu-
seum" " If} be tIl.... .. u nt cd . as lilt"' Inscripl l,," Is
1,lm,,.,q c..rt llin ly Q ""dcrn adolill '>rl. Tbe- .hrn,k..1
comf'OSllloll III 11K' ;)1It" (II I:; an " f':I;(' IIln d n ' l'P'(
wtlh II ,I dll l 'cl y lo w n 'n1m l ' " ls whn lly
nm<1Sfe nt wIth t he FIl' ; MK flal t III t-or l"lfpl'cl<' t!. m
other grounds I or such a rUll'l:llorwl l....>i
The UI;C" of roo ts mud<: of stone. " UIlllly mill C"--
ch ert . as subsnnncs l<,r thctr ff)("11l 1 cqulvak-r us
1"111 prohebly CO >m", ,,'n plRi'f' Ihm U}l:h<.l" 11
hi'<.l ory . ahhnUlIh th c 'l'\; rknre ,of rr,.d k" In
l ilt' d yn il <.1 IC l"M' 1o ..J h.. "l yet I'll he " "cll...,
In It S)''' (('matlc r..shl,.m. ,. IlkI' 2 '; ;tIId
2 ft /t il... f..lIM"pl't"hilP"'- mnn;' It sh Ml..-a ,., rld n ll t h il n
W... od-wllrHn il Implm tcu lt. <lf1'I'(' ilr I., h ll Vt' ..... ... 1)
r.,t", J In 5J onJ(" qmllllil y In Iht' 1.. \lI II It r c'1'! . ,(
Kuhtl n. mll ny in IItor ..tU'fl IOnJ ",ulh-wor n
No ( k-ose dflfl n ll Is pcoNbk but tlJcn.' i.s I\<I rt' Hsun
lo rlollht thl" \'lew of !' r tIle find Spurr cl " Ihflt the)'
arr co ntempora ry ..... ll h tnc Tw"lfth Ilynlls{y' SI +
tk'f-,I("111 phase, wn!ch In ttlt' rclg n o r S<:-so: ,s,
Irb \I a nd " JlrI'1lr'l 10 cun tl nul'd up 10 the (",,, I
..I' lh e Thlr1('('fIlh t h(' rt ilkI'
::Ii . WI"' ltlso- , MJlttI In lit.... ne arby sU" flf
.. h .u wh MT Ihe Ol ll h' r t, spt 'C1lkJ ..,.. 'h.'
'sha d dqMKlb . lV (' r l' nnt' l cry Imlklll N II
' .M)' sImila r In tha I fot' IIw
l<a hl\ >1 r .ll mrl c':-S ,.,.,... " Is" 10. 1.. ..... "
ff. >m Ushl ." ! J:.h shi., ,' an d AnnUIl I," Ihe IU C
from !he lattt"'f S'llr nu JJc o r -': hlst unci
dccorulr d wllh tin 'owne-r' s mlll1: ::. nUl unfnrtllll "
IIll' ly ' h<' COlllc)(l.s arl"
. . .. I. ' 4. 1..... ..I...... . . ... t. I" _.I.
,10''''1 1
f; /t. ' '' . 14. .-l1 n 'l""' tI "" ... ..I."
.. u.n. , I IU. lOl h..." k I.""' .', pi
Fo.- f'<-l ,II" .1.<0 ,." -4 " .... ..... , ......
,,-.I,
1. 1"""'"'. l!W I. J. I.. \;i . :; 4. 1." ...
. I hr \I .... 1Ioo.<lnl! ( .Ar, 1I0". Ii k ..I0.1 ' .. ,. ...... .. " ...
' .. 9 1...' "t1 ..."'"' .. "' ln C:..M_.polotlo--.o ...
.. 1'ltooI "'1, l.lf A. ,,'1 ...
....
th tr.od, .40 <11 .. ''t 11,'t 17 , r . fI<!''I I V I I " I . ... "' ., t..H
q . ..n."""I,, ,.,...... fn....... NIilOd>.I...-" o(
lho'on ho-wrl lllt"" ""'''''''. m.ri r'' '''''''' \It''m' '''''''''
.. """'l' kl <J<><lo--"". Il (". fW . pl lll. ...... .. h ..... Ilfo ;>I,
idrtI ll....I ......
" .. .. ....""n'... -n,., ...
" . 0 " 7'1' , I l iI. .. 11' ''. r"".", S
h a n_ "" II. ...". ), " I"' ,j, ,
' _ . 11",, 1, F. ' '' J" , It.'I. Ia. or,I>o- " FunH .. " ,
n
... 4l(. p1 . 1ol. 1 ,.. _ 1-. " . .. ... f_ n.,.. ". (
,...., _ .JrI hlt tk ,. ....... ,,I In.-'' ,.'p''llh . hw:101l
.... ' oof...... .., I. forY_l. b<o' " k ' '" ' r ''' od' hl<t
...... ...
.. l .... "" . VI. ' J",NI I" . ' .. I<l' ':l't, pI.rl, r . I : ' .. J<lt
1ft, r....,..i, 1:"".JI-lm'WMo,..,..HI, \. <; 7 ( I jl .
LZI I. I>(HH I, rI "- n . -<I . 7..


lJ . l.untIon. I'f, I., .";'. Ir.-w!I I n ,..
..""",hlI-J".,t
, I. .4.... "" . . ... . 0"'- I no... , , 1... .... "' . "_
... -e. ' 1"1" " . bIadn."" n I>uh
.. ..... .... ,ilo'<-. ,7 ' " "1.
.,.,."""'thc _ t. h C_ . TIl ., I : J \J h l' oI< ..: M+-t.. ...
1_1o.a!'!ftI ' .h..I 'A.lhA>_ . I .,.' I W- """I- ' .....
.......t.oIt1rw"" ''''' ....l I H'' "'9. B, . 11 .
..._ _ Vn<\. MUA ' 7 '1 '1 , J(; W ... . ..
1. ... " 71, 1\\-', rI\'d . . .........I, ,,,,*-, , III' . 1' . ' 77.1<'
............wIt1lI"' .....
(/ 9 l .)/. kK
1( , Ail Ft .... '::-"'1' ttoo. -.tlut'r$; ..., He M,. "' _
Cooh'o. W . J ] 11 ' )hn-o..lIt1 fl'1ML<J-r.od by lolm. .....

8C J I7.00ndlllll"""t l ''''' .. ... J . ..... . .. ' H . ntl '!rl>" d
AIh " '- j1"7. ..... IIC
o1l1.II. .. .. l f_ z l' t . !rom " ..... "", I."
tk 'fl of iI dtffi.: ulr con te s t H' mhln... -d wit h ra tbcr
.., The- i'41r.l h}
mt"k-k. lor l he'lr pII rt . lire r.. r t IMI p',.. rl y docurw-II -
ted to he u sed 3.'l Iru!ll"'Of'th y t"1/1do:-nc-e. Thc ;U l"l>
'He tiF!u rn:l ln l ilt" pbU'S of Pome's pu hlwllHon IM.J t
nettbcr thry IWr the In whkh they Wt"f\'
roond are menuoned In ttx-te xt. P('lrle st er es Ihal
t he rmm this (Tf l'l<'fery 1111 k-kxl jl: 10 rhc
Vlt h U)'n ac.ty ehe range uf nUltl'1ial
" not wh vl ly '\UppoJ1ll/t" c f vk w lind
Ih llt !lIC't'lC' . II lean. of gr-avt"'S are laiN'. The
pos slhWty tx lst-". tberecre. that mudd a xes
are 3M later t ha n th e S1'lllh Uynas ty. In aoidltlon
10 t h e t\ byd08 lind 7...r a b, II n u mber ,,1
OIher pr'O\numccd lll ('$ of Ihe t ypo:" {on" known -
from MlIl:Ji ..fIit (a "'udd ), ' Memphis. NaqM.ii,
a nd Qu bkl el-H awe (t wo 1YlI>dMs.... - a ll 'itlkl ln he
possibly of tho-Otd Klngdt lfll Of Slxlh Dynas l)' . but
In no case ca n the date be substa ntia ted.
b 1'\<' dou bt , howev..... . that the lype was
wt'll eit oblhhnl h-y the Mkftlk Ii.ln p:J.:,m a nd
In use- Ihrough mtl l flo:- Tw elft h Dyn asty
a nd P""rh ltp' some way I"..-: yon<l. Full-liIzct'l'IImpks
have been e xce ve ted 'II Abydtl!l' (MI().'
(Fir ).' KMma (U K,.' a nd 11u-bt. '$ l ..1o:vm lh I)yn -
Ilsly) .' " iJnd a lliIrJ.f' numbM tlf mudcls fn >m
Sir t MI.:). " Abydos IMKI, " M yli l l FII' a nd UK). "
Benl IMK). " BerJJa Ily ml"' Y). '
ITwelRh Dynast y' '' !)rndent lFll'l ," !Iu
lea rl y MKj." ITwelrlh Dynll:ltyl.' Must a -
gedda, Incl uding 29-)1 {FIP/ ea rly MK l .a Qa u
(FIP/ ea rly MK1." Saqq ar a H1P/ ea rly MK and l hir
Irtnl h O)-nilMy l, " Sedmrot (l-"IPV ' Sh<'-l kh Fara g
l MKl! ' anti Thc-hc-s 1'he
ty pe k a lso oftffi l eptY!Jffi h.'d In ' he Ir hn ,J'"b /t"u
on Mldo.J lt- Kingdom SUfTl e- {'l[lImpk-s of
whkh h1 pI lt ft 1- 0 . '"
Within the i!: t'!ler a l lypco. lhn-t Bn" ..llon !O In
but Ih C'SC dt l IW! r..llm... Ilny . 11"", m ,IM..
(t-lI ttcrn 11 00 aJ'Pl"ar to hi- wllho ut s;,: nlfi<"lIncc
d l ronofogk:all y. " In <:on scqU('f}(' e. the
unprovwllnced eXlD1l pl1':S nf lhe ty(J(", like 1&- 26
<Inti P -4. a r t' Impos.';lhk to dl'llc nl/IIT r lrW' ly .
Some dls1\f1l1Ion wWJ!n the r.>rm fl m . nUwl'Vl'f' . tw:-
drawn hcfw ccn 10..,1 lind wellp.. n . l1w ('roo'lal
dlllf!.llmtk factnn welllhi a nd lht-
he;n; lcr bl....-tes like I 1 htotng Ito fun c-
tion tool s. rhe Ihl nn n . bladM; like
.14--6 IM rr suited fur U'I(' liS " r a pOfl$.
not N rlse wh ".-e,' this rll'tlIIlc1lon Is on lh e wh ,,1e
r onllrmnt by 11K-difkri nlt che mln, 1 com rooslU" ni
o r lh4.-100 1 a nd kKfTU (eom pa rr th e Itr-
('o ntent uf 15-23 with Ih ar or 24 - ,0;; ...... hkh
rdlec l th eir dtfJerlng hord ness req ulrl'mc nfs. It Is
al so nea tly illustrated 1n a of lools
lind weaptllls III tht fr JM' dobj.-t em 1I Midd le
col'lln In the llrUlrli Uuwll m jSC'l" rI. ' '' .
'i _b ).' o In 0fIC' p.ar1 of Ihl 1 f rig II rcla lh'cl y
Madt or t hc run-n In qut'q lon Is an:outrnl it,
II hatt k -8lfe an d Is tOS: r1hn wll n ot h..,-
NsUIe-.n t'5 Rnd wt't1pom . Ih(' whole p;rou p lat.-lI ('d
'1'"" In IInOlhCT part of lh(' $a lTK"
In""an lil t' (oftht S<tll'lC type . wIt h II much t. rlter
billde. Is IIgured wllh II p-oup (ofcl\rpmltT's lltols.,
wh kn arcl eh.: 11ed\l 'I]'1I(t ). ' looI s'
It Is not un usual for a:>:es " I' this type 10 he
dcroratf'd wit h Of symbols. like T8-
11w rt'a'dlng of such Is mrdy sl rlllghl -
forward - even wht.-n they aft' rt"CugnlUlbk
hieroglyphs. Or\" nol alwa}'5
- bu t It \. . l\lel)' thai In gent'ra l th{'lr
W 8$ to kkntlfy the ue, (Jfoollbly In reJa-
tlom to l l . or " \II flCt' . Null'K"lCl ls occ ll r
rreq uen ll y 00 the 'IKe a nd tool ft"pl esr-nl a lkln s In
the oNwe-nlentlollt'd Irkt' s d'tob/t'l for t' u m
pk-. pt 2. 4 and M. wher e th ry 8re almlKt
certainly 10 he unde rst ood 8:'\dcnotJ ng tlt l"
or such an lne/tool ln terms or a unll . t ne
basi c Middle Kingdom copper -unit of welghl bein g
1 7. 5:." Onl y Iwo ext llnt lill I'S or th is typ" hnt r
$l,t h numl"l1lls. One b 1 J . the other Is In
Chirngo. ' and In ncl thn- (' mot b nu mNll l. lr It
.13
I C; MI J O;:
..n
, .. , l lnr dnJ
IIf ' '' "'' " I<: f """ ll.lh. 1.' - 1. ,). m : .d dt h "t hull , 1.4 -
I .K' ln

M" I...
1I",,!).r , t. : {"II: '}h , ,: f'fl : 'I . ,I.',n: SrI : .., ,\ u, ",,'I. " ' ;
A. I,. .... " " l . /I, l llll.. t <'''' ' 1
l \ollt '" A, ,,,,''';I'''''''
iI 'N''If""i"'If ' N.....
.12
(, 'l.7" 9 7h
'Jo< tr :>h l h Dyru,st y m- ""ioddk Kln jrdom
,'....., "l lm-.... ' ...dt-d
1I1, ( ""' ms : Ii n::lh. 1, 7 - 1. ') 00' ; .. hhh .rt !'tull .
1 1' '''
\\' ( ..... " ' .1 1;, 111:
U . ,,,r .. ' "k IJlI. pn>h HNy O;-' ''J'fI<'f' ''''- :tJV1l l<'1'1C<1JlpN"
,1... .. f l" .. ,j f,l" " .. I" , I.. n"'I, " I",n
...drd
1I,"' Ioq ..,.m,: !'J<.....
Cru ll I' "I' ... slmillu (0 ] 0 a nd
11 . Tnt' on life narel y rrlrmed. On...
Itl R7" yl Is olht, t1I (h Il77S- 6) arc
large All arT th k kly corroded
jlllIl <;(' \'I"rul bea r IIIIC("5" I' wOOIK-n
H
6 74 '1. h
1l"lr : Sht h Oynlt-"ly li'l - l.4Iddk- Klnttdom
rr,... Unt'"",,ln'
1I1..,"'.. rr .....,. n , l .r nl!lh . 1' ;" 'l\,; ", kII h lOl "' I II . I. Son
M.' r itJ'lI : fo." 1l
J,!" ' rn..' A........"k..l c" f'l"tT
('n : 9 '>n: Pb: '1. 1' ''': SrI : <: .0: Au: < ' 1-/" :
"' '' 4 4 ; 71' ; "--". 111
lMI.. <r4," 'I' d<UI.... ' ., ..... 'r,...,.....ly l ; r"' '' ... ..-ll t nl ...... torol

mntJd n e-ht' a<t simll.1lr to 29. It
t' olTodcd
1', l h h Ii
'''''' ,.' f-l '''' lm........... ll.'I"IC''Oolo..I
t".....' ,Io..-:llA<l ";I"1/<," ...
""klth llf "'"I,1."cm
\\ "itl' ,1. 1.11
.\ J,' fn idl ( ', 'fJl'<'f. ..-Uh H ;m\<o.. "l "i lU'!<"l , k"
ell: t: "-, ,
....<;lI mO. ...; I" 01'1;. On",I<'II,
1Ii"'.. ... .. I , ,q . roI II I. 'J; Ii '''',.1 17. yn/ 8 .
(:r Ullr " I l hr t'c llI ood IIlCC fJ("HJ S 10 J O
1""' .<1 If" 1M) 71ar e e n ure apa rt rr om bro ken lugs:
"01' k;.r 1" 1 1(. ,lll. All .. re thkld y ( o r-
r , ...... , 1
( ;rou p " r rhrr-e t o .19. On e
I I o;: MI C;1 111 hmk en lug . All " r e- hji:hll y n ..-r oOCd
a nJ "'ollr Inw ('S ur wOI-..Jen hafts.
Com", rnl ( 15- 34 )
1'h<:- u ppo-r limit for this IUAAed If !"" ha s btocn
a n:qtl l'd as Sh ih I>YTHI'lty. IhC" l'r urlil l
('vld('nfl' J'"l vkkd hy 8 numbo-rorGpOClmens
f"lI"8VlI1M by l'ct:Tk' ; CWi') rulh tU' frUITI Abydos..
l'i.' lmd (If mor e rncde ls: rrom
7J\mby .' In nOW" of lhcsc nuwe\-, {'J'. Is the
an:hHt't.Ilog!cal 90 as 10 place 1M
date beyond dl"PIlte . nit: Abydos u es an- daled
by Prtrit' to n"1n of Pep! II on the basl lI or
what I PIX""r.J. rrom his publlshal a ccuu nt. 10 IK'
",.ally 00 more thll n lin Impre!Slonlstk tfl tffpn'fl'l-
"
Lugged, Perforated,
Hound Form U5-S0)
35
') 1111 ')
n l-' m od MidJk Kl u li' i<IOl'
,,.. ; IJn' ''..-&.'(I
.\I'atllr " "'''l...-l rfl lllh. ll .b.: m: ''' l<lIh '' l bu ll . III. S' ''''
l\ 'rlll" ' ; J .l.l 2 1
.\1.1,,,"", An.cn k ol l...,-"lff
'f I ,II: I'b ; " .l 70 : :>0 : < " . 10 : ,\.J.: ':; " .0 1:
Fe. ,) " .1. , , ; Slo: lJ,O30 ; NI: 0 ,') 4 : ,\ ,, : < . ' .0 1; e ll: 0 ." 1:
""" .b: Z,, : <n ,tI'
' III u "i .tt "' ..<i' .....: I.. , l
Nut'"
,.\...... hcuJ wtlh OO"Jl'l"f('uli llt ll end th a n 10; - " wit h
IIv(' bind Ing-hole:;; . mbd ll itoed. tIl eh t><'a r
Ihc n.malns orlht' orlKt odl lealh ('r blndl n!:
'Il IC blmlt: Is '-Iuite Ihld.:ly t' or ruJcd. <It
Ih...CUllI n g .. ... . Tht-f c flUobvinu s sign of wc..r .
The bne 1' ( l ire h lon is pt"c.aveo.t 0t! both
r" rl. 'S,
36 I'L An ; 6
i
D"ff . Pt:f'I" d - MiJJk KmllJonI
r , ,,, 'n lttn<,, : IIIlrn: orJt...-J
" .... " .. r ..... nI$ : ICIIIl. h . ':1. ).. ' 18; WlJr h . 1 bu ll .'
W..I.,1II 14111:
,\ (,. tn l<tl B,-..n '.....
,1.... '.,.Is:: ( u; 114,1)_J' b: ,l-<I. I; Sn; "', S; Ax . < <1.111; I'c
"- <1,<11; NI: " ,tll<o; 1'.11: < l U l l : l 'u : < 0 ." ' :
A. : " ,7: f',w ..: llt : '),Ul
.'1,t. ,/,... it l.J. u: Wdk l lfU<'
1i11>l....,."I'''" . No...
('uC' -hcad :>J: ml lolr to "ii n,c n"ut rul h" lt: III
lh h. r ..... Is liMn rhc IWtl ;11\.1 nol
I'r op.:rf y ..,,,-x1 willt rnon. Thc b!........ th kLl y
rllt r<..o.k'J and the cuntng edge dalllaged through
u..... . Tr aces of the wooden " tinsurvtv e " b ri g the
hUll . an d ..I iloe o rillmul mnd inK <In:
pI' ....... ' l"Vt'<J ill uuc " f l hl' l" k f <l1ho tcs.
II

' 't Jt.l l Ilt ATt Ii
1I,1I11>< ll r Ol\M
1''-''1. /l
. IA ll : 1)
39
1'1,10. . 1: (.
l .t ')lb
Vol '..' 1' ."",.J .l.tl<lUk ti lUi\ J" m
Pr.-"""' ..; IJ............ d<'tI
M..<t.<"',."... nU : I",nllth, lI.l ,m; .. .JI h \I. ro ll . 't " . 'm
WnW''''
" ...... .. 1: Rn ." ,",
A"., I!!' ", e u: 117. 4: 11>: Su : 1>. , ,, ; "'g . " .11'1; I'e
fl . ! 7n ; st. : 'l-!' l O: Ni: 'UH f); ....u: ".H,II" ell
0 ,9 ; 1,, : < 0 ," )
11I>I' rJ/." qttDlIw,, : . Il IJ I
IiI/>1io '!l(<t.., Ku<l l!:'" .'l tt l....-, "",!!," . 1 111lI J I. <j I .
J' u .e-h dIJ MI1lJlttr 10) j " - 4" Th e lWU l-.IIlJilt g"
hoIo 8r .. pr upc rly p<.wll uncd in , h is C-lI 5C. ,"Ie
bliiJc- Is Ughtly cUfTodcd, the Ime or tnc urigl n",1
h<lQbL-+nKpr "-'SCr ved OIl unc (;.<,;t ' . 11... ('uUlnK
:.nrcrcly lu dt.'1' lcJ lhruu"h IlloC.

S IO .ll
f), 1It : c I,'ri ."' '\'Ittlti l<K"'I1"" ..n
p,..,.....,. "., C!lIrcnIfJnJ
,tf<o "" .. " ,I.-IL ll gl h. K. \ n .. : "'Kl. h ;ol bll U. 'I -' a m
\lI,,,, ,,,,
'\ l.t"''''lt 80 ... ..,
117,'1: l"b, , I 'j, Sri; 7" : AI:: " ,Il l " : Fe
u.a qo: Sb : (,-,110: Ni' o.ozo: r\u: "-0. 0 1: l' ll: 0. 0 , n:
.'\5: 1 ,t}: ' !.1\; < O.\J'
' ''''''of ", ,,,.l>.il itffi' ' ' Jl l
/f ,bI" '!1Tf 'l.>lI!f': N", ,, ..
slnlllal' hl 17, bUI willt huol \'d "'11,1
two bindin g-holes. 'rl!c blad e is Ihkll r ('orro&;\ 1i ll
pa rts. 'I'hc cutung edge Is chippe d.
38
'i I O.l .l
Ilnlt: tlr.t -
fr ..'ww, , I"lr o . ...... J
.\ 1.1I,; " U - I., l ltl h . IU. n " ; .. . . l h .. I ..... II . l l 7 "
\\--"ifht: l .
\l..u1/ot 1 .... .. IIU
" .... ,Y'!s ; Cll' "IK; J'h : ". 'i Sri : ' \ 1:: . .... .l. I. fl :
" .47. ' ;sn'''.' I'' : 1'Il; .u .. ' . ...... .' IH, . :t'" , "''' .'' ' :
A. : 0 , I ; < n,,, .1
ll.",. o>jil.t,/ul"'I I<>II: ' ., .l
R."' .'!I.."J' !I' N. om
Axc- h..uJ :>imil" r t tl \7. hil I wIth very slilt hily
buu IIn J u"u su"lI y It m.: Then: ere
th ree wel l imJ 1I' lgUt_..J_Th c
blede ha s l><::cn C-kHfIt.'Jor cor r<lsion pf.....Iuct <Iud b
III good f " nJ ll i nn . mar red o nly by
I' illl u&. 'l1...ft.' a n: .. r .", .. r un II,,'
.
j.Z .l U7
.. " ....,... . ..,,1 . " kkl k ..... ,:,I... "
/'r"""....,"' : tJnr e.:Of,j,:d
r.t' ....uren nl s: 7 h m; wlJth <IIbuu.
W"'1"t:"4 711
AI",,""': A.,.... l.. .. ....
CIl : <j4 ," ; pt, : " . I " " ; S.. : "- f ,U: , \ , 1' fI," ':

I If .....
RJ/II"'-'!Im;oI! ,lJ: Nu" ,",
Axe-head very simil ar 10 3';1. 11w IW{) pcrfcru -
lio n". rda ll vdy liI!'Y(' f" r the " r hI""ll' . iJl'l'
ml!i4l 1igneJ end f'<""lt iollt.. -.J 10..1 nc ar Ihe: bur t . Th e
blade h<l! been d ':lI nt:."li . If ,'mTu<Jlln prtoJu, l .
11wn I:> su rruI't.' puting an d crtl !>i,, "
of Ihe edges. ami 111( ' rc ls iI larg e (fad : at II...
centre of rhc bun. The Hne uf the Of'll'illdl haf l is
revealed by th e fMlIt:1'1I or lhe l'llfTOsi nn J am ulfl"
nc
P1ATF. b
37
l1 ') KI
/ ).,lr ..,- .Mlm ' 'I'1I1t:tl' lofel cnuoJ
f", .......... It",....-.nW
I\fr "" ,r .. ..tl ; w.,jfh ", hu ll . 1".1> .-. "
\\,.,o,hI : .W\ .). 1il
I\1<I"r itl/: AC'S<'Il I<: uln>Pf><' r
l .. .,I.,..is: I.'ll : :; : rt>; n . I l" ; Sn : .\ ,,: I} , " .I0; Fe :
" .\ J.. ; Sb' .. .. ' 'i '' ; Nt; . , .'' I .. ;,\ U; "' .. .. 11; (."" ". "1 " ;
1n , "'<0 ..1
llll V .'; .-1.r'l" " .Ul.>tI :I .,. " ,
H.h1"",ruph,,,,
AXl' hc aJ wuh rounded blaJ<-' and angul a r lut s
iiI sh a pe and ltf ':'4-6 uf
Iyf'l. 1'lU1 n." l ain i nJo: " car the rCl1r bl ndlng-
h.. I.:s Jr1lkoJ ill ... line [\<' rHlk l 1<1 t he hu ll. Tbc
t>1" ,k ht-:hl1y p"lI11OlhoJ. ih e peuern of fl>ffUSi" u
Iled! th e bUll InJ k ill ln g Ilt a l rn.. UJlC ..
lilly hilft l.'11. Marl s of II,,' I1rlgJnill grind ing a rt:'
..h1h1e nil the curUnll ed ge tu!':('ther wUh "f
Wf " r .
1.. ... . ..I" I I .. ,.. "' ... " .. "oJl .. .' ''' ....
1 \1 ..... ' . ... ..t-.p . ... . ........
" H,"" I\" ..."." .,-",,,,".,. ,,,,\ ,,,",,I,,I<,o. ..,>J , ,, ,\
1' " ..,,1 1-... ' """', ........ 1<o ..t ' h1, \l f A J' , X< ,."",,, II",
1.,lla .. 1,,,fl... I.wu.. 11. "-1,," I I .. ", ..
.. ., h . ....... "' ... ... , "'-\l ho\ . '\. ....... \ ' 1')
, ,, I .. U . . ;' 11, " 1" " . ,II ' "'' 0 .. .. ," .'
"" J""'-'I)' (" , H ' I I "
': , ., -1' \ ''' 1'' . ' " .....I l " ... I
, , h , , .. onI
, II ' If '. K I"e.. y, .. 1..11..1 ,\ , " . , "
' '! , .. fI , H , r1 r AI'I ..' Wl'I. '.." I
. " " ", . pi 1.1,' S,7 <j .." "" '" '' ' , I. J1>d'l
....' ..... 'k'" 1... ' '1, .. , .... I I " ','l"""'"d r , n" 1" \"'''''
..... hn .\ 1oI . J , .. II . I.. ' . l, .. ,... .. , .. . \" \ ' ,", ,, , ,, . 1<. 111
K""'; I '" 7.. 1__ T"..... . , 11 , "" ", ,,,,,
... .. ..." . U\l
J' UH. 1. .11 .-4I ''' ' pi,. " ' " \ . .1\ , I II ' h< I.olI,"
, ... I l ... ....... .. . h.... b. " ' .. I ...'.idJ.''''' I.S t>I'.. I....
.. IJ,"" 11" .. I' .., I;.\ I ;M" 1, "
. ... , . .. , ,. , .. .. j" , , I. ..J I. 7 " ,\ ",,,.J .-I
.. .... '" h". Il , 7... .7 ",_ M \ t:
I' H , II. " .n,,"'''''
fI, . I , \ I . II. pl . ' '01 . ,. , - ' JIll", , pl ' n tl . . . " . , .....
1., ,,,, I... .... . "ft \ ;.. I n .. " , ''' ,l. : I :" ,
. ...'" "jo<' : . .. . If" I .""'" , '.. " " . 1 " ' 1, fI'
, . , h tlll1;':. " " . , l -.,. jt' ".'trl;..1&>1" .
.. " l ho. r "l.fI .. I..u.... .....
'\ 1'1",\<1" , ' ''', I
' I .v olr,..".. !. ' ( , " . , I 1 1... ... ..r,'." . M ' ;
I 'i"'",", ' J, rI . 100 " 'I i " l .llh-<, en,.Hlh,..
, .. ". ..' . ... .. I ' --1.,. 10 ' . " 1< ",,1> ".;,1
. ........, "' , . " 1" " 'U \ . ....u. f<... .. , . ' ''''.<f
'I_""'hi..n.... '" .,iI,'
-4 "' ... "n , \ ' f A, . , \.. ..." ....."
.. .. ......, .. ,, ' ... 't 'l I I . .. .. ,-.uhI>-..I>.-.l ... ., " ,,- ..
"rntta '".
" r r"'1' I ... .\J . 'h\ ..... ..'1' "" q !til, ,, " , ,, '"
'\flk-, >ili, L "" l ); .. 6. ' .\' .1".'" I I.lI.. , I .,.:' , "' ... ' r-k-..-
' ", I. , \l M.\ , pC.. ,'"
n.. " "," " " .J..-t.-m", -.l: ...... I'""" fr,.."
N. " ...! "" ., . ,. "N
>t , ,\ I1I"' ..l . ,.t, ,..t.L-.fl.,, II ..."" "1"..... . .. .....
.. .. l11>. T .. .. " .. ,."" ... h... ... ' ......'Il ' .. Kl :,,-. \ 7 ' k ,
Ty.... I II. I, ' .. I h ;><l. IHU . pl .,, - II"- " '_p1 . ... . \. .. ....
, ,,' "I ' , rl 'I f """ .... ..U..t ..... " ... r .'I . I.'
r",'I' of II .;" HI, I . '1\ ..-t fml, ,, ,k .-
,'V,"'-<> "" ',: ,...1..'"',,,,hI ,,,.,,l ......,,' ''"' '... . L." ....
n,,'" I" ,-I". 1...111', " ... ...,1'" .... ,,, .." .
"' ... .. l-I i OJ" " '"
l'l I ll lo- . _ n. ....h .. 111.
1" 1.., o4\ mr....,.." ..cIoI . . ......, I'('. Tn, fO .. I....
" .. " "4I " . '. ' .." " J . l l . " " I." . k ' .. "". Lh,,UH
1IIl,l . .... ; " ' 1.. ... 1 'I' " II ....
1.' ; UIl.""!l, .,"'., ., ' I I. I I ' 7....,,,,"7.b,
AP!"o.lI . I, ,,,, ' I, " "' " , " " ... It>.-,,, . ri. -.I..,,,,
",.-".',,,,,,,,,,, .r,, ,,,!, 11, [-.1, " ' , 1 "" 1',,1,,,,/1'
I'" ... ." ,puNl <h.J """'''rio . 1 """ ""' '''' e,,,"
:::':: l ". n", "1>)'<,, .-1 7..1..,10....... ..
II ..... \I , T< ... " oJ " ".' 7
...... .. r'l" { . -r- "",.ottnI,, ,of1'" , .. t ,,,,. ,1
.,.." ' ..
I' l it , " I ; , ,, """.. ......,, '""' .. . \ " 1 7 ( . II
....:.0<, .. ,:o- ' '''\' h ' 'I', .,,;f:li pl. . " ., .., ' " '' ''k''' oO{'P'df
1""'1"''''''' ' II... """,hrr t",1 ! ... .. f>
I I . s. I . "",," I \ . >1, I . , >--t, " .01'" 1\
1-l 1 l ll.I .. l l I.; n \ . pl lw. I , ..
.. ' "
I I. " It...t "I pio>fn.... " ...1, " . ..IlI,. '" I )
,.tl. 1 01.".-...1) lfd.><n, h b.....
... . . <f.. "' .w , p l it U... h . aIu.d>lo:_ I ' ;n
.<'I .. ... ""... ...-+..,."",= (;,..vu,. I. J , 7
a,oJ 1.1ij.. , ,. : aI,.. J. f e . , 7 'I
\ 7 )0;) ;11, .to. [-.I ,. L.1). .. ...1. l tl.. .. ,laI!
.. >. pI ,11. 11 ..,1<1 . 1\1
1" '''' ;. ' ' J
" .. . / ' , ,, , .. ., . ; .. ,,,, , "" ,\11" I II I"
{" 11.. , -,. I . rI ,..I. .. .... I' 11 1.>" ... 1,""k.... . I lf.. I
4 1 11". _ 101 .
\(,,, r""...". q \,
\ , i . ,>1. ;' . l lp , , <j I" ... . , 1><.... .. " .... <t,
17' i l tl;
b .. """.. <.1<....
1.1 . .. . .\ Irnt >
.... .. .. . 1(. 4 .11. 10.
r,-.. 'r " . f'l . . !I' ..I' II ' . ...
... " ..... ..' "I , J. r, . {,
I I , .. Jdho-.k .,J " f ,' .. , " " ...
.,,4....,fd". ,,,'......It, -.1' -1" In-,."-'1........
"',."Io' I<........ .. u-. t ...-, ' .. ho"fl e, , ,,ldon , <>. 1
"" , ,.. n-I>.. "'"
lt ,,,,,, pi<m"' ... Ihk ' " , ,",- 1.......
I .. y ,... .0>1 " , ....t.. ..nJ ""'
....,..,. .,jh,,"'.., t ;.. "' oI>/hIl r l ..."r'-'<.." ..-Io
, ... ..oIl 1'1, , .
" "" J'l.... .. ..... M"i A. . -4,.'
J. " .... . "' . H'.... ..,."_ h...... ' :......._J.__. ......
l -l , . 1( 'i ' . rI n . , .\ ,
1 I II, pll. '" ." n... .. " ' . .. ,>flht:-""' t>--I.. .......
Ii,,,h 1.( , .. qL .. . " I' l4
H . " ... ".-.. ".f.I, .......""".<f ... ....\I . >hWl' ... "U,, l/.
"' ..: e. h j,."' .'........,
... -J\H 7
I" ArT.'" 7 <1 nd 1 1
snn tlur 10 4 1, hut wnh three larg e
nlnd in R-!wl M. The blade been ck-ancd of
ll lff/ ...." " fW", ..lll t'l . r l' Vl' ll ll ll lo/. " Ull;hl !:Urf ll<,t> ' pl Ul n ll..
Til t Iln('" o f lil t, h lt' l k vl'llbk- o n l><.>4h rttCf"S. Ttt<'
("u lll ll l!:.-dflt' N-lIr"11 ,;iRn. wear .
... r""" Tl>rh<--.
k " " II.ol l " ," ,,, , " " '1' .. .. .. l tt1,, 1
rtao. """"llIM ., .....''''' ,''h
IIHA. "f' , 'U. ,I ' ' dli...-d"v r ; (
nAH: ,
.. q "1f'
1).. /1', Ffrst lnknno.,{hll('
1', .-,tllll'I'.-lh Kcr-ll:lln '
M.._ rr...",.../" t"' "j{1h . .. 1.011: HI Nilt.
..m
U, I<itI ]'t.II11
...rwn.... l ("'-'PVf"Y
, '11: " ] .11: J'b: '1,11.1": SII: " '1. 1'1; "" : .l. I: 1'r:
" .J I " : Sb, ' HI I" ; Nt '1.11" ' : All : .-::n ." I ; t'", , 'I I :
/I,,: < . ... ,%' Ill :
lJ.l11' '" MquisU ;,.,, I
fJ,lHir'If''''PirlfllM GII&VII':104I , Q, n n.11l7:fJ.\f (l u''''
lr 'f u),1. oj .n".11l 7: lI all.I.A,M l h ( f'Il'l I,.l \ '4
pl. ..... l : .. hi ' l _74- n l -l. l' 1" _pl . n Ih.
..
""hi, ' h r ",'" in l" , h,' f'k"t'C IIu rill l! lh l" f'f . ...." S
of nU,"lffa f1t ll1.". t-t'h' ..I-.:1I Il ll' is u
("olumn of dthl hlenl ll;lyph.. of oho;cun'
pt'nb" h1y modern lI.or l;
11 M I 7
Om .. ",enl ..! all("-he ad li!mll nr 1' 1 4'1. lis
bl;td<- not so ", eil rolil loW . It hilt hil l>
lhn"(" blor.lln r:h.Il("'i. lnt" Itn : ornl lon.
oo n(' , 1<; In Ih ,' fuml "f Ih rt"l. f'o'pyru l>
phln U, on l" ..rcr l In th.. middle. tl'l<' oth l"f'Socn t
OV('-f n il i'llhl'r ..we. ,10 one- nf which a !-l irJ .'
Th c hlrJ is In Ull(" plt"t.{" wll h 1& phml on wh lt"h il
liUS hu l Is'll't,J al lilt' la ll llM hl"'lli. '1111'Oc.:om-
Uon Is 1101 nul li ke Ih al on 4 'l hu l wa s h amm("rro
,md N-vC'!kd to /I mort' 111t. "1'lls 1m
Illlt"m ..1Jdllll. Th.. I"(lltt' Wll<;nt' \I' T ..ha rf'
Cnt"l. t ;tn d lhert 1<; nn .,( \l.'l;U. Th (" pk"(' (" Il>
m.derfllrlt' lUfTut!t. 'tJ ;l1ld Itlc re il> f, ,...o;kI(u hk

';7 1;0;
LNv: Fl, .. 1'<TI<"I/ro.lv Mlddl.- "' ,,' ..'''' ..... ,
/'1 ,,; ,..
.\ Ir..,u , "":I ... ll' h. ". 'i n n: .... ..hh ;,lh"u.K . ' . nl

Atmn l<>(:I\...".Tll.. 'aJ"Of'P<'r
('to: 'oi l> ' " l'h ' ' u , I: Sn: , 1, I": Ar : " Fr
" ,l ln;S h: " ,..-.,, : Nl:,u' t n: "" .:C", "- IU"
1.'t ; "I.n: ,' '' .'' J: IlI: < z
1."'''<'ti\.<iUh tf_' I " J II
.h II"J 'I' . 1- -1 pl . u v. J : );-
J:' . "I '\ \. 1'4
1-1111 . Ihln nm 411 n<'lIlil l ,k>rpIV" lUlIll.'tI III
l"otn l Ilk(" 48 .c'.Mlwnlkt/iHI Mmllnlt-tHlIl"'i ;,r o: ln"k -
Ing . It bea rs II crude ope n..... t<f". W(Jn,ll n n In tIlt'
Iorm of two or the tk-Ut' lpi Of
lpe t . whk-h un fill UrI('Vl"l 1 tmw rlltill t: " IW
another. wll h mouths 1l11Ipl" And fonr exten-
r.kd l'tK-y are o;('flOtfll l ro hy I rc ntrnl bar . Io<.h k h
expanJs at th e IllP find .. slbly n unt ,..
rt f'ft""('llll.l 1"l u" nf JI, ;oppU'l JT!.;Inl . 1111'.I ora ll.. n
<lil lie n.., ;,",1 Iht-r.. i .. 041 In lNnl l 1 de l;" !. Tb r-
blitdf:' ha :J !x'o:o defln.'<1 .. I corrosi on j'>r .llltlci
Tbete k lighl pHUng flll rn. w . l' hc ta!l of 011('or th("
figu res is r-rac..ked Ihrn Ullh a nd fOfwa rJ hfnd-
kg I" hUl d y 1'I>nlll 'l1rol" t h e nml nx . 111(" nllllu f:
oo jt (" b hill "II!' 11("\'('1fll llVlih a rp'l\t"Il lI' HI
be-. u 'Sno siltns " I " 'car .
" LAn 7
47
P.lU'"
[liul': rf"l1<od MIJ.ll.el(IOljt&wn

... II(lT1: wldthlitbufL io.r cm
W,Jgm:, ql ,l ll
"1<Jln1a/, A""",kQI roJ?1"
,t ..... I!iSU: Cu: 9;.<;: : I't:>: 0." \'" So: 0:: 11. 1'" All: '1."lU;
0. 18<1: $b : o.vj o: NI;" nl<l ; Au : < f1.I' I: CO: < ".<11;
A'l: 1.4 ; 7.1'1: <o.oa
Il.Iu ol ,vqll' ''' ricn:I K-."
Ai"''' 'fI ' ''f'II II ' N...w-
AJ:e- ht' a-d very similar 10 41. bet with klOf blnd -
Ing-h oles . sl ig htly misaligned. Tht" bl ade ha s M 'II
of ro rrosjo n prod uct end i ll good m ndi
tJOIl, Ih outth tilt- culUl1jt nftte and <It"(' crodt'd
The line " f Ih(' origill ill h ofl. ls lin u" (' fR<' t".
Tht'l"C'I, no otW)OUSsign or ....{"fIr .
J()(I71
[)air: f'if1lI hnermt'dhl! c rm>d Mkkll<'
I' ruwrnalt'l" ,'Unn<cordn:!
r",n lllh. 8f> fffl : wktIh " I II l ,IIl"T1l
Wn"hl__ l l':> t 7 11
IU.Jr... "" c.lJ'J'ft
A""' /!f" IJ' Cu: '.1"1.'); Pb; ...""' : Sn: < 1.0 ; A", <0.0 1:
A, : <O . I: :In: < .. .. H
lMu o1i\. quts HiofI: l ll-. R
M ....
Thin, rNl ghly fash ioned pmslbly non -
run ct ion al , similar In shape to J S but "'llh
n arr o w. sllllhtJy h l ool ed lu gs. Th n-e are nln ("hind-
In g h..,,,",,. wh ich til? misal igned and uflIl"v ml y
sptfn-d . bLttk has bed! ck-aot"d or cnfTO"1!On
pr" dUl1. and is In vrry Ito" .-tcun dllJon. II h wlt rp. ... 1
and lh e C'U1IJ1l1Z I' <lIgh tl y l u m ro fn' cr at lhc
ct nl re .

O<ttr. tlr;t InlnTllC't'l l" l(' Pn10d l.4iddlt'Unlldom
"'<>W"" "'-I': (l n..
MrI:n.... ...." l l h ot houl l . " .Sl....
I JIIIl

'J4. 0 ; 11I: .. .on.. : So: <.n . l n: Alf
F{": 0.74 0 : Sb: < 0.14 ; NI; ' Hl IO; Au: < 0 .0 1: (n'
O."f O; 1\5: .,. I : I'J l: -":0. 0 1.: Ric '-:O,IIJ
I I"U"'''' .lIlnl/;!-l l: l 'l l l
.\ r/ 6....o.J 11>.. : (-r" . .1" .
" I.s. Cnl l . pi II , J
Thin with & ("ply nltlndl"d bhuj(' I nd
rou n ded lu g.... Th t' ItJr et' ['M"fonl linn s ar t' well
a nd propcrfy aligned . Th e hhuk hil "1'-'en
de' 8nN of corr osion produ-ct. '111e't"tlgl"Shll'l/(' ho:-fon
badly er flde.U and l here is mu c h pl u ln lt
The lin e or the han vislhle 011 t'Io lth (lOWl'S. The
lllo;e om!" ln' IIpntUW'>or
Pt.AT1S 7 il nri II
l'I hmk cn . The Mitok qui"" l hl d l)' c'ofTIldMl In
part s . T1Jt' nne of rbc h" h ts <:k-nrlv 0<1
bot h races. There is no otrvious s'gn of wt.. r.
Cha sed in 011.. Ieee is II stngle h k cO&lyph probahly
to l:>t understo od M t. IIf.-. !tond' . The h,dt CO II-
" f n ,.." It C")'1l "JMClII r!.,t.or vd lt,w-.:. IIt,ur<"tl
"HJ<td . whk"h Is nl'l d1t"d end cr. oc....,j i1t V<lrt llUS
poin ts ",lon g Its lmitth. II c u rves end th k kl"Jls
I" WIUd<; the lop , Ih (' woo.... 1 bee n 'i{llil In
mll"t' II ..: kC'l fUl l ilt" blmk. 11K' hu R In Ih l.. OIn'lI
beare 111<:' lmprross (or tlve ('V('IJft' sptI<'('(1 Mlllhnlt
cords. Corr oded met al f'rom th e bliUWad heres In
some qu an tlt y to the sides or th e socket. RaJ !,;-
f Um ", " unlllyo:lS hus p' ,oJuc<'1:llI dll l (" jor the hnfl tl r
110.' .
I" .An "
1'l.An::i.IU lIll d\ 1
45

/).,1" FIN lm ...........Jf"I.. I" TI" u -
/'r""" "" ",,,;l lnrrn..-Jrd
1...,.... tt'.Il . , ,'m; ...io:lth lit twill . ro.av m
1\ ' 101"'-1 1" "
, t", ... lal: n.-"nor
11, ...I",,,, ( 'u : 1I". <;: :I 'b: \ " 4: Sn : I.. ; AIl, n ''' ,<I: h'
".J 1" : Sb : ' 1." I' " NI: o " ll) , Au : <",.. I ; It': <fU ' I ;
" .4; ., "." J
/....'r.if. " 'l".<I'....' I . ' IJ
1:-1" -/1. I" , . I)-I/I f<.

1\111' : Fll""<l Inl rn!W"!JIlIl.. f n1<o::! - Mlddlr Klnlldo......
r,,,,,,,,,, ,,,r: l ln, f'( l<..tkd
Mn:1Sur ml<'n!$: fIl;.&: 1.ef1l:th. '1.11em: wIdth III bult.
I J . I Ofl. lh.h ; IrnKlh. titrumk rMk'(".
ntw>lll I
17.l 4 11: II.. R: i l l it
1\l .." , ...1:m..d!': A...... f'<1f'f'l'T. IIoR; \\1..".1. 1m......;.\'
'" Cu: " " .0: 1'11: O." IWl; A, : < 0 ," 1:
FI' : II ,J,; n : st.: 1'. 10 ; NJ: <1.0 In : Au : < " .' 11; t ' o;
. ' " ... , ; A., ,..; ;"l.n: <' H IZ: m: < ' U ll
/\';/Ir '!{N-'l"I<lIlo<r1: l <fz ,>
fl,b/li"fParhJf;No""
I Jlrp:c thin <Il( ('.tlc-ad sfmHllr In l>hape 10 41. 111e
Ihn... 0In- On e lu'jt
III I S
P"I ' ; Flr<;jInlm n"'.!l"te Pi'Tko::! - MIJdk-I O" ilJoJm
IJntN" "'-o:kd
Mr"QtTtr1ll'T!U PI. Hem : ... Iotib " I Dull . 10 1 011
Wtl,qhl:
""'f...
.1rll1f ." ri " ('y , 9n.'" l 'b: u .o Fl ,, : Sn: .::n , 10: AIlI < o.o z:
t.., " .47": ."h , ". ", of>: M: ' UIl"; Au : <: " ,101:('0:
<" .,, ;A.ot: I .J: "I,, ' ..,.. ... .l; AI: ",,1.
At.,.. f<III.... 1-' 1J
R,blq nf,JI,,,- Nol'l. l'
t\ lo; t'- ht, ld to 19. hut wlth thr ee btndtng-
stlJ:htl y The blade has been
d,,;III t"tl III [lI'udlld. Th(T("
pllll ll jl:un "' .th fan s. lind" St:t"1k'o tlf lhe- cu lling
NIJ:e t...... ll TIlt" hn l" uf th t' , ,,; gina l han
I>n to.>I h fan -... '11JCT(" k un t>h" I"us 01
w'ar u" ell ' ("u lli n" t'd/t '. ("haSt.'d rml v ll )' In l he-
nn l ... \lr n llC fIM'Cll>tI It" " l p (If '".n
nn
11,.aH;
rm,. I - MIddk Klnll.drwn
r".....,"' , ; I IIl".......Jed
AInnIll ' u .-I.-n fl: l h R," Ol1: ...kh h ... .....U.IU. IHtt
I SI .11l.
M.un' "I:ArS<"1lklll coppet"
.1""J'r:</ , (' u' Q4. q: l' h: ' I.I""o ; ::;n: < n ,1.o1;Ajt ;<l.u .1: f ..
< 1),0 1:
As ' J --4; Zn : < " ,11.1
n..r' <JI ... q<ot,,, .... I: I q, .., n ...-mn"lvW...k ......e t olkrlironl
.. 1'
Allc-h{"aJ '<lmtlnr I n 4 I . ARa ln t hlTt' Is sllJChl
mlo;.o;a IlJCnm"11 " f lh (" blndl n JC ho ll'S. 11wo Nad.:- Is
<lll ll.. IMeLly C"OfTodM. Of) one roct' oa nd
llw l"uHlnll edllc ll> eroded . The llfl("tlf the hoft Is
d CflrJy pr l':'il'T\- ' t"d In Ihe ("orr-W on pr odu("1 on one
flirl .
4 2
I" "rlIflAnll.

5 10 17
nal e: First Intermediate Period- Middle Kingdom
PrOVetlcl" ce: Unrecorded
.MeaSllrt'mell(s: Length, 7.oc01; width at butt. 11.7 cm
Weighl: 2 17.\&
h1Ult'ridl: Arsenical copper
il twlys;.s: e ll : 9 1.. J; Pb: 0 .0 30 ; Sn: < O.-ZO; Ag : o ,o( )(): Fe.' :
f . l4; Sb: 0 .01:0; Ni: 0. 0 I 0 ; Au: < 0 .0 I : Co: 0 .0 I 0 ;
As: J.Cj;ZII: < o.oz
Vatr of Acquisiti on: I 'j I
Ril,Ii"" ,.ntllll" N n ll t'
52 PLATE 8
3
0066
Dale: Hrst ln term edrare Period- Middle Kingdom
Prove"Qm:e: Unrecorded
Mrasu relllfll lS: Length. 7.2c m: w id th at but t, II ..Fm
Weig/If : 2 (1.3g
,\ l ata ill J: Arsenica l copper
A. "alysis: Cu: 98. 5: PO: D. OS; Sn : < 0 . 2 0 ; Ag: 0 . 01. 0; Fe:
0 .',60 ; Sb: 0 .0] 0; Ni: 0 .01 0 ; Au : < 0. 0 1: Co: < u. i :
As; 1.6; Zn: < 0 . 0 2
Val' of Aftl"i sit io,,: I B'j8
Bibliography: None
Axe-hea d with slightly less rounded blade tha n
last and thinner in section. It ha s a single binding-
hole. centrally positioned near the butt . The butt
is more or less straight. The piece is lightly cor-
roded. and the line of the haft is preser ved. The
CUll ing edge was never sharpened and shows no
signs of wear.
Comment (35-50)
All the known full-size examples of thi s fonn arc
relati vely sma ll and lightweight . suggesti ng that
the type was developed to functi on as a battl e-axe.
a view supported by the chemical composition of
the ana lysed axes. all the functi onal examples of
wh ich arc ma de of bronze or of coppe r with a
relatively high percentage of ar seni c.
1
The for m
looks very mu ch like an improved variant of axes
like 24-6 of the previous type. the provision of
binding-holes ensuring greater hafting-secur ity.
Over 50 full-size specimens ha ve survived. an d
nearl y a third of these arc provenanced. the site of
Dendera havin g been parti cularly fruitful in yield-
ing eight examples.' all probabl y dat abl e to the
I' ll' or early MK. Others have been excava ted at
Abydos (probably FIP),' Beni Hasan (FlI' jearly
MK)" the vicinity of Meir (dat e un cert am).' H6
(MK),' Mostagedda (FIP/ early MK).' and Qau (1'11'/
earl y MK).' In addition. stone model s of the form,
one un usually bearing a decorative motif. arc
known from Dcir el-Bahrl (probably Eleventh
Dynasty)' and again from Dcndera (probably FIP
or ea rly MK). lO No example certainly earlier than
the FIP or lat er than the Eleventh Dynasty has yet
been attested. From the existing evidence it ap-
pears that the differing number of holes 11 and the
vari ation in the shape of the lugs are not signi-
ticant in terms of dating. It sho uld be noted that
the 'owner 's mark ' on the blade of 45 . of a type
othen vise found only on tools. is suspect. as is the
grou p of hieroglyph s on 43 . Despit e the dispropor-
tionate length of the haft of 4:;. however . there is
8. QR. I. 59. pis. xxxvlll. 15. a nd xIIi. now Hartlepool. " AGM.
I I l' 7 1x. Anothe r. unpublished. axe of the same ty pe. also
from Qau . wa s presented by Petrie to th e Pin Rivers
Museum tCal. VII. ' 53. al ln ' 9 24.
9 . fi ve in all. of hmest on e. from Winlock' s excavations: Cairo.
JE, 1870- 1 an d New Yor k. MMA. 27.3.62-4 . One of rhese.
AlMA. 27. 3.n]. bea rs a cr ude incised sketch of a female
gazelle suckling her you ng.
10 . Cairo. IE 4 6 271., from Fisher 's excava tions. I y I b. mad e of
slate.
I I . Two or three holes are norm al. Another specimen with nlnc
like our no. 471 s Ce neve. MAIl. O. 10 7: see Gua rneri.
Indemlol and Chappaz, Genava 29 1198 I). Y4. no. 15.
11. . Twenty-t wo are listed by KRg.. I J 3- 4 . P 15- 16 [note th a t
P ) 8 is Paris . Louvre, E. 1121 0 and P .l71s Cairo . JE
88 128 ). Three ot hers can beadded: Detroit . IA. 7.1 1q..J-
(seated monk ey. un pu blished ); Let deu . RMO. F 19 56/1 .1.
[the god see Eg. OIlJh,id. 71 -2. no. 57) and
Cambri dge. MAA. II (FB '42) (two ankh-signs .
unpublished ].
I I . Phil adelphia. 11M.E. 16 18 and 3foW. from Fisher ' s
excav ations. publ ished by KEg.. pis. xxiv. J . and xx. l ; see
also Scepter, il. 1.1.I . n. 6. Anoth er of these axe s. Cairo. JE
]: 2100. comes from Dendera. from Petrie' s excavations, bu t
there is no information as to conte xt . It is pu blished by
Eg.. pl. xx. 4.
J4. New York. MMA, .l6.7 ,M34 : see Scepter . i t. l. J 1, fig. 12.6,
lower middle .
15 See Fischer. zAs 10 5 (19 7M). 51. n. 57.
lfo. See K-Eg. 84 -5.
17. Ipi. (Cairo. JE pI Y4 an d Munich, SSAK 1554). nestling
(East Berlin. AM. 204 5foand Lelpaig. AI. 19 52): see K-Eg ..
6 7-8 and 74 - fo .
18. London . Dt'. JOO7J (TW. pi. iv. 11M): New York . MMA.
p.8.8 (Sapte r.li. 18-yJ; and RU:i1. (1 9lJ). 40.101460,
present locati on unknown.
19 London. DC. (the blade ls very thi n a nd no attempt
was made to sharpen the culli ng end j anti New York. MMA.
] 2.8. 8 fa model crudd y cu t ou r of thi n sheet met al).
2.0. from Reis ner' s excavation s. cemet ery 10 0 . lomh 44 5. now
Berkdey.I.\l A. fo- I 31>98.
21. See Arr of Warfim. I. 60 ; '; . 9. 46 . The Iypol ugy and dati ng
of the fenestrat ed types a re discussed by Maxwell-Hyslop.
, .. " " ""... \ . . .. . . , t ( \0-, . ... 7 rl PII Q ... , ... ..... \ . . ...
53
PLA TE I{
SEGMENTAL

; ,
present locatton unknown.
19 . London . lJC. 30073 (th e blade Is very th in a nd no att empt
wa s made to sharpe n the cutt ing end) and New Yor k. MMA,
J z.B.H(a model crudely cut out of thin shee t meta l).
20. From Reisner's excavations, cemetery 10 0 . tomb 44 5. now
Berkeley. !MA. 6-1369 8.
2 1. See Arl of lVarfare. i , 60: K-E9. 46 . The typo logy and dat ing
of th e fenestrat ed types are discussed by Maxwell-Hyslop.
Iroq I I ( 1949 ). I ' 9- 2 J; Oren . ZDPV87 (19 7 1). 1/ 3- 5
and 133 - 5: Dever , BASOR2 17 ( 1975), 30 - 1; Tu bb. Levan!
15 (983). 59. Note that thr ee 'eye ' axes were discovered in
the FIPj Ml.:: cemetery at Korn el-Hisn. all now in Cairo. IE
869 10. 8747 8. TR 7/4 /46/ J : see Hamada and El-Amlr,
AS.i E46 ( 1947 ), 10 7. pI. xxxt. top right , and Hamada and
Earid . i SAE 46 (19 47), 19 8. pl. Ivl: and another at Qau.
now Cambridge, MAA. 36 (24 .944. a). unpubl ished. from
tomb 6 2 2 .
5 10:!.4
Date: First Intermediate Period - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Me<l.",remerllS: Length, 7.5cm: width at bull . 115cm
Weigltt: 27J.2g
,"'<l lerial: Arsenical copper
Analysis: Cu: 93 . 5: Pb: 0.2 00: Sn: < 0 .20: Ag: 0 .010: Fe:
0 .320: Sb: 0 .040: Ni: 0 .010: Au: < 0 .0 1: Co: < 0.0 1:
As: 3.6: Zn: < 0 .0 2
Date oj Acquisition: 1912
Bibliography: None
Axe- head with round segment-shaped blade less
deepl y cu r ved than the blades of the previou s type.
It has hooked lugs and three even ly-spac ed bind-
in g-h oles. The butt is ver y slightly con vex. Th e
piece is thickl y corr oded. and in th e corrosion
product around th e cut ting end the imp ress of
woven fabr ic is preserved. Tr aces of th e origi na l
wooden haft and leather binding also survive.
Met all ographic an alysis has sho wn th at th e axe.
aft er initial working and annealing. was finall y
sub mitted to heavy cold working. A high hardn ess
val ue was recorded for the cutti ng edge.
51 0 19
Date: First Intermediate Period- Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 6.9cm; width at butt. It . j cm
Weighl: 23 39S
Material: Arsenical copper
Analysis: Cu: 93. 2: Pb: 0 .250: Sn: 1.40: Ag: 0 .040: Fe:
0.170: Sb: 0.080 : Ni:0. 0 20 : Au: < 0 .01 : Co: < (1.0 1:
As: 1.8 : Zn: < 0 .02
Date oj Acquisition: I') I 2
Bibliography: None
35
PI-ATE 8
PLATE 8
55
54
5 101 3
Dale: First lntenn ediate Period - Middle Kingdom
Provena1l ce: Unrecorded
/\ 1etls urc.'lUt' nt...: Len gt h. 7 .2CIll ; widt h at butt , 11.0 em
Weiglll: 13 1.4 g
Malerial: Arsenical copper
Analys is: en : 95. 7; Ph: 0 . 180 : Sn: < 0 . .2. 0; Ag: 0 .( '.\0; Fe:
o. r i o: Sb: o. I 20; Ni: 0 .020 : Au : 0.02.0; Co: < 0 .0 I ;
As: J .9: Zn: <0.2
Dale oj ,1cquisiUon: 1912
Bibliogrdphy: None
Axe- he ad simi lar to 5 2 . but wi th very t hin blade.
It has three large bindi ng-h oles, whi ch arc UI1-
eve nly spaced and badl y misali gn ed. The holes
wer e rou ghly dr illed. The axe has been cleaned of
corr osion product. and is in good condition. There
are a number of small cracks around the centra l
hole. The cu ll ing end was shaped by hamm er ing
an d grinding but was not fully sharp ened. There
are no signs of wear.
width il l 17n n
Weight: 217.,3 g
Mareria!: Arsenical copper
Ilnalysis: Cu: 92. 3: Pb: 0. 0 30: Sn: < 0 .20 : Ag: 0 .00 0 : Fe:
1.3 4: Sb: 0 .020: Ni: 0 .010: Au: < 0 .0 1; Co: 0 .0 10;
As: 3.9: Zn: < 0. 02
lJ<,le oj Acqllisilion: 19 I 2
Bibliography: None
Axe-head almos t semi-circular in sha pe. Th e butt
is very slightly concave. The re are three lar ge
binding-h oles. which are a little mi sali gned. The
piece ha s been cleaned of corrosion product. Th e
cut ting edge is eroded and has a small cra ck on
one face. The butt is slightly chip ped in th ree
places. The pattern of corrosion along the butt
preserves the line of the haft.
PLATE 8
Segmental Forms (51-67)
51
I . See pages 99- I 0 0 .
2. Five. all un publi shed. from t he Coxe expedit ion of 191 6 :
Phil adelphia. UM, 29-65-624. 629. 6 3" 6J2. and 6 Jj: and
three from the earlier work of Petrie (see P. Dend. 26 . pI.
xx], one of wh ich Is Oxford. PRM. Cat. H. 14. a nd anot her
Chicago , 01. 4 7 [ 9 (no w missing) .
J - TC. 6. pl. v. 25 , now Man chester . UM. 6 792-
4. BC. 215, no. 97, III(see MocGrtgur(1 922 ). 153 , lot [ [ 69),
now IlInnlngham. CM. W 5920. and Be. 242. no . 854 .
' Bronze shield-sha ped 1001'. now Oxford, Ash., E.2295: see
also BC. [ 6 I. fig. t 64 , tig ht. for a mod el of a soldier holdi ng
a bat tle-e xe, possibly of t he same ty pe.
5. Kama l. ASAE[3(19[3). [ 6 3. flg. 7
6. DP. pI. xxvII: Su p" r. l, 282 . fig. 18 5. New York. MMA,
99. 4. 14.
7. Mos!.. 108. pl. lxlI. 4 (whe re the binding -holes. blocked by
corr osion. are omitted) an d Ixvli. 12 . the Conner now West
Bertin. AM. 229P. the laner Catro.Jk 52937.
. been attested. Frol(jp.he existing eVidenG it a p-
pears that the differing number of holes' l and t he
variation in the shape of the lug s are not signi-
ficant in ter ms of dating. It sho uld be noted th at
the ' owner's mark' on the blade of 45. of a type
otherwise found only on tool s. is suspect . as is th e
group of hi erogl yph s on 43. Despite th e dispropor-
tionate length of th e haft of 45 . however. ther e is
no reason to doubt that blad e and haft belong
together.
Openwork axes like 49-50 ar e clearly orna-
mental vers ions of th is light type of battle-axe.
th ough. unlike their functional exemplars. th ey
exh ibit a variety of hafting devices. Of the large
number of kn own exampl es (25 in all)" three ar e
independently dated, namely two excavated at
Dendera 1 J from FIP or ea rly MK contexts and
on e" which . th ough unproven anced. bear s an
inscripti on datable on palaeographic gro un ds to
the FIP." Although such axes were not designed
to be usabl e in t he ordinar y sense , they ar e
unlikely to ha ve been purely decorative: the ir
motifs. whi ch in most cases are explici tly rel igiou s
in nature. suggest th at they we re meant to serve
an apotropaic or amuletic Iunc tion.!" The mot ifs
on 49-50. in one case figuring the protec tive
deit y Ipi , in the other a nestling, probably to be
int erpreted as a manifestation of Horus-t he-child,
are pa rall eled in seve ra l othe r cases. 1 7
Axes wit h simple a pertures in their blades ar c
rare by comparison. Apart from 48 . four ot hers
are kno wn. Three of these are unprovenen ced; "
two being non -funct ional." The fourth, a fun c-
tional and used specimen. wa s exc avated at Nag a
ed-l:>er' Ufrom a context which may well date to
th e FIP and is certainly no lat er t ha n the MK.
Within t his small corpus 48 . wh ose ga rbled in-
scri ption is almos t certa inly a modern addi tion. is
unique in having bind ing -holes in additi on to
lugs. It has been sugges ted th at th e apertures are
imitation s of the 'eyes' to be found in th e contem-
porary Asiatic fenestrat ed axes."
8
1;'1 .. l li l Lhl ) l \-J!"l V d l ' U Il J r c, lIH." 11l.l l u . d Jl..
haft being clearl y preser ved. Remains of linen are
also preserved in the corr osion product. Metallo-
grap hic analysis has produced very similar results
to those for 51.
56 PLATE 8
68874
Date: Flrst Intermedi ate Period - Middle Kingd om
Provenance: Unrecorded
MellSurrments: Length. b.s cm: width at butt . t o.fi crn
Weight: 195. 2 g
Material: Arsenic al coppe r
Analysis: Cu: 9 8.0: Pb: 0 .150: Sn: 0 . 10: Ag: 0.070 : Fe:
0.040: Sb: 0. 0 30 : Ni: 0.030: Au: < o.or : Co: < o.oi:
As: 2.4: 20 : < 0 .0 1: Bi: < 0.0 1
Date oj Acquisition: 19 78 (Forrnerly Wellcome Collection )
Bibliography: Non e
Axe-head very similar to 55 . though the holes are
more regular ly positioned and the butt is slightly
convex. It is quite thickly corroded. especially on
the sides and at the cutt ing end. To judge from the
little of it that may be seen. the edge was never
fully sharpened.
5
1014
Dale: First Int ermediate Period - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
MellSurements: Length . 6. 1em: width at butt. 10 . I em
Weight: 204 g
Material: Arseni cal copper
Analysis: Cu: 94 .0: Pb: o.obo: Sn: < 0.20: Ag: 0.0 20: Fe:
0 .680: Sb: 0 .040: Ni: o .o t o: Au: < 0 .0 1: Co: < o .o r:
As: 2.6: 20 : < 0 .0 2
Date oj Acquisition: I 9 I 2
Bibliography: None
Axe-head almost identical in form and condition
to last. though the three binding-holes ar e mis-
aligned an d the blade is more thickly corr oded at
the cutting end . The line of the haft is clearly
preserved. and at least one of the holes cont ains
remnants of the original binding. Resul ts of
metallogra phic analysis arc similar to those for
51. 55 and 57
51 0 16
Dale: First Inte rmediat e Period - Middle Kingdom
Prowwnce: Unrec orded
MellSuremetlts: Length. 6.2 5em: width at butt. 9.7 cm
Weight: 200. 6 g
Material: Arseni cal copper
Analysis: Cu: 9 3.2: Pb: 0 . r 60: Sn: < 0 .20: Ag: 0.010: Fe:
1.10: Sb: 0.040: Ni: o.or o: Au : < o.or : Co: < 0.0 1:
As: 2. 5: 20 : < 0.0 2
Date Acquisition: 1912
Bibliography: None
Axe-head very similar to 55 and 56. The butt is
str aight and the holes are well spaced. The piece is
lightly corr oded. remains of the wooden haft being
preserved in the corrosion produ ct at one of the
corners. Smal l remnants of the binding also
surv ive in two of the holes. The cutting edge was
never fully sharpened. Result s of metallographic
analy sis are similar to those for 5I and 55.
63 PLAT$
3
008
3
Date: Middle Kingd om
Provenance: Unrecorde d
Measurements: Blade: lengt h. ab out 6 .5 em: wic
butt. I r.zcm.Hart : length. 7S. 5 cm: max. di
about j .o cm
Weight: (of ax e and ha rt combined) 426. 5g
Material: Blade: arsen ical copper. lI aft : wood . Z
Analysis: Cu: 9 7.0: Pb: 0 .0 20: Sn: < 0 .20: Ag:
0.290: Sb: 0.0 30: Nl: o.or o: Au: < 0 .0 1: Co
As: 2. 7: 20: <0.3
Date oj Acquisition: 1898
Bibliography: lIis!. Technology. l , 68 8. fig. 48 ;
Furniture in the Ancient World. 29 6. fig. 4 58:
Kunstlwndwerk. 26 8. fig. 24 J.
Axe-head with original wooden ha ft at
ferrule. The axe is similar in shape to 6 I
but the blade is thinner and there ar e f(
ing- holes. whi ch are misaligned. The
hooked. The axe has been cleaned of (
product and is in good condition. though
small surface imperfection s. The cuttn
t hough thi nner than is normal for this tYI
ver y sha rp. It is very slightly indented
possibly as a result of use. The haft can :
straight cylindrical piece of wood. whicl
cracked at various points along its length
bott om end of wh ich is missing. The blad.
a slit at the top end of the haft and is a
held fast by an adhesive app lied in model
Origin ally. it would ha ve been secured by
tied around the haft over the lugs and thr .
perforations. The original bindi ng. now
has left a clear impression on the wood. T
the haft is protected by a me tal cap. whic
hea vily corr oded and damaged but whic
or iginally have resembled the cap on 6
The marks of binding on t he wood lndir
t here was no lower ferrule in this case.
1
R
bon ana lysis has dat ed the haft to 1870 :f
There is no reason to doubt th at the axe
belong toget her.
I . CL Tarkh.. L pI. vi. 12 -1 J. now Cairo, IE4 401 I : a
31. pl . XX\'i.
U IIl e; I-' lI 11L'f1l1cl .lla l L' l-'L'npl.l - ,\ l li.. h.lh:
PrO\'l'1wncc: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length . 6.3 cm: width at butt ,
Weight: 21 3.2 g
Material: Arsenica l copper
Am.lysis: Cu: 9 5.9: Pb: 0 .0 70: SlI: < 0. 20: Ag:
0 .380: Sb: 0. 0 30 : Ni: o.o r o: Au: < 0 .0 1: C,
As: 1. 3: Zn: < 0 .0 2
Date oj Acquisition: 1912
Bibliography: Non e
Axe-head similar to 61 but with angular
t hr ee binding-holes are slightl y misall g
there is an abandoned dri ll-hole just ,
central perfor ation . The piece was qui :
corroded before clean ing. One face bears
of very lightly incised ma rks. th e other a
surface cracks and fault s resulting from
cess of ma nufacture. There ar c also sn
and fault s in the cutting edge.
PLATE 9
PLATE 9
61
Vi/lt ': h roSl I llll' W ll'01iI.t' h..'n\ hJ - .\ l Uj l1lt: l\. lIl g 0 111T1
PrO\'cnam.. 't; Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 5.6 ern: width at butt . 9.8 cm
Weight: 177 .1 g
IIlaterial: Arsen ical copper
Anillysis: Cu: 94 .4: Pb: 0. 130: Sn: < 0 .20: Ag: 0 .0 10 : Fe:
0. 340: Sb: 0. 020: Ni : 0.0 40: Au: <0.0 1: Co:
< 0 .0 10 : As: 2.9: Zn: < 0.0 2
Date oj Acquisition: 1899
Bibliography: None
Axe-head very similar to 57 and 58. The binding-
holes are slightly misaligned as on 58 . The piece is
lightly patinated and corrosion ha s damaged the
sides and the cutting edge.
12536
Ddle: First Int ermediate Period - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 5-4ern: width at butt. r 0. 2 cm
IVeight: 19 5.7 g
Material: Arsenical copper
Analysis: Cu: 95 .3: Pb: 0.110: Sn: < 0 .20 : Ag: 0 .0 30: Fe:
0. 130: Sb: 0.0 50: Ni: 0 .010: Au: <0.0 1: Co: <o.or:
As: 2.2: Zn: < 0.0 2
Date oj Acquisition: 1883
Bibliography: Budge. Archaeologia 53 (1892) . 91.
Axe-head almost semi-circular in shape. The three
binding -holes are slight ly misaligned. The piece is
quite thi ckly corroded on one face. and the line of
the haft is preserved. Remnants of the binding
survive in the holes. Traces of a black resin ous
substan ce adhere to the sides. The cutting edge
was never sharpened but shows signs of use.
Metal!ographic anal ysis ha s produce d results
similar to those for 51.55. 57 and 58 .
60
1 . Petrieand Wolf mistakenly assumed that the ferrules were
cast in one piece with the axe.
z. The method is well shown on an axe In East Berlin. Mi .
1077 9: see K-Ey.. pI. ix. I.
67484
Date: Flrst Int ermediate Period - Middle Kingdom
Provenance: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length . 6.3cm: width at butt . 11. 5cm
Weight: 230 g
Material: Bronze
Iinalysis: Cu: 86.5: Pb: 0.50: Sn: r o.6: Ag: 0.1 70 : Fe:
0. 090: Sb: 0.0 50: Ni: O. IOO: Au: < 0 .0 1: Co: < o .o r :
As: 1. 7: Zn: < 0.02
Date oj Acquisition: 1909 (Forme rly Greenwell Collect ion)
Bibliography: Budge . Archaeologia 53 (1 892 ). 94. pI. i i ,
fig. 6: Til' . 8. pl. Ii, 70: BewaJJnung. 35. pI. 2. 6: K-Eg..
I04. El l 1.
Axe-head similar to 59. though the holes ar e well
spaced and aligned and ar e relatively small. Two
cylindrical ferrules ar e corroded. in their origin al
position. on to the ends of the butt. ' The capped.
upper ferrule is split down the rear and at the top.
and the lower ferr ule is similarly damaged just
beyond the lug. Both the axe and the ferru les are
thickly corroded. The ferr ules bear the clear im-
pression of the original binding . the width of these
marks indicating that the thong in each case was
wound aro und the ferrul e several times.' and the
line of the haft is preserved along the butt of the
axe. Unusually. the butt appear s to have been
slightly bevelled.
PLATE 8
PLATE 8
58
57
1\

rl!)
ri
fIj
D
it
I
II
3
6

"
2
I now Cairo. JE4 4 0 I 1: and HKAS.
It
-n gth. about 6.5ern: widthat
ength. 75.5cm: max. diameter.
Comment (SI -6j)
The segmenta l axes - both the (
circular shapes. such as 51-64. a:
shallower variants. such as 65-6
first appearance. llke the previous rot
the First Intennediate Period. I A Ian
exta nt examples is known. Nearlv .
exca vated from cemetery sites thro.
and Nubia and as many again of lJ
venance, including 51 -66, are com
ous museum collections. No few
specimens. covering the range or
discovered at the ill-published site
Hisn.' Erron eously dated to the
mediate Peri od by the excavators. '
has been convincingly shown to be l'
FIr with some MK) by Brunton
Another important group of four . all
variety. dating to th e late FIP/ early 1\
at Sheikh Far ag by Reisner but
remai ns unpublished.' Others of I ,
beens discovered at Aniba (MK am:
IMK).' Bersha (MK). Dishna (MK).
early MKV
o
Hii (FIP)." Kafr r Amn
MK)." Kenna {MK)." K6m Firi n
tion).':' Kubanieh {MK)." Qau (FIr
(FIP/ MK)." and Tar khan (FIP/MKl.
provenanced, 63 ca n be added to th.
on the basis or th e radi ocarbon anal :
whi ch places it rou gh ly in th e Midd
It is to be noted th at as yet onl y in
site of Aniba. have examples certau
the Middle Kingdom in Egypt been d:
There can be no doubt that the s,
fun ctioned as a battl e-axe. Many or
have been found in association w i :
pons." and th eir hafts are often ace.
and 63 . with metal fixtures to ensi
hafting security and to serve as
mour. 21 Representational evidence
coming from scenes in tombs and 01
Middle Kingdom. where th e form is
hands of soldiers (see pis. 37 and ;.
2)" and is figur ed among mil it ary e:
The considerable widt h of 66 is
exceptional. One of th e blades l'i
Hisn is 31 ern wide and has 17
but even this is comforta bly exc.
unprovenanced specimens . one
whi ch is 46 em wide and has 27
the other in the Petri e Museum.
4 7 cm wide and ha s 28 holes.: " Th.
on 62 are worthy of note. as ho
almost invariable with this type of a
The segme ntal variety with a
extremely rare. In addition to 67. t\\
pies are known. both in the Pet rie '
are purc has ed pieces and are in a
tion: their binding -holes are mod,
butts have been filed. tho ugh onl y
men has notches. One of the Petri e ,\
has an unfinished cutti ng end lll,
other is bette r shaped with a t hi nn c
Petrie states that the holes had b
natives ' hoping to improve specim.
tions similar examples ' ru ined by I
away the blade to fonn a second III
evidence for modern working on th
single proj ectin g lug. It ha s seven
drilled in modern times. Also mo.
tri angular not ches in th e bu tt and
along th e butt' s edges . whi ch were
file. the marks of wh ich are clcarlj
cutti ng end was never worked to ;
blade has been cleaned of corros ion
face is light ly pitted.
PLATE 9
PLATE II
6j
66
6S PLATE 9
67485
Dale: First Intermediat e Period- Middle Kingdom
Provellance: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 5A cm: width at butt. 13.7cm
Weight: 263.I g
Malerial: Bronze
Analysis: Cu: 89.0: Pb: 1.55: Sn: 8.50: Ag: 0.010: Fe:
0. 160: Sb: 0.010: Ni: 0.020: Au: < 0.01; Co: < 0.01:
As: 1.9: Zn: < 0.02
Date oj Acquisition: t 909 (Formerly Greenwell Collection)
Bibliography: None
Axe-head similar to 64. but with wider butt and a
relatively shallow blade. Th ere arc five binding-
holes. It is llghtly corroded. The line of the haft is
partially visible. and some of the holes bear th e
remains of th e original binding preserved in the
corrosion product. The cutting edge is not very
shar p and there is no clear indi cati on of wear.
30074
Date: First Intennediate Period - Middle Kingdom
Provrnance: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 6.7em: width at butt. 1 ] .9em
Weight: 320.8g
Marerial: Bronze
Analysis: Cu: 87.0: Pb: 0.020; Sn: 12.2; Ag: 0.100: Fe:
0.140: Sb: 0.030: Ni: 0.030: Au: < 0.0 I : Co: < 0.01:
As: 0.5; Zn: < 0.02
.'\2 580
Dale: First Int ermed iate Period- Middle Kingdom
Provenallce: Unrecorded
Measurcmenrs: Length. 5.ocm; width at butt . 23.3cm
Weighr: 323.2g
Material: Bronze
Allalysis: Cu: 87.1: Pb: 1.72: Sn: < 9.90; Ag: 0.060: Fe:
0.090: Sb: 0.130: Nl: 0.020: Au; < o.o r: Co: < o.o r:
As: 1.3: Zn: < 0.02
Date oj Acquisition: 1900
Bibliography: Art oJWarJare. i. 146: KEg.. r05. E lI8. pI.
lx, 3.
Axe-he ad simil ar to 65 but mu ch wider and with
a very shallow blade. It has 15 binding-holes.
whi ch are evenl y spaced but slightly misaligned ,
The butt is very slightly concave. The axe has
been cleaned of corrosion product and is in good
condition. th ough there is considera ble surface
abrasion on one face. Again. th e cutting edge is
not very sharp . and th ere are no definite signs of
wear.
P r O\'t't lll tl Ce: Unrecorded
Measurements: Length. 6.] em: width at butt. t 1.3cm
Weig/It: 2l 5Ag
Material: Arsenical copper
Alla/ysis: Cu: 94.2: Pb: 0.090: Sn: < 0.20: Ag: 0.020: Fe:
0.370: Sb: 0.060: Ni: 0.010: Au: < 0.01: Co: < 0.01:
As: 3.1: Zn: < 0.02
Dalf oj AcquisitiOIl : 1898
Bibliography: None
Axe-he ad simil ar to 63 with four binding-holes
but with thicker . slightly shallower blade. It is
thickly corroded. and clearly preserved in the
corrosion product is the impressi on of linen fabric.
The line of th e haft is also visible. and each of the
perforations bears remai ns of th e or iginal binding-
thong. Metallographic analysis has indica ted th at
after casting the blade was worked and annealed
and that the cutting edge was th e hardest part of
the blade.
PLATFS 9 and 10
e
8
(hllology. i , 688. fig. 487. II ;
'Il l World. 296. fig. 458: Ag.
fig. 241.
wooden ha ft and metal
""ilar in shape to 61 and 62 .
me r and there are four bind-
:e misali gned. The lugs ar e
is been cleane d of corrosion
-d condition. though there ar e
rfections. The cutting edge.
is normal for this type. is not
" slightly inde nted in part s.
of use. The haft consi sts of a
piece of wood. whi ch is now
oints along its length and th e
is missing. The blade fits int o
of the haft and is at present
sive applied in modern times.
&\lVe been secur ed by a th ong
over th e lugs and thr ough the
iginal binding. now missing .
-ssion on the wood. The top of
by a met al cap. which is now
d damaged but which wou ld
rnblcd the cap on 6 I above.
on the wood indic ate that
in th is case .' Radioca r-
cd th e ha ft to 1870 120 Be.
, doubt that the axe and haft
.,
t combined) 426.5g
&, 'copper. Haft: wood. l iziphus sp.
Sn: < 0.20: Ag: 0.010: Fe:
: 0.010: Au: < 0.01; Co: < o.o r:
61 but with an gular lugs. The
are slightly misaligned. and
' ned dri ll-hole just above the
The piece was quite thi ckly
e n g. One face bears a number
d marks. the other a pattern of
faults resulting from th e pro-
e, There ar c also small holes
ling edge.
. j l' r ll ll i - 1\ 11LlUJl' hll lg LllJ llI
d
h.3cm: width at butt. I I. 30m
.per
0.070: Sn: < 0. 20: Ag: 0.020: Fe:
. ,.010: Au: < 0.01: Co: < 0.01:

PLATE I I
J: Pb: 0.020: Sn: 12.2: Ag: 0.100: Fe:
Ni: 0.030: Au: < 0.01: Co: < 0.0 1;

mediate Period - Middle Kingdom
-ecorded
l.ength. 5.4 em: widthat butt. 13.7em
37
. ' " .. " {"'o' ,
1. It has been sugg ested t hat t he for m is depicted in a
hle roglyph of th o Sixt h Dynasty (see K-E9. 22 and 122 . R' 4.
ba sed on Fischer. /NES 18 (19 59 ). , 69. fig. ' 5: see also
Fukhrv. ASAE4 ( 1194 7). 26 . pl. v. 21but the represe ntation
in question is too small and is no t detailed enough for there
to be any cert ai nt y as to the pr ecise type of axe.
z. Ham ada and El -Arntr, ASAE4 6 ( 194 71. 10 7. pl. xxxi. upper.
from left to r ight. Cairo. jE 86909. 869 12. 869 1.J and
869 I 6: Hamada and Fend. ,ISA/; 46 ( 19 471. ' 98. pl. lvl.
top. Cairo. IE 87 480. end left. Cetro. jg 874 i7. and centre
rtght . Cairo. TR 7/4/46/ 2: Ham ada and Farid . ASAE4 8
(1 948 1. 30 L pl. vii. centre left, Calro. IE 8 79 90. an d centr o
ti ght. Cairo. IE8 799 1. Others not published in these report ,
are: Cairo. )E 869 1 L 87471 . 874 7 5. 88 790 and TR 18/41
44 / 3. a-e. A number of tbes e are listed in KEg .. 104 -5.
under th eir Cairo Museum exhibition numbers. sometimes
wr ongly given,
3. See Hamada an d EI-Amir. op. cit.. , I I . followed by K-E9..
33
4 Bru nton. ASAE4 6 (194 7). 14 3-5: Tufnell and Ward . SWla
4 3 1'9( 6). ' 0 5- 6; Egypl and til, E. M,d. World. 55:
w etnstetn. JARC/; 11 II 97 51.105 . n . 6: Cities oj til, Delta. I.
83: Mirrors, 1.1.2 - 3
5 Shei kh Farag exc. nos. ' 3-3- rj, ' 3-3-5 L r 3-3- 13 5 and
13' 3- 185. The first an d fourth ar e Boston. MFA. 13 J5 71
a nd J 3,3i 25 respectivel y. The second and th ird are Cairo.
IE 44 602-3.
6. An/ba l. '14. pl. 70 . 5. 6. and 10 IcL C-Gruppe. 11 1.II/ b/'J.
pl. 131. The first is Cairo. IE 6; .80. tho seco nd is Leipzig.
AM. 4698. th o th ird Is Leipzig . AM. 469 7 1th< last two are
cited in Ag. M U.I . Ltip'ig . 34. nos. 4 9112 and 24 1.
7. Kamal. ASAE. 16 1191 6 1. 10 8. no . 13;. r. now carro. Is
44 984 : also possibly op. cit. q 7. no . 11 9. and t o r. no. 126 .
8. Daressy. ASAE I 11900). 18. fig. 2. now Cairo. IE 32858.
9. Ph tladel phla. UM. E 103 6. from Pettie' s excaveno ns. 1894 -
5. unpublished.
10 . Gurob, 7, pl. xli. 74. sent 10 Charlest on according to th e
distributi on list on p. 27.
J I . DP. 4 1. pl. xxxii. I and xxvil . 16 2. The axe is Oxford. Ash..
E. 1791 a nd its fitt ings ar e Ash.. E. 1788- 9 .
11. HKAS. 32. pl. xxvi .
T3. Ku ma vi. 14 8 and t 99 . pl . xl. c. 1;3. now Boston . MFA.
Kerrn a 16-4-1 528.
14. Ca iro. TR 14 /4 / 5.J/ 9. excavated by th e Egyptian Antiquit ies
Orga nlzatic n in 19 50 . unpublished .
15. Kub.-Nord. 11 3. pl. 23. 2 7. now Vienn a . KM. 7190 . which .
int erestingly. was attched to its haft by means of wir e loops.
a technique par alleled in an unprove nenced axe of the same
type . Brussels. E. 559 .J.
16. QB.I. 59. pis. xxxvili. '3. and xUI. TWs Is assigned to UCLin
th e distri bu tion list but I have not been able to Identtlv It in
t he Petri e Museum' s collection. .
17 GR. '4. pis. xII and xlll. 3 and 4 PI. xIIi. 3. is Phtl adelphl a.
UM. E 2900: pI. xii. left (pl. xui . 4 1is un located: and pl. xii.
ti ght. is Brist ol. CM. H. ' 0 54 .
18. Tarkll. i. 23 . pl . vi. 1 J now Cairo. IF. 440 11.
19. See below, pages 126- 7
20. See AnUm L I I S (N 4 8 7). pI. 70. I . da gger found wit h axe
pl. 70, 5: and OR. i . pl. xxxvlli. 5. da gger with axe no. I
Also. several of the Kern el-Hisn axe s w'ere found wit h
weapon s. It is not easy to make direct correlanons from the
published reports (cited in n. 2) but some informat ion ca n be
gleaned from the ent ries in the Journal d 'Ertl reeof the Ca iro
Museum . From these it emerges that axes IE 86912. S6y I 3.
87 47) and 87480 were found with dag ger s JE 80q I q.
869' 0 .8747 6 and 97 481 respect ively: that axe)E8799 1
was found wit h a dag ger IE 87 98 9 an d a spear IE8 799 2:
and tha t axe IE88790 was found with a sword IE 88 78 9.
21. Over hal f of th e Kern el -Hlsn axes wer e so accoutred.
some of th em published in Ham ad a a nd El-Amir. ASAE40
(I q..:l71. pl . xxxt. There ar e many ot her examples from Aniba
Hu. Kafr -Amrnar. O<iu. Rifeh. Ter khan rseethe refs.
und er the se names above I, to which can beadded the
u nprovenanced specimens Cambridge. Ff\.'l . E. 14 . 1950. East
Berlin , AM. 1077Y. and Swanse a. WM. W-.:;S2 (for t he last
two see K-Ei/.. pl. ix, I. and Nash. PSIlA 14 119 12 1. .J 5. pl. I.
6 11.
2.2 . 8M 754. a nd 729 are a ll from Deir el-Bahn. the
latt er two published in Xliii UUt!. Temple. i. pl. xil. B. and xiv.
U; see also ibid. pl. xtv, H, no", in Geneva: h Eg.. I 23. R 1 J .
ct. BM 161R, previousl y publish ed in HT. v. pis. 1- 2. is also
of tho Eleventh Dynas ty. Ot her posstble representati ons of
the type are to be foun d in RH. Ii. pis. v a nd X\ ' (I\. q.. 1.14.
R 2 J and ' 4 . c) and J"j-jti. j. pis. 14 a nd 17 and faltkart e 2-
3
2.1. See M el r , i. pl.Hl: $ar copll a{1 fs. Lpis. xvli. xl. fig, I Cf 8: and
possibly RM. pl. xxtv. These are K-Ei/.. 124-6. R ,6. b. 39 .
b. 4 0. b. and 4Y
24 . Cairo. IE86y 16 1"'" n. 2 abo ve].
25. W. 58 2 tsee n . 21 above ).
26. OC wit hout no.
2i . n\'. 7- 8. pI. ii i. 1 1 J and I I lie. . and 30070.
28. TIl '. 7-8.
2y . The result s of ana lysis of the lIC axe:-an> given below.
I l l.
Th eir chemical composition (two are made of
bronze. the other of copper)" is compatible with a
datin g in the Middle Kingdom. but it is not impos-
sible that they are mod ern recast s out of an cient
met al.
. " ""'''' .. .) .. . .. I .. lI 1"U.(l. ::>1 1111' 1.. I I ,lI . (.
Comment (51- 67)
The segmental axes - bot h the deeper. semi-
circ ular shapes. such as 5I - 64. and the wider
shall ower varia nt s. such as 65- 6 - make their
first appearance. like the previous rounder type. in
the First Intermediate Period. ' A large quantity of
extant examples is known. Nearl y 30 have been
excavated from cemetery sites throughout Egypt
and Nubia and as many again of unk nown pro-
venance. including 5I - 66. ar e contained in vari -
ous museum collections. No fewer than 14
specimens, covering the range of shapes. were
discovered at the ill-publi shed site of K6m el-
Hisn.? Erron eously dat ed to th e Second Inter-
medi at e Per iod by the excavators. J their context
has been convi nclngly shown to be earlier (largely
FIP with some MK) by Brunton and others.'
Another import ant group of four . all of the deeper
variety, dating to the late FIP/ early MK. was found
at Sheikh Farag by Reisner but unfortunat ely
rem ains unpublished. ' Oth ers of the type have
beens dtscovered at Aniba (MK and SIP)" Asyu:
(MK).' Bersh a (MK).' Dishna (MK),' Gur ob (FIP/
earl y MK),' OHu (FIP)." Kafr <Ammar (FIP/ ear ly
MK)." Kenna (MK) ." K6m Firin (no informa-
tion )." Kubanieh (MK)." Qiiu (FIP/MK).I. Rifeh
(FIP/ MK)." and Tarkha n (FIP/ MK),18 Though un -
provenanced . 63 can be added to the dated corpus
on the basis of the radiocarbon an alysis of its haft.
which places it roughly in the Middle Kingdom."
It is to be noted that as yet only in Nubia, at the
site of Aruba. have examples certai nly lat er than
the Middle Kingdom in Egypt been discovered.
There can be no doubt that the segmental type
functioned as a battle- axe. Many of the specimens
ha ve been found in association with other wea-
pon s.' 0an d their hafts ar e often accoutred. like 6 I
and 63. with metal fixtur es to ensure maximum
hafting secur ity and to serve as protectiv e ar-
mour." Representational evidence is al so forth-
coming from scenes in tomb s and on coffins of the
Middle Kingdom. where the form is shown in the
hand s of soldiers (see pis. 37 and 38 . figs. I and
2)" and is figured among milit ary equipmen t."
The considerable width of 66 is by no means
exceptional. One of the blades from Korn el-
Hisn is 31 ern wide an d has 17 perfor ati ons."
but even this is comfort ably exceeded by two
unprovenanced specimens . one in Swansea,
whi ch is 46 cm wide and has 27 perfor ations."
the other in the Petri e Museum, which is over
47 cm wide and ha s 28 holes.> The an gular lugs
on 62 are worth y of note. as hooked lugs are
almos t invari able with this type of axe.
The segmental vari ety with a single lug is
extr emely ra re. In addition to 6 7. two other exam-
ples are known. both in the Petri e Museum ." All
are purchased pieces and are in a similar condi-
tion: the ir bindin g-holes are modern and their
butts have been filed. thoug h only th e BM speci-
men has not ches. One of the Petrie Museum pieces
ha s an unfin ished cutting end like 67 but the
other is better shaped with a th inner cutting edge.
Petr ie states that the holes had been added by
nativ es 'hoping to improve specimens' and men-
tions similar examples 'ruined by natives cutting
away the blade to form a second lug', 28 The clear
evidence for modern work ing on the three known
single project ing lug. It has seven perforati ons.
dri lled in modern times. Also modem are the
triangul ar not ches in the butt and the bevelling
along the but t' s edges. wh ich were mad e with a
file, th e marks of which are clearl y visible. The
cutting end was never wor ked to an edge. The
blade ha s been clean ed of corrosion product. One
face is lightly pitted.
PLATE 9
PLATE 9
IJ
e
lar to 65 but mu ch wider and with
II' blade. It ha s I 5 bindin g-holes.
'nly spaced but slightly misaligned .
cry slight ly concave. The axe ha s
e :orr osion product and is in good
,ugh there is considerable surface
nc face. Again. the cutt ing edge is
,. and there arc no definite signs of
! diate Period- Middle Kingdom
ecorded
cngth, ) .oem: width at butt. 23.3em
llar to 64. but ' with wider butt and a
11011' blade. There are five binding-
htly corr oded. The line of th e haft is
I) and some of th e holes bear the
e original binding preserved in the
duct. The cutting edge is not very
re is no clear indi cation of wear.
rediate Period- Middle Kingdom
corded
6.7em: width at butt. 13.'Jem
"
IPb: 1.55: Sn: 850: Ag: 0.010; Fe:
t H O: Ni: 0 .0 20: Au: < o.o r: Co: <0.01;
< 0 .0 2
" ,, : I 90'1(Formerly Greenwell Collection)
me
. 1: l' b: 1.72: Sn: < 9.90; Ag: 0.060: Fe:
i )0; Nt: D. 0 2 0 ; Au: < o.o r : Co: < 0. 0 1 ;
cdI, 0 2
' 900
or lr arJarc. i. 146: K-Eg.. 105 . E-I/ 8. pI.
I Ul l ' l ll .Hi: I ' l 'l ! \,. J l ::' U 1.l11 ,
recorded
Length. 6.3el11: width at butt. 11.3em
g
ileal copper
4 .
2
: Pb: 0.090; Sn: < 0.20: Ag: 0.020: Fe:
. 0: Ni: 0.010: Au: < 0.01: Co: < 0.01:

10":
ooe
nilar to 63 with four binding-holes
cker. slightl y shallower blade. It is
.ded, and clearl y preserved in the
duct is the impression of linen fabric .
ilJaft is also visible. and each of the
' ear s remains of th e original binding-
ographic ana lysis has indicated that
the blade was wor ked and annealed
cutt ing edge was the hardest part of
9
1'1,,'-11.1\
' Edged-baton' Forms (6 8-78)
68
lU l l(
jlt,V nl"'l lUl,""' '' .... ' ''' .. I'..' '' . 1 ..". Iy l.t1tJ..11f' );;1"11'.''''
" " , I' lIrn: d<-d
,\ lr'"' ,.., ' II I...nl:' h . -I . , f n' ; ",ldlh "I hUll .
lI 'r",III" -.; ,
." .. I.. 14/: A, ... nio. "l n.,-. ' '-'"
.1...... -c.... l : 5<1: < ' ,. I.,,;A rl.-".I>20
t e: I" : st. : "' '' 'i''; NI: ".nl "; .\t1 : < n " ' O; Co-
'" " ." , : "- I : <0,<>1.
' <t I l.
1 . ,.. f':-t-"! I . p1 l , 'S'.
.. w au' ho;-", l ....uh wklc.
("tJlli n Rf' J t: c, l ' ''110 lVf' pu n and short . very
II hiK seve n btndmg-hcles. whtch lir e
1'\'1'111" II II J IHf' p<}';if lo nl',1 In Il cu r ved line
rtJlllllll l( IT. 1r. , ll,' l l n I h(' hu n . The hlit<k t hin ;lII J
It"tr tullinl'l .-dR(' \,.....rk ed 10 II f;llr!y <h.t ll'
N Rc. lh('Tt' ;rre no obvlous signs of wear . II Is
1I11hl ly .... rl'f>dNJ. Thr co rn ..1 line ,)f t he ha ft Is

, \t, h<t .. I' Io .. ...,, ' .. h ...........-u ...lIh Il. p!. . U. lh.' n.to
L.1I.... ...... .. . IF l ll., H

')1 1117
/lI;lt f l''\t lfll....nlffll.. . t- I..rt ..d
' 'r.'w,ft/r:l l'''''OKJ.-rl
k-rlilih. em: lIt hull .

1'.',i/l'l ,I: l 7'i ':
A""" n k"..1':'--' f't X'r
," IIlI.v. l<: ("u: ; IL t: Ph: {), I ' iI: s,,: " . 1' ): Ap:: Fr '
" , I ' I' St> , , " 1" ; Nt " " " 0: Au: < Co: ".,,,, I :
< o.oc
/ l.sI.. ", A' 'fuLrili'il1; I'l l].
K.I '4 . 10(, . 1':(" 4
:;h" lI"w, ;ISYlll llwlr lcnl axe-head. wlth widr- nm-
\'(' 0( ("Ull in I'( ,'lig e and concave burt. The blad e
Irom 11 rounded bouom end lu
I'{",Kh nuu llllum ICfll!-lhat a point In Its UflP"1" ha ir
a h(lu l r"llf llfth s akm g wtdrh . from wh ere It
1' " rH''' ilHvRrd'l acutely and narrows to for m il
.J ulrp r "l n l . /I ..1 rib rum: Ilion: lis
widl h f....1II ti p 10 I lr 1lwrl' ilTl;' f"U f
", It n" The t'tIll. t' is Ihl n but nHI
.' <[lI't inlly ot h a , p im .i lh('re 10;11, ) dt"a , Irnl i<-ltUllll of
wI' .. r . Th e hl:lok N-!: 'n d.-lI Jlro of fOJ,O!<Ilm
1'f,...lul1 . !lolh ran ' s Il re S\l p('rfk lll lly pitted a mI l h e
n UUll g ('<IR(" is t' ruJ I'd In p.nt.... Surf ilt.'t' dum<l. e
dlrlllit ' h(' hllll Indln ll..... Ih e line uf l w 1l , IRlniJl
h aft
7"
'i I
/l ,l! n ,.,.. l nll'f1f\nlllllc l' n -k..;1
/,,"' ..,..., : Ilntn: .,-Jr,j
.\l "'."'..m u : \f ill . !<' nl';lh , ...-ldlh Itt bUH,
l " l nn
\\"f"I lf'.' :I. '''l ll
,o.s.n...", I:i\nrnk " I ,,'l'P'"
1,,,,1,,,, . , Cu' -, " .'" I'h: ".' ''''1; ... flo: Ail: o.nJO; Fr '
, '1, I lfl : ." h: "." l " ; !'Ii: ---n.". ;....11: -' o .n l : Co: <"."1;
'" ....11; RI: < " til
,,.,, .. .., "4" ;.:1'1..., ' ...1].
Ihhl ;"" '''''''.lf Non ('
A. ('. t"t r ad si Allla r 10 1l0) hu l no)! so <If'\I1d y f'Ul"\Il -d
III t h e IVf' . II h llq ellr ('\' hindlnlt-hfllt>s . Tm- rul1llllt
l'(Ii/.r k lju il r >llId Is lntklll ffi In parts. Rt'f"IT
th t' hlade t h ld. ly COT1'Otkd. Ther f' Is
fOll s ldr r ilb lt' pitl ln s '111boIh fan 1>.
nn a lvsh h Oi s .. ..-rJ; Ihal artM" n lsUllt: l ilt- hlade
wa s w, orkt'd and it flll rakJ htl l ll wl Il W<l S ,w l
uo;(',1
.,
7'
p ,W ",
/ lu : f l,.., .uuf"Trlf'dl..I.. ,' ........J
/' .....ortiN
AItw< I'>I'N' : -lA..l . le-o 'lt' h , 17 m " wi<J lh al h"u.
l lI nn
Wt1lJhr ' I"' ; 1l

,, _ Itj'lt<: (' u: ..." .,, ; rh ; " ,J.. . .. I ." : A,, : <0,''' ;
"'" t . l ; 1.11: <,Ull
'" ,\rofWU1h '. , 110/1

II l f'.f!f'lld fl.! ml!l.r tu ll q bUI "Q" ",n.-d t' t ...t<. If
ha s t h ree I"tind inp: ho lt'.... 1'he Is th k kl y ("1 1('"-
ffl<lo:o.l. Sut'-"l:on lllli II N("f"i ti C Ilflr fl ... ar c
peese rved In t he pn ,J ud IlTOUI1t! rhe
r ll Hmtl edge end on hot h reccs. nf IIIC'
ort jo! ln al w,>t.!dt' n h"naleosurvwe .
p :2 ln
flr>U' : flf'5t lmt"lTl'lt'dllolc ' ...." ..J
I't u......,.. r l lorr dn1
M..... .. . .......nu..!01.3 1I1h. J h un: wldl h ..1"'I II


II. I. I..,"'I:i\,...."... lll l l >('1't"f
e
{J. 'iio: $lo," .1> JII; NI, , u II O: An : ..-11... <;; ( ' 0 ' ' H "lI;
1,1: :t n: "" 0."2: 1\6: "::".0 'i
l "lr '"
N"n, -
1I)1(' h ('i1J to 71 . 1iI00l(h the r u rvcd lllfl
end o f the blad<-15 n lirTow;-r and more elonga ted
It ha s five The ends or the blade ar e
squat r-d. 'l'he cnUlu!,: bI qune sharp and bears
Il number of small nic ks. Rd un." (kilning, she
blAtit' wa s th k' Uy com xk<;!. There Is supcrtlctal
('nJTHSlllfl dum ngc has preserved the

7.3
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l\I l..: Hrt r"'....... .. I)ffi'oJ
1'."""''''''' t ' l1flfI'':"U.n..-t!
Mf"", ,,, ,,,,,,,,,'o::!AU h l!'.lh . ",klrh. Jh. ; rm

" l.i l, n-I, ....nrn iCltl ( Of't'<'T
l 'lI : <;11> ... : Ph: " .n" n: ,<'.,n: Alt, '" ' P ' l :
. '...; ".<;11": " . I h,, ; Nl, " ... 11,, ; -<", 111: (' '' :
A.. : I. ... ; 71" <n.Ii '; I\l: 0 .0-1
/l.f1r "' ...... ., ulslfJ.m: 111.,11
' tlbI ""..,."w N"n('-
AIlt"-hE' aJ III 72 - 'm ere arc Ii.., blndin j!.-
oo lrt.. upper ('nd I.. squ arc<l. th t" I u mU ll
dcrl. hlaue Is CfIfrodol. Tr Hf'n ..r eh<.-
OfIR1l1al h /tn
74
s,n \',
FIr"" lnll"f'm<"dlllif I....... ,J
/,.. ......IA'r ' l :n"-..... .. J.-.. l
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I.,11: ".lI : ., '1,11:: HI: 2
f),nt <f{ l'f l
R,/oI....."aph.lf: NOtI..
Al<e h('lld VC'fV , Im lillf 10 i 2. l 1w UJ'PN en d j "
sha r-ply plln tt'd . Ihe Inwer t>r"km. 1l1er t" ,lre sh
1M hl:lde I'Squilt" Ih k U y co rrurl.-J.
Rem na n ts .. r Jlll(' n wr<l('lplnR sm v hl (' in t he cor -
TQsl"n prot Jll<" t . AI...I pr M<'fVl'l. I I< lh e- Ihll" oCti l('
hlln, The f \Jll ln g ('(IRC' I. ewdJ a lld (h iPf'l"d .
7S
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r"...""... ",.. t lnfrn w<lr-J
"t.-.."..r .. ...nu: M.. . . h" ,ll h. , .Mnl.; ", l<hh, , ,, <;n ll
U'rJqJIl lll'; l(
" t.,Jr.."':/l,,,,..,j,,,I, ','f'P<'t"
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1Ioh1""" "f'I,,,,N .." t
A J:t'hrad hI i ,l . or Qurl t' ....ulZh woo . . II
.. Ilfl k- Wlt'l'<'ti ,ifil l h,." an hu tt oTht' I, PIX"
e", 1 i . <qll 'lr,-rl, ,hI' Io'w ('r ruu ",I., !. TIlt' ,,, ,,1(' lh,'
hill dlnlt -h.. k-s. TIl<' Made i.. QIIlI,' 1I1;<'kly ," rn .. k' d
and 11ll' . u ll lll jt ed ge 1< d;tln ;Jf l..l. Th. ' Hnc " f l il t"
ha ftt .. rrl"...t\"'(1.
; 6
':;In.p
llodr ; .' r<l lnlt'O"' ....IOI.. I..",..d
I't' ..".' r : .. dr-ol
Mr.""' ""n,.....!llh . I.." o n: . " .1'-' ''
1V11g/,I ' J 4 , Jjl
"""11>"
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'Iot'r'"A,q" I<II" ..,; 1'1.
1I,"'. """'.,.t,'l: ( . , ,'1,. ' '''' .
a lle he H.I. pr . ol-ollhly 9 flI n.... l . $im ilar 1( . i l .
'I'll<' lI f' f'I" r m! f( NlIl tk" . Ih.. I" wn is brnl"'n
Ihr-re ar e- hh ' , l in" h.. It.... h llKn m lldy p' >sl-
li un t"ri. Th e Na,l!;' Qull<' th !cUlI n ,rn l<k.i <111, 1 urc
("u1l!nl/. cdg r- dllm lll:c<1 The 11m' of th e h,.11 Is
preserved .
77
l '-) l r1}
/),I..- rl r \l lll h'T!ll NII ;,It l' l"I !<wl

Mr:':lII n ...." b :r .Il11l h. 1. 1<"" : I,Vllh ,
"' ri1I
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fll<Hrr;,jI ' Af'<I"Tl h'"I (''' I ''''f
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IltIlr .'f/.l"I "; .UJ",,
TU , I". pi l i 'l ll. r l I .
2: 1-\- """' ,,. 2-1 filt I l h: ",', l q " ' ; , r -t; I rl ' . .'
\'t"ry wlti<- , IISlImlfl..lrlr a l .ne-h.. ... 1 simi-
la r In f"rm llllt l str ul'l urr I.. It <J-; l'>. hUI .op
(' li d sha pnJ II Wil Y Il i In " h"11t ill'
hl <ltk waS hai lN , a n
l hC' UI'f'IT lip Is mu ml... l. III(" I" ", l't"
plll n l('ti . " hC' ro. ' a rc r" ut Jlt'rf, ,, uti<lll s. ' <In,' (II'
wlt it' h ("on ta in, .1... ren\ ;liu s "r Ih(" " intl -
infl. Tht' <lillie Ihk'kh' ("> Krooc<1
<:or the ufll!hMI ...."...k" h'l ft i1n' rn.....n ("d 'I'll<'
I'lld Ihill hili ""t "IMl p. Th..
Wltl'f't. -J "'10 , h, .,.e Is <"m'" InJ i<.;Itl"n of
"'''' .. I".... .... I"" +-..... "",,...
,hk ... r (".N..!'ot>ol r..l' .. "' . \ \ ,01/",l
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/" "' ''''''' ' . '''- 11"..
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< , l.I J.l : f:It; , Lt Jl
.!l>Iu"f .\, '<1" ;,-./..... 1'I , !l l f m..:sly Wdk" " ,,' (',, 11.: ,11< '1
1I1101''''P''''''N r-. ,, n,
An -h.....d sim il"r to !C" , Ih " lIi'C h .Jloltl"w,r . 0 ",-, <I f
1tK' h il) !>e<'11 11lI",..1 by .1 101"", 'II th ..
lip . and Ihe ro gl' h inJ O: ll ll-.J ill ",,,'.,.-ul
bl,..k i:. (ju l.. Ih "Uy ... ,rr ' KIt-J Ik
nhlln s <lI t h.. ", ' ''I. k ' l II;,H 01 1" ,' jll .,.....",l ul
pr uJ U(( IW" r til..:tWH, dn l! Inl a 'S 01
lll"lI L"-. pro b" hl )' W (WJt.l , .:> llrlll n : ,!II
Ihe ran s.
0;I
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In' t/IoI, . H<j-l1:
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c..: ...( ; I'h: SU.I,. \ <>. n .. r,,:
... .. . ..u'''-'' I'' ; ' \'' ' _" u I; I"", ... .0 1.
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... !>i Olil;lr t" 7., . l hou ;:h Its Illl n ;,1 la fl!,; l>
[ ;' PO' f ra l lu:r ll w l1 C' Kpi ll1.1 c" wa rd, Ill<' OUIL 'I' ll<'
CUll in g I'ml b turned "nd b!tIl1(,'li IhrOll gh h, 'uvy
u.sc. AU prWlKI Iwcll d eflllt'li ,--, If
' llk're is .:>Ulf a\e Ul.. ll g 1111: "Ol;;l.
;lIu.! I r lan\tll lil r l}un, It -n ... "" " .'1<' 1V'- ..... 1I1 Iw...r t h, '
,oJ;;., <>n " f it' r........ . ' <I1;,l y,1-. I,,, .,
IIldl " Ih"f ,.,sUnll 111l.' b laJ , wa s W" d,lt!
.. nJ OI nnc" b llht' I" llcf l:>c lng ,' ,lrr ICtI mil
Oit II rd <l Hvd y 1, lw t cIIIpt.n llu ro:
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80
Tanged Forms (79- 1on)
79
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... l --I: 'l.ll : :". " l
I),ll ro(, 1'-<jw.<lJi,lfl, t S(1'I
HII>II' '\?f<l I,h y:/;-b l , 'j'j , t" ' l
Rd uli\od y J l"";! ..-n-sc..' ll ll .. .t )(e!lc"d . ... lIil l hr,' .'
rcu r or Iang s r.,r min", two " 1" ' 11 :.1, ';11
I' !fl' in the blink . r ldllj: "'" <Ire pn:"t ' ul " W lI UtJ I" Hh
..:ullup:.; Oil Ill<' hl.uL. s uuu- ni;; (". '1' 11\ ' 4.-.. :", 11011
... .1 lilt" 1;,1\"1' .11
t wo "'it,h. Ifll u s u.. U;at . t he IJ 1...,.."j t un K"
lnw" rds the rear. The , 'UUhl l! end. no... ..I
by rorrost ou . ....a, OIl Ce- w <Jr kl 'li to it 1." <' 11 l'lig,'
iltl l' f d Cl." h 11lll o:tl <II Ihe ,('HI. e All ,\ .rrm i" ll
pr uJtlfI ....... u d,'lllWJ " ff
four other:' dfl:" known. Ttuee of them - one III
i n (' ,,1' 0.' ,II1J one I n Hano vcr ' "
- arc u n publb'hc-.J !Iud of unl nown provenance
'11lC f>l\lrI h . and mu st unponeru. wa s exca vat ed <11
Abydus {(ro m a gruvc wh ich utso cl m tu incJ ,m
Asia [k ancnor-axcr anJ ts now in the Pi:l m
\I u""u m" N.. . 7K is Itt... la q i;e-.( uf Ih(: l n o\4lo
e K.lInlplt"S. l lw u gt! II Is.a fm<lst eq u llllal ill slZli: b)' th e
..m axe. Ttl l.:> hll ) m.."1...1 ferrules , ull
dl l <l t'h l.). 01)(' at th e Il ' WeTt"nd and one at Ih. upper .
Ill<. ' tall C1' t1wd hy a rt vet . nl'" prt ndpl,' or the
blade i:.: n,, 1 ,'0 0 ""<::0.1 III Ihis t ype . It Is
present already in th . <' l'f'Cmunl ..1 and fun d fon,, 1
bunk-...scs of the FlRh and SiJ;[h Dynasucs!' and
su rviv es in lo t h e \ HJ J k and beyo nd i1\
..-d I ' I' ct rlt- lIlHln Itldl
rbe Ah) dtos ..ac Is of the MI.ldle Ktng .
dum. ben suc h ..." " In t)' is hd rdly w.. rTa n tc-.Jby
l l lr ... l' \tJ,. 1l,'1. : and 110...pr \'SCI\' ollhl'
andl"'".' In Ihe '>-d Ull' gr. . "'... . t h" ug h n"t l"O,m
d u!J\ (". ls [Jt" llbu hly I" he rCl-: " n k.. d a s Indlca l ivo:' ''(.110
daung In the First hucrmediate l-' C'11tJd_A
,\.,>IOllk ;In" Wit'> kWll d <It I,Icl lVii n III a gr uv c
hy Ihe un Ihe bas is nr Ihl:"
as'i.l.dal..oJ n>dh'l ial . 10 tI .... 1-'11' . " 11K: 01,1)'
d 'l-'>Clydill ed c Ka mp lt, (wm ollhlJ.." I'-(l. Y[II. (r <)rJl l lr .
IMS bt.. c n .., } i l.lnrd III Ihe Midd le 10 I... I{' ,' ''' ''' ud
I'criuJ . " whkh l, .l /fll l"fJIpon . r y wil li rh<.' I,, " er
poorto r l hc ( )1.J Kin gJ. lOllOllJ Ihe Hrsa InlcnnNia le

f'rt . I '
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11M ," il., II" lI l btl , b'J - 7h . ;lll J 77 - 7 tJ. n-...p,' .-
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nllUlill \: ..1,, 111\ ih mid J It: 1i- " 1Il lUll
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h"r t-lllH' on Ih t' HM pk-n: , on t' [If
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' lu ,-..Jb)' m... lIs "fmllal ""lri lll: . " 11,c .""yUI IOl m o
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" t ll.' r I"" hl ,.. ..111'..,,1h)' 01
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mill l.lr\o- .... ."11.' ,, ' Ill. <l ml Tl.<dfl h Dyll -
.1,1i..,. . ' 111,, 1 Ihe h.dh ,or SUo'll " U'S lUll "" h avl I,. .... n
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EUH1Ud y \\ Ill. uud sh ,d l" .....a ln'" hea ,J .. r
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aJ dllJunill h" full g dn 'in ' in the f"rJllllf a small
pn k,r;l k J Ilf, .tnh (,f,m n , Il l<; , lpJl,.r lip is rounded
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br " L.. " . Th."fCMe bmJl lIg h.ll, -s. ill ... kh li nn
I" 111, ' h"I ,' "t (IK" I" p. ",hidl ,....1' intended lu
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S\n -rdl "l llll. Idl gcr h,.11Ih. , r" Ul<l i ll s of II ,,
, ,, l,, i nal " l ll lling. 1'11.. M' ld.: Is 01 r .lIhcr
..... ork. II rs "'''fTI<..... t IImJ hOi s ;Ill uneven bun and
r ull in g end . It is lhwUy r-nrrodcd "fl U " r
101' ''''-'''" h<lfl 'Ire prlscr\'l' J . :\ sm...ll
a ... 1.. ru ns tlt:IW,"Cll Ih . ..nlT.. 1 l'<"1' ("r " lioJl .anJ
Ih .' bUll . ' 1h. ' ,'uulll lt 111' '-;11)' "m.:'Un.'ti hy
... "T.,s i" n 11' '' 0..1 ".-1. It ' 'fi gill" ll)' [II bOlH"
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qo
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t vpc. llH"j,- " f tnlll ",!le1. 1 mel " l. ,II! from l hC,'O\II'"
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.h : 1, , : l: n: ' " ' 11.
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Hll>li" ,I" ' J'''II '
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hllt,l .. a l ,,1 sio. I.",", II h.. i ll w ;lf< I . 'tl l \ -
tng. ['" III IN l "l M,,1 " 1Il j4-1'!Il ,l m. ' "l h, ,, l<-.l
..... h ldl In 1101 \ '1" hl'l:n 1,, -, .-11,,1
wll h " Ilk' nl 11ll' hu ll- R" URh lv h lllll lll ('II..l lIall l-: ' '''"
life presen t IInJl lll J holh "': UltllpS, hil l , II, <'Illli u !!
end wa s IMll w orh-d I n a n "1", hl;uk b
BRhtlv and I , un ,,; or li lt' ", 11-: l n;l1 hil j l
'illfv ln : ..n th e n ' lll r;tI I' Il\ J.:
9 1 1''''' 11 I :;
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, ,
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frnHl thlll she!"! mrl'll. II in 10 IIll'
I'H' \' lo us Th, ' (ll l he lal en t!
Ian ;.!" a H' muntiN !. ;mu II n;l s ;1 it ",!!....1111.. 1I,UtI':
wll k h ....,, -'1 nlltl!<- 'iff'par a ldy Im J a ll lld wrl 1" Il l<"
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1' ,"'11. 1 <;: 88
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/1t1U1"1 I KrJ
rn ', pi, \'1. I ".t ' ,i /t '" War{flI " , l. d ..S:'
14 , 'l 'f, C/ 1'l
l' r('Sf;"" nli r ..... it h an U1111<; ll al
"'1<-nRIht-nl .. k-a l ur. III lh l' r"nn nf u r ll l.....J ril'o
ru n ni n g .Io w n Ihe nl iddk III lh .. "'Ilido:. It al
l adl('fl oy ffi,"itnt " f me tal rh TH h I a e vl lnoir1<: al
1""1"'1."'-n Isi n I!- . ... hNh ,' l w!' ..... 't1 11w,""I<'"
hnfl. d('("a yro fnllll in " ( If wh ll' ll 'itll t"i\'(' Im i,l,' . Th r
rh 'I'15, In nu mt".' r. w(" c hlS(rt rd Ih nou gh
hulNl In lhe lunlnl/:, whic h r orrr-:o; pn nd 10 !' ('rfo nl '
linn .. Itl tht' of the- ,1\(' , 'It l(' cmllt$!I" crad:;cJ
and II, .W lllld 11.. 1"w' f pt>r1i',n l<; ')111' Imll
Ilf l hc ... .l lom n n1 1s <1 1-;.0 1-<0:;.1 . '1ht- (.r1f!.. nf
Ihl" ", ..ok-hll \ hccn t1arn,, !!- ,'<!loy "UITH"'." ' l , n..l h Ih..
hl"dr ' Hld l tll" ca <O;lll p, >Ifl 'B ll.htl\' Pll tl lJ;l fo-.1
)1 104
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f',,,.......""l",- l ' nn'("',,-'Il'd
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l .n lj(l h 4' 1,<;' .....
Tl>c-. . .....' n ' r "'I"ll' . ' hr l u .
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n ' 14I 11f: u", , 7 11!
"'''' tr, iI>I- f'OflIl'"'r

,;",.u
llotrf'f .1'q<;IsiIu..: l q I 1
'1'1. Cf';
Thin err" : l' n l;'" lil.,o: Ill>II nnll -(lIll d " mal
svo. ,.-llll cn. Ilnu "u<llly. th e n 'fl lf a l lUll'"
to wa rds l h(' 'e-,,' a nd two sho n IlOllu lar
pr oject from Ih t:' la te ra l art:' n Oan gl' s
andt he cuutng en d has bee n rlk-d 10 an ('I. 1;:r In
modern rtmcs. Tw., blade hils been ,-Ir llm"l of
('" m "' '-'" prn dlll1. rcv Mtlin f/
w h k h ar e the n ':\ll ll ,,[ I h!.-
PI .. II , l ';
<;I n q
flDi .. n r<l 1"l crn " ,J IIll c l'ni<'<l
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..: h , ' .. " t,I"' " ,.'
IJn' r ,o/ ,I<" " i" ' io..,, ,.,. J
' 1'-l, C f>
Thi n rresccn uc willi elongated r r-n rral
t ani! ' It ha s ltI rf'(' holM, 1>/1(' to each
l'I ' (, 1m Ih.: l' ull hl K o'n,1 b;
u nw or l<C'd. '11"," IIIIRfllnl"QI " f lh.- rnm lln R; h<,k""i
imr n Kl!u hlc-, II de;trly ;l ttol n-fUl..-II<'11111"f!C<.!.
men. The b1dtk' na s hl'l"'n d l' +I!1('d ,M ("" n ud o n
Impr('S.........J in Us s u ri a. /.' is ;"l rq: ,IlI.. ,
Vol lkrn o f pllS'iiN y dcrtvcd froom a c1(1(h
o' 'lOfll(' N hITwOVefl milierl fll.
1' .\ " 14

IJoIr:Hr!t InINTtlt"ll llll.. It:'r.....1
.\ rr.n I.. ..., "' IIl,I: l rr' fl: l h. f>,f>r m; "' idl h. J 4 I ..m
I
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e u: Hc;,o : Ph: <; I": Su: 1'1 .1.<>: AIt' " .tll O: f' <: :
0 , 1," ; Sh: " ,HZO: Nl: " ,n ll l : ,\u ., ,,-, . 1; (' 0: < ....,1 ;
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"lmll...,I'M' . a nd wllh lIlr1'l"' "Illy. one
10 C';t<.'h l a OR. l h r rud 5 /If ill(" I an !!" arc
r ur\' M. It lhkk! }" ctJITtJlk,J llU! h as nnw
benl '-'llll l' ld e ly delll l<'J,
th l' f Wll lllt a nd pmt Il{ II\\." and
IInr " f Ihl' la lCfa i IHIlR" i'"('r.-l d ...d
H2
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1'" n '\', o{,lo:-<!
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I\ '.-Ir/hl 1 ' 1. :11:
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,I' /i" ;"; l" ' '' : ",,!
N" n.,
Axt'-l lf ad III The \1111('1" ends of the
tall'n ,l nrc r" u,...k-d. Thr e-e ,.r
h,,11"S n onlal u rn nalns "' Il l(' . >rip:lnul lfl..hlng. 'Ill<'
t>1,.dr- 1<; qui ll"thid Jy corroded

1),'1.: frll<'mlo. '\l llt ll' " ..nod - !.llddlfo
I'r""" 1lQ1l< t'; !Jnc('rllll n '
IIk,I'lIrru .."t.1: Le ngth. !'d lnn : \\'kll h,
I\!mr"':
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1; I'h :
I" : Sb: Nl: ",<+10: Au : c , ." 1: t'o: < 'UI I :
I .J : , n: 'u...
/J.-r" ,., 1'J' l-'tIf(Ju romy l;r('f'n w.-l1C.. lk-ol'K>ll l
. , .. h. ... J I' ':tJ . pl . Ii
I\jl; . .t: W../kIl ,Z<; , f1Il' 11,d:Ir:-"..,ll ." CU/f>
Axc -hcud slrnilar 10 lb and Rl ' lhLlUgh n hes II
wtdcr <;prt'ad and Ih," ends of th e I" lt' rill hmp" <I n'
rar bcr lh llll cu rved . The la ln-a l
lulks an- mi.....llt/- nrn. 111(' hltt<k-ISIl ll:h l ly corroded,
wlfh II1l("M of Ihe woojen ho ft survtvmg
III t hr n>1n,., \" n p"Ol . ,hI Cl nenr Itll' hUll . Th e n l l-
ting r<J-p;,. i5 nol \/ ("fV bul Ihere ar(' sign s vf
wc-,u . Th("Tt:' is a l h in ('"w ,' k on O' ne [ " (' t",
') 10 14
[)Ntr Fir, t l"INl'lH,.!lMl" r l'ti "d MIJJl, ' l(;oj': Jnm
...:( In r N;-" ...;k.J
M" r, ,,, rmr lll." wid lh , 1'1
U .....p" :' t ... SIt
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.1""/.If<I<: CU" M" .:;; I"'\>- n ... ",,: S", "It' "."1.,,Fl".
" . j" " : Sb : ."" Ni: " .0 1'" AtI' 0; .. " I : t'o; <
A":2'1:7Jl: " " ."2
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R1Il h"!t"q>h'INt>\'\('
' \x C,I",' ll d sfm Hll / to lb, I t Is very thldJ}-- ro r rodnl
TIM: hi lldl oK hok-s a rl' ( n/ mJ"'11 over . and it Is
IInn'ria ill hew man v h" ks Ihr .... a ir' In the lal ('rill l

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lVrI"M
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h : ,ll S" ;S!>: H,,, t>.. : NI: H,' . J " : .\ U: . .. ... , . {... ;
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fliNk>!itaphi/: N,,,,,,
. of 10 ';Ill . b" , wilh II VI'fY
wilk: ,'l1l1l ulI '11,,' mIJJ I,' i . "'" 1f .. 1v
,'.' 1lIr<-.J <I",j lb .' rlll,j oh j) II.. .. ,.. porIlIl IIU" lll .. II " ' 1,'
flKe Ih un Ih, ' ol h,r. Tltl. hla <k' "- w" r p.:t1 .. oJ ""l. '
"fll" ' lal lf "l fillip !la, 1"' 1'11 tllm, ..l , It tlU' ,1It1
'i l. q h
0..1t: to1r ", IUIL'f nw, Jf.. t,I-' . noj . ";"'j(do'm
Pr.....,....., , : I'l\ u... onhl
,o,t. ',u u, mlt' III>: l r<lll th. 1<; J . o'
W'I!I"l: .l-P 7J1
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.1.5: I'JO: " II ." ./:

HINt,'tlrflph .' f N,>I1e
r\ lIc h;:a d :>1l 1l i1;df In Iii 9 7 . bur w il h ffiHI'l'
d .. rt[l. lIleJ 1(lIl(;S. n,... .-{' -nllil l la n j: is :oJ1al" -d li" l-
tll.' 1" r <J, . l>lIt tIle .1Il1s
ill ... .. TI ' O:'l-Il1lu lt (..11:" ....1 y ,.>\..-. I\ 'L"
at ItS ' oln. The hI."" '..lolfp<- oJ ;lI\J nlVl'HoJ hy
th ll. I. ( OrH 1Shlil pn ltIUl'l . pre"t'f\',-d in w h lr h ur..
lh e of IInell- d ot h un ,) plau l mllinidi.
TflI l.'C'$ le rl b y th e h utt a re quit l' OI;ui ., .J .. .. Ihe
U' n l r .. l hlOlt
99
6 7.;8 0
}Nk : l'i-ri<..J- M"kJ k' I(mg JUlll
I' f ......,...,....; I ' .. ' n l.. I..
M,.,"' .. rr"' ... ' b; I.r- u !tt h. 4 ... .." ..."h h . I I-t..."
Wr oglot: t .
"'''' lu ;.J : An.o:'ft il .. I .-., WC'
A,,,, r.,,,,, , (' u ; '1 1 1-1 . 1'11; " .I .j.'l: SW < ". J " ; ", " ':":
o 140 : :-> 1.: <I " f", : Ni : ""lo: t\ t1. ,__ " " , : Co: "' '' H' :
:\ . : " " U l
,,,, ,, ,., .... " '..sll;,''' : ' '1' ''' (;n ....I.. d l
ftudi".. I I I"'I .,lI. " I , pl . il . 7
11\ ' . pl . VI. ,,,,,; 1I..."n",..,.,. I J. pl. J . , n ; U'oI//rot. S.
,1. , ,'. illld I f< 7; "--I:" . " " . ('- \ ' ,-"
:":\I'-h l' ild " hnos! ilknllt'<l! til '17 I .. n ll a s im ll" f
!Incur ,J,, ':;ign Jighl ty r h;,SI. ..J along Ihe mk1olk .
Th(' r,' a rc Il. t ll,H1J.( Mi. l1 lC ",rf..ril U.. n :; .In.'
mi",. h;':l},oJ 1111' I' Ilt J 'I f 1I1ll' .. I Ih. I'II.-ra l I.on.:" is
.' ur\'(''' . Ih e ' lIht':r .'lId s " <' >tf<tillhl . ThL"
bli1d<,Is <l Iiule w ilrp.....l <lllt J tillite lhkll y ("uITou t'J .
espo....IIl Il }' on O!i(" fil( t". Eillh "I lilt.' is J, lIn-
onl Ih l' bUll
111<:" oillillg ..... ge t>,,>df\ Unumber 0{ smull intknJ,;t
Th e ckT, ' m!", ny trtll lid" ts a "" u gli ly ,' }'Ii n-
.In ,-,,I wo .ce n ,1" " . nn", !,r"h 'll <It th.. !..ril urn .
....hhh h [lilfh" lIy cmTr, .,j hy h<lri.. lt h" s Ilm'<. '
na rrow ",-"I.ets t or the whtc h III q uit e wdl
Th, ' ba rk bea rs the ,l.'a r impresslo ll Iff th<. " riglna l
hh llJm g. a n.. ly-.:i ,, lidS ,.lm""l1 Ih ,ll
,Iff.,. Ihe lllu.te ).lr ",("(J lJy n' [lI. olh'\l
...mit llll( " ltd allu cil llng . N." li....am. .11 e u.. III
th e Ila ft ha s )' idJl" d dat e uf r. I ':t!l.l-t t 10 III
Iwlll. "lIupll!I ,....JllJl I l IO IS' . I" . lul no , 4" l!:: M..nM
ullde..,.,. ( , s( oJ .I. I. wit h ..., aO&ul ' ... -l.l . I :
t...... "". t, I. t ;lIUI"" I''r'II: r . / IIM II
<; : U.. . ..." ,.....(+/"., ... .. rt ..i .
Ill' <; : T\\'. p!. Vl. ll . i ; Jk .... "Jj"''''y. I J: N,... -.Jkt .
l "ll<"""h.'ljil ( I 'I <;.l l, S" , ,"'1I11fig, -4 c: /.:./:.e.. t J.I
1',
t il r!>c cr.. ...cnuc h' ') 1 ,,"J <;t -4.
loul w ith' " 11 IlIl(s. 1111'f"C.UC I I on'l h .. I( -s, 11m....
III the 'l:' f1tnt l Idll )t . jour I n eech <If th e l<tlo:ntl
ti-Ul;1.S. The UNX'f Up of th e bla de is ml ssil l}t. The
cd!!,' bus be-n iJ<un" lll.-'l.1 b y t'or n l'Slun in
l".r ls hUI 11(';11 '" u" d "' dr uf ..... ca r, Thc re I:>
..J un b..{h riICC:>. TI,l' blade b
a lla dlt'd 10 " tubul ur cal-Illg. med ...or Soil... " , wtuch
pr obah!y once cndo'icd ii wooden hdfl. I1UWdlsap-
pcar cd, ll Lhlll!o\ uuatns SI: W f li l r ruck s lin d
hul,... and lis UI'P'-T part IsI, os!. rcvCi.linlt Ih. mctul
n V<' h . Siu l"c li s Ol ..qu hil l.; )I\. the h ds been
rt l n kln "L-d. NUll... . If the nv cts e re cumplef c. Som e
an.' misstng , ' <I1wn have su lfa ,-..!o-rrusicn dam-
All were 111](, ' cu pped \\jlh silw r :>lU.h . unl y
"ilL".If whk h no loll survn .."'S lul cKI , 1 the bonom
lh <: .." ""Il l! conram s a sm.. U .runcer tatn
1"1'T"''''' . '
I'Utn. I '
r1.1tn 17
I .! Ii' S
H flt: .. ir>l lnl (TIn'.,j, I,..-1<,,) Mio-iJk ...... IIJ..m
... t l" r'''-..,. ..J
,\k,I. I e rn ; ....idl n,
Ih .l ,lll
,\I ..lo",'. _\ rs.,onI.:u1". "" ..,
--'IIK}!/' !>' : ('t ,: ':140 , I' b; fI . .,lS.. . Sit: " 0 . 1" : Ag; " ." 4-" : h :;
.... " ." 10 . A.I; H >I ; (-O:
< " " ,,,; ... I , I : b l : U .l : Hi ' <.,.".
J)alr v! ,{,qI<i " li,m: L'j ' ltl
" -hI . pl, vii. I
Shall " w . Nrdy n l."$tl. nt k wil h I h rct.,
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In m"lh'1'Tl tll ("r.ll urt". bccac-c of it 10 cha pe. Ih ..
rl"' i lvn.I'I1(e. l Th r- hatl a wltko di'>hi hlIU"o III
w est ern AsIa J uring th...lh inJ milk-onlum, tlnall y
In lo pIl ru1il r use in at a time when
II .. lrr ,,, ly III'l:N)' dWlAht 1"l" hy
!I V'" " f I hr IInd",r and k n(.,.lrul ro ty pes wilh
';l1("!.:l'I". ( lu l"kk' two m",ln vancucs of cees -
;u ... h,I"C been ...I , each wl rll It
11l('lhod.' In t itr- Ilrst type .
Wllkh I" the (' lIr lin " f rhc 1\\"<1[0'. .l Rc;, j Iil'" 11(' 1,
the hI"Jr Wh'\ a ll a. h<"d by N: n,jlnll lis I.. ngs. or
Ius' Il" C' mt", ' la nl!. arou rul ttw- h aff. In the
wn.n.1. JOl la type tr, lS ou - J 1W' 1.- '1. the hlmk
"' lit Wtu ITl.1 IH Ih l' haf l hy ri\r ltnj':. 1111' I'p:yrt km
fOIl!In lo Ih ls S(,\'ol"j c1!Il' J.l, )l"Y ..... ill, pnfor llll' d
!l1()lJllh u n like l hl'l r IlK-Y
a r e lu"" as nfl( ' n JuoJ'Ko,1 h) the hlt rl a'\ r ln ' h,J Qnd
l hl'i r iln' o llnrllt'fllv lttH mlr n.1 wllh mr lal
/ 1Ol.'1" lUI. 9 4 a nd
l1le l ypt' ls n" l tw 1lJllIl) a U("S.I ,'(] ..tbfor. ,rl'
th r Il rsl Inl cnnl'{ll m l' Peri od ' Exa mple'S (,f rhe
slmpl.. r.JOn (Ilk<' i <J- f1q } havr h<' cn III
Ilru vt'S or Ih .... da l e a nd of Ihe l' ati y MIJd k- King-
dom 011 HIllI (a ll lndll' !-
l Ull 1'1 9 1. ' IJlh('u ('J1t"u ll d h 'll 31 Rr n l 1.la.<:iln. l loc' n-
,lera .' r l I.lhn a nd f';<lgll l'd- lll' r' Itf'(' ("'ft.'h--
lInly In r.rpla('('u the :<:a me da t l' -nlllgc Of" a
Ilu k lulrr. wh ile a furt her Cl:amrle fr mn I.li:'ntk ra .
im ''' I' T'' lfiI l lnjt .. In l l!th wl"l" lJl("I lilll rib "'00 Ad-
dillona l t un- I<lngs a l the t"('a l' . was i1Pf'l!:n:'n l ly
found In It T.'d fl h l )yna sty F1U1tK-r
""'kknn ' r"r II }; ("oo li n uous 11!<e l he
Mldd k' King dom Is Ii:lflh,'OInin lf rn>rn I-' (' .'('n l h an d
I'wd flh Illm h a nd ((' lIpl C Dnd (Will
t tn ('l ,ffin s. whe re II tlepkl t'<! In
t he hUIlds o f "' liJ l("rs UlU.! IImn nll !lr mt of
mJIiMr y L"qU1rm...nl. " Amoll il Iht-oIr <;(TfI("'I Is a ll
Inhfl ...Un g I pt . 1". 'i t." dllll l1!!lo
Ih<: 'I w"lflh whkh , how!> 1""0 \lU S o f
this Iyr-:-. Ollt" " r wh lrh has fuur lung!>. numbt- r
a llC'Slt"d a mon g ltll" t"S on ly 011 th e
cJ p;ed v"r lt'ly bN; IW ), of the numemu" un -
pro ven ;meed 1O('N"IIlll' ns_ pa r llnda r ln lf' rcst at-
ladl ("\ h I K!l , wh k h hffS a medi a l ri b . a nd to a n
ax(" in Torootr"l." wh ich ha s al t he ("ll ds
o f III(' conl' ffi llon lll Th t"S(' rr lltu rt"S II"""
l lWl wn only fnl<ll l he I),: nden lin d
Sc nmll So u l h 'ipCdmrns ml111io ncd
'It\{: slmpk foml mav wel l tlRvC grllduAlly
!>Upl"rst"tkd hy the var1l1nt 19]-0; 1-
I m fO!1un<ltcly. llf Ill(' m Hny e "' Qn l o/cfme ns of
l yj:>(". nOflt" Is prm etl <lll e...1 a Ucs loo p('( .
h al;'l' In II t om h -r rprM"nl aHo lI da l ln g to th e mid-
til... IIr 10(" l'1c'vr n rh Oyn il'>ty," it to hl'lv("
too:xnllll' lilt- mO"'t I-"-'J' lIlar lon n oJ l>oUI...-a I ... du r
i ll l! th e ("Hur se of Ih r wh l'l' II
eomn l(ln lv In of a ml lli ftry na t urt"
Isrc pl . and pl . lR.. fil!.
rt-pn.. ""C"n l all .. n 1O lpl . 1H. . fill.. }I . or th (' la i c Tw el fth
Dyoa"l y. sh owt 1'1 0 r:O:C1 mpw wl l h II t lh M' Cll"ln g
m," 'H
'Ill(" t l r olgh r.rogt"d \'iul l'1y t9 b- H" ' ) Is db ll nd
frn m Ih e' ot he rs and "lfl llds outside th e-lr lin", of
Jt"vl."lupmt"nl. It may lw' d"'rivt'J . as
rclrk s ugg(":Sl.s.' from l he wMe. sh a llo w inrms
repn<;t nl l."d by foR-,S. wll h "",hid l it h dS much In
ro mmon SCru c1u udly. A ddi nlte lk"clopmenlltl
is n ot yd dc1n onS fr.tMC"ar fhl1ooJof! IOIlIy.
110w(""... (, li s dillc -nmge 3pPt"ltni to ha ve hrcn
n>u(th ly Ihc tiS Ihe !'imc>le IT("S(TfI l k for m.
(h ouf! h il ma y n tll: h" ve su r vl vrd In uw as
Ih e laUe r . It ma y be slgnJfk anl Ih a f It is IINn l
rrom Ihl" mlln y mllll ary 'l(;enrs or thl" T" 'dfl h
l)yl111o:1 .,.. :\ J1Im, hN ,If
S{'(" d m.-ns I" know n . the 1>0:":'\1 t'Ol11' c xlt"L! b.:inll
th ree frnffl M"SlIl"j{l"1da " lin d t.IOt" r"-", n Qii u . " ull
{.f whk h d.. ie lu th... fi N ln lrrmt't'li llh' '"
("#1 1' 1)' Midtlk t; lng <.kom. Two nl h,r.. r..u na ;01
Ah ydo- lS. nn e ut whkh ('a ll be lIs-slgnro 10 th e' same
n111Il:f" (n r early MK) 1)11 t h. w '>l s of lI:".. .;o...l nk J
It", . rtlk-I' kinK IIml;ohltok- fHr lad. ,.r
Ink>t1Tl3I it lfl . .. l1l c n;-m nln!kfc. >l 1Il' frolll Ull f"l lh -
Ii 'ihni Of llI-l' ubhsh<"d ("xn tv a lju tl ,,: 110" .1fWIll Bo' nl
Hasan . 1!I1" fr"01 I)"II&-ra IjlfOoohlv HI'
early and (Il l(' Iroru Ki}!1l r,FIP
clId y MI\)! ' t h... taue II rarr- v.. rhUlI .... -lth
"' lUr OI,I1(. """i:"l' k l1f' ''' '11 cmll' fr o'" ;111 u n -
pruve ne nc rd soccnnen 111 \ \"( "; \ I\cr lln . "l1n 1), ' 11-
dora sp<.-CiIllMI I" Ilw rth " .!flng In Ih HI II bcurs
Iincllr . k,('(lr" l l.-.n sl m lh. r 1.. that on 'tn"
uth cr nn nrovcn a ncr..1 exampb
J
' All t he 11M r-x-
are Io'ith oul usrl'uJ 'I i r a n
now be ,fa It'<! 1.01 Sllfl\e whr rf' wll hln t he r. 1f1!L("
t"lP - MI>.: , un th e of rhc radtoce rbon lm ,ll v"ls
...fi Uh;,afl.
Sinn:' all l l w l. I.. ..... 1l .. arr- "' Ifll"' !\i,' ll ;lll -
re d. Huk' 01 t u ool a Ul"l' ("1 111Ix' cald a!Hll Jl IIw for m
with ("101+1111111' 11r ell l U l l .l ll it 1'I'l- 2 1. bo:' y"n d I hr {;1<1
l h ai ll s lu e r \'kkntly \<. 1111 Ih...
sllllrl e rre<\CcnUc Iyl'l' . l lJ<o "ha p..,( 9' 1 (' '''''''' Iy
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lilt n ,' n -fun d lun aL Sl' \ll' r a l Iw u. lf w h kh <tH'
rese /nHe 9' In shapt". ruulIJed
li nd with i\ Iofl g...r 11t1111" Thrre vf l llC"S<l' . r llfh full-
stu . h a ve rh 'cI-h" lCl' In Ih f'ir 1811IlS. ' lt i, uncCTla ln
wlX'l hrr 9 11'\ rra llyu m,. k l nhm uJ;r .lI Ih k l yl'l' O'r
repre!lo .'lli s '01," 1(, nl hl"'r Und (Of s lm ll;l rI)' "ha (' ol" d
lm pk,-nr t l l. If II Is II l'Upy of II
th ell It:! Iw rr pl e((' slru ,rur('. wil h rhe
S("( ' urt"d 1o Ih e h1ade U)' II r1l1M. prnh"hlv
!lg,lIin st li s N"in tl a n o \ e. f....llks a l<;< , sUlTflu nd " 2.
curious full-!ltu' lm pkme lll , milJ I"of Iro n . d a'OS<'tl by
Inr.... A h alt>rrd and da led f-.y hi m 10 Ih...
TWffi tl rl h Dy na 1Ol: y on thl" of li t In
ltl<- 5And-bcd of a lrt llpk o f j{1llTlC!>">("'; IV." 'Th is
plen.- slllnd, hy IL"""I f. II Is I...... Iill... III dal e lu N.-
cOl1nC'l.loo wllh 1m- a u s. " 'h k"h 00 nOI:
Sllrv i\'("In to th e N...w a nd Il l. qult ("u nli ke
any othlY tyVCof na ll' r Fy pll" n ill\ r or WC<lp' '". ..
II m:.y he bt-llt'"rln l("rpr ercd OI San cn l lrefy ulll" r ml
Iyj)(: of ImpJrol ffi t. ro:rl Hips kind of 11<>0:" or
nla ll (1l,k. f,,.. wh kh ill ronn would no l l'l' un-
s u llt"d." Th ...r r ls IIIsoU a QuM in l'l "m ll r k
da l r . lhe sllIld l>ctI of OJd('<;rruYl-tl lemrk"
cllln h ar dly ht" rt"ltilr dt'd as 0 !'CoiN 1'...l ric
glvM no In fonlla[/ofl illSto how r<lcdoW II In th (' SIlnd
tht- pit"ee bu t t ftt" m u s.l
ellortth .lI lh l" J>lo:"Ce I" Inuusiv..." lid in co n ..etj u('fl f C
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. nd Il: Woll'nt.lfo-r. l.4.....,uUydo!' . I. *! . I . ' H 'I1
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III. U ..nd I.. l l"" ,
.. " .nlt'. " " 7 h .. .. ...... . I . "'-= " ......,. " ".1.
.
,0. . 1" .'..
,; ' Io0o. , '''".rI h it . 1 \ (1,, 1" <0\ .. .. "",t' ",.", I.. ..
..' M' .... I"",,,,: ! 117,1 11." .1...

, " Vii . I. \ '1, pi " "'m , . ".".. .. ' 1
''I r., '..rI , " " 1_ 1' /;1 " , '" 1I
..";,.. .. "I"'...lI,,f"'+-<u.

10 rc " ,r! ' . l' ...." C.'I"' ..,'"......
, I l\{ .. . .. " /If; .- t<, 1I,.. ,1\ " '1 J \" " ", I
. . H 't' \
n . ... W '<> ,It ,
1 1 r . ... w"",,,,'"", ,......tIoy h, I'.l" ,,,, .. ... I.. Il.....
.w.""............ ,.... "."'..101... ......1
J t ,H I
No-. \ '. d ' I .... 1.J 1 ' l , I ' \. "" '_")'1'" ,. ; ... .
"" n' .." f'K"....'.... M II" .. ...... . . " (><.hl..."" .n.
\I ... r,,,..,,.,.. It"" ",", "
... 'l A I L q' . n"
l ll.... l 1l lf ll \ " ,,,>dJ'ol no. ' ,"*:.110 U .
. fo., , I : . 1' '' ''' M' ' " . r'' oil , ",., 1.1.. " ,. , ,,,,,,.
l"" lo " lt-dm l" ... V'....,.I "." .,. . .....,'.....n ....
,h tol W. p"n.. l ' . .... ' .. ..rrn
l ;_ llooml,'t: h." " \\ . .... .,j,-h . l ;,; .... " ' 1\1I1l " ..
..1_ ':.. ..., ..... !' I. "
'I t J,'"'',' ''
: .: ' 1
1
/;' .. n"," \ \ Iol. \.. "XJ {h ..flNl n
I X , .,.. ... ... IolAII .I ' " ... " .. ",.,.-10...( '1. ..... II.. tt>I.. .. ".'"
.. I. . , .. I '
l' , N". lIt.. " l ll . ... I..h le 1 1 " ... 1
10; ,01111. ;fo ,
In (lu ' <ldo, f n .. . "'" ..-I<......' ''"' . ..nd ...'.. ..... "
"".,"",,,,,,,1>,,, In"" ' ,..H..tW h ..." ,,",
., """ :_ .It ",,, i 'I , J
1. 11hG' ht """".nl ..uh m -,,),''I'"! ..' ..... .I<
ol..... "' ..""' I... i"'h ;I' . "" h HNl."'......
.. "' I IM..._ '.t' ' . i ' '' ; ; I. I . r.r; ' I."" .
, .. I l l. h,,1 'h .........,...n..j, "'" , ,,.." ,I
p . 11 r..t , ''1 1-1' I 'll"'. " , ,, . .. " , .I , ... ( " " " 11
..
, s..... "",1,,'1 m' I". oh.>N, 1I.. h.o. <. "" ' '''' ,.. ..
l
Lugged Perms wit h Splayed ur
rncurved Sides ( 10 J - 50 )
...;t-lJH"'M;'

r",, 'I' '' \ ; H SJIlt'::;
10 7 l'U 11 1'J
Ito] ] I ,
Ilolu St<oo..,..J h ' I..
..: Un. '1'ftdIIl
Length, Il l..tcm: ... ..t l h ill bu l l, .jC. l n n ,

I\-'rI,l rf: 1
Af,>I.. r...I. .\ r<;dl"r "I('--'PJll"
,\ ""/ ",M:: CIl' ''7, 4; t'b, -:'''.' H ; So\: .: ". J 'I; ,'1. 11:.. .. ,II I :
f e:H llO: st. ; " ,Ul ' l; Nt ''''' \0 : ." " ; ' 1,", 1; 1'"
" .HJ' I; As: 1.6::tll: ' . , I t.
LJ{ 1117 5
1I11>ll.>t! to('h!l; No<""
CruJd y rash lon,'\.! lI\ e-hea.! r"u l(hly sh ull... hi
I . M>. bu r wll h d J.xl-Jt.- 'f cu lli u l: ..-nd Ih .... I:. uwal
TIl e blaJe I, ..... urpcd and th e bu n and shk.,
uneven . It Is corroded In pa rt s. Th e tip of one uf
th e cu s ps ha s been lIdl lll cd hy a hi!)", . There . In '
stgns 1.1'w..,If IIIl the I-Jl: t-.
I f, .. ..... ..... 14.
......t Il b. .....t ... b..o, .. . . ...... I.... . n T.i 1
o1.y . htMIy... 1<1 rn .-.U." fn""
108
b'jt.l' 4
IJInI': BLlok: St.,;- undl"I.. "f""... itllt: I'l"OI'ltI. II" II; S, ... ..tJ
rt urJ t,<..llury .' I)

...tI'.asI.. ' ....."" 5: 111I\Ih ,d bl...k:.-. .i ,,n; ..." llh ..1 bu ll .
..f.
s-.u rm
"" t"l!lhl : 8.1......
AWl rf!l t>ronu. 1I..f{: W\>ad. .-'1.1.... ' ap
Anal !lsJS: ell : 'f l , I : ?b: 'I .'UO: Sn : b. i>o : 11: ' 'l. ' ) ' 0 : Fe
.. ... 1...: 11.'11>0; No:".1.10.. ; ....u ; '" " ," 1; e ll : 11.1:
.... .l ." : ".1:.....-l-
""''1" 1>11..,,,. If on ... ,,-Iy l ir".... l....d l
ItjJ;"""""...,.h.,.'lJud Jc. .
"g .l .
Axe-hea d \I<- 'f'Y sir mler in shape 10 wfi wnh pro-
n.)lm cl'J cusp::.a l lh e ends o( l hc CUll ing .-dt:.e. l Ilt
bUl l of t h e IIXC. the is rnh \ iuy
Mo:.f ..{ tbe axe hus btt'!1 ( lea ned or l'<>J" r I1SIUII
prodcrt . '1lcre ar ... ;s "u m""", o r Ilt:hl o;cnl t.-!Il's
" lid luu l ma rk s UI! un e f<l, e . Tile' ruU ll11,\ rd lll' is
t hin d IU.! '-Iuitc , ha TJI. One of 11Ir: ha s bl.'('1l
' umeJ by d blo w hUI " , Ilr:r wi-.c , h.. fe .. n:: II"
obvlml s slgns <If Weill'. Wh "1l a, Oj ul n-J . l lw bl..dc
WilS .. Oad ll-.J h I ;, (yllndrl r ., 1 w,.. . !l'H h url hy
01it llIoJ . 'Ol h!nJ.hr}{. T' ll' haft is split
vCTtklllly ar Il le to p to f"r m a lTu de ...-Ld , wh id l
was l Oll 11Irgt" i ll a... ..' ..mn' lI.idie the nour IIr Ih e
bhuk S'Xu rdy , To un-rCOr!l ..' dlllk ully t W' 1
sma ll 1'h.'('{'S o r w,..id hOl.1 bt"1.n In:>l.' I1,.,j ill ll! Ihe
lowtf' " .. If or th e sod. cl. t h e lllp pk,<, c I<lnllil1' ull
evcn p1atfi,m l un wtl k h lhc bludo: l'CSted. A I1f,Kk
...i ht' sl ve 5n'1TI S thcn I II h .-. vc ........ n .. pp1 I..-d aml lh e
"",hole b<liUtd IIghlly ....il h )1r l" l>. .'\1 Ihe bolll.. m
..nd . the hOlrl hd S <I ll e X'ld ll J mg I"h lch 11111-
I/lins d ho le. "'f a ICdth (T fir 1' '''1)
It 16 CTiI.1I:t't! .. nd abr lld,,-.f al $L'Vl-r.. ! P'dU:S <I lu n lol
lis OIlld Is Jl"lh'I\('l! OIl lh ., I"p. 'I'll<' ,1.,1e
pr uJ l hl-.J loy faJh":Ufblll ' llIulysi:. (or l Joe hart In -
dlc .. t ('!l thit! it ' '' !l IlO( bt- ..."nlC1Tljlt.lf' df)' wll h rhe
billd&- . ' " ull probtobllhy Ihcy wne 1111..'-' lllJ:l, IIl.'r
In m" ..km 1lm.-:o
Pl..... n l S J06
AlI. ch l..,j \<elY :.imll.J1 lu III I . II be thid,lf H>f-
nJdcJ end th ere lire deur Ir d\ 'CS of the u rlglmtl
h<lft. ' ML'lall ogrllphk a nalys ts h as In dicated th a t
" flt'f l:oIsling ptece was annealed and fln tshed
IO-' "rl. ill lt
h .... ... Lu f>ll".'!'>t' arn.. "..., J.)IlI"" " <;t>dow
WMhlt\r l .. " ..... b.- I I .. 1"$I"<T, "-'o.n.tl.... U.. ',.j
.. ... ", . d .. I.......
bul ' "p . ,' <I, " 7. l'i. Jib
luI. ,
It' ..... " ompol re 17' ' bdo-wl

'1uIr : s....,..IJ I.. u,. ' n"'i..... Pcrt...t
'r" __ ..>.k!lI
.\l " .u "". .. "',11."";wldlh .. 1 bu.. . ..... ; .. I
{ullln, N lIe 5o l11'
Wrlfl"r:H:'s, lLt.

..,...1" , ;,, :1' ..: -.11' 1: I' b: " ." ,,, ,; Sn: II. I,, ; A, -, < ,u ,, :".. "
No: " " 4' 0:Au : 0:." ,"1 ; f' ...: < ' ,-, ' I ;
Ali: " . i ; L.n: < Ou l
J).llru/ .-1.".. I.. I.... ' Bnmlollj
Hrl>/I<"Il"'f'h...: "".Uf. I 'J: .. 1"'1 , G. -tII;'I .
1'1 'i
All .... h..""l simllM in !<hd pt" 10 I ..... . th ou gh l h e bu t l
i!l strdl gh t flnJ Ihe slJo l u m out Shlltp ly iiI 111l.'
(' utl i" l: Inll l u r..r m 1"' 0 Jis t in. -tluSPS, lInll$u.. lly<
I' ,e h1..Jc h" s II mkJ.r1b. 'Ow: , 11'(' bfvdll.,j
I'lll' b1"Jc b...'C1l lk<!lIcd of COlTDSlO!l pmd lld ..
OBl' fan' snl ... >th. ' f t h un rht.: ol hl'r . <l h l' f1 is a
. 1110111 .. r.lu lt b..nc..>:lh" nc , Ir Ihe lu gs , The
, u lll n l1. .. .J gl.' Is ;m d shows rli,t in. t f
WCllr.
IUS .. n
b p i l
... ...JI"{OL'fTl...'4ll"I.. l'd; oo
/,.."",..,u, M..,.. ..l:nW..
M"'1 ... 1U>[l.lh, 14 ,' . <:m: ...ltJlh at boo. -' ,'5"n: ..t
I " l .-m
1\',1/"' :
."full'rl.lJ: .-\nt-nk .lc.:>pl."'"
Cl.l: q.I:>. l: Pb: <: >I,Il J. : Sll ; -cO.l : ."It 1),0 1: t '..,
" .' l :Nt II . I I ; ....u : -cu 01 ; , ".. ; < O,u .l: ......:
" .,: ""(' .Ul
u,,1" "' ''' q.. lfll ;' Of): 1,+' " If;.or l u( ( ' . ItnJl>{''' 11
/I,Wio'!l' ''f'IIII, AL.>$1 1' 7. I l 7.Pl-h..-l l . ' '' :''-/;9. "'7
G-' fb
Floel)' fllSrul"IOO axe -head s.imllar In shape ro 14
t wu h wllidl il W d S k.>l mJ ,' bu t uun-h . nd
hea vjer lind wlt h me re markedly rncorvco
und concave h. 11I nba s teend e..ned of corrosio n
pmJul't . 0 11(' rlJl"C Is :wnuutht'r l h a n the ol tle-r an d
t he:rc LIn: pHs ,Ill hot h facC'S. Ha mm cr
md rU <Io rc vl sihl t' .ilo n g th r: li nd 0 11 l ite
c u ll in g edg e. ... hk h Is q uite sharp. .... l r1tfn<lgn. ph lc
.. Sl-I gIt4"lrL'I. Ih.. 1 oe>::plh:: tinh hal "ppr:.;<r-
' " Kl.' Ihe- a xl' IIldy mil. h;"vc lIt'Cft 10 l-I "" .
Aftn II,,: hl u,l t wa s (" W-wor Koo, bll t fUJI
eXhn si ... elyso
104
hp. }'!
L\l l.t; SKulld t' eriooJ
Prom"''''I' .-k\oSlallcdd.tl'
.\ h , ..., ,,,..IlU: I ...ll gl n. 'l ., nn: .... ldt h llt bul l. 5,1ern: dl


M"tI, n , f.B nXl U
Il . I :. " II -c.. .
n ." thl; 'sb: \UI IO; NI' Ol ,"!U; .... u : < 0 ." 1: \ <J: < 0 ." 1:
As: OI,.l :Zo; <. O,Ol
llall' oj ,'\cquisl l/"""1 91 <l IGlft uf {; ,Hn mI<1l')
I n . plh,,' Ii. , I;l J.' 9 . lU7
I H t t>.
l' l", nlli
I'LAn .:>,8 .. nJ 1I
p""\l l::llI H ..nd \ 1
IO!.
10 1
101
loX!( ] .,
ll"u : s".:".. dl nl"'f ,ncd loo l" I\ n"J
I ...v .... Iln ' n . ........
.. , .... ,."t ,.: I-"' l l:l h, .....Jth ,u t>< ll i. " .(I '-nl ; .. 1
('I,lll" !t'x/;I' . 5"' m
W i l li !! I , ' Ul 71:
ll.I"fU", /tlr." II "
\ ' '' II.'f'' <.I u: 'H ... : I' b' <I;'' J ,, : S'': I. ''', ,: .'Ill: '' '' I,,: Ft:''
". " 1' .: NI: ".,,,.,. :t .. , .. " "I : "":
...." I Ul : " t .. ... 1
l loik .'171'1Ih'l llh"fl \' WdL.-Hll "' l ,,t/' '' ' '' '' ' f
1-0 "",'
.... ....J .. r 1tl I " Z 1>"1 wll h d nllr n lw,-.J
" ll lliull .. 11..' hUll is IIbtll ly ..um .... .. all J l hl'
silk s shghl ly ,1'>JIg..",. The pin... is quit e Ihi d. J y
..urn..k J . TnH('S or Ih... ori gi n.'" hurt d f e

7 'j O'j
jlo/u:I 'rut>..blyl"m"('1l lhJ)yn...>ty
"r." " '''' ' '' I' l h,,.,rI'' hl '
..lh , . ....Jth " I bu ll , de
n lll lOc N IlI'. 7, j<11l
l\.lh K
Al.Jlr' /.JI- FlrOll;ce
,\ ,w!l!'K ell : '*' "\:I'b .... 1 Sn : iI . It) : A@: . >.tH O;ft :
" l I": Sb: I>, I l " . Ni . " . I l n ; Au : .. n ." 1<1: { '., : n " I II:
.. . ;" . "Ill : .. " OIl
110 " 1''''.1' <1/11<11.''': 1. ,. ..' l h .. ... .,I)'. :.. '".... d l l' '' UC...l<1I11
IIrbl i.09'''I' /' II.' ...,;. 1" . 11'174 1. n. I l .'
Small. m lITOW axe-h ead with short ang ular lugs
dl n 'M .m,l .... ' il ll slll{lll ly 111l'1-u",,--o wtlkh
lofll.. y ..I th e di .I ..1 ,,0.1 III lonll I n 'loItiw ly I\'ltlc
" UUlH!l ed ge . Tht' buu Is dud rhe
III' C h.....d lo..,j . Th l' blllJe is mO<krdlcl y (' 01" -
m.,k-J .. Ild Is pitted In part s. Th t" cuntng edge is
J dlIlUr:L-J. Chased 011 UIW race Is d hlcrogl yphlc
h 11 ffi11D. ', h,' god.
l.ljcJ.mlhrc.
.h e,h("..thuuud to II) ,.nlli n.. 1hall . Th (' bl.1de Is ..1
Ihe .. mt" Iypc- dS Ilk' Ihuugh il$ '-iMks a rc
I,.,.,.. sp l" )'I, 1 .",J h s I "J g.' n"H..,,,,,r. Th r:
sll. l...,; 111' ..' f(elli ly t... .....-I ll-d. <ll le .. !Jwws (II
\-\I "'lr , '11(' plen ' b 1ll, II.!tTLlld y l"ur rooin J Tra ,' l"lo of
>lI"llhll! ,m.' pl' L':>l'rwd ill til. ' produd , m
" I"" folf C. lin th e " Ih...r r" I' C Is a hl t' ru" ly-
1,IIic irNTlplio n: I I ( 0 --!J f::" f . Ih..
ll' .....t NI-hmaul rc. h.t1i "';os
hadl y ,"' c<lll, 1 on dl sc,wcry anJ so
with W'U' by ,h.. "X"i1 \ ' cllon. It b lh rOll l/-h
Id " Ill' pui nl .Ilk! lilllo: "r II.... mi gi .. .. l w. .. ,.) Sll r -
VIVl '1i , Ttl .. bl;..J,, W <lS Ihe h llfl by a pl:Jlted
whit'll sun i.....:. oil ly HI ' '''le:.k k-
t>p.l..\
/ rol l, - S.-cond tulrf nlt"Jt "t<-I'a-Iud 1.....U...,.' Ih l""nWlY"
('rtJ ........ .
Ak</, .., ,..,.,,mb ' \ ' I:.lbl" kn",h o( b1.:><k. 10. I ,'TIl; wWih
'ulUOll ,..JIIC. I,,\,m; "" ' itlh uf hufl_.JI. l n n

l>l,JI""JI. Ilt..<k:I' l\" !-l' ",. II.le;w."od
1..... .. . S; l' b : .. I .. . ; S"' '' f..; AII: .. .. I.. ; f.;
H, I J , I; Sb: o .'"u: Nt .. .o l .. : ......: ':::0 ,0 1; (' " , < ,,-,I I ;
n ot:Zn: or., UU
h ' I.o''' ' .\''IIlJ' U'' ' '' : I <; t .. ll i.ll "It :. fu unhonl
11"...."1'""1,''' ,:.\ ''' .... 117 I l 7. I I I . I" hu . -. :
nl s , I I II. n . s , J UJ . .\VI () II "r -
r". I 1J . I' <;. ,.I . 1. ; & 1..). ....d SU" .. h. 11. .t NMW ;"b
( 1' 1;"-11. pl . I . <;; C, (; U/f'l "' , 1 <; 0 . n , 1 177; .""!I'll.l-
NIib"," , j.l,mJ i h ;"
11 7
Su..t ... .... , .. ", " I.. .... .. ......
F,,, fll-. n' aU,.- 1 ... .." Un ' .''', rk>o" f lhr
,,/ TtJlh mfM n1. 1....- II<ca u""' wft. .....'
..
I Th" ' n.. m<".. .....dr lh"" ' " "' -d I<......... n "" Ih>
.... ...... f""..',... "..... I pIr . A"",J,j IlOd O;"lI il" ..
oia w l'.I... . W. 'I<,f.
1'''""' .. Id W.... R..rf, .. . AU. l.l , ,,.nd , \ , ;. .
j"I') X
I.., t) 9,hl "lh nl)
1.. "' "" .-II. ... .. i7.>' hI" fr"m u f,... . KLtl\o" . <J< ... O'<d .. 1
.1wl m \pk ,.( '(, .. I"n ,,'is lil ltl rWr d -I\;tlu j'
,\ k "" ,.-.. I" " r lh '1__1,'nl: ill (,"1I
ut ,1,;' (1n. k-nl!:l h " I hun.
nil

\ Lolr. j,d,A:<1,k-: m IVlll..fl : w. .."1, 7j ; q<h" . "",
\,...-h/" .. , " : ,, .. , : 11. " . 1" :"'1: -" .,,: ,h".,
1l,t1... " .I. 'l "; ' llh.,. I)!\<; . "' .. II.... ..IW li,, " 1
1.,. I"c 4,. ;-:/1"-1( ;/1"'"
( 1.. ., 2 ), l " -l. \ , : .\I'l'm" ( ('.I ,..I,!. I, p- \
"" L oll . 4: (rh ' ''' . .11 4 " " 1( . ,1: " 1.1/ " (1"
1'1: f H. 1 I ll . ."", . " ..... !\ f'Pt'I\o!i, , "". 1-;-
II.l ntkl in e head " ,j lh .. " I'ltlll nl "-,." .. 1(' 11 h " (1 all d
r e-mn nl leather The f,la,l r WI" 111; ,,11-fI (
Jllill !4ll't.1 01('1'11. II li n< d lI lt .
h HUf\ t't1 \ k\...., ull, l a Irll ..I(' nll d ) ."OIl V' ". Il d llnJ:
,.tl R<-' . The hun ,.msldrn lhl}' \\ ' I(k-"r rh uu l it ..
'I11l : IURS;Ire ftnp.u!<lr ;lOd (h", r ur -
flf n Ii Ihe cull in..: edg e r<+lImit d. '1hI' hlade i ..
II lt hl l y n.ro "I,..1 In l 1101 .... d 1m "ItO' ( ; t("(' a
t? (::) ii1 Q:2 ..
';' \
horpt'Tr.. . ...... l.. " , I\ n ll lll . "11 Ih(' ... T ll:o; i.. n .If
st R'lr h lllll lhr- n ln l f(lr ....!lIml ,If Djl":"rr;dd,.,..l". '
l1w hurt 1<; willi :t n mClWl' had e II
\;u j.pd in <; ed i,, " . n.'lnJ!. q lillJ ri n l l I, ,.
Ih.. n.lllillm . ov"i.1In Ihe mkWl.: . u n J '11<"r-I.... 1
at Ih<- hlf' , II l o pe n: in widt h o;o. .mc \l. h"l 1111(""'('111\ ,
fmm lup II' .....Ullln . wil h Ih" l'-oulI < ",1
<" hurrlr ("I p<tllllt ,j 101,,,,'11 11 ..1(' TIll' ......"'1 ;11
the tnr " f It , ru dd .\ II:on. ....1 <J1 nllllw
An on.,rll w s{)c k..1" W" u s III ha vr htTn hq ::lln Oil
the o(h...r '11", " f th.. Iwll Is mw ll
ai lJa .ln l. II '.mull "' ''lU.. " . mh . )f Ill<'
k-aCh{"f / holill ....hi .h ""l" ""umll llC"' hl;,, "-" hI Il l<'
haft , ' lhc wl"l<ll " d l.... ol" l,JrN whl'n" tl, .. hindlnl:
hOl " lrllll<" m flrk
(,0 ; \
HI! "
I' .l.... l (n...<1.' I0'
tl<o,,, " u ....... . . - t . " fl: l h. .. : .. ..11" ;, 1 " .. tI . \ Ion l<
il ,;" If/ ' 11 jt
.,.....,".III...
\ ' " . ,1, "0. 11, " .17 " S.. . I . ' . .,,, ""' .
' ''I I
/ ' '-'f Ill ''Il k'" I )!
1l,I.fi."" ' '1,h.'l' -".all' ."r.I l H I , 'I , \.' 1 , , (' )

\t ".ld .' u "-hc;,,1. ,,( Ih ill m{"( ;l1. ;1 lUll... nu ' ...
s<h (' ll Ml k 'all ) .h"I ....l th, IlI Ill. la d . Tit , ;. r,
lIul 'l u ll,' I"' upt' , h' hll m...1 "lI<l l h." .'11. 1 Is
rll!Jv r"ulI. ftvl, II h lhl. l1y, ", r. " It, 1
I . 'W>Id lo hu ' ......... " ..... A...,.....
t ...:;...
.. ....d l" ll"nll...Jilll.. I'''''''''
1........ ....l.. ln
All'Im<r....... .. u- I..-nIUh. " "' rm: ...kJl h .. tNt11. l l .m: lI/
cOIl In Il N ll " ,
W..l ff" t; u,MIf
,' l.1trrla/: l\..... ,,""
A. .... lw l!;; (' u: ll 't , j; l' h: Sn: 't .ll ,, /): All ; < n,OI :
....5: 0 . ;'
,....... .>!Ao'lI" ISi l .. >rI: 1M jJ'.-.mrrl y t:oIko, 11t>n1
1 "': /I:f# ,. 11'1
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11ft . t>Ul mon,' ,, [ ('d od "yt' lIT!rQ"n. 11](' blink
rill....t illl"... t"r anJ lh('l'ult lng it; dll mDil- ..d.
,>1<1.11'(
n " r
1. ,..... ..r . ' . .. ... ""lnl
\ 1... ,,,,rI..... ,.. I." ll. Ii+. , L.""'" ",1" ,11. I<' .<on ll
, ,.j 'I' '' '"''
Ir r i"Id. Il I " -"J!.
,\I,,,., j,,I ' lr,,. m'
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tl -'.l1 l> !J ;t ",lp
II ....TT-' I .f
lH
I II
,, )IX; ' I
llu" : ll am.... 1",<'1

hnglh. I ! .o cm: ""Wi t h III hutt o I

W"11"/;I1 <;, ,1I1I
Af.rf....,,'. fIr(>l\l'X"
...lj'' '' ''I.. ..
".'.fl..;S n: .. .. 4" : Nt; .. ... ll, ,: ,\ lI: 11." 1; 1',, : < " ' 1' ;
"' U," I: R1' " ." 1
1)"-1' ,ofMqIl k i/lrlll: f '1; 1l In II... " f
Mnlr , lind
RIh/irnlrsrll !fN;li h. r ,c i RA J4 11<)ll l. Ih. pI. !. h-l-
I k o\ ' Y a l(e-tW'ad s.lmilnr In 11 1 and I U . hUI 1&
lire n<ll "" wl,II-ly Hlld Itw ... "n'
th ick,.,. a nd \('<)'; l"k' UjliIIM1. 1'h(" Qui'"
Ihl( 1I)' ('nl1uded III rarH a wt 1111Us an' ' H Im
lind frayrrl Thl"' ,11(' nUInCf<) U<: and
stwllow [(,,>I-ma rks. The nl1l ln f: n Il';!' <;('\' l'n' ]Y
bl unted !wIIV'r'II",". Md al1lli{r<l plJlc
sis ha s ind k a lt"d Ih<ll a fte r Ihl" Milk
quttl" ht"lIvi1r "'-"fiN lin d then a ll llt' IIW . ....." h a
Ii nill ,'ukl .... " r klnlo( .
I . Srr J;,-,- .. . , it
I.MV: I ;r a. .., .. R' >l,,,, ..
r,(>w,...", r :
M" ""lI rrrn rn l .-r"' Il j':lh .<,ll<' llI : wllll h " I bett. III
("utHnlt ro l!'-,, !l,l cm
W( IIil>,:
I,,,,,
,1.... 1'1"; 5; I ' ... . " Nl : " . .11" : c..:
,,..- ..... \\' .
N.-..w
1I."1I1lh1y ;ul' l1ra.1 \ '1' 1)' _llll U" r ill r"fllI
1O , I ;m.l I j z. but wtrh rhtnncr. more
lugs . both o f wh k-h we re h(lokl'll li t lh dr
C' nds Th c: mlddle <;O' d hln otll y (If Ihl"
hun Is lh.- Ma.k'I.. milch n lITO<.fl'd ;lI1,1 ill
"" Il.lllioll . II i<;'"'nely pit h'll III! , ,\IT. Il l,' tip
t,f " 11(' ot ,he mls"h lft au tl Ihe ,,' I" ' r i!.
!lroken . 11"11,, ... 1..'/. " , l u"r
ha lf cr of kC'd atl J tu m ed w{'ur. I1w
h \Tf \l s ha r r
132
' 7h41
..I' MI,,r l,'kr
' .. "T ' .. ".I
.\-tr,I" " r .. ;... h .II>l" I. ' ".1 ''"', ' ''
n ,Wn ll' ,..til " . 1(.,...."
Iotn.,l./ ; ....I " .I .t.
.\ ", .. .."I l1r,..,.,.
,. : " h' "" 40: '>U' " ,,! : " " ." ' , h
" , l'lq; Sh' '' " ; ,,, Nl : l u q " , '\ " : " ' '' -4" : \ \,. " .1>1,,
....<: (I.!l: "l ' " " 1
11"1.. .. ,1,.,,,''' ''..''' '<'''
1l,,,,;...,.urI'.. .
. n . 1
.\ -hn od 1.11II' I'J l.fl"lll k,,1ill lor n> III I l l . II ha,
ho n n lIpl" ll' h ' "r ,..".",I"n ".....llId
Hammer urarks an ' vtslhlc. "ll Ill<' sid,...
i" qui t, shalT' li d nc ,11<'
Clt<; lX',t II ...1 n..'rr- arr- 11
numb er " I ;m, 1sm ;11I c..-ad , s all uvc r t hr-
Mark . n "J 'il.,J , '' , no. ", fa, 'e II ill '
w n f>llnn ; Y".." " " '.,.. .....ihly Iu II(' unJ<:'f ", ,,,,J as
n ll lll l-..'f' 'iC'\( .. -. I n ... " f lhr hin ll <:
n OF o1<" 'fll" "ha:-;c' ,l til(' ll \lII",rllh
,., -,,< 11: 24
1'I ..\ n . 1 1
1
3 '
\f' 77';'
..r
rr.... Ih>tr t1alll'
.... nr>I' .. u , l..,nlllll. .. <;cm; l'l' i<J th "" t>.. ll _ ' l S.. m; ..1

Wr..,hl : 4 1(' , ' :l
M"I"JcrI.nc-. "' ....
.1,,,,f,,, J. : l u : <i" .' ; l'h; 1. :f>: Sn- .s"; .- \ It: ' " ": I',.;
Au; Il, I <;tI: C.. : <:" ... ,, :
"' .c o 7 : ' 11 : < ' ).l )l
''''11','1 IR,IJ
RiNlr'l1l'ar/I!I' Budi!:C' . <;i t l le'l ll . '11 ; ,.:-t4 .
II I .';" X J7
A:u .h ca d .... 11h thkl elungat C'd and rdilll vt'ly
sho rt bl ade wllh spilwcd oJ!i("s. lilt" ki n k
llIuri.("Jly l' J r mllk-cl III 1m- 1"(' 11' "' ;Il Kl h ilS m'-
noun a ti 1>0. ey,:h oop; e. Tht" b{atk' ha s I'ort-"n
completely (k.a-neG. Ther (' Is considera ble eor-
ros lun d" m3i!C' to Ih.. oml a nd Inc ("utllnlt
lind 1tK-n- pi lll n il on "'nth fan"'S. I ht-
N'l<k furth,,!, by It ttumncr of
S('ta lr!>M lind sh'l llo.....h>ol-marh
,1't1tmrrl} "" 4'l8
1 :;wMIn ]"" ,."""", r.-'>rn
Small aec-be nd slmUar In shape In uS. Jll nu gh
the IUlJs art' ;'Ind "11:" ru u", k-d at III...
ends an d the edge Is mcce convex, t're-
vlously Ihlt'l l)' cono.JN . Ihr t>l aJr: hit'" now been
co.mr 1r:ldy d("anro 11 r.; plIU-d. an d
ruutng cdge and lugs ilre darnllg('(\
, PINUmety lioon !h<o.. ""'ol ""' rkUld t ;"'-<lnrt , "
: n.. .. r .. "" ...I<......"""' ..........Jmlh-' .. . (..... '''' n ..,..", .
-.., ..
1.10
f>7C;f>.u
/)n U ; l )vn... ur ,...rlln-
/' , ,,,...,,.,-rlN:
11'rll(l h. "I.lI Ull . wIdth l>uu. f> <"I " : ul


\!.l ,,, 4trAN'fI k.. I n:'('I'('f
en : .. 1I....: rll : ,, : S,, : , " .1<1: AI!: <I "1" : t' l";
I ." "': She No: uK' 1:Au: " .1>1: (' " : , , , .. .. :
... 1 , 1; 711: < , 1.Il l
1\:11.. /,i-rqIlJ'; I/t>fl.' I "",. jt ;(fl or l h.. f:xplm ;Olll ..,
Fund i'
Nl 'fl("
129

/Jo, u ..'<Il<
1" ... ' ..-,..
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n ' llh,, ""r<. ll l m,
U",!,I" ; 1 1
'1l
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",,, .n : I'k " , l H, : SIl, ' , l " : '\ 1:: ",,,!,,:I'e
n, I eo:.%: ' I ni H: Ni : </." J": Au: 0." ' : en: " ." I"
H,,: In. ".0 1
.\I q..i <lI .. ..I: I ll ; ! It :lh " ' w. ha" hl
11.,.,...."...,.,.".:-.1,"'..
rial il uhtitt:! "'l"f)' slm il ,u tl ' I J I( tl ll ! wuh llI",n:
nta rltnt ly ron s-ave Tlwrl ' ;Ire !Il l Ran J!. ('S uu
Ihe hUll ,m,1 the Th,' Ma,t<- ' lul W Ihiflly
0"...or tbc is brok..n andthe cUll ing
.." t
1'1.'"Tf . 2
" I,An : 1 -1
u 8
127

nll r '
llnrn.... tkd
" ",." "rr" trtlt ,' I.rn jl1h. 14. , r m: ..kllh .., bun. l l _; ('m:
.. I ('IIumt .-.!ltt".
\\'d., Il I : S,qjt
"''''lrol.>I:Rr".r.T
1....1't1K Cu: '+1.4; l"b: < n." ! : Sn; "'j!:: ... u.n l : I't":
" ," I" ; ."'"': " " 1' " "-ll:"." l" ' .""; < n,"I ;C,,:'I.<U":
" .' :", I:/JI ; " l.Il .l
!)"l r ,>/.lt qtHsJlil'l l: t ll<j1l
Norlt"
I t,R l \
fld' .. FJjl hl ....... ,h l)yl ".. ly
l 'r,,,,,, ,,, r : II,, ..,...,..l,,
l .Hn .. ", ;. I( h "I h,"n , 1.I . I ,m;
..
n'rl1l"' ! 4<;'i ll

( u: 'i 1.l : I' h: ". 1 / " ; Sn: 'i.fl n: All : <J. n 1</ :
1I.l l n; .'i-t>: n " 4" : NI: " .n4" : Au: <n,ll l ; ell: n.o\":
" .,. ; 'In : " .o f>
fl" t"N." qu IJll kl" 'I H.i l
N,"le
1111n itJc!tCIH I similar III . 11<11'<' III I Jh-;lml willi
a ('f IIlH' !i hUIt. Ttl... hUll lind the "rC' rough ly
Ilal1)tC'd. ' Ib c blaJc Is qu ltt>Ih ld d y corrodC'tl , wllh
Irll('M< tlf t(':'llll, ' In Iht' corr o";ion product
on
I . .: " " l
lloolr ,1/ , .,, -"
1../" 1 1 1.1: .' ; I <
11"' ln ' "".... hr-ad ...ll ll ",nll: . thld\ h tll " , fmkil \ 't
.... alltl al ll " .... 1 \ hallChl ,'u ll hllC Thc n M
" ,,",--,''4 p<" "1 "f I h.' ",,,, II' I" llt" an"f thr-
1>l11l than Il w 'l'hc ro' Il <' r:< or t he
ed.: e I1r(' rounded . The blllJ<' 1......(' /1
n,mrk 'w ly t!C' an", 1. lI iun llwr murk.. ar (' prtS<-"Il t a ll
"",'1 Ih,' Ma,k . ,n, ...t "" Roul/.h
"lim; rema in " n thr- hNlr-;llh thr- lugs. Th ey
ha ..'l' M-n I!rnunJ ........n llfl Ihr- olh('f '1110 :
,UIllIlJ!.end ho'1"n ", "I ' hnt tn a lai rly sm, u l h
and Ihl'll addltinnallv !(rot!n,1 to lortn a
quite La' \'ll (, Illc, 'lbcrr - arc no ohvmus of
wear . Thf'r (, ar(' lin 11K' hUll alld
N-t1(';lIh ' l!I(' " f thl luJ!. <: .

\\ ln l ."I! ,\ H 1) j ll\
1,,<, '1' 1\\
,.
qo
, Il.J-> Ih.. "" ", ,,1'1J .",",,-b- .... ' .....
fJ III<- _ ... ..
U!( ;,,;t1lH JlI.<.4S
\\l11l\.V1AV' l 11J+l

It ";"' , c. ll"" " " nb<'r .. ill. ''' hI.'< o!>t<-tn (, ' H" Ih, ... ,,'"
"",,,c Ih... ".. I",""' '' .... ,j",,,,,,,,, ,1< : 1"''1 ", ,, ,
Ii . \> .. , .. .... ," U... 1t->.. 1:JI 1.I" " .. ... . I.. '
I""'I"',. .... ....., ..w.--. " ' \
142 I'!.,..n. .!,;
'i'i 'i 7 J'
I....' . ; 'n",J4u lln,... hTl...(..",,"....*
P" ,,,,'.w, . 'r: NUfI . '1'" ", ,, I I . h ".n,bu"" Il, ',..... " S1.".r
U "l:'" ..k-.. lrhu ", n ,tj
... 1. " ' lIlh ,-,tIMII. 4 l nn
Wt'Jitlt r; t ,j &
MUIr, i.:/ !;E!rOtli'
ell: 7",": Sn, .II " . t'.': " . , ,,
,,,,,,, .,, , .. 1:l IC:III ui lllC$IIJ,IIl t:"n..-"II ",," 1
!ilbl. """,,>11;-:!<:. t I ll
" jth f" ugh ly ,' L1 1 in Hill' Ilt....t "ul
"r Ih in oWla l. ni t' toI ..<1cis sqU,Jr t' III
shupe. The hilfl Is st rdlj(ht nwfllr. 'c Is 4Inl .'
th lr l ly corroJcJ .
' 1' ,to.. '....II,.. " """"" .. ".. , ......,.."........... I',,""Io, ..."'"
l'l ,'\TL l 'i
'i'i 'i 7-1'
1.. 1<:fifth (' n nury II<:
/" ,!W' IoI' k't';N url, 'rumb I l . F.' ..

...lr ..... ,. '".il/s: l n 'lll h .. 7,'1"' n


,\ ,... No>! ... 1>, r un..", ..,
lM" u/ ."'<ll>w /J' >f ' . ...m l
IM fW!l ' .o; .h!l : Ny'l . II ;loJ ' ... till, 11. \ . K
1:;; . 1.>:', cll.: .. t..J App...nJ<I L no ,
Model <t xc with huft, mild.... hi nne pi "... c
" u t o f shed met al '111Cbl...k is sq udrc hI
s hare .IIlJ is 11I11; k.... sl igh ll y 11k: h" ft
Is TIle pko<:c 1\ \Il'f)' th .d.ly n >fl ' oJ.'<.I
J";or1i. b of l.Umllllltt olh"'r nldlc'r l" ls ""h"fl ' I" Ille

1I""" ..... lh.. n.. mb.-r -.r.h ' ...... r...'.t>oa.. lr ...
;",<1 ,.t>
. , l-'r......!.lIt fllW"' !>\lo'
'i 'i .:;H.l'
IVlt l'.. rl t t'ifl:",Cr lllur r"
/" "", .,..."" Nun . l'l . t"ulIJ.J1l.. n 1l<'po"'l Nt-:,....
t)uct'<. {!ll'l..n Ll"-\..... --q.. '
"'lr<l. <I<...... ...
\\'r ll/ },l ; l .lg
1,f" lfl l.JI:Cupfll-'f , bnlfl l.<'
rI,."..:.u N" C!--" bl.uw;n l1l.. ..'l ff..l ' ''.
,-,.,u ol/.v"'"i!.I1 ; 1...J..Ij( ;d'I "! lh .. SlI.lon l:..v.1''' ....: lll i
fl, H" '!l, ,,,,oh.,,'.'IIUrl.IM I - l. Mll l l 15. , 1I t l I 7: Jr. -1-'I , h
...f .: ..... "Pl-"...JI &I. n.. ... 8
(' nuk' m 1 a rc willi h <tll , rolUl:h ly 1'111 in ' 1IIe'
pl.... ... "ut (If l hill shee t m..tl. Th e blOHk is ,lll\l k J
downw ards and is rou gh ly ro- tangular in sha p;. '.
'[li e hart is cu rved and expands towar ds the hlp
.. nJ bouom. II i" cracked th ro ugh lit nne ".. int.
TIl.: pk\ 'e is Ih k Uy t-orr ..kd. ' ,,('(ld .. 's .. rsand .\ 1111
adhe re tou.
"k.lt l lll .o-h..-lId. made of metal. very s imUdf
I" stl ll p" t o 117. but Ihklcr In secuon. II is quue
hClllllly corr oded.
ru. n' J;S 139
1 ....,,, ,........ oth ' 1 ........ ..bjr. "'lr"'",..., ........
. ... loJio' i ' 44
138 f'L-IT12'i
" 'i'i7\ '
'J.. ; ,. h lnJ 'l 0d" ...r vl" ""' .., flh . ...... tlu ry ....
/r " '_.': Nil". Tomb I I . f <lut>J' '' i" .. llr<:-pv>ll :-if'(, ,f
\o4.. ltwId,.,m..nii
A...... "' ....."'/li: /.cn Klh . l .J ..n.; .. tJ lh ..l bu u . l . 1cm ; ..1
n ltt llt lCcdl!<'".',h,m
" i ii
A-W(u wl. !irOtUl.
AI... ( u: 1>--\,1.; Sn: If. ,n : Fe : n lH O
Pd/r ." ,'1..,...";1;""" I ' Il l \t :I'" .>!Ih.: Suddn Govcn lllll' Il'1
1l: ,/.oI ..'!I' .I('h, .v..... ''' -I <l uJ I 'I ll; Kq, . h . d .; "'C .. I....
n" I
M, ..k l dlt: -he"J fu ug h ly ma.k uu l of t hin 1
moral. It h es II n-l " tl vd y shun hlil.k wil h -d
,i des " Ild IHl " luJUY strd lghl CUHill g o:Jge ,
bun is nln. ,we "n d the nne In iac! lug Is
IInJ Th... pln: e is Ihir ll y ..-orr.>thI .
'111(, 0' it ..-('lId , un un.: side.
137 PU TI 2 5
.. 5'i7'="
floo v S.-.;un.:! qu"r lc'f vl'thc "l f'Lh Llut urya<:
Prl"\'l'I"I'u : Nun.'famo1,+. FuuMoot lon Oq..;It NW lur
KlnIl N"""U, ..... '
1, t(' ln; wlJ IIo.. t beu. I OJrn.; ;o1
c Ull mg nl lle , l. lull
\-\-'tigIU:
,\ l<llrr i<JI , Bnmw
.. s:{"u, ; I'b, If: Sn : t
/),'It.'' ,\,..."a:tloM l "l llt:tiI ..
Ril>l."lt"lm.'t: r-.,,,I, I KS it; A-I:' . t.! 1;l')! J u :"' ..... I"'.
,\ JlP<'TlJII I. no ....
Mod.:l <tlle-he d<! tn"J e ()ul of thi n sht"t'Cmc rat. It
has ,j slr a igh t hull with la rge lugs and 11 long
btadc with slight ly spluyed sides. The ,' UlIl n g edg e
is har dy ronve . " h e pk.,e ls moJ.: roldy rur-
r..J l.'<.I .
-i'i'i7'i
l
l lod t':I' rl thllu t h ( <:n1ul) 80
1" " ..., ,, !'<u ri , T,,' nb' I.'.. u",J..l ..... U.' ......I :-".. I".f
J(in KH;o, douf l
....c...<n.l S: 1J:118th . -1." 1'1"' ; ", tJ lh ill hu ll . s' .... n; ..1
<-' lltll >lll nl ll<:. l . I ClII
w,;ghl: OJ 'I1l
Alauri.J/: lron
irwl y, II : N<I1po>lhle uwlllil 1o .-"r ro1k>fl
fUl, .j 1\>.,..151-110... , I OJl l (ti lt! , .. I.... Sud a n 1;' cn ' n' l"nl l
Nun. U I .... <Iu4; 1.; '':<1.. '-"' . , I I .; 5nO. l.. ,
Apprtl<ll)I , "" ,
t.t",jd l!l e hcad. "ery Ih ld .ly ..tltToded and WllrpW.
II itP1Xa rs 10 hll \'t' h ad a rd a ll,' d y n a rr ow h1uJ ('
wlth ,<>pIdYOO silks ond II wide' butt wit h dun gdtC'd

'i 'i 'i 7h'
1),, 1.' , M..t f<l<lrl h ..
J'.. EIKu/l U. Tumb t , F" urod;,ltonll<'po., t1'
In" , "f l ;nlC I.. >l r<,,'<!''-L ........ h
.\ rr"" ..rt l "crll. ...,J IIo" , b,, " , ' .Inn; ....
"tl"'ll I ,K., ,,
t:
,\ LUt .wl , It.-....' u'
,1, un!l",. t " :<H,,, : I'tt: ..
IT, )
/ \i l"., ..l><j,mll."" ' 'I .1l(';lnof l hc Su J"n ( ;'-,\ Wtl " '' ' n I1
1.'1 10: .."," , l! ' -1; " ... "I",. API"""'" I."" ,>11
,.. ... ".... .....
...I.... Ill<' ...,f III ,'f
1"" ' aj' I...... I"-""-"-' , cop " I ,
1"1,'" n .s .14 anJ 1-1. lig.
l.luu; Tt ur,II III,n n.:dh"" I,...ltld lf !

.... 1. IIj1lh. ...l<I lh III Doln. 1 1IHm;
dl , " UIl 1ICcJjt<"H.'f ' 1"
WrI,pIL 1" 7'1,61:
,\ flUr rlJl,]'lI u,-=
'11J .. Cu: Ph: 1. 1] ; Suo Air ' H Il " ; Fo:
" .-Il ,, ;S b:"") -I,,; NI:lIu-IlI;. \lI , ""u "ll; ( . l: ". <ll n;
vs: ... ;,.. : -"' Il
I.' lr'" \, .""1"'", t ' ,f>. ..,n"1" \ 1"
l..
....I.otf, :\ \"LO .l 7 1. "-I 7I , l Ol -l J . IIg, 1'1;
1.Iol1[' 1 , \<) (1 '14 '11. Kl .1; HMO 4
( I 'I f. I L -I I I, pl , 7: I ) ; , r a. (;...
X 'J"lhl l " , '
I .. rg.: h O: iil ' Y"'H' h,a d wll h n l.lli "dl lun g h1aJe. a
,'" nl'l' ll !'>ulf and IlIr i:C' Ih ld. l ul':' . bt i-lh ill
Ih,' n lJ s, ' ll lt ;uc alr ,,' >:>l Sl r llltlh l hu t
't ,u IM:. m h qu il ': sh M" ly .d Ill.' , 'u UlUI; ': IIJ The
hUll IS "It J l1' lll ;:' ..J IiI.c I Th e
conve x (u ll ln.,; edg e is t urn ed "li d bluurcd
Ih f<lllg h hea vy wea r, Th o: ptl. ....C' is lh id d y cor -
f,.k-J . ...'i4tlly on .llle I...... wher t the bull -
lI.ut);e bee n I.. C' ,lI.'n """ .. y. .. oJ t h" rc
rr1id .,1 damage a II lIWr. lJ"mmc r ma rks ..re
ron..."..1l1 I' ll Ih(' Iudl life r.....ned .
OIlC r".c. wll k-II hu d be u d .' Ill,d hd<)f" l it.' axe's
,Kijub iOorl. bcur-, 11 .:n lJeJy nn' Iscd Insenpr fon
'!: (';:-H h 21 = "";;-; 'c- \ q
' !o\: m g Ill' Il pp...r a llJ l .. wcr
",I'l,,nr..' r TlIlli s. I.It,uhl
nbls h ' lilt. , "Ul h"nl lt'lly "f this Inso'npoli"n
;; lI illy:' D lI..s in . liclllt-J Ih, 11 ;. II(' r
.-;; -J.1I' l!: Ih,' hl" Jc WdS w,;rl<--J "11<1 ,1ll11l:;tlcJ , "n J
rhm !ll<' illS"'Tlpt io ll W;JS m"J t . dl }C-;l s{ pdrt ia lfy ,
hy nul meL,,!. Ill'LI is by "
" 'dlll ique fl.... 1..,,1s " I ;; l;lnJ IltHug hl
nol 1(1 hd \ 'l." 00'11 ' Il'a il dbk I.. th e Ec;.yplid llS a s
<:;, rl)' ..s Ih"''I'wtll IY'''''l'o>rld ... \Jy
hh.l.l l
1 .15 j z arrd J.l .llg. I. e
,=, <17(, ':
1.. 1t' I' ,...;..! . t;r...,,' .i,
lr" ...."' .. ....,.I.." "
..." U'I.c"l:l h . 14.'1Cn,; ,,-..JIhlit !>ll ll . , \ ,<;,'m;
., I t'ulIu ll/.,..JgC. l o , I ,1lI
I
.\ L,' u lol. lr,m
, ,,.. ""."; N" "" t. l; t ,,:
/loI u <Jj.I' if'II'W,,,,;
HmllJ9T"f'hItIIuJIl( .M.I><J" 'J,,.,j"' SII I I'(.j,lI .....I. rl r1
11M .l ; l :lll; n\' . lI - ';I.pI, ll . 'l J; 'Uf
1;", J.. (I'IJJ l. lul, n. 1 J
1..11'1:1.'. w ry t W<I\lY. ,txe h,:aJ ..... It h IO'Ill!.
h!;IJr . " bull . .. nJ (alLg holJ\;l.'u Ill " S. The
.If, ' ;lIl oJ.: xp;lIld h, wd fJs li n:
, lIll ill !l: ,....ItC lnom Ill '", r th , " bUlL 'r h<"1l:' .u e n o
'Ih .. hl..<l e h n"oJcrul d)' ...,rr, ,,1.. ..1 <tnd
.....a r.. .. ulI lll h.r " r ... II\.. lIfaulb .mJ em l'L.s. 'I'11l r,r.,
ilhl! ' '' ' n -.lokf.. bl, SUf rao. -.: The O lf1V(' X eul
l. '<:Ig.: Is sh a rv ;lIlJ .... ' ''' riO ck ar sign of
we" , . '-k l" UOI!I'<l ph1. llll 'l lys i:>l!.ls inJkul l.,J l h a t
Ih,' IlIl'l" l I:; OJ"'... .. 1;IlIJ 1hill l h. ..u lli IlHcd!:, ' o f Ill.:
hl.. <1...,... s h.. f.knC'<l
,.... ... . ,..... ......, "'" "I< . l '" " 1
PLAn : 1"

\\ TI Il"J,, --.UJJ m

LH
1.. ,... .... ' h , ',,, r" n; ..
I" ....-... " .. i'; ,;r l. "...nto , \ . 1'<0 .. ",1"110,, , 1"-1" " " 1<1f

M"""" m k''1L'. L"I' I:. 'h ,,. h,,n. " ...,
II ..- ", h' K j1;
,l l.1f." i" /- {\ ' N""
" ,l'1u..
l in.. , ., " IJ1 11: ' "f ll... ..L."
I I')
' J..dd if\\' ,ut h h;r rt. rull r h1y 0 11In .111<:' pln '(" ,1111
..r Ih ill <11"' ('( '111(' IIla,"- l.. .. lm'''' 1 ",-!IMf("
wil li ;11I Illdi'I' 'tI ("1lI1 '111r h:lfI Is 1v.llki
i" ,,1 " 11",,. 1 TlK- ['k't .(" qu ilt:' I" lfU r
... .rfll<I,.l
I 11", 0 I
'; , ' 7f , '
, .. v : C", 'IUn- 11<'
1'l-,..... . ..: t1-" " n " . l, ..n.. . . .-..un.. l. lInn n,,....,j'
rrt ''' ' ''''Nl
...'nt<u.........nl< : 1,('t,S!lh , 01
l ' ll
.\f ..u. wl:Bn" "...
111: ".1'>0 " ; II ." : O. " ," :
,'I /1.< I j( ;lft of I hr
!.. ... "
Mn.l rl ll'u" wllh h4n. fOIllt:h1y cu t In 0fI{" pi n : t" ou l
"f Ih ln !>h l"t"t lO('1a l. nle Ma.le I.. f'('t. -ton I!Ulaf III
, hltfl<' _Th. lllln I-ul e _Plllltkd It/
lho. onU,,,n. Thr- pll'('(' j\ l hkldv c'Tlrr M ed
It "' ..." II... .. .. ........ M d, ' .. "' '''''' ,....... . ...... Ih<o........
n ' I. I..,-tudln-t u o and .4"
I l"n !'oW ...
14.6 I'I.ATt .l i
,0;"7'"
/ . "..: Mlor l-h>u' lh t 'MIIll' Y"
I't "' .t": ,r\s ...,,,.nJ"' i
,\I , "".. ...rn<: ..fc. "'1<1
I'o-- r ;,#tl; ; l!-

..j " Noot I""""''''.. ..... h.1I,,, .,,.......h,,.
1-",.,., 1/ C:',... ,-nmo-nll

M,,,Jrf 11)[(' wllh hAft, matk' In out" pfe1..-e. "'NY
Ihlc kly connokd. 111(' h111dr- IIppI- ' a n; !o haw' moen
In Th t' hlf f! Is stnll jl,hl .
, ... q .) , ,, , , . nd ' 4 \ , " '
MArr 2"
.l 7i <;'
l totlJ' :rtnl.:-my II
/' hH - Nuurr al b'. ,,.mv!<'of " ' nkom\' II. found..' .....'
r\c' l !W
Mf ... ktlWh of h"fI.
l-\. 'rl'lhl : I 7 !:
...f.,v rial: l lJ-pp.-T"" ....nnlC
,l""I.,.-i' : Nut r"...-sl hk 10,.,",<Wino l
/. ' U''1tk4U;. jj..... i(;lft of t h.- t'llyrt I' Jlfll",lIt......
l'u n d J
fr.HIo.-.."rq'It"'. ........ n:nls l. .l q . f , .pl . n . : I"""' . h lk
. tJ1 .. p ,lOlll lljt ..... p , 2,. to: Tt l! \-'I'lO"
l'II4'I',,,,,.,, f . l Q. 11: id. TW. k . 7"1e: K-f,t .
' 11 _Lt ( : lJ/ l I : fl ' . J , " - R; .",. . bnt\ rf'Nl'lh I. n to
""
"-1<ldd lUI:' wit h h. ft , mtltzh1 y mlkk In (In('' pln"e
Dill or ml"flll. II a I'cl ..ll\ldy hl;t<.k.,
!Ilp:'ri n p:s1fRhlly fnHn bUll to rulllnn end, Thc han
uulwllni\ . It Is hrok m Ilt three poin ts. with
II S!"'o 'li,," tn rh.. O1I. l.il c >lltd OI not n("r af t h (" "' .. . om
TI u' pK-rr 1\ IhKkly "'IT",:J,.,j
, .I, ' fol"nuro>h--r.. Mh l l Mt........ ......' , " . ..., h ,....d' .....
tIf-.. .-;, ,r............. ""I rI<' . "' ,...odi..jl IM
148
l 7 Sn ,, '
,....... 1'" IIMny II
1l.pWI NW
.\f.... . 1'1'11. 11'1 .... h.,il . >! ' l .--m
\\ 'r'iqI"' ''JII

A....'".,.. : N<>Ip ..... bh- .. . .-I" R ' .. ... " " " .. "I
I\", .,!".""I<III.,,, ..," h"".,;,o( k'"

If,hl J.'1I, ,,, >h'f ,'-;a,,h'll i'i I. J <f. l ' .1'1 n .... I " : / 'fld' .. f rl l ,'
anJ El r/ . l'" p. ilndfi1:, ,,,,, p. l-' ;. , ank ll;r,,, r ,,,,,.,
l>ftIqi nt1, J f .fll':. Th . !'l. rI.II ./! .. : K. r </ , h , .-i J
1/1.1 , ;' .'1: ....r lll .. . :\ I't'<'" . IhI . .. " fo"
M.KkI ;111' I' d l h ha O. " nltt h lv ma.k III m l(" rie l'("
" Ul of ITI('lal. It h;l" a rt ..teucefv \ h >t lln w.
almost r("ct.lIl Jl: ula r M,' 1k lImI an In ..... ard r urvi nJl:
h;"fi . nwIMII I.. n:tll,...I Ihf1lll gh below I t>..
h1lhk . Th("pt ("cC" b< Ih ici.l \' c't,m KkJ.
' . ...... 04; . .. '
149
044 <;"
l lltlt' : M<' I'kJ'N."oJOI
I' rlflNrJrl ' lr .......U<lr ..
M.. I.." " h . , . IIn n: ... lr\l h a' ", .11_ 1. ' rm . "'
cu ll1nllNR--. , .2cm

U <tf" ...,.-Rr..._
.i _ J!f<l<' (: u: "-: SI1:
fJoJf... . .. "" " fSI' l k nry
Wdlr.....l<")
I J I , pi, I. . All . '
Modd 8'o:('hc ad math. n-ut of thin sh l"l'f. ffi('la l. It
umI .. fOllC"W(' d lln r.: ;"h' d
hu lt wllh Ihi n Idpt"'lillg II lTl<toktuldy
cr."-'-OOnt . So4lwo r fh<-OIHin g oo jtc I.. 10, 1.
l..... .. P"oblnn .. I(' '''' ' '''' <11. --1 4" ,; l ......
4 11.. \ ... . 4 ' 1-'1, r rrll <rf. cI '4<' ..: ,.JI;
N_ " ,R,,, ,, 'f
J 50
4 7 7 <:j O
/JoI'" .... or 100t,.,..
Pr""",.",.. , ' !.lI' lr Slle ,,11m- of

Ar..""..r........... ; ... ..1hul l. lit

""-""hI.
[Mill
A".. ".'.0
'''lJ' ' '' '''' /ff,i<IIk>n: ' ....' 7 U:lfl of 'IwoEgwJ'lf. r>to ..eU..n
l' und l

Model lll((' hl' fHI matk (If llli'litl. It has a
reiallvt'ly blade wl lh splayed sides and <l
'>lIghtly ClJl1ve l( ('u Uln !\ lnsi !"<ldof .. t here
Is a ro ugh l, cyllndt-lcltl Sflr l. C' 1fomled h" mmN -
In p; the ,"ull round. F.ndosnt III Ihe 'iOCkt1 I.. II
notrrow IW"lal Ind . rr-HUmably t h<- tup W't ' l ion of
lhe hilfl. Th e h1w Is wa rp:'<! a nd HjZhtly
l---orrudnt 'fhton.! li n' "ITl i'l1J lT8Ck'< In lh e skid ""od
on l h<- w..-l r't . The ('u ll lnp: edgc ..ro by
gr1ndlnl/. hut is nu t \'ery shitrp



. ... d1...:!I,,"" , II .. ""-h<n . ...,.,........, . ..
...... , l11o...:1 . An ...." ' .. . .........,.,..-rvstff""""'tryH. ILll di
.......... _ , ..1.td
\ VIl "" O' n . ... Il _"'. .. . h ""fu<l Ionln ' .....
(Ollfllll ' I fl I I O I - '; O}
. ..I np,,.,, ,,....1 h er. ' ,'"
I OI - H. I tw ,";.r!lr:>t "'.mll ....I" I;... ' ,Ii' Ih it nt' \\
I) f\<' of a lC!' . TI l(" lIr'f'1...- lim ;' il" ;,p,.,,: arm,, . ill
EI!YI" b ttll<. Tl 11lIn. hilt il 1' ..11
Ill<' 'I'lunccruh Dvuast v and con t lnu eoJ ill IN'
Illn ,n l!h ,Hll 111" S.'n-'l.d In k l ll Wd ;<ll\' 1'('(1,.,,1. 1111'
(',lrl k'$l ,xl'lIll '''''('lnll 'l ' S th r. ", 110\111
Il, " III wr-rc r..um l wh h .. Ih, r
imro!< lIlt:' n l t hi 01hol.....d II(";1r l llC"ll, k'r " f q u .. .. " ill
.1 nnd- I'IA", r, h Dyll if"fy 1....11\1: '111C" i, " pl" uw n h
liMy rnof I.. t''' '' '' 'll1r " r ;<l\' ... jlll Ih, hO\l' but
tl1(' r("I, till r("u", ,,, I,, ,1"uhIIIMl l hn' I" Ih.
\ 1i.Mk ...... J...u" ..d tL1lJ<-1l1 "hlt h " fl'
p.: ;u <;10, h :,\( " "' 1I1li' M'e d "I Ih,' .,,<1 .. , I I", Th i,
1I.." Ih '11..' l h l, ,1 h<:It>nr ' h '
s;4mc pll a",' , Il ruI i n ,.i1 .... ' i1ll'r . 1110'
lltldi !ion aJ d:lli ll l/. r-vklrm-c pro\ hk..-l hy Iw" <I S'
t'\ ' idcll ll y rnJ tll a pri \' al <'so-,l ral:!(,I
bit, I.,lkklk 1)y11a'ly 1,\ f>t-. , T<l
Ih...... ;UI'S <'Jill hr a,MI,,1 , ..." " II< '
..nl .. ;.t,,III.' !rum Ih, ' Sillll e ,, tl lt" tt:1l1
r h" se-ItS th e a eca. ;<, It! the t>t h(' r .. t ... ry imro' I1..,.1
",(;<1l1pk Iroru 1' ("11 d I);j h'OI. n.....C" III!.,. ..t
ill ;\ Thlrl t..... uh II)' nasty It. ' lIJj:h l.v n ,n
l('lnl" lI'ar y wil h '!oi.. lII"l mul ;m" I" "
... 1 \I U":I: fwm ;,t Ik' I"
\ lm il<lr In sll;,('<' In th (" thl .. J spC'dn1(' "
....1I1t r atbc-r slr rlitt hl, sh!t:" '111<'earl. v
<knn ' mil)' l'<' !,' " m ple l("r! hy a r ('I If'I' ,':l.Bla l l o n fronn
iI tom b ul (pl . IS. dlpld lnp. a
lI" mar.-l l '" a rmed escort . Two " r l h(" .." ltlkrs 0"1')'
ItI(' 1jr:1 H wkfl"-('li, ('ll '; 11I11 ...1 ' Yf"C' 1111.. ("
9'; ). the -:rt"lIlJ IJ IYfI<- ' wil h ""rr"...hu lt . l nuII H'!
sldc-1 1t11. 1 " >\'iJr r nUl ll tt ed ge. ,w i . 11,,-
s im Ila r III ""' \1c , Illl.['l(' 10 ' 0 1. ' The rnm tl III
qUN;\tt>n i., d"k'd lu Ih. la le T" d fl h 1)yll a,'Y .
.. 'Ilaffirl.... hnt 'c !w.'("n e .. .. ' .." ..1 I,,"n
w h" ll y $ 11' n m lt' '(I,. NII<-_ 1 0 .1 a nd 1<4-h "1''' f"Uf
" I k.,., r. um li t 1.,1....
l>ljo\crldit. ' From a Rrllve III Ihe cem<'lt' r)'
W l fl.e!l the with II 01 11
hnl dinll v. h lll I:i po'>sihl .v ffi("a llt !o he '-'11
"r Ih k Ipl, .J' l. \ 4 1.' '' Ill<'
I.. . 'mdt, I<S Is th a i 1II1 Iht" ,,," -
tnllp'..-ur y r heb.. n h.. w-hnll; crt "" . fill<-. I 21. "
<;1,1 tn I1dl lu,- C"6SC (:'IIIl l!t {'n' t.... (' ('( I>lIIl I ... td
pr ('l.1",- a lC(' l yp"". \,10' '' 1 ""as il. ' m l'llt"' !'
r cmr l rry. a lran..il.. ... ,,1
phu<;(' hr-Iwl...n l h ., In''''l Nubian p11....r ..f Ill(" ptlll
II:fIlVt"S In l hl' t' M1y $1P a nd the elltl r>:ly
I,.ro: philSC'III t h r !-al(' S f(', , . Axf':'i of Ihe -.am.. It>fTl l
hll \'e bo:-o.-n fn ll lHl In <:l 1ll1lrpa n' llra v(";u1 A.tl,i
Iri4" lind Q<iu," wdl ..s In ['Clll(' -
1C'rit'S.HtheSII'<l 1(};lu" <lnd rl (I .' t\ h<lfl frolll on
Sir j: r<l \ ' (' al Milvo"" may a l...1 h ..ve hI
>In (1'0:(".' . i lu l, l,k Ul<tukls IlJr qJ" h
."('$ ho"('1' In SII' !rv rL-< ;11
Il,uhl'n .' 1Ul<l l h,,' flU ".-- lII ;ll
S{1<.-r lml'll fn>m II da ta hle 10 Ih.' Scv('lIf{' ("nll.
Ol h(,f ' .,on Ix- :tddo.-d I.. Ihl .. rr m't' n
COl PUS . ' '' 1(' frllm Ik ....Il i'l...n UIl (" fr.11ll
'Ih chc's. " IInJ IW<t fll ll -mo.. lI)[('$ lind ....wral [lO1-
ler)' lImlllme"1nl\(' from 119h l " INII f, ,,,
non e- is !h ('1"(' a r('!fOl bie int.kf'C1iJcn! f" r
011(' of nil' !J-mt I' v.lth
a IlAnll" hut hroke n an J
11.. rl"U<.lin jl, rr<tMc m" llf. 1111' "f'{'li mt' n fwm rkf
..... An lin Ilk nlllylnll mor.. ...f 'h e Unt.lloulld Oil
the C' " r1i('f .-ound Cllr(l('f1IM'" 1t 1:("'i" OI1C .>1 ,h("
Mo'll<tR(, Jda .." 0 1->0 1\'<: i..
milnrd." f\oIh . ilrt rMalJ\' dy hl rl/. e.
h t"lI\')' ...... . m ore lOr ('I1. rpt' n lJ)' Ih.1Il
,,'"
101 "Of 10:
" nn .... pllK'ro Jlff'C' kdy wll hhl l h.. SIl'. II ITl' ll
lh at lh c l int: Nchtuti<l. l rl' n<i!1H"don Ih "
MU101.flgerlda ax(" , 10 2 (i'lnd kn own also from lln
u n puhll9ned 9):: (' of th (' same In Chl n 1jfol .'
l>tlollged to tlte- Sh f('('1ll h fly IlOlst, ." hul ' h<:re Is
n n hitI'd evl.-klK(' 10 "u Pf'o' IJ1 Iht<: vWw. alll i h("
(',wld equally well be Ull" uf rlu- later jhmcesuh
whose arc Ircm the
l'urin Canon. Tht: Idug l.ljeJ:tJIk.hrc (Monlu"IllS-1Jf)
"I' 101 is al';"l unkx-atcd. hut in lhh. 01:"" the
[l<lll<'nl (,I' the l'u/Ij,mr'III'ouplc'd wtth the existcm'c
of ,I monument of his at (;ehdeln may potm UIIl1k
more surely to the Thtnccnrh Uynusry. and more
p.unc-nlarly 10 ilS latter part." Other axes ,If thls
type h'ur [Oy,,1 lao.:b." but ill each ruse tile
tnsrrtptiou ts (,.fdoubtful authcrurt-lty
TIn' vartarlons in shupc that 1110: short-lugged
type ahlblts appear to hi" lurgl.'ly without slgnl-
.-hronulogk'llly, tlwugh there is a seggcs-
lion that the form with spl<lyed Slrlllght stdcs -
blOWlt from Kenna." 'JIlJ lkr.;hil"
\\,:lSII01 us Iong-hvcdus that wnh lncurved std-s.
whn-h Is the ouly form us yet uucstcd HI contexts
rcrtainly later Ilion she curiy Sil'. ,\11 the FlM
l'Xalllplks urc of this tatter Iorrn. The medial nh of
106 b rare hut not unique, It fuund on two
ill her aXl><j of Ihb type," I<'dt as Oil olle \>1" Ihe
ftlll wabtcd [(lrm" (like 10<;1-10)
I'll\' dal';'-fllllt!<' of the huta forHl to Ill'
emlrcly within (he SII', pn:>b"bly middle to
lal'\ with SllInl.' overlilp lntu the Cllrly
nt, of ex,',,\{,rtl"L!
SiX from 1111," frum
Oil\). ,. Iwo from &tlJbbl" " Iwo fnllll Rlfo.ok" lWO
from Ikir cl-Billtas 100w a day lllow;"l),'4 Iwtl from
lJ"hl tbuth model". '1llL' ,if pollery. thc mher
[ll('lall.'" onc from 'lIle frum ,"Iniba.
H
,Inc fn'm Mo'>tag<'Jda." illlJ lHlt' frOfT1
Only a few of these- an" susaptlblc to dDC>l'rd;lting
within thL' pt'rioJ. namdy: Ihe lWO ffHIn B<lJabfsh,
which COlllC from Egypllul1ill.'iJ [l<in-gr<lllt'Sdatable
to tlle' lil/e SII';" lh", hIM from Hall;h, whkh <lrt:
unrubhsheJ but are lntlWfT 10 come frofTt thc site
of tla' N'1h Pill<ll'c ,In,l arc datable
to Ill(" I,I/e s..'vcnkenth Of e-arly H\:.hl('<)nth Uyn-
a",I.r;' ;lll.1 Olle "f the exump!e$ from IItl. whit'll
fouwl with a Iw..'ritx-J wllh llw !lame
ofl;lltg SwilJjcnn" tNrlx-rITaw I), sh:lh Ung of rile
$cvL'ute.:nth l)yna:;1y," Anvrhcr, unprtWCflllllced.
axe 01' Ihb Iyp'-' b-:ars lhe name of u king Smcnre.
who lHay lib" be tt'nl;ll!vcly altrihut('(j to the
S<lmc JyllllOil}'," '111e BM ,'olle>:lio!l shows the f,,11
rJnge of wul;;{,-d forms. from the Il:'lallvely short
Ihkk shapes hI llle l1;1rmwer kmgt'r Ouly
Ihe faIT 'o'anall( with thi' mid-rio is 1I0t fCpt"L'SCn-
II h;JS tx.:n that thl':il.' varying
pnl]l!Jrti'IllS ilre !Oignltkunl d1rono-logkally. wllh
lhe being pruO<lhly the latcsC'Q <l
[lfOposllion thaI b )}oil sllflki<.'lltly kst<.'d
hy lW:exislingcvidellcc.
Symmdrkul al:CS with dOIll!.-ak-d like
117-')1), make thdr lirsl (kHnitc appcilf;lJl('C at
the end (>I" th" SCvclltectllh or beginning of the
Eil-(htL'Cll(h Dynasty, Ihe e"rlle:;t known .'>fX"dmem
heing Iwo from the silL' orlhe N<Jl1h
l'uluc,' ullklr rll-ll<>1on.,1 by two f'llul1da-
lion lk-po-;jt nl1Kkb of'rulhmlls1s I rrolll KUnlllk."
Sinn' lhey UR' m,l<k "f llN.:nlcal '"'lflfl'-'f, 12') and
I VI, Ihe lallL'r put.zl!ngly s;lld to have n..'L't1 found
oJl N;l\HT;,tb. ure al",) Iik"ly tu 0.:. early in
po"sihly laIc SIP, Fnlln the middle of the I--'.lghl-
c,<,nlh IIw eviJen,'('. in the foon both of
futl<1io11;,1 a};t:'S,11l'1, fl<lflkuh,rly. Found;l\illn lko-
p.rs!l models (see lK'lowi. hcmmc'l cOj'llous, and
(1I,'rc arc ills" a Humber of lomh-;;cenes, In which
hurtd ilX''S of the lype Ilre ft'[lf'CSt'flled being
widdccl by cafpenters h"willg \I.-,JUt.!." Nu. 11:1 is
olle (If Iw(/ fulJ-sr/.e SIX'<.1ffiJ.'lls for TUlh-
Ill, the "tll'-'1". ;Ib-u hufll'{L fro-m U
temple 4:po-s.it." The o-ther d<ltabk <:"xampks lire II
hn,kt'n >lX<' [rolll Kahiin IrC'lw, "f Amc"flophis 1I11"
<llld II group ,If IlO lhun nhw (<HlC <l nl<"k'l/,
mdllding I;J}, from 'Anl1lrna,' Oiller Pfllvcn-
'lt1<'ed sp:dmens aIT two fmm HulwTl," whkh
W{'(C lin,is, alld two from t;urub.'" whkh
from thelf dIL'hilL'Ologkill c"nteu enukl he tlthe,-
EigllkL'tllh ,lj" Nillt'1e('1lth D}'llil.'ity_ 'nlcre Is simi-
lilr u/lcnlil!llly about llle JaIl' nf two sl_h'h
Irom UUt.'ilJt' Egypt, one from dod the
other (rom Tell d-Iksy." and about the moulds
rco-nrly disruvered ut Serabit No
cxumple certainly lalc'r Hum [he E1l,:hl-
ecuth Dynasty has yc-t been found, Development
'lfthe fcnn within the dynasty centres on the lutts,
later examples ht-'illg and more robust than
curlier
This development finds Its ell,] In (he thic-ker.
heavier axes wnh markedly expanded bulls (like
I JI-6). which probably evolved during the
Harnesstde Periodand may lndeed he represented
In a tomb-scene of the NIIH'IC"ClllhDynasty," II Is
difficult to put chronological ttmns on the type,
however, as none of the provcnauccd examples is
datable. Of the short squat 1I1lIiMy, like-
I !1-4. two from II carhe ut DCIl-
dcra." ' may he <IS early as II, but tilt'
evidence is not conclusive and Ihey could be
ronstdcrably later. Anoth"r, fmm Merlinet HilmI,"
is laIc Ranw:>sidc at the clIrllC'i1. as is it spet:lmcn
[[l)m a elKhe ;;1 which <"ouJd C'<.J.ually
well datc to Ihc Third Itl1c'flJl<'dj<i!<: i'cn...-J. Two
others, cxcavilted ilt one with it sllghlly
curv,'<l butl. hlllle nc\'e'f been published and no
is aViljlilbk al .... lu( Illt'ir{mllc};1. 'Ihc
Jilk'd ...'Imcn is an Iroll axc, Ilke 1.33, fwm II
.... teruiut: a-mclc-ry at $<lldJ." _--\ similaf Inlll <lXe,
pllniully hafted, from the I{amesseum, {'urnes
lll]forlunllldy frum a dIS(U1ht.-J ('(lIIt,'};l and is
ulluawhlc'. its Isommodel onrol). f 50, From Delr d
lkilui. A p;!ralkl w the la((l'f, though made of
brun;:.e, was kJund at Medlnd Jlabll,u but Is only
dalN. to the very md of the
Oynasiy OJ' later. The SDkb and RamCS$C"Hffi al:CS
haw hooked lugs., as do all Ihe knuwn fuJl---t.tz.e iron
aX(><j <JfthIs type, Induding VL'ry probilhly (when
Intllcl) no. Ij3.' The RlIlTlCS-Seum Is
In that it shows the mdh;xl ufhllflllli:, ,)f
<illill(Cof this type. _-\s mlghl haw ,kduced from
lhe (hkJ..ness of the h-utts, thl":'lCilR'S were not
In:scrtcJ int<l pn'Pflred soclcis but were placed !lush
against Ihe- surface of the haft. (he latter being cut
espt'<'1<lJly thick alOllg the length of the hutt S<1ilSto
L'llilblc II bew_'f to wllhsUtnd the Impact of II blow
without splitting," Th ...only ,'L'11ain11.'Pf('SCnlalion
of this type, unfortunately ,If douhtful evident!al
value,l,,:cursln a Kamalc
shorw-it1t:(Ill.' kiug il Humber of 'traditional'
weilpOlls, Including an <lxe,"
Al least pllflly cont.:mporary with this squat
varIety was a longer, heavier roml, Ilke I Hand
I O'ne long axe and one squat axe werc found
together In the cache al mentioned pre--
vlously_ ThJs Gct'tch hilS il S-Irdight hUll
wlth ,ample lugs," as II tomb-motJd uf the
type frum Abydos'" dallng /0 Ihe hHe Ramessltle
Perl'x1. A CUl'Vl't:l butt on Ihis Iyp<-'Is fiN! llflt"Ste-J
on all axe frum from a New King-
<h>lTl kvel. pf<lwbly Rameo;s!de, It Is <lIsa found on
an a};e In the Culro Mtl5t-um'" dilled by lflS<'riplkln
hI Ihe Third InuffiR't:Illlte Pnl,>d, whkh Is slmllllr
III w 1]5, (hough in lhb last CilSCthe buH
is mOD: lThlrl...-dly<"tlrvt'd. An axe like the latter Is
fepreselllt'd In a Suite tomb--scenc showing car
j)('tllL'fS Uf work7f ilod in II Roman lempk-rehd al
bna." where It figures as une of the klng's
W<,apo-ns. Among extant example;. curvtd buUs
<lre t'onfin,-d (0 bronze axes. iron UX('S always
have bulLS. usuully with hO'lked lugs. like
1}6. They may nut be Invurlahly Fiw full-
she provennncerl examples are kll-<Jwn, the earll-
cst, from Malmar, being dak'11 by (he to
lh.: ThIrd Pnlud/' and the next.
from .t;anam, to Ihe Kushlk PeJi;.JtJ.'u 'Nle
der. fmm PardS." Kuranog."' ilnJ Mc-roc"
IIvdy< tire all prllbably of thc Meroit!c perlutJ_ II Is
hnposslhk ttl Ctlllfitknt about the ..late of t lb.
cxt'ept 10 s:ay that It is almost L''rtalnly laler lhllil
the Nt!W KIngdom. The shape Is not dlagtl<JStle, as
It 15para!lc-kd In both thc M<ltmilr and Meroe Iron
llXe:>and l..'iroughly simuliJt<...1 III the Naputan llnd
Meroitlc mock..b ami 14'). and >-t:'t:
Appc-ndlx I, nos, 4n--'i9). some of the later exam- WITIISPUHJJlIt\
plcs of which arc ulso mede ortron The manufar-
turc 'M the an' shows rcluuvely advanced nW(ill-
lurgu-al technique uhc iron ts (amurizcd and
quenched), but it Is not possible (0 evaluate prup..
erly the ,ignilkuncc of this. as our knowledge of
the development ,rf Egyptian inlll-working b ver-y
lncolllplde." A number of analyses of Egyptian
Iron tools has been carried uut in Ihc- pa;;!.."' hut
allTltr.>t wholly on matcnul whose date is un-
known or disputed, Among these analysed ptecc,
arc IWo axes." whkh revealed stmllar churartcr-
tsucs of manufurturc to t llnfcrtunatcly. both
are unprnvenunced and thcir datlng III 'ubour qoo
Il<" by t'etrtc. aC"l'pted In much suh-
Sl.-'LJUCnlhtcr.nurc. is merely suppmltioll,"
Axes from foundation deposits {see Ap[ll'lIdix I)
arc tlrst attested ill the Eleventh Dynasty hi the
reign of Mentuh'llpe II (Appendix Ln,lS. 1--1.\ <lnJ
<Ire found. Iher,'afte,-, In most of the knowll
Je.po..:ib dOWII u) Ihe t;'nd df Ihc New Kingdom
(Appendix I. IlOS. I 4-1-J,They Hot to
been incht<kd In F'..gyptl;Jn Jept:i:>i1s of (he ThJfd
IntenfldhalC llod Late (.'>aile for
AW'n-di" I. no, 4'iL thoHllh Ilwy occur
in cmltcfllpufary Naputan {Appendix I.
nos. 40' 59). 11wy rC<JppcJr In Ellyptlan dcp<lSlls
In the Ptolemaic Period lAppcndj}; I, no. h<l)
Thl'S(' xcs fOrm a spoetiul clIte!:"ly "I' m, ... ld und
nccd to bo:: trcalcd wUh cautlun ('vld,'n,'l' fOJ
(ypc Jlllil1!':. 'nlL1r shapt.'S 00 \lot reJkcl
conWmporary runrtiolllli but lIlay lwrk
had,:: to Ir<lditlunal fom]$. Is particularly !fue
of th<:" un's I>flhe rdgn uf (APj)('lIJi}; I.
nos. 6- I 'II. most of whkh fellnl h' Ihe okl-
fashluned round form that had long bc-cll obsoletc
in funl'tlun<ll <lxes. ThIs fOunU form f<JIltinu,":' til
he f"und. sPllrlngly, In &'fl<)slts of Tu(hmosis III
iAppt.'fIJh I. nos. Ill, :q. 1.7, 1.'il. Anl<'llOphis Il
(Appendix l. no. '1 l and IV (AJl1l"ndj)(
L no. 3 'Il. after whkh it k supptllnted by the typ...
with splayed or incurvo:.-J sjJe;j, Thls laHer is nr.;1
fOund In f<llll1dalion JcptJ:>Hs from the relKll 01
Tulhm,)SJs I (AppendiX I, nu, '5) anJ lx'eolllcs
pn"v<lktlt with TUlhll1<lSb III f ApP('flJi:I, L nos
WI, It Is fhe only form [(lund in posl-
daflng 11K'feign of TUlhmosls IV (App: ..ndl)( L
}f),f)o). Most of (he m' .... lels are lIlati<- ,)1'sllcd
ml.'lul ulld arc highly ",'IlL'lllalk In ';/lilJX'. Qutl(,
<:otllillonly. pill1kul,lrly In tlte middle of the Eight-
eenth Dynasty lAppendix L nus, X-t'),
2 { 4, -n \'11, Ihe lugs !tre ,)fnllkd ;Ill" ,I cflh1dy
<'ylllldnclll so,:kd substltukd, <IS 0ligillally on
1"':'0, a melhoJ "I' huftlng (hat b not found in the
functl<iIl<l1 axt'$ of thCO' pc'r!tld, SimHarly mi ....
frum the fuU-sl2e repertulre is II form wiCh il
ccntrill tllng at tlK" [{.'<If. il5 Oil !Wil models "f
Amcnophls IV (App,:ndix L no. j/})_ Not 1111 the
<-Ieposil IUe)i om Ill' dismissed st'lll'tllulk Of
unrcprcSL'lltlltlve. hnWe\T'1". Nos. 117-18 (App.:ll-
dl}; I. no. 17) llrt' rdatively well mmk and quik
rhsdy imltute thl' ,.. lthlle;; of full-stu:
likt"11';;- NOf only iln-'Ihey ;Kcur"ldy ShillX'l'l but
they were alS<l origlnilJly hafted In il fCahsUI
manner with 1m: blade lilted into a ':i<x-ket ilnd
bound to the hafl wllh a leather A k'w
uthers of the SlIme dale urr realhlk
(Appendl);; I. no. 1.hJ, one axc <lmong Ihem
actually of full STtc and thkkness, Other dl'posH
lIXCol whkh mllY oc uut for spe,ial mUllion
afe four of Mentuhotpe II (Appendix I. no, t)
whkh an: alld tho",-' of King Ay IAPP':ll-
I. no_ ul. which un' alm-OSl !ull:'-' ellough to
lx' fUlidlonul and muy "riglllally hUlie l>t."t"1I llufkd
hut mit quile fully w"rl:e& falhL't' 11,,(
lilLe tloS tinJ 129. Such size and quality ure n,)l
t<l\lIld tift"r the HKhtc .... nth DYllasty, All Ihe
RllIfle5Sidc llnd lllier examples (Appendl:>; I,
J<)--/}H) Ufe und nwstly wry :",he
malic, like 1}7--t-8, III many elises wilh hurt
anJ blatk cut !IS o:rlL' fWIn the s..tmc pie..'" of metaL

Wrnllil"l A \m.lII.

;' If " ! nt 'l ll' is i'I ,:!i hcJ. N.. ''(' u rI" ..l; 10
Ill{' dutl ' nnl'l" "f!l l(' \a rl.' .... ...fun n, J ... a liI."
,'u n i>c. drawn (rll m th em . rh()Uil,h !a ltnl ;,<; a
",,10,,1.. I h ,' , ,hi Irml 10 conllrm l he- I/K-WIh al th ..
...!l1I 1;1111-1" r" b ll'" buu illld lu l!. s ",-,,'a me
In the anol Ctlfl r!r tuNI
Ih.u"'n..r ln l" ll ll.u....
l... ;f1. l " , ,," .. l ' " l.MM
,;,,,.j,. . ' I 1'0: 1>;(;. I l. pt TW. riolv, I II Th ......
"ro' \la,,, """ "' , Il\!. 1 "1.-,,,. (lC,
f,-;po:,ll'..Iy
:>;..- .\ 11" r....
1 ' " fl,. C T /.hnl" ot
ll>..... ... Ih.." />0

t; . '.of . JM, .... I ' , . .\1.\ 11:-'". 't ' '' . ... ...' " .......tw-.ln
IIUHI
fw. . . .... ........... "" \ "'II . noo ln( M M
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1l.>kIo-. , _ IJor,k">./I.A6-o11'1 i 4).
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... y lhz<tlh<-h . n
.'ldhli><-lr
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l ...... ....... .. I . p h nil. 1i II . 'I. fl< ."" 1'l.Th.....

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'I 11dJ"k , I,. , ., pi< ... 1 , .m.
IlH, m" , f'I 1o, . ,' . ""kl l" t"" ... km .....>l t"Ncowc",", lk-
UR. Ill . , I , pl , . rI, ... I"'I<,,-d. .... <I\. ! ?lj
III' . 'i } , rJ 11. \, ' 1. """ 't'h<' 1lT<t 0 1
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r ",I.-u . I U. .( I"nd I ".t>d '::"4 "
n..-.r.. ll' 4" Om. NAt. f ....... R "l! h ""' . t -U
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ll'''l<"", MF" . .( ' .. ".. lllft U-O-. l' v , ,
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D . 'n..- :'II \ '.. MM A. I"" 1. 'Io>'J'!r' . 1
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was h ilrh'tl . is thil.n th e ut lwr. Hovl h
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of l l\lo p;t[1Yru s Rowers. one Ol n.W....I hC' . II h('1"', th e
upper Inverted on the- lo....TT. The Internal ,J,:I;til
was lllthl1y r hescd in rather cursory Iashin n and
w IIS ne ver fu lly com ple ted. 11t<" 1I1l u/t' 8 {'f'<' a n 10
too: rtdtn g 's jdc- saddlc wllh the ft,r;o.an J han d
1", ldlll g IIrc lo oped r ot! or a rein . Th e han d I"
pr ohlll;Jl)' 10 be u nde-rst ood as h"CoJhll! rhe end "f
t bc olh..r re in . II '>Ill il ll o; .....nonof ", hlch is "1<1\\' n
beneath tho:' f, .,--word rll:>o,.- . On n ll(' race. , h(' ri.k r
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Ihr ear. lVf': etha- wit h it n<xU an:' or ..., II"r . -rh..
I(y(' 1\ tndtcatedbu t not the or ," nUlh , On th..
o l h l"r Iace . Ih.. h ead of I h(' Ato:t1rt' ha s too."t:1l lef t
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1)11 t hl! tJvdy 1,,( Ihc ridt.,.. <If tlllh(' [1<lN.- tt
h ilm t"SS. but Ihl' 1lSC'l( ....dl dt-IOliW " II
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....117 , II h as 9t'wrll l nod ,:>II I II .
lis l'>ul f.t' Tld I" pa lntrd hh1CJ,; a nd [10; shaf l t.k...--
l1'r-al N ..... lIh OIark stri pes . a rrafl l!- C' d ill fI .. ri...
f"iI ll ('"fn . (l oll II Trdd lsh-bm wn bao;e. The <;i r i fll."'S " r('
nn w much radt'd. t>lade ....\1.0; t>olllnJ 10 th.. hart
m.... lln.' of a !<-al he r thong . m m' h or\\ hkh
SIIT"\'i Vl"'S bUl ln Il hritt k ,m d <J. ;lr, . IIJts of
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11JC wnrlunll nshi p I:; nf N-Urr qu .. llly and
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lion " I a d" F! . " '('un llil a n , lIa r . ltl hl ckln J{Ih(' hh kl
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Lurgt' ml Kkl at e wllh ha fe possl ..Jv It l oy. TI lt'
rOml of I lw "I mil."' fOHllhl.\' Imil;'fl C'S lha l of t Ill'
a syrmn l'l r l<' ,r.. ... I)"fl'-' . Imlrad nlllll:s. t h C' rl'
al th(' "M. Il.,hifh Jn to 1I
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lh r 011 1<1 fl mit' III fh. lI..fl rur
t he IIl't"rHuli "ra ''''wmh."l ll ll. ,\ "''''Ii"n " f
t ill' Inw ('r "r ,1.(' hl;.. k is ;thrll<h-.:lIIl1d Ih.' r(' I..
a Wl lt..J",nr m fll.l (' In olle r<l ce. The l\ilfl Is m..dC'
from .. l1(':Irl)" ..l raJ!:" f tlf 101....1(/ t'rmkl,
sh uprt t 111'1'\1 . of it" J,rll l!l h In to (' 11/- 1'11 .. r nil l<'
Il<+rr uw raerl s, [, is , rtu' kt"< l a m " nu II......... ;mtl
;II Ihe Ilrlp . ....h\f h ;Il'lll t\nm.lI f lml aln \J>('\'('1" <!1
w",...lwoml htll..... 1t. t1h II", Ma,lo-a nd l h.. hah a rt'
,k-.:"nlktl lAi, h w' ,il (' . n ..l a n.1 f\llinl .' 11lt'
(,KL":' ofIhc hl,L,k h.... ar- u rcprcscruauon of il tree or
hr;mdl lI\ ;uh " nJ su-tu itud 1";1\ '<,""\ W. ;j
...-lllll ground. 11 hy d IL'd bonk.'f
ri ll' >\ h mUfh I.ld ,... I . having com-
pl" ldy di S.'PP";II,.>J lUI I>l W face . a s h its Ihe r\'tJ
hm d.., " II Ihe '111L' h.IO IS lMillt t"\l
.11"1110: us k llKlh ,,' il h 1I11,0rll .lle h.tIIJ . , J h' J. wh lll:
; lI1J 10: " '<. ' 0 , .1ll J is ll.... III 11.<: I"ll h d
in red In im !lilt i"n of !,...ll wr
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" 11II.,' M"J,. ll l lldl , oft il<' "hilt: . >11 11.,' h ;,l i h\
..n J i>oJ d '-lol holn ltm uu nt " f l h(" gfl .... 1.. nd
(1 ... 1I.. ... ,. h" I..:d l.... ;IW" V. Th" r<:is " " p;.inl I.,fl "II
Ih ' j: li ll
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11" . 1,' IIt .. ,,:J .. " " .",r c olh,,"'i'" . nd l....
... 0 ., l1'..-J""'" ,,os. ... ..:,.k nlllt.otd<-,, " h .. n
Il I ,' "" ,h.. , ,,',,,
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('olll l1ll'llf { ISJ -66)
.'>en",] . ,l l llr ill':R' ri heJ ;IllJ / or PWVl,:II.lUn-U
"1,,'d l lll,' IS lll ollm l l he dill lllK uf 1111: wdb t ,'Ll.
.1.\YlIll IHI, i.a l t y('lt' n preSt' flIeJ by I IIj1 10 Ih.'
1'.: rH"J .of trJu\ il i" ll 1", l wCL' 1l I h. Sl....IIIJ IlIl tOr
lIll', II,' h' 1.ri oJ illl,j Ihe Nl'I " " ill llll..lll. '111<: pru
I/tll dmcd n illll pl,.,. ....tmprb L ' lIle from lIi l ' 11111...
";WI. ,III" rr...11Udr d hLoll,Js' (h,le S- rP/O;'"'d ly t'J\l.hl -
,, ' ut h 1'>' l1a, t yl. UtlJ If,, u r V"il h h llfbl frum d;
';Uurt ' C .. I 11Ilt>t,,"). tl ll' .... dll n" wn Iru \'{: of
(}11...:11 nuon nf th. -"c ,.h. iHC
with !.illJ!. :> I1dUl ' 'S: IWU with lh l'J'>e tl f I<:dffi USC' ,'
Ill,' llIjl . .. nJ une wllh Ih ,, * il l 1111:
lI.lIlll "" .. f ' ''1I '1S1:>" I"", ..n 'ur 0 11dtl II 11P'tlll''1I .II''' 'tI
' I't' ,.-in u' n in th e ," h mu-I.,toll M.. ",, u m' To Ihe
;1<"Iu., 1 ;.pt.. .: lm,'11 r,.. m llull;is nltl tH:' do.J tJ.-J d re
v f l wu IIU'S frum lh e sil<:.'
,1IIJ Ihe t yfX' mol'll Itlo:obe tk'pl <"IC'J n" II pnvltl...
ITrl llln ly from Thdlol, 1i. Ja l l,<1 III lh e
rdo:n of Ki. UII I)SC. In th e lilUe' rU5>: . Ilown' l'!', II Is
po s.,;jl:>k Iha t 11h, ' d);/;, Is mt"ant 10 R'Pn ...cnl Ih e
rdattJ fon n wllh Ihe lltkk..r WUt>iI. eKemp lilk'll by
1'i.1-l
1'1 1<' 11010 I"urldks Wt'fe pilrtiaJJ y
wllh til l' luu ...r Ihe oth L'f by su nu: wily .
rh e "ilrl i,'i l . 1" sc:ly.. I Ol t C'l1 l'Ka nJp!es of t nt' la ll er
an: nill c IIwJeb from 11)t" In llle of l\hhol Jl(".o M,l( e
I" ...--Ir J al ....1. IHII wi lh in Ihe sa", ...
an ("'''11 ;1 1;,10: '.1 ... I \ry .I I
Ild... ...r .. We:.!. ,.. Tw.. lill<' h a flt-d olle
lh ,' oI hl' r a tu y. ... \I\ ' il h cIA
un h" fi,...1 M..J e. n ll llC frum uf lit e t:.Hiy
l-:i l!hh -enl h ,. l l hd x 's." wh it.: IIII.lt hcr
hl.,J e. fr" lIl Ull "t ul III Nuh ia ." Is J dl <lbk
10 lIll' DYllusty . hmhcr \1iit.k'nt'C
is IOflhnfllll ng frum l"Pil!.raph lf imd r..prc:scnt u
l!oma l wur( e5. An ;111.1:'ohMs Iype is 1", ln' dI.pkll-d
.urr"' ..Jhy a a l<>lnh <II E1-Kdh " J dl lng h .
Ih.. rl"iI:Il ..1 . \ IUL1' uph is l .. lIJ il ilppt 'u rs itgah ) , Ill
" l l l1::hu n Si d ... or Ihe !>i.J 1II'"rl'itl:" elf"d IIl1k I..
lI th e ;lITUrh( y .j f Ih t' re prL'lil..ll ta l h....s {"lin loe rdit'J
" polli. Ihe IVflt: al",' tI .'t"u rs ;. s u h k'rHf:1yph (,It'
kmJinin j: l he: "",on.! , VIW. ' a xt" o n l w,1
,WIlH.'S fr....m EI,I\;ib" l:itrv cd in th e rdgn {If lI ilt -
a nti uppt'"an; In it ..... inf(
in " The h lln lnmh of roughly th t<w ill e
pc'riod Ill), ,
' Ill<.' t lli n) b"lIh' ,u: e ,If t hc ll""rlll '
sl!lOna l pc rlllJ t'no/llbil lCS t he of
h!.c I 14 <ltlJ I '; I . th lI<lrw w waist au d l!\icTI, 1I
o;!Mf>t. rdol ll nlotit 101111.' f"mICf . lis Itll.'lIn,.,] bull lot
IIll' 1.. 110.. . x .....n ,. alll llk.!> a re l..U"WII .
r <;4-<; . Ihe liltlcr k i ll " l ho:1<trt:c:'>1 ye l a ll ,'Sled Of
IheS<. ' "... 11 UIlC b; pn lllellllll. L.,]. ,'j lll t h' K rnlfn u C
I:r""p K.r ;I"'c ul I)et....ir.. ." ",hld l ts 1'1'11
Ih p<,Ut' ry , 'I If'\ I ,' n l fa Ihe "II J " f Iht" SII'
" f li t(" IJ;:hl ,-eni h I)Y' };I:>l Y d ,ju tC'
.....-hldl IS full y ,utlsiHO: Il1 wi t h the Iypol"gk:a l
-aut u s orthe fonn . NIIl Il' (1( 11lL' o t he rs has it usefu l
provcnuucc. h.n one ts wlln h l\lltl ng In Ih<.l1 II h
stili uuachcd I" ih h"r t. whi .h appe ars 10 be
I>rit inal. ,- Thc h1...Jc Is ill .... -rted in ltl a Il .U Tll W
,..-;{" Lt1 and held ra SI hy II jearh..'I" Iho ng bound
r" und the lu g.'> in ( " IlI ...n l io llill fa., hi ull . IInc t.p' '<:'
"odly . h"w' I/,'r . Ihe " .. reI:; slr di;:ht , Ifill cu rved
in the ot he f va neues. , oj a nd t he IU""
he;;oJ iudi","" downwa rds . Th is of a re was
a s d fa sht, l{1dtJI. ..po rt ' by Pct.rle ," an ti
n: rl ittil ly Its rilth l'f 1Ill pr oJllk: dl IOml . wit h II.... km g
,," ...Id.ly 1:>1 ".1.' III1J ill h l''''' 11l weakn ess In 'h e
dll o:n u<tIL-d W<tl :.t . ' lIa l..c.-s n unhkely t ha t II
r.' nmilll'J i ll 1lX' ... f inus "" CUp' ''l u/ ""uria rt'.
'1m' 1i1l;11 ,,'ym lllClliL: f..n n . .. u1 by i t\
.,] f Ul ling ,'"J h . ...' I o;h-bbj, WdS III(" maj"r
1'11 1-"-' of the fj t:,tl l.....ll1h n ynil sl )' .onJ
pc rh ap:; of t!l{"Nl ' W KllI l/d.)ffl as II "-holc_Prol/ell '
anced spedmms e lls l ill abunJdllCC. a nllm
ocr , J( th em wllh "[>t"11w,, Fi. blad e:; ......h. 1W!.
earlks t ('xumpk s "rone from Thebes"
Jnd ,me from (}.tJrus III Nubia!' uiltlng to t h e
l?iHiy Elghleent h Dy nu st y . COn fffil POr ary with
Inc51.' is u "'{X'\'inwn t U'l:IlIil k d tit CaZi.l In P<lks -
l in e." til th e 111">1 ha l( or middle of th e
Sil nl l: J ym. My ;Ire t wo frum Aby dos lin dudin g
11Ij 7 ). " on e ( ..d 1 from .\ nihol.... l >UlL.a." a uJ
l.luglll."ish'" in Nub ill. a nd u run her Clomple frnm
Th dll:s. ' ...hil h Is J ot ohle In Ihe uf TUl h
m' ''' is III. T"'t1 e n dl/lIl..... III ();.oJru.. ilI'C
J ..l et..! . line 10 Tu thmllsis rnor Itok'1", Ihe Otlk'1" ro
dl,' la... f-)!o'hl ft tlth ,.. "Chis 101:.1 Is t he
ta tL'S1 clatcJ ( xa m ple yer Itn ,'St ctJ. Iss usdulty
.o n l l' u ,"lJ ;m: I w,1 (rum St:m lla IUUL' 1)J!.h IL...n t h
llyn.,,,, )', " Ih L' ot h,' r Ne.... ull<>l hcr
fn-'fll c,a:7..a" DynaslY). U11C' frum
Rik h" j oo Infor ffldl illo l dod one- from t .e:u.ln e In
Syri a " (J al... un n :f1dinl . fo ud dil lOll, a mou kl rur
11K- prnJuL1hm .. r , til ...,,<: uf dus !.1Ik! \O! as
, uwrc,J In d N.---w II:lo lldom k ilN al fl sh m Ullcl n
1St ....pl. is. tI!p. J ilnJ 41.' -
An tlnpn)\lena mW t>ul C'!Lampl l:"' of
Iyf'<.' I Sf>. whi fh ht' tt f'S a n insoipl ion In
J lfl rUllg thilt th L' pit"t;e a gjrt \.lI II :><:rving
so ldk r from King Amenophl s II ." SevL'I1lIeo nle m
porury rL1Jn:..,;rotaUftlIS, dmo ng which pl. I. figs
I and .1, 1lr" pn, bd bl y I tl be Included, wnflnn Ih ltt
rhe form wus In L" mmOl I use as a WCilpon by l h e
midJk of l h e J)yna1>ly . ' Am on g t he
edanl <::tilm p/t'"li t hc iii no d ear evi dence lhal
lhere was a n y 100. rt etl tk \ dopmt nt orIhe rrnm
wll hlo th e dynas;ty.
Si ne.. r1l'1 .. :>i o, k s.p.:c101( n hd S yt"l l:orrll' 10
ho-:;t1, :umy J ah"tl 10 Ihe Rumt"$siJe
l' e1'1oJ Of" Idu:r . Ihe 1:viJ<.na (or the su bsequenl
u"" ge tlod o.kvd.1pm<.'fl( of Ihe f(l"n cJmll es
tircly from n i ls el.'lJen a, hl.I"Kdy
from Ihe mltn y mihtary ...:",n rs .J! lhe Nt-w "':ing -
dom, It b cupiOu.s bUl t(C' ot"rully unrell a bk. Utolltll
Is depk1aJ dearl y t-noui:h 10 a lto",
IJenl ltkctl lon ohyPl' tl nd it I' nul t1rn:i tI
tOlIsl,krable lIandy or lUl"s:ha pes occ urri ng In Ihe
w ille SU"l I"' .. d sll o..llo o ....hi ,: h Is unU'- d y 10 be a
lrue Il ' llec Ouo (If usa!!"'. rrom
1I0....' Js!ad "l) C' v!tko, c. h" w("\I<T. II is po ssibl e
Ih " l a l rcnJ m.. )' lx II Je vd<l p' IX'nt
llWHy from th t: ddSl>ic slu-wcJ r.JOl\ !Ike iSh-hi .
wh ic h ma y 'lid h llve SUrv llle'll t h rotJi!ho Ul th e
New Kingdom." ll I,Wl:Ird s a form wUh ma!ght or
lapt'rinK :>ides lind it reliltl l/ely tlIlITDW. oft= foun
ded euUmg end . 1lJ Is JUli et'" limn flr51 to
itPflCa r in rhe rAmJrna Pc riod"' lind txx'nmL'1l
common t hc reil(t er .' , N<J. 10 .1 is probllbfy :m
ex am ple uf t hts t yrot" a nd th e wflOden lOy. 1M .
n )ukJ al so tol , a m......k.. uf th e l hough i1 Is
l.r u,ldy lIl.ttlL' ;1/1, 1 Ilu' sh; ll'e <I f liS Mud.:: llIity 1..-
mi:Jt.'" ..Jrng.
.. \u:s t.iil h ,Io.('urll tkln. likt: 1(, 1-5. 011
",-,:m to bduJl tt lu Ihe l ypc . tMugh :;0<'" \ '.,-.. 1
;lr c Wit I/ery (""rcfull)' Nin etco:n e111m ples
ilr c luwwn" ..ntl nu n... dpp.: o1rs to bl:- funet!nnctl.
OlLly three of these fi. llrL"<I.,Jy II" '-' xl above) arc
pmvenanr-ed . One is from (JllJ ruS In Nubia"
(ellrly Eillh IL"t-'Illh l -tl d,.l yJ, th... l>t,'( Ot lJ rrum
Sl 'lll n a ' (Elllh t cc nt h Dynasl yl . e nd th e l hlnl from
lti kh" ( 110 Itl ft.lnna lh m l. "111<'moti fs 1111s u, h , IX."":>
lc'nJ I!t"tleru lly t o be jess o.b\' hlu o;.J y rd lghlll!i Iha n
Ihd r ea rl j('1" <:qu lvdln t h l..ud l ItS hil t il h
IIld y thu l l h.'ir f' " lt' Ii ,, " was .. rf y ,11111110.'1 1,
lIu d UpUUUp it : . o. s.::- .: n\"S o ( a rumals. "I.IIJ
men. h u nt ilt l{ and tl.: hrin l!: . .. .. ,1Il 11)4- 0;
ar c Vl'ry c<)om mun. "" Iuuque, ,, " Iht' ou....r hrusd. is
the !O'l li f ' 00 I fJ , . wh id, pcub.i.tbl)' tho: ' "ll rll l":'ot.
r tpr.......nl a\l tll fft)tll ut .. h un;,. h...ill t: riJ
J en . .. Thls is dlso one or Imly Il\u ' 1,lIy h;,rt l-J
e 1.am r-l""" or the s"" w h.1 1yJ"t' . Ihe , ,(h ,T, III
111\." hall lnc .. sim il.. r " f'C' flW. rl " laJ.. . TIU" bin J
lil t: .,f l h... Ikrlill d.t" int "l<"I;lIlJ sh" ",,!; Ih ill ..
k " gl h y 50tlkaJ 10 s.:t-u r( In L'
t ln lt.... I bl , it S' haft is und....." i1IL....
Srv...-"l m,NkI 1I.l( ("S/lllh.k ( n li rd y u( wooJ ,I(l J
palO!L'll lire b l<lWt1. Ou e on ly is pm Vt1l<HlceJ. II
sp,:cimcn from Ddr d -MeJit hi . " poss.ibly of Ihe
Nln l' IL'l:nl h IJynllsty . M..tk of om' I'k' cc of W'lO'J. u
is smllilcr tlllllt lob illl J mtl R' .'>t.' heill ut ica lly
sh ltfll'tl . milkIng ils l yre Un(: ,'fluln . 115 IHife biuJ-
lnlo\ a nd bl" ul.' ilr e <: oIOl.lrtd bl' Kk. retl itn J yel low
"-"'IJlt. '(;IIVel y. hllt il bea rs Ihl ilJ J ili " n,dl J t(OJr'llllvt'
pa n crn . TWlI oth...,. moJds. III Ih. , 'ai n> Mu
seum, " are mu..'h mort' IiLe 16& III
dlld ..Jo: l.l ,ra1illll . Ttl... h..11 dtuJ h1..d..' .. f L...: h ""('I e
farvl"<l St'par"tdy. w il h lh e lilll o:r lilll-.J bnn ti t<'
'o m lcr by mt'"dl.lS of a re-dr ca u g. .l,I" rOJvcT. Citeh
hall Is d :un IIC"tl wit h a ltc-rll .. lm g hit nds ,of. "OI" Uf
lin ont: e ret! alltl Itrre o. i ll (h,' " l lll' '- bobek, r.J
lind ...It h lilc I:>mtllflg il l.... . In
bol\h 11ft" u ndlt tuJ
1I" .V.p1 ... .... ... ......" . l ll " ,"JJl U
r"..n ...n. _ 1Ir ... . ... " . 1.1.1<\. .. l H ".
................ t.. . f" ",I.
I .. 7J ICl; 4" ; 4 1" " p..
.n; " " 4t>l. 1F4"17'U; IE
..npuw,,; .aI , . , .. , . .. . pk ,It. . h" II:
. 1l7l " ;w,; h.oAed

t.:4"71
:-: ' l I b l , pI,
s.... .. l rt .mol:l d "
I",,, .. ,".C 1&, J 'I ,,><' ,,.,.,J . 1, .. , ,: z....- " l-. o'II : <II
l'll, II"J: (; Wt r>->, t. ", Ii: f.q . 1) 7. II I
In ,'t<n. 1lh.<r............ ,onIi><. !old"
\n .... ....r ){)<), pl
.. . . "'"," nol ... . NM. {o) / , 1/ ) " ",,"'''' ','''N ,II.-s.. .. .
luint E.ol'<"ii U<m, "' lPl'ww..-.I l h.. .... ...... . pl"o. ..,- .oph ,,(
I ll ..
I ' .\0..,.. , II. .. g . fi t i" n... l..<iIl". " Nt- ... \' l IMA
, f> ' ''4'' 1. <\ \ ' _l ht- ", h...,. MNIA. 1'1. l h .. .. "I ... Il,d
"'" ...
u r .. ... .. ... .." Al .......m
I ) s.,. SVy. I!'<r .st l f l.. 7. I. I I . ' ''''''' Il )''I . I ....
IJr. \',1,1"",.. , .. ",r.. ..- ........., c...." .... '"..
.. ,. ,. llI , ), ...
I Ilm<'l'. ph . . ,.d
' . ' l '" lr"" II I 14'"'l , ..... Sv lr" 1.10 ....; , -'., . ....... " J
' n il""' ...,"" ' .. 1 ..h, IISI.H
l #o r _ 1....... . , . pl . I\. II ; K f.. . I ) Il . It ..
.. . II. , #o pt7. .
... ..... ..... . M.. , J>7 '. _ ... , , Rllt". ' U -..' n
I II .... II ... """'obi ,,,''"'
' 'I ( l d.:"". d Jl ,
' " ...." lnl...,., 8"' .-ri:n' ... ' .. l<ln"
r n'. 'I
lOr."... r, I. "7 \.., l.fI n' .....N. ... .. . .
, .. '" 4
!l. " l ' .... l l. .. l. pl . b M.......
VM. I.
! . , ...., ri , ,II, pi
n.. o(f><:r .. rI."'" ....J Ail . 'I pl .1"1 II,!, ' '!tltt
,f>. .
17 Me". S", v ' 'JD'J '9' "', ,,>t>, i . .. , ';
!,II " " h. SUr>' J'.l'1-If "1"'). 1>1> , ,,,,,, 'I. pi c. ,
.. V. rl . "''''' A
" ' S" , In Vl " n.t ' 11 I" " , " .. " h l h.:
""'"' '''..JQ....MM... . . . ' I l " I I''''
I " II.-.-.t.., :ill' J ) IHV " , ,, ... \0. ."
u n""Nl.:Joul I,,' ........'...... "'1<,<1.>". .... 1." .1'
fl I Ut""""
I ' s........ ' 1I7 p1 u "I_f
" . s,,"""'.I. _ ' I \ ) 4 ' "
11 1""'-'< 1. II. pI. l- l l .
14 t trl...-J. A.h. ... f'"'<1o', ' ...... 71
...
U;( U',

, . u : "t ' '' , ro...IIl , ,
, I, jk, ill , 1 . . tol ' '', tt
Ih ", ... m , I'\I. i;"('
. ' 1"t1 " ' .. w' ''' '' ( ,I>h"""", U'' jl;.. "" , ... ""lloN"""',
.. 1010".. .. , 11h" h.... "",... t Irn"".,,, ...' ...
.1" .. .. , .. ,.. : h u.. . ;;11 't . pi .. 'j : ..t
H . H Iv<I " I.. " ' ..n/ " .r .. , ILt "'<"<
, ., , \ , . .. "" ;,.. " ,, ',\ of'l '.. 1!1 fou.
tn..... " I MI " ,. , I>..
!\1" I"' " h I,'., ' It .. r , "" '
I" " " ' I"" ",b >:1 ,. , "' . '", W . ... Ilo. . lt .,
u 4.' w ,>d<-1cr w..II {,t I I", ""'1m i ; ."", ,' !l
frt,' d"'.-d
r, .. n"mpk , Ih.- . / IWI....-., Iv , r ><1: r II ' pi
" """" r/'" .. I n'LJI....''' .ttm>, ...' I". to. on.!

..I " .. / ..... I t.4.-..,lI'.. _ ..........., ........ '" I.........
\,<Sn- .... , .. . , . '1 1I. ll;: '1 il: ",,,J.,. ",,, .. h. I\_
1I .-, I,,_.pI . "
I" r"" ......!'It". h. _ _ . I!I,r/ 1' , ,, , \ W If .....
h " J
" ,\"".." '!..' I.... .....," ,pI ' HI
Itlt " rh 1<>;" ,,-1I" ! 0' ,\lnI 11_ F

So-t- , ... t mrlo' . __.lf. rt 01. , II. pl . .., -,jL """
....../ : ' . l 't : 1.. ' ..... ""'- . /...."' ,,' "" ' .p.. 'l'1
'" 1..' . 1,
I I .,", , mpIor. . . .. pl. ' '' . ",I :<l . I<ri, r4ll .Ti,rl- '
' " .. .. ,.k .. , II
' ;'--"h,,,l.I,,!o;<k."I. r! " .
II .h l .... . .... kf<l nl .., /C4. I ' l; .."" ' II"'! I' 4"
;, (' ;01". II' 1t ' ,,, t ' ;wI" t ", ,, " ' . F. " 1 l" r 11'", .,
1><' aoJ,J, ..-iIf! !I,,,, 11<1. ....."...-ly WAC, '; 4
' 'i I II" " , N(' ", , .,...t Kr """ .
hI. ':' .l ...l. "JTliM"' ,-n. . : \"
" ...... . .. . """ ,' \ 1' /. ,,,,.pI 7 11
'i "'" " . J' ....
" ".
I; St'. n I" ' '''' ' '' '
So.. l r... <;
, .. . .. .II.,"' otJdu.."'''' ....
.l. " r , n... di>lI ."" ..
,,", 1'-<"" "lori, .. , r"' ,.... r",
, ,, ,; ,, .,, l l h" "" , II. , r . ;tn',plt .. , H""' llIn. ' lOlh .. , , nl .-.. ,'."
Iw' r.. .. "' .. "I ..... , oj ........t [OK" 411..
.. , ,.' h ... ........ ...""" ""S"O' G.r1, r. ,",."'f'I
ll "' ...,...,rd '''1" d"" ..........,,1.ho N k. h ..n>pI""
.. Uhrl.o>.l f't' LIfo;h..dh 1I..l1.
''' l. . I ' H, I I ' . .. . HN-.. \', . I.. ..
" 'H". on. I U. .. !l j .. .. n-unl lw-.-
", ,,,..h ...... .
... ho1!i ... ..,, _ .-1. h
, I I:"" n..,lln, AM, 'J...4. 'i" ,"""..... .. ...,..-r a , ' '' '' ><1
.. lIh 11.. 11 0 on n, 1<J .,h n-d
.. <n , ;" ... ( '' ... I I'' " U
\' /I "U" \ 4. ' ''' '7 "'" I' O. K " ' I'
' -l. " : J.
H " . , n ' lI
168
tn774
.. ..1
I '" 1'l\<:1:'nai n '
.\ " , '- I.t"nltlh, l-l .!\'i.cno:...!<fl h .-tln-a,. P h --m
.., .." .., ,,f,,..-koo' '
l l"i m
1\ .--lff' II/ ., , .
\I..r,d" " hn:ru k al, 'Ojlfl<'f
,",,,,,I!f' i$: CU:':f7.0: 1"b:D .Xho: .' ; " : "' 0 , '0: 1\11.- : 0 ,,,,,11. l'e:
" . st., O,0<l4 : NI; I : ..... U . ' ' 1.0 1, ('<I:
1 .'1 ' :In , " 'I ,'"
IAll.. .oIt-.,.' ''<ll '' K;; I
__ "' ,..
Au htoad VI:J')' "iimllllr In roxm lf> Ift i . Tht'ntll ln il
("n.l ls un dall ' Hli! t'd a nd nn """ SN'fl 10 lll" 5- 1lli!h llv
s1J1<l.I'NI audl, ' h ;llI(' (. nlfl, 'il Vl' '111,' . 1l11'.II\ ;o1
sh uf'I. ' of the 'Il ...l d h-ns lrt'rl ohi or tl.,j hy hhroH .
w hich alw n luSI;'(! t-racks i n the rihtx-d edgcs.Dne
,ll the Inm t "PUf'Ii1'Ii: Iru nl 'a k J an d ""11> l hl" r('7lr
<;pUf'Ii a- dltm<t,etl , Th{' pl <'\ '(" I'S(htd.ly colT".1fiI
m of th e ... ha fl
Itl th e l''-'IT.l''>k'' l f"J"JllC'1 Ih.' ..i.C'l.
I' l.-\ fi'. \. ,
{'7't47
...... ln l'"" fI<'rli" I.. .... I.H,.-
,., ........ ... ..:lIIKC'TU' ''
1I,f""<t" t " ... ... ' ltlh . .. ,-ll" .; ...'''' l h ..lll!llr.''.q<;.m: ''1
" " tl ll ' p:fflp:: " 1 , ,,' ,n: ", ,,..l,,,,,rn "r ''''' It"l
I'-'I n n
W<"I 'I hl;
",.,I" inl .-I' ......,.h1y"""lU'
t.... " ; 11>-. '; $"
1",, 'l (r ,,""'.... ll'l ';f"'.......
..
I\h..Jd Hl l'-h ea,1 ....Il h dll['t kHI sh" fl -h" k
'><lCkrl und kmg incl ined hhllk Which l>fo;k ns 0111
to wards the cuutng end. 'I'hl" edge th ick an d
hhml . n.e.... ..* tl ....us ha m rnl round. nOI ca sl
r hl" r l<-ff l"i Ih l.lly cor r 1
" w kk n111111:..1 ,n e-; w ll h m d tm.. l t>1a,1cs
and e xpanded cUIHnR euds a rc kll'l w 1l Irorn tl,,'
1\;";01' F)l :i-l. hil t none ;I pfd.i n ...-Itl rolf " ! II ("0 111' ; 1' ( !Il r,
,-"('t n ldar it". . l\lr rlIlI1"Olv," a tlu..1 on... k-L \\ '1111111
t Ilof.' land-: 1.11111'\0111111. ..... Lrt nJ 11\ ."" loi
lin' .",1\ ' frlllll Ih (" lill, "
pn ... ds of h'."""n- iUld.... h... , J a t;,!>t.. ;tn'
m..nlv ",IIn"n nr I:.w , .& U.. .. .' . IIw\' ilH' .-.1
1I111S1 Uta , '" . >l If u n ,In. 1 h" \ T I' lil li ' h
wnlcr f u Hln" 1'11.1 limo ut tr or0l 11O' modr-l SIIlt'e
1t , K"ld cum pan+ !ivt> ma le n a l ts .. 1 pn ">{'nl
I I .... rio' ... rr-m... " ,. l"f " h k",ali. Ilnlil uew rvkk'l' lc("
(''' l hn... Th, ' .1"1" .:11.' n In III,' ( ';lIu l. '\l.u,"
,m rVI" (lIl1rdy , pt. y u la li"
....... 1.... ,.. . ' '' . lIj I ", , r..N>

'11< ,."t , tl"" 'K r. ' . , 0 " f'l ","I,,.1.l
\ m ,II'" "' ; "1:'" pi . " , ... ,,(,1. ;" ,,1
1,\. ,111\' t " '1; j r, 1 \ X.11jr. \ .. ,I.e .... " , ", I,
n,....-In ( " If 'I ' , ; .. , \' ... K\ l , II
-'l;o I . l ql "'... Ih.:' I .. ' ..... ..... '_L..."., 1..,IP"..,"1
; " . l:7" (I In In-d r ... ''''''''' ,'''''" .. "' ;r,l di"' ... ..
../ ."'" .... ...... -Jo.op-.J ;.. ,.
....... ""1<fh..."b -._... .. ... h ' h l
. . . f'll .I '''' l 11J: '. ..... .
pi ;0.""".".tId ,: t1 , li p . 11
.. ...- .... ,I"../.......... .....
' ; ''' l l' . Th" . \'", "'I'f'r "l " " h..""hrI<,n,,", .... ' 10"' 1.
1"lhr r. <1,..-1 r.. .. " '" It ,-\ .,,,' 1_" '" ".., In
JI . I olht,,'.,
1'Il<1;dR,>J Sm M,hnL,,-.. Jf l .. <1, pk I ' "
:-Ml/'lJ. " ..... <o.. ,II.
r/ Un ,,r!I' h .r..,.. I, -. " " .. 1. ;.
. f' ... .. " .
.. ,.."I " f'Io ..."'-,' 1.JI.... n,..;.,
,f< " '111 . : , . 1.i 'f. pl. ; . " m ,,, ....... .... ,. I .
11.. I I .se,..'" HI ' "" h,nl.. t .
II': " .nJ7 oM' I' ; ", " .. ,. {'h M
0 1, q , .. n l. ...' . "".1 ,,, ,><111 1 . " '" , 1<; , , ,;
.. ,--Jtu,npk ''",r
\..i",. Ft.." ,'""",IFK<" .. , ""rl
It , .. r;"" ,,,,..t' ,,' h"I ,,,,, ....I.n :.,,....I,,.t.. lr ' "
r , lV' .-I .. .. .t. A, " .. ' '' '' '1. I 't ,. I", .. .... J
I ' '' , I\I II.!. t 1 " lr. ... t\ I;" .' r '
l\ti sn: II,Hll'()US ('om(luo('nfs ( 170-21
PI Ail S \0 ;l ll , l \ 1
l "'-IJ
'1<>1,' lhlll... " ,h l l't"""-'Vl ...... l h. Np IIl /
,",,tt.... ... Ih ' .. ..:... .".1
..
'1
h. '"..:Imlr... t, , J ,t..- " ...... 1
.. ",,,. /I' II .. . , "I. rl .."II. , 1' \10.. ... .
I t f"
."..1,.1.. , , ,",, I,, .. ." .. .... .. ,I .. , 10' " " . .. " .
I ..... l l
....'1.-m
l 't llll
.u"lftr..I: w ", ol . rtll<lU< o;I'
, IIX(,
/{,l>/k"t' h.Ij' /Ul ( ;,, ;' I.' I I '}<l,t I, l.(-., n <>, . 0 .1;
.. rl . n . "111: IU1 (;' ......
"". I" .' : I. lfi." . ,,/l:!l"rf .l. ) ' 'f ) ". , ..
1;l<. Ir , 1'1,"1. \}. " : 7",i.. I] , " /lI l ' I . "
RUU"'nd pf a w... ..INI "" , h" l1. d lar n ..' il l l h r If l l'
a llli mud ,! aPr"d<'f:i, (In Ihl" base Is th, ' ill ....fi rlilln
1&fJjjJ:J, "tti c Io!, ....t Rod . Sr l h m l n:<;\\'a d
[t u r.' whi, h WH \ om ' " ,'un I Jll\wd lUI II Ie 11llw r
("\' r Ihr h urt \O. ll h;1 (lH II"' n li" ' li, 1 l'""'S("l lilli" ..
fl' T1ll u la . ,If >\o hk h Ihl"rr n,' \!; .... ' n l\ Ih,'
Hrs l ..... ,,1: :-,' : .. . ' , :IV" II I", II rr,, '" II...
1.I"1l "'1_.' 111,' i ll '''n i pl j" ., Wi" illd...,,1 al1,1 111f'1I
1111" ,1 \O.i l h vi'l l.. " 1""'"llll.' ""Ult ..
is 1,"1 , 'l llt' r(" I" :< ';IlH. ll n a ..k ill lI lt'
t"llrl{\udw
Comment ( I (,7-9)
ril l' l'h lsr k h apl"\l ;U l'ti ""Uh ca st <lIlO moulded
"' Kkct s I l h7- R11I! e nor n a t jvr- EgvplbHI bUI re-
m.......-nt 1I ...-ell-k no wn S."w Pah-stinl.m "'1111" <'1 1("
I."pt". . ,f \I, 'h it:h haer- bee n dis
f <J\t' rt >J In :,11 in tI.l l.. IIdl a. Ih
tk\! t'"Ir ' pllK'n l a nd t1.,-uil In the 1,("1'"nl lay "U llin
th l" pt'r ltlti I\UdJk Ik orv;(' II. R ,C,' whi ch
conternpcrarv wuh thr- SN-oll u In l!:' r -
mrdtare Pertod llnttl rccc nuv I(I t' . n:"p nnKil y
frum a p"r iW(" a l hlld n. '('11 I hi' ,,"l y
roru\-o: nant'l"d knun-II fru m ...rt . II h
f" ,.. f! v , 1, ,,,'u m,' n IN hul hilS al \4'<I Ys ",,",' II Ih' IUlit lll
llkdy In bd .. I" l hl" SII' "" l h.. !t1l... 1, uf IIIf'
lIIah-rll,1 f"ull, 1 In Ih<- 5->' " 1<' ,,.n wl.,-y, Th is
posHi..... h ilS no ,," ....'1:"'0 ( onllllltt,1 hy ,. '('('111
UIWl tl nll In th l' Am(' rq :.ill n (,f (he rlf' lt ll< ;;1 l h t
sill' of Te ll el-IMb' a, en' ill' a Hon hilS vleklr d
a wdld'lh'ti ..... rics or "'1111" d 'rlll;l lly
il l.u l lt'; . l hI ,,, '" 1.1 ' (' i -It. (r"m ktf.I...F n ill Ih, '
", lI leh I" Ihe 1"1('.<1<1' ''' sp;m til .'
1I)'l "' >5 I' erind In I-' gypl ,' t'Ullhn. I" J IH"d . lvj
ik' n("e fllr US Ul'("101\'II rds Ihl' t'u d of Ihl ' p.1'l. .uh as
OCton dnlved from e )(a min llt km (If IIII' d ll llllf th e
Thchan kin g. &qelwn rc . of thc lall" Sc'ven-
la- nth Il)namy. wh ich ha s Iha t a
IUlmt>cr o r Ih e ...ou n d" In Ihe Il.f'Il' \ '("fl/
l'\n*'ut"tl y m.lJ.k hy Jt ch lstl,h a pro a l l: of Ih lS
')'1"'<'. ' :->I.nn" r \I;uund " h lOH' 1"''('11 , .o..cn' {.,j In
lm'ltlw" d.ull rwm an SIP burlnl ;1/ '1',. \1d" Mwi'- '

Th " l ypt' d8 le of Ihe thi rd dtr / 16 9 1 ar t'
muc h mort' diRk ult 10 (1-.:rnnlNl t Up OIl I"l-SUll' f"Iy.
I' I;ITF! "
Soc ke ted Forms (167-1))
16 7
l i 4' U
U. '.. Sl,. ..,.J lnl..' .."'I...... I..... wl
", ,,,,,,... ,, ."
.\ I...,""''' ... 1, ' n;: I!'> . I 1.;\; "", : ", ltllh ,,' r.." r. 11, ,, .n,
.I1.-..III", ,...d. mll. imultltll '..... 1..' ..... "' .. kn .
1,!!n ,1
"'Of/iFf "':<;'11-
,\Ialr""I ' .\ I " llw"I c,'f'I W'f
\J W!!I<J( (II. 'l<:<n: 11<' .. " .. .. : '>.. , o. I t>: .-'<",: " ll l j : 1' ..
" ,1 " :'''.''.<> 1 t :NI ""7 t; .\w ..... OI :C . ' .. , .. t:
t : ; 7,,: " "1
" I .\",..i.,ll ..," ; .XIl : U;, ,, , ,f I Il r "'j':\I l(
...... ..11
,I... ',,<t.. , ;,. " .. . >t tl,' " I
ii. tW, Bict"k il IU' SI",,,I, ul . ,",,o,,; ,\ lW ,!l
( l 'l ; ,tl I"' : 0 "1'111111<1 .1 'I \
IJ'tl j.l, n ilffUW 1l1l' , hl"hd \'11th lIKllTW' U
alll i d ll l'lil 'al , ha ll h.. k '11... . .... " f
II ... "' l( kl' t <Ire nbl ,"!. ' 1l1l1 It h .. . <I I;UIl<"' l1ll r-l lkt
pm jcdlnn on 1"1IhM al Ihe TI'ar and 1110'1)
pw!t'di' "l-' . "rwsf",ntllnjo:l.. J'ft'<lli,u.ro al
Ill,' fr"n L 1Jll(" of ...... htr h Is 11OOl l'tl . Tfl ...
hl,.... k N'{'11fOfnrk td y c!e<lnl'11. 1111:,rc Is con
'litl..rohlo:> IWTosln n , la ma gc . Thl ' .':ll("kr1 is hnlcd III
UII (" pu lu l <In lfuo l'd,e- an J 15 <,(' \"('ttly p1lh-d i nqd(' .
(ti ll' .,f lh ,' H' lI r ,ptlf'O ""Klnl and "llt' .. f Ill.'
Srl'lll a Jill l.. ,' n tdNl Wur'" ilff" wd i, It);'
dl<t"! I'II J . ... hl'f(" lit .. su r{an ... 1'Ifl" ha ,II)' plUfd unu
aWllY
i
I
C"
I
i
I
,f
"
I
I:
>

L
-
I)"" I' ,"!;.-.I
Ir \t' '''''I:' ..tJu
_U .. : M.. um"'" ,J'<Iffi<1<:1" . <; 1ll... lI lh. rn
t"j,klln .. 11 1, tIl
Wo ylw'i 'iloi
\!J1HWI: /lo: >I' C, ill l" i<I" ', lI h I:1I111'
1}r;f' ..J_I. '.... 1'1 \ " II:m ul ' ; Il ru ll l " n l
."""f..11<; ' t .l !!f" .... .... \ "" . , ..I; . ph
h . 4. , J . h u ' . 4; .
"!' Illn .. pIOj ' JUl-, p.I",dMhly Ih,' lu r
tlu- hUIl -."nJ "I .." ;1, \ IM fl . It b Ili a . ".... wit h ",nail
ro fonn u dcrorunvc pat tern of 11
number of of ....hu-h an- "I
thl ' ;l llk' C' s,' M' h l " f IIII' l'Ull la ill UUil n. Inl a y
.If '11,c pit'ft' in , 'dn .iltiuo It B.
,"f1, d ..,-...! Jo ""n the miJJk and Ih e SlIrl <l 'C Is IOMm
In ""- ,, ..., ..1 p1....es . '111": ..f .h o.' pl...... uc is
Ji M', oft,u n "" hy hrown .. lm.. ....h id , dh' ,1111<"CII
Ira l,-xlaruuudl lw h,>Ir-s.
171
II \ '_,It
' 1 .... 1'.. I ', , " . " , luo ... .. ........ .. , ,',I' " l'l , ,
... od , .." ':tn . n , .. ln l.. " t ......a........
t orI II . I" ,, , hl 'l
.. .... ..' '''''''''''''"'-''''' '''.,;.,n..'..pk> . ..........'Jl l-t'''''
II,,",,, , . pI.- . 1\0 . 1.... . 1; T' ......./In . pi t l<
. nJ k l. ... 1"
F"' IYf"' .. . .. >h<lf'<S, "'" 1 '(1 .. 741. pi
" . ,,1. S....... r>l:iI , III " ,
l <J(r vul h (" ..... ,,""'..-.1
W,. odo-t l J<os<'nh<d '" .. K,.", ..,J, ,{S At I I
....
.... ".,,), ' h, ..td,A lordl .........
... :oJ...A Lol"' "' ''''" ''' ,, .. .\....-rlOf'/, .. llI , IY''''''
..-i. . 11<. l 1 . 17 1', a ' ......,.' iokn "I' ..J ", '"" '"
l.'.. .. II.","f I.... ' . " I. .
4 I" , ,, ' 7 1- 1 , \ ,. ; . i .. I ' \ 1I' .
117. 1.. 1>. " " 1 I t. , .. u , II'.
, :M':I' , L
, ......., pl , .nlt. 4<', \'."" '0. N<.:
\1 " 1 ,1. 1
N.-.. UMA. I" . ' 1" .1.,.10 no-k ". b.:.<.... ' ,... WOf}'
.. "I NWw-J II "' ....,..........lNy .h ;, .. ..h...-".... ,.,.
U.' u 7
tJ II
tl ... ..
l"ru =J " .,.. lv .I " Ilwl lh.. "",...1h.l.<iv
"'''''1."''' ' '' ., .!rt .J ."1.. "' "" .. m ..<..hi.
..Rt "'..." n" " ",,-Lohn "" ... ..,.,...... ..t '" ''
\ "",,1.00 r>/oo,l , ... ,,, .... HM. 11 1M)
..... "' Ml .,Jr.>. "y,"... .. T.,Io"' t n' tl. "'l ph , I".v. t. . '
"" . 4"'.
172
l :l..u Son'm"J hl l. m"...."' ... I.n. K1
/ '", 1'>" "" " "
.. M;."mum
Ih"' Ln . .. -IS""
L\ ..", Il I: .f,1l
,\ ' .,Ul I<l I: W, ....J.,fJ.ont(; ,
Il"l . <>{,1,</,,,,,11"'" I<; I" !(; 11l (lof , ;,
1''' ' j(r...,,"IU,. " .H I, ' 2 7. 1.!1'1
h t . r I."
(lv lll pl"<l" C o f w,""". 1"",siNy Ih.: lenmlJal p.kx'I
f"l .tw hll l1,<"J ,,( .. u one h. IR. II ... .IlI..lIh IW
h" k .. fu r tIlIOJ )'. II has .. ,jcc'P spi l l ul Ull(' cud u....1
,/l1<1<IN ;t>Jt... s III pl aces
l M lnt h> 1i'l<:.obt<-o.1 001}-" ..-n' """'11 .....pi<o
11tk h , h illlh" " " , fn." " buN
r..., I"" "... .J " " I.. ' .. . .. ."' .... "f .n y ul lh.-d,"r...1..-,
.. .. ,",'lI,h. .. ,L " J , ry", ..I . , ,, ".. 'M....,"'...,.,,,
/ ", /f-.t- . " ... .... ....... , q I 'I .. ,' '' tl.l''.....IH.- I''''. , I", .. . ... ..
.,1,,,-.,, ,.
C01llnrrll t ( 170-2)
II !S!lot f" = lblc It> be J hso lu ld y ccna tn a bout til!.'
n at u re .If 17" , H,.,l h 4W.s \lntl <Ire
L" wn I" 11m'", Ix OCII Ind u,),.... amun l( th e Wfl .,;
lIi"" 'n as OJ I C", .. nt b)' t he lIog. bUI 1 7 U III
b.' the buu -.... "'1 ul an I>u'--h" rl r.rbcr th .. n uf ..
. .... ib , l lI>pt, is mor e ..h ar...' .'TISIh: uf th e
f. ,rcolCf.' r ot Ill<' .I." 1Ir illi"n a p.:ortku lllr ly ctosc
p,Hillld h J>fot'llkJ hy tht' ..k-n hafH..nJ from
ti ll' lomh ,If TUl hmu .,b IV, whnh IS Insa Ull..,J 111
the sante pI"l'<' with l ilt, kmg's pl.ll'd
U1ll in ... I,Ucl'lltRlell l . '
1'1;,.. ",-,; hl . 171 -Z re-all .. "'.. .Ill ly frnl'll
uf . 1,, SIP " I a nd l>I.ll m.,,-.'
.1IIJ tl"' n ' " .hu ouc- .. n.t-.J .spt-..iml.'"n ."
..re Im'uhfk J by Hmol"'" ;IS ,,"'nn hMI
pl<:' '-'S for i/u'- hi/fh , on thc bas,h fl(ll nul y of rherr
, tli1pe hl.l ul<;< , oflh,' [ud thurrwo df lhe pl,,'4u,'"
.,,,.' I;.. r-. .,,,,' SIU;, Il, " ,'1'1' 1''' 11",1ill iI
IO llh h.m au h,..Js-. ..b", " Ill.' la fl' " "'w
" II,' .. II 400. ,,-' . u-t- 'i l. the t....illJ( lh"f
I h. , ", . ....kll h.. fb h,..1 """' I>Y. 1. .. \lnl1 ..nl)
Ih. hl." I,"!; alld II,,' .'lld In J d.tu lr or a
,,,",,.1 ;KIU; tlly tit fll,It'I' "" .. h;,fl, 1''' 11-
I'! UMl ' l ' proof is but snuv d more-rP ll u rlf
iUif ,-, Xl'lilll ,llio ll kJr their (un d l,' n 11<15 )' d ro Ill'
[' r ur o ll .. . I,,1 !in.1Il I" ' l ) ..li' '' l Is ;h.(1'\.,, 1
1,,' 1" '.
\
Ar'\O\.l ys I S
r}u..-hjl parts th e hole t.."Sl
1I,\li"l ' dbk- ther e t han else wh er e. It t!O
i lll pUr liltl l In i-nsure I hol t ;Illy "iunpks It H'
n 'pn,,,.nlill ivl' IIf Ihe . -omp'1:'>l llull ul t he
ll hj ed .1'0,I wlmlt" ,IIlJ Ih .lI the y Ju n u l
con unn UIl-,' .'prrusltlll There fore an
Illi li i ll drilling WIl:o,.made unti l "r igh t lIl e l ; tl
IlUll in g" wer e ;' Ppi IH'Uf , ""fi lia lly I h i lln .... bk-
afu- a Itw llIi11illl eln.-s. Th is prd hlli ll ilry
mat er ial \V, IS drscar dod and the Jrill lllg
"ulI,ill uet! un til d further 111- l.' Img had
h.." 'll l"Olh"("ktl E, ., h sa mple wi.lllllis::;o )lwtJ in
aq ua regia lit mtxt ure of n llln.' nlril lt"ll lli lrk
.IUJ Ily,lro,J l lmic iJdlhl aud . .lli er Ji luli ull. u
was analyH.J using it l' lrtln-"1mt'r \lIb
i l l (un ic absorptlOlI spcrtrnphottunet cr .
tw el ve clcuu-nt x were qll <lllllfil'J hy
l,:>t.tblishl'J methods. Refer ence :.lall J ;l rds
we re analy sed along with each ba tch of
snrnplcsru provid e a che ck on th e reli ability
of the technique. A detail ed dcscrtpnon of th e
technique and eq uipment used is gi vt'll by
Ilught':> rIal. ( , (76) . precision of the
.-\AS 'Hl itlp.is is aonul 1"' l X, rdillivl' f.lr tht.
dellWltl s pr L'S-t.nl ill grt"illcr than ,lUtJul 1I. ..!'X,
.Hld up to \o' }{. rd illl vc for th e rt.ul " illln g
t ra cl'demenls
1' 11.. .malytlciJi ad' 'Pfed fur t huSt'
. u1l'fal"ISwhich wt.-rc a nillyst'(] by XKF
quit e Jiffl.- .... nL Wli h t his lCl. hnlq ue-il Is
uSlIillIy nOi necessl:lry 10 remOliCa
sillt'c <t SUII" Mt" ar cil 011Ille surfiKe can he
..hr l"t:l ly. is t.'S:>o-ll tl il l, ln
" H.k r ICl ltbtaln Ihc.. b..-sl poo;siblt' 9l:t:ural:Y, fur
lIw . Ina uIIlI,"r t' xaminalic" l ,,, hoIUI .! l lnm
in , llOI lUcll' r l lu unJl' rgn prl nr
tl.... pilriiti clIl ln <lnk r 10 rlmu.. ..t.l:urruslbll
pwJucb a nd :.ur face This was
lIorma tly ach lt:"'('J by .. with a St: alpd
ur a jeweller 's kni fe und poli s h in g wil h
silicon t.:arhkle fld l ll:f"10 produ ce Il lhf l
sllr f;.J <c. Til.: <m Oll ys ls w us J"('p(' lI t ffl , (I ll t he
spot. <lher furtht' f polishing. until
il<', XTltilhlc ag rt",:ln.'l lt b,'tWt'('ll l'un:lol:'l'ut h't'
r..sults IMJ IX"CII uhl. lin..oJ
inslru nll' lll u.....t was d Lilll: Syslt' ms
Illl.'l .k l.l <)o('ncrgy-ths!X"N IiCXr uy
sp,d w m.' IN t'quipp.'tI wilh u t n-\V \ .r ilV
lui", IIVCnl l hlg dl .! "'iI..V. A gent 'HlI
d" Sn llll itlll ' If shnU.... ' IPJlilnll uS" nJ
ll"d miqu. b givl'n by 11,,11('I ,II. t ' Y7 l ) ;)oJ
fur1hcr d"l o- lils ul' lilt' alMlytlcetl
II s...,.1hcn' <Ire tti"'l' 11by ('lilA-di l l Y7h l. In
filtl ll lr.. bk' ,' ircums Ci lllct'S, wil li Sl)UnJ
hmnUj;CIlt.'1IUSml'lul , th e pre.:bitl" <If l he XKF
h",:hni4ue ha s bc.'l'O fuu nd to t"lt:' .......u l 1%
ilh.\o lute I'x "II comp.lnents III t!l,' <tll"y
iltl(Jve .. htill t IO'K,!Jml uhl' ul It ' - 'i" '7: ,
rdali\'L' for tho& til
lloWC W f. inl his pilrtkul:Jr :>: t ud y XRF ..... u!>
t.'1 uployet.las a bOl ek-Up tech nlqu c fur t hin
ulld ,'orr"Jcd urtduc t-s, neither of which are
llkely to pr()vlJe ideal surfaces fur ulHl lysis of
Ill(' unJerlylng met al. 'I11crd 'i. ){1,.' XRr
res u l1:.: qnott'tl hl' re should be n'garJ l't.!1:t 1
txos! as scmi --.q Uillltita tlve ,tnJ give Illll}' all
inul nilion of l he
n ml't-' Ilu ation of the alloy I:omponcnts
pfl";->Cnt
The full allil lytklll rt.'"Sull s ('UII Il< founJ in
TOl bk'S I . 1.. J .. nd 4 . li1It' Kur iz.ni so thil t th e
Jatil f.lf a pdrt ll:uh-.r l:Irtdal1 ('<to befound
under sever al he adi ngs. Teble I is i ll four
amll b:ts all t he nUl k rl.d <il ll h l)' Sl'l.! In
or rcgtsrrauon number or der by
('ulk-t.,tit," , Tobie 1. is ill t wo parts und lists all
t he HM ",rld ilt'l s J ilt.." by pruccna ucc .
ins.:r lpl h' ll or raollll,:Mbull a na lySIS a nd Ihell
Ih. 1:'< <lI[f':"dme... 1by l )'!,olllgy alone. Table I
lists <III anefart s In dl"St :ripticJll. or type . " n ler
uud finall y, in ;llI lh.. mlltk1a rh.'f' H'IS
ilrt' lbt L'tJ The rccbmque
usedto a na lyst" each il rtdii" ( is indlc ared ill
th e Idh l('S.fAAS f,lr altlmit' <ihSurptl lln a nd
XRF f,lr Xcray tluoH'St'en n -'I, 111e cleme nt
.lat a ar e In per centages by wd ght exce pt for
some of t he XN.Fa nalyses where only a
qualit ative analysis is quoted. III th uSt' cases
t- ' ludlcutcs that the element is present III
silot n iticun t a mounts and ' tr ' th ai only tr act' s
were detected. For th e atomic absorpt ion
ana lyses the number of signifk'an t figur es
quoted has been adjusted for companbthry
with the prectston of t he ana lysis, The l'OPP'1'
ligures, for cXtlmple. ha ve ht--enfOunded t u
lht' IlctlrL'Slwhol e number since th e
nf t hls Illaj'l r cle men I is <lboul J "1. 'Yu ,
Discussion of resu lts
A wst NIC. Arse nic ....- us found in
co nct.'llt ra tions up to ;%. Thl" of th is
d eme nt In Egy pt i an l 'OppeI" <llIoy$ h<ls been
not ed since the l"arllest a nalyses (If Ih is
ma l cria l t Luc as a nd IIa m s. ..1.1&-1 7).
Purth l'Ttn orc , r <-'l'cnt 'Stu dIes of l"Uppt"r baSt'd
;.J 1I'lys from ol hl' r rt'g ltlflS l(' raddlk"l , 1'l 7h:
E..ll t m ilnJ Md':: err dl, I' J76: Bar AJ un .
l'J7 r: llnd Rr" nig.m , co ncl ude Ih al
Ihe (In::'>Cnn=of subslii nl ial amou nt s of
i1..........n il' In t."Oppe r-basnJ i1rtd al1s on t he
wh ule inll"n1iumtl an d rillt nlt.'rd y Ih..
IIf wur L.in g c0r'pc..'1" (lrt'SIn whit"h iu senit: was
a n aCCilk nl a l and major Impu r ily. The da ta
here Illr (he Egypt lun ma h.'r1tll lt. llu
:>: lIpp+lrt tn thi s aSSt"rtion ill IWo wa ys:
I , The gcnera lly low tn lt'Ce1e-m("nt conlent
llf l he a r1efacts th at k'uched o l iJiz.ctJ
ores were being e xploit(" fOf'tht-' ir
IlwIlufadurc rathcr Ihun , fut t'litlIl ple.
Cllrk hed ' Pahlr rl ' orcs . The lult er type of ore ,
whic h prlncl piilly consists of an impu re form
of Ihe lJlineral muy l"lefound a t
Ihe ;,',One betwccn oxide (or .'urboll<ltc) lind
sulph ide ore bodies, wher e copper and ot her
melli ls - typically <Intimony, arsenic,
bism ut h, flh-'kd and stiver - have leach ed
from above and been redeposHed. ' Ib is I('tlds
10 it conce nl ro tlon of these ele meOI:lln th is
zone. If a J-'l/lIkrz ore is wor ked and smel teJ.
t he rl':>lJ lt ing met al lihould contain
t'tlrr espllnJ lngly hignr:r levels ,,( lmpuritles ,
p"rt k utudy alll lmol1Yan d bis m u t h in
assodil lion wi th 3fSnllc. as Ihey Me
ever from the IIrt-'{Cra J do(:\;., 14 Ktla l.
Exuml na non of t he dtstrtb ut fon of urscruc.
bism ut h and a ntimon y rcuceur rc uon s In t he
;md wea pon s shows IhOi t Ih,'
a ntimony a nd nisnl uth con teur is t:.' n., rilll y
mu ch ' '') W ('1" th an t hat of arsenic . n-ss l hd n
would be c.' 'IIpt'llt'tJ uf d Fenter: e re prexhn-t .
AIS<I, t here Is " " p e mve n,rrd ;u illll hc: l wcc n
drscn k end enhe r l,f l hoe t wo Cll-fllcllls ,
sugge"' 1ing l ha l arsentc derived [mm a
rC'hulw ly pu re source uf its or e wa s alltlynl
or co-s melred wnh t he c<lpper dehberut cly.
The pn ucjp al e);cep tloll is:a mood iI);c {Cat.
no. I I . Irom th e tare Seco nd Oyn a:-;t y, wh k h
co ma tns &. 7% arscn tc. I fX, antimon y lind
l).I 'X, bismut h :JI1J which ma y beeviden ce of
tlu- usc of all enrtched type of ore. The
erscnt c conte nt in th is insta nce Is al so
dtsuncrly htgher Ih:J1Ithat generally
observ ed for ot her Second Dyn ast y pieces,
z . The alloying of arsentc with copper has
important on thc ml't:Jllurgical
pro pert ies (If the result ing me1ill. such as
Inc re asing the hardness flch levw by n llJ
woriillg (Chi:l rkos, Hjh7). -nl C fmll'll,min g of
('l' n alll lypc. 'S of artcf'Kt would he impn JVcd
by th e addition of arsenic to th e t'Oppe r. This
fdct was eviden tly a pprec lilloo by Ihe
Egypt ia n Sl: nll hs. judging by t he high level s of
itfSt. ' nk In th e al loy uscJ for of
uxe tst'e beluw. Secllon CI. Furthcnl lor e. a
remark able deg ret" of t'ftnl ml was in
llld r manu(adure. since the afSC' ni c l'l lnlt'111
Is oft en mtl n l-.,Jly cu nst tu ll fur .. pa rt it'u lar
l ype of a xe. Th l.. ls nul cOllsi.slent wit h Iht.'
higher n mc elll ru lions of 3l"St.' nk t ht.'
re:;ult uf inl rOOlk' tion as a n ,R'd J l' ntal
imp uril y fm m t he Ofc. In sut.'h mudl
grt'atc-r variability woulJ becxpel' t N in lh e
Rna l pr OOtiC!.
dues . of cou rsc. o,.'t.' u r In IrtlCt'
a mou nts even in copper Of t'S wou ld be
l"Cl llsi de-n--dto beof h igh pUrity . Th ese smd ll
amounts woulJ b.. ca rri ed O\'("r Into t he
mela) on and it is Iht' [ eft.rc nol
SUrpri sing to find th<ll a rSl:nic o,xurs at !>omt:
level In milit of th t-'art efa c!!> illUl lys.-d. Thus
luw of arsrn k d' i nu t Ul"C.'O'sur lty impl)'
delibt' rate itlloy ing. II would be important t o
cstl:lllJish t he <il"Sl:'nk level cuuld I\('
('ons lJerceJlll d y to bt:-a de libl-r<t te
introdu.:tion t han an al'citkutal
ImrtUr il y. I lowc ver, this is lUll a n eas y
prublt'm 10 snl \'e. II migh t be. ISStUlll't.1tlm t
t he I.. ler EliYPli all t1n-bnlnu s wou lli ccllliain
un ly liSa n lIdvenlll iou s i mpu fit y lind
t!J:J1 th eir a na lyses ('.mld beused a...a !(uide
in c..'Stimal ing Illc ar:;cnic impuril y lew l, Fur
several reaSOllS, howev er, this approach may
not prov lJ e a reliabl e est ima te. PlrstlY.lhc
additfon of arsenic may ha ve l'on tinueJ In
order 10 exploil lis de-oxidizin g
over I1n(Charles, 196 7). &"Condly,
It may have been In part <Iccklcnt <lll y
intr oduced in th e form of SLrdp arscnkal
copper. Thirdly, an d JX--'fhlJps more
Importantly, It cOllld haw been rem oveJ , or
redu ced In wncentrallon, by hOI-workiug
Ihe t:uppcr before lllloying with tin (McKerrc ll
a nJ Tyk-'cote, 197 .l 1
Ins[elld, Bmor e reli able Indlt'iiUn of Ihe
a r.;c- nlc Impu rit y 'evel may be provided by
:it 'l t N u n,

, 'm Al KAI
\ :..I\I\ 'WS
liN. The COll1,'I'nlrHlion \If tin in th{' El!ypllan
tools and weupons here rangc:s up
10 I 'i'X,. wHh thl' majorily )nllw ronp;e
I"'X,.Sinn' Iln docs not norml1lly O('Cllr In
assod<111on with copper ores, any apprl'cloblc
amotml:,> of till would appear to Indicate II
ddilX'fIlle aodilion. Ilo'Kev{'r, for Ih(>pllq:nse
orC;ll('gori:zing 11 corrH.'r-On allny w, hronn'
Ihe criterion th1l11l tin ('ofllenl should he at
yS lCilSI4'X, S("('lllSscmiblc, slnci' with Ihi:,> tin
,'llF\H(',\1
''';AI
which .xuuatn 1Ippn'dllbll' anu.unts
01iron, these an- probably of unrefined
and unullovcd metal. if iron oxides <Ireused
a" IJ Ihrx in copper orrs. then
lht' come ll(tlw iron is liahk to IX"
rt'dllCl'd 10 t hc- frcr- Illdallltl-d 10 ,Jis.v'lvc In
11](' molten copper {TyJccolo: and IklYlkll lu
I <)7Hl. only to separate 'lut us
th,'ml'lalsolidili(,;,;. For cxnmpk-, Ill{' ,'opp('r-
lind" from the Luc Ik(lll7.l:'"gl' minhlR
ami smdling stre at 'Fhnna in Sinal
commonly couratn several per cent of
mdaltk Iron. extending up to I ')';{l
u'rnddock, I ')Soal. and Amcltnceu (I R':I'll
reports the analysis of an Eorly Dynastic
Ingor from Ahydt);; which nllllahK'd 20--.l..l'X,
Iron, Hy rc-mchtng. or rcHninf!-, copper under
suftahl,' cnnditlons the iron coutont. and that
of antimony and arsenic. ran IX"reduced
{Tylenlle. I 'IRol. In the present context.
the three cbtccrs ortnterest lall
from the Third Dynasty} are a model fixe
(ASH Eh7l), which contains I v;% Iron,
and IWIl are fragments (ASH Eh7R, ASII
E(I;9), which {'(lillaill 6.'}% and l.'),S'X, {If
iron. These vcry high lroll contents
lhatthe ollject.s were 1118(lc fmlll unrf'f1ned
and tlll'rt'fofe unalloyed tlwlal, and lhe
:11ll()UIlI of 11rscnic th;lt they {"ontain i:,>
prohHhly due soldy 10 lmpurilf('$
from the o-r('. The Ilverllj{l' arsenic contl'nl of
lhe thrN' Is o.K'y", In rnlllparlson the arst'llic
nllllt'nloflhe copper <lricfAt'ls from Tinma Is
W'IH'rally in !ht' mngc n.t Ilow('''er, It
o,:-r1Imonalty r('aches as much as I).R'};'"
allh'lugh it r<lrcly excft'ds 1% It'rilduock,
I qRnill. Tnl' Tilml,l nrc,s ar(', however, ,I
.>;("iOIHl:lry deposH alld lhdr <-IN'nil' contenl
Illay Jlol 0<'lypical o( earlit'r exploitt'd
primary A t ex, arsenic contrnt WHS
SttggP-<;tPd hy Craddol"k (1976) as a division
bdwK'll H(-ci\lental impurity and ddiherale
iHldilioll for Cred ERA nwta!work <lnd Ihis
S('('IllSflrrforriilte in tlte pr('<;rlll
1l(l!A"('u'r, iI hl' H'Jl1elllncr('d thaI
dl\'hio!l is SOJlwwlwt arhilrmv, f<lr lhe
arst"nil' clllltelll ofdlfferrllt or('"Swill \'flry
I t Y74), for C')Ultnp!C', has
11 higlwr level {II r'X, (}f !.'X, f"r
Al'geall metfllwork. uepl'lIJlnl\ on Ihe ore
srlllrl'C'. IJlWer collt'entrlltiollS of In
EgypliHIl mdatwork, s\l('h as comnHltlly
o(nlr In First ohleC!s, mHy IX"purt!y
du{" to los...of arsenic durin;; refining
llowt-'\'cr, the maill nlUse is prooahly low('r
t{'\'els oflmpufltks In the Ofe, since 11)('
('ilrlkslexploitc(1 ore Dodies, TIl'an>:>t Ih('
surf11(,(', lln' Ilk,,!;: In Imve suffcr("(llhe
gre,rl(';':t teadllllg ofimpllril!es ilnd thcrcfor('
10 contain ;)f$('nk lind olher lracc
delllt'nls,
COll('elllrarion au allnv with useful workillf:
prcperues I-sproduced. Furthermore the
histogram of tin con len Is for all the Egyptian
metalwork IFlg. I) shows a J1S('llrllinuitr at
with 11 distillCI unimodal dlstnhulitm
above thts couccntrnuon. Possible-
cxplanattons Ior the occurrence of Hrit>(il<"!S
conlahllng less thnn 4');\ tin are that they
W,'H' ;lo'kknlitl tperhap:; duo:'10 Ill('
of sc-rap bronze wnb copper}, that they were
experimental. or thatthe tin W<lS addedonly
10 asststtn casting hy the alloy,
rather than In modify significantly the
rnef allurgh-al propcrtfcs of the IinHI product
The Inner was suggested as a posslhlc reason
for the low coucentratton ot nn in the
metalwork. from Tlmna (Craddock. 191{OH)
The majority of the artefacts analysed here
which contutn than .fX, On also contain
ill )("8s11%arsenic and the amount of
arsenic present would In most cases have a
greater Influence on the physical properties
of the alloy than the tin, Some- (If these alloys
are therefore most Iikr-ly 10 hH..,c ,Hisell
lhruug.lllhe I!:<:C of <;otnC' snap hW117A' in lhe
m,lIlufaclure- of 11rs:enkal COptX'LUshould tx"
noted in the context of using SC'wp mellli fhlll
although it Is rdatively casy to rt.'move mosl
o( the arscnic fnml scmp i'lrscnlcClI COPJlC'f' by
heating under oxidizing conni/IOlls (arsenl,
oxide sublimes at moderate temp<-raturesl,
tin CHunot tx- removed from bron7,e In the
Sllme way, and hence S(.'f'lp hrofl7,e would
always confribute most of lis lin n)ll!enllo
lhe final aHoy,
Tin is presenl even tn sOllie E.arly DynasOc
ar1t'facls, For rxamrk', a Flrsl Dynasly
serrated knlfl' COfllains t ..of;;, lin (11M()606.. p.
a &>cond Dynasty chisel contains o. ;'y,:, iBM
67')85) and fl non-fum1lonal model axc fmOl
Ihc Second Dynasty nmtains about 1. .l'Yo jIll'
V,oRo), These lllllOllllls of lin seem unlikdy
to he due to lmpurilies in the originHl ore,
which suggesls deHhcmtc lIlkll!ion, bllt Ihls Is
(lilly spctLltiltlon. Ilowcvcr, Iwo Second
l)ynastyv('S..sclSlBM l'i,)7t llndHM {,)')7.l.)
contain resp.'<:'tively 7':{,and q.2% lin. One of
thl'Se /IlM 1') ')71) is a SrOllfed o\'okllllr fllld,
in conlrasl to the hody, Ihe .spotll Is 1H1
8rsenkat copper containing no till. I{oth of
tnCSt"vessel:,>are undoubtedly tntcnlloll<Jllln
broru'.{'Sand their provCn<lIlCe ther{'forc
plan'S them among the earli{'"St lln-Ilron:t,es
(ound In Ev:ypl.The Irnee dcmellt
composition of these early bronze's is,
hrlWeVt'L somcwhllt ui!f('rclll from Ihe
majorHy of the nrtcfads ... l.
p,)J1icularly with respect 10 lhl'ir nick ..1
nmtcnls of o.l.'}'X, and o.6')',v". Ollly two
o-ther artefacts examined h('re wef'(' found 10
conlClin morc them 0.2% nickel (ASII Efi72
ilnd AM 172771 clrld ncithcr arc
RlNlcrer (lg7Hllinds a simll<Jrlv Slll<-ll!
proportion of Egyptian copper-based
metillwork. wllh nickel In cxcess nfo,.l.'X, illld
()Jdcht:'rg f "ph1quoles the compo'si/ion of a
single asymmetrical bi'lHle-axe (SliM 102 iH-
i) all exceptlonal1'7k';(, nickel.
Thl' avcmgc nickel nmfrnf of all the
relllallling eXllrnim'll hac is.
however. only lllJc-lUt n.n The dis!ll1c!iw
of theS{' I Wll early linlJron7,('s
kw,b OIl(' to lhal llll' ":"Ilrn' of coppel
used ror them was different from that of rlu-
Illajority of the EgYPUOlllrucratwork
examined. llowcver there arc ,<;(l many
(inumslaIKt'S. ollwr than till" ore
rornposttinn Inllm'lleinl!.lhc lrHIT e!t'rlwnl
comcnt of copper-based metalwork lhat such
,1sugW':'lion can onlv he ll'nllltlve
Lr.vm n"i-Rll.ON/.r. A sllIallllHllllwr"fthe
artefacts l111illy<;("(1 art' made of !eadt'{ltill-
bronze. the lead nllll('llt hdnll aboul
.l.2'Y" IBM The htstoaram or lead
contctu ill all artefacts (Fill_!.) vhows thnt
there is a change tn Ihe distrihuth11l111
around n.;, rn.;:.. lead. Tile nrajortty c-ontain
under o. lead uud the .lislribu(loll UIOS off
ut about o. kwt However, there ts a slight
peek in the histogram at lead cono-ntrauons
<100\-'(' I%. The implk-ation is that lead
contents above I 'X, represent a deliberale
addltton. whereas !nw{'f levels 11<1\'(' urtsen
because ofImpurtttcs in the copper ore
Furthennorc, examination of the ICiJd-lln
tFig. I) iI/HII(',ld-,lrSt"lli(' ll'if-(. 4l distrihlllillllS
sllows lhat lead rot11l'l1b abm'l" I'X,,In'
associated cxcluslvelv with tin-oron7.l.' rilllH'r
than arSl.'lllcal cop/X'r, H hiRIl I('ad conlents
were derl"ed soh'ly from Ihc cl'pper On?, Ihere
should he no spcdlk as':odatlon with 1111<1.\
type,
TIle o(the appllcalloll of kmled
ililoys is consequently tkd In wilh thai pflill-
!:m1ll7.l.'. The majority of leadt...l an'
therefofe Mlddlc KinWJ.om <lr lakr. 1l00\'t'wr
Ihe two Early I)ynastk hrol17'Sr('rerred 10
11h!l\'Cmol}' atS<lhe Intenllonatlv !l'l11k...l sinn'
they botll ('Imlalll morf' thall t 'X)
The addition or kwl improves lhe fluidity
oflhc- mollen COppef alloy and lowers
rxlinl trrom IoN fC to ':I') (C if ahoul
ll% leHIIis wld ..... 1to COPfWf,,){Tordinlo: to
( I g6 7)). Ilo\\'C'vcr, h.'C<lUSC' lead is
only wluhlc if! solld copper it
ill lilt' gr<lin hOlllH!;lrit'S on
and In larv;e ,lIllOltrllls ('ould \Il"('<Ikcll lIlt'
arldad.1J lsslRnilkanl, llwrdoJ"('.lhal for
tool" and ",{"<I pOllS Ihe majority of Ill(" !r',ldet!
nllll11in 'lilly I -\1 thh
Cl)nn'lltratlOlJ ,1"-,,,,-,,",1> "f II", "n,-r,,,,
would probahly lIot he irnpilired
but wHhin lhis Ihe f1uldil y' would
approach til" maXillWnl which nlll hl.'
achieved wilh lllis alloy, Ihus makin\!.
pouring somewhal easier. It Is to
IH)ll' tIle hlglllTill1111UIIls(1Il(';rrlIII S(llll(' ()f
the d('c<lrllth'I' !;11(' Period 1111't:tlwork. TIlt'
c('nS('"rlHM h7 I H'll. for example. contillns
aoout I \'Yo IC:ld and Ihe h,lIHII(' oflfll' howl
M\o')()) ahoul For
Intrlcllle it \vnuld head\'illllagl'OllS
10 1iSC lead-rich alloys (If this Iyr"
Krell!er lIuldilv with r<'lalh,,'ly 1IH'llillg
JlOinl.
lll.rlN. I)flhe copper-hil:-il'd mdalw,)rk
<lnfltys('d hCH' cOll!Hins :'>nlallHlTlOunts of
iron, It'Ss lhl1n o_S'X" whidl would
ha\e IJN'tl illtro..lllced forlllilously illllw
"melting slaW' ,1l1t1 m\)(lilkd by ,lOY
suh:'><'qllel1t rdining ilnd allo)-'Ing. Thl"
qU<llllity 01Iron prC'4'llt In the artefacts Is,
:-;(l' :-' !ll'l"
\. I
OUAII, '"
\:'< \1 \ s.t.s
foun d duf crvncc s rn t hc alloy s used for
v;,r ious ot' l'1t l Pl iall " r1('(;WIS. awl
{raJd"... , I observed thi s f.t( d ll lppi llg
a nd cHu illg 1. 1.. ls fmflllh.:r i;l. IJnfurll lll illdy.
llllll l' Ilf th e Ej.:)' p li ;Jn ur I.nl\',,,,
aualyscd hef t' lin' mold.: of iJ(:,,' ui(',,! n,pl'l'f :
a ll are d t he r t'nppt:r . lr un -hrona- . ;\ hhough
most of ;l.......-un-. t h is: is un likely
IU h a l' e he Ctl lll!l:l ltio l1ul. ( " lnlp<JriSolll Ilf llldr
ar seni c onuci u wnh those " htl p()inp; tools
dclfbcrutely ma de of urscn irulcopper wou fd
ther efore be
\ \ ' hen " Ill' "" lll flOi rcs Ih ,' t"u lIIp""it i, 11l "I'
th.. l nJlt 'IJll <l1JlI. C t ypes. rhc u
J ilfcn:llfl":> ill dllll y iJn 'll rlh n g to lISCdo
t...!"l IOIC OIppilr':lll. Til l' a lloy of
Int lSl (If Ihe illJ ivid lla l a xe I ypcs ' Ir..-
vunuua ri ;'.t:J tlVl...-ka L l.. ken frumlh,' J tIil....1
hst in Tubk- J. In th e summitry. t he c"l "mn
cOll fi:li n l n g l be il\' cra gc pt'r cen t,ll;c of i1f;;<."n l.
i ll coppe r Is t" ken only fmm A/\S
on ullt on'u,kJ 1ll<.'101 1 but I l w olllt:l
(olll m ns a lso1 ind ll J l' dalil fr' llll
l"UrTu,lecl iir lt' (.lds a nd Ih os. ' lll illy.... ",1hy \ .
ritl l!uor e:;t:t'lln' , 1101.,.the g,' lIt 'r <l1 illllly
ly p.. is nm:.iJ ,'r,..l ( ){ po.lrllClil,lf in k re s! is Ihl'
n ll n p,u; sull t... :I W\'t' 1I 111, ' lug lo:,'J . w un .l ;1\.:
iJnd . Il ll tr l"llll lcmp" r ;IC'}' l yf\t."S:
pcrfor<lh-tl . r'l un d ; seg rll' III.. I;
" fl d t iJllgt'd . Th.: Lh id t ypl ,I' lgil"11dift,r O:ll' C
hC' tW('Cll (he: rou nd Ulld the lug g<. 'I.i,
(ll'r forillt'd, round tYr,' :; b Ih ,l! til.' rOflner
IlSt WUy hl ;.t\'it"f ; llJ d 111>1...1pri miJri ly ;);;"
d lUppillg In'll w her e"" Ih. liJUcr is u";II,llIy
,.;ma ller <I111l lll:h tcr . wit h lilC ill g h"I ..'S filf
hiJrti ng, ami is regardl...1it S il Wl' ;I pt lfl , Hol ll u f
1I11"'-;C ;1--', ')<> drc rllunJ hl;llkd wil h " r,.. hll.s lOf
, 'III"\';lI u re ,">lIl IMra hl" I " ll<llf ,.1'
bUl L III ," n lf ilS!. IIIher ltlu l'"fnj)<l r;. ry
we<lp.1ntyp"'s Ihe t ...
illi d tllngeJ forms - arl' ofwlhcr a di ffer el lt
rnrrn wit h lo n ger blade:; of lar}:!'r r"Jill s <llld
Vr. 't' re pr ohabl y most r fli:, 'l h'l'!y use d Wil h OJ
itl h llU, ll\d rc hl.<'lh;1l t Il' il :;l'r<>rd
The cu mp' Iloili' ln; d ,h ffcrt ' IICe:>hcl wl ... ulhe
I"gg,.,j . (t Il/ li d ,mel 11K' tll l-: g l'Al. 1" "I"fi,r" lcJ ,
rounJ Iy pt>:><lH' qUitl' llliJrl.l'tJ <llId 'i,' 1'1lI 10.
.Irl :se oUI .. r l hd r f(-:iJ'l- '1'lh e II..... , iu,'c Ih..
f"r mt'r W;IS hlleuJo."tipri m.. ri l)' a s a hlol .11 ,,1
Iht' la lt t!f a.\ it \\-' (i1p' " I , N.tll.: . ,llhefl .r lllc'l
iJrc 111I"br Ol\l).. 'S il l\ J on l y Iw,Hhi rds cou[d Ill '
. k S<Tl beJ ilS (I J isli ll ct i1P.A' llin il ("o ppe r (i ,e . ,
lIlor e Ih ,m I'X, iJI'Sl'llicl, l ilt"
a\' t!f i 1t:e i l r:<l. ' ll i , n lllkni fr t h" """lwin g ': . 7' }:,.
Th e Idll cr af( ' " fl' 11li nbwll 7. l 'IIlJ dll hili
1)0,' o{( h(' r"mJ in<ler <In' . Irsoni,' al ,v pp.: r
wilh llw lti t:ll t.. 'l\ 'cr <l gc- t'l ' l l l , 'n i uf
\ \\' I1l'1I Ih.' ar :--.c ' uk .1lI.! li n ," n lnlh ,If
Iht" t Wtll ypo..loarc cJr. nni u..'l1 ill d,I. liI IFig '"
il can I". ...11of Ih l' h;,"l c-itke"
t''' n la in f!10 rl' Ih a n .!'X, of ar ,,: nic ,1Il,11lll'
lII it jor i l y off h. l uo ls ('oil l i l i ll 1, 'Ss (ball l' X,. If
Ilw a rc l'" n tc-mpor.lr y lhe ll lh b
J iff,' rt!lwc-ill ;; lI' lr .... hi l ri l l !t 'r hl ic wo u ld tw: a
1,l lo:-i,..I ," l lt l lll w ,.f lh d rn..'x , li..., w.ilJ.:., ...
Ih t' " , ;IH,lin.... 1I11-:j.:I\I . f1IUIlJ " lit:-
wi lh lllt l n t h.m rlf, i1r:-,, ni.".lwu o( l hl'''':
tCal. 110 .... ,q and 2:; wil h \ i\'X, .m J \. 1''';,
OIf"- ' II;c ':-ptd i\,d Y ln SITl ,I!I,'CI han h .. I
I<lr Ilh' ' }' Ilc' ,,".1. ahh'ltll-:h not h;o\ 'ill l;: , 11('
dlilfil(' {,'rbl it"thil l}\ holIeS. Ih ey illl'
I'l:rfur a k d form lIer y d o:,;<.' ly. 1l is , h,'nrorl'
"..
CI.X
Il . < c...l.
" I
U. ')
.,.... II.
,." H. J
I I
' 4
u t
u",' of some nr sentcul co ppe r and pure coppe r
s ll ll p.:rs b lt"ti
The presence of arsenic in an , -hied
from the lal e l ' u'll ynit sl k per iod 01"cur ly PIr-:.1
Dyn;lsly rha rpoon. I{,\ t Is paruculurly
its t'umpusll ioll .., ls <In
ir uenuouul alloy . This Is ea r ly fur ,U"Sl' ll k a l
c" I' p<'r ill Egypt !>1I1 nOI fi' f elscwhereln th e
Ncar East, For example. t he finds from t he
l ' a \ t' o f IIICTreasure In [he Nah a l "'fish lll <lr,
Pnlesun c (Bar -Ade n . 1'J71 La rc ecr her in
J a lo: ' and l.lllsist ma in ly o( ilrSl' rl k ill coppe r
a rw !a..... \\ '1111 Ill .' ilrst:n k ..u n ltn l III'
Itl as mu, h as I l 'XI
For Illl' 1':g)'pl iiJn d rl c (.1l"ls which are mudc
.11'i:l1:>CIlil"iJl copper , lhc ar se nic
cOIl.:l.' n lr <lllu ll remai ns in t he rang e - l'x,up
In the Middle Kingdom, I' w lII Ill c Milldl('
onwards. with the inl md llll iun of
llil-bwn:lc. the amount of arsenic in ar:.en!cal
l'nppt: r fa ll;; slighl ly . Tht' cont t"lll!",lr<J r)-' use of
:-llhs t.lll t iiJl ,HllOUlit Sof ilrscni ,"al ,'oplll-'r with
li n-hr u ll "l ' .' on liHl II. :s inlo Ih e Sc,'o nd
lul crlll ,-.Jiak l' eri oJ !>11 1du rilll{ the- N,'\'\'
"':inl::dlII a f'>Clli , al ('oppo:-r 'Wo'CffiS to
dbi:l p!-lI."oU. 11lt" U:>l' ,,( bot h by side
has !-It'C1l found III requi lt' lI omMI ill t h"
N,'a r and \l iJ .-JlI' ICraJJ"....k. 14 71l).
Thl'l' \'ld ertce prm 'itJlXl hy Ihese dtl illyses
illdi cul CSIh " l lh e int rl-'dud io n of Ihl-oro n:a:
w Egypt ill ijlUmlil y pro ba bly occu rr N during
Ihe Middl e KIll gdolll , alt h ou gh It cer1ilinly
' " "I" lI r l\....1 ..Jka lly wd l bd ur c Ihis period
111is is ill wi l lI u l h n :>1Jrvt!ys uf
Egyptia n mela llu r gy ,
Ie, 1"'1' ,.I'!I//iolrt ., /, i/I j 'IJIIII" I"W.>1I ,md
'Y'''''''!I.IJ
The (ll o ls and weapt lnSelHlmlnl.'<i itl Ihis
s ludy l',1ll bebroadly l.llviJ ed lntu IWu
(k"pt.'nJ ing on thei r (Il t host' r eq u ir in g
a (' ult i n g CJgl' til he dit'c li ve; (.al ll lOSl'
usC'.d with 1I,:hoppi l1lot al.."tl on and
rel yin !: ultJre 0 11 mlher
Ih <lll "h ' lr pn<. "S. 'i.
TIl,'lirsl Ind uJ ,"S, 'u IlI n g 1... ,ls. Sl ll' !1
>I S a nJ WO()JWII,l. illK d l is<:!s. ,mJ
wcap .. I1'50 s mh as kni vt'$. J a gt;er s ilnJ :;wonh
!. Iud 11,......1hke Wi lli.: t h e ....... u lld
ill dudL"Sa u :s mainl y ilS lools a uJ
co ld ,' hisels, [11 elf th e effect:; uf Ihc
conn. rll ration .If (Ill th e pr ope rt ies 01
II!; a lloy with copper , li lli' would ,' x(Il'1,:t Iha t
l'u lllll g 11" lls woulJ tlt'udil (m m il hi ee.ht' f
leu' l , Ir itf'>... nic". 501111"(' Ih is woulJ prolon g lht'
Iifc' of Ihe L'l1g... \\ h('u' il$ lh l'
ill Orll l1c" ,.ss wou ld n ol
1", :>< , i' lIl)1'rlanl . 1:;111111a n'! Md';trl d l , 1' )71
,"
II I II
14 h.!
"
" I
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4"
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7"
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",", 0 . of l'e l'Cl' l1tiJ}\e IIf llbk c lS .\ SCl I' Hr" Il;.' A:
ito'lIIs l' tl pp,' r AS' 'Il' :\" >11' '' ;111' '}.. S.. ' ..\.s u"' ,""
11, )\\'<'\' ,'- . nol r an dom. 'HlJ when it Is
l' x;lIn ill ed dlrlll lol,)gk>.tlly Jdi lli l" IH'lh ls
IlC."OJnlCapparent. l'hl":>l.' Ir,'ll &' rh ut
pi,,,'" ill u l
lItel ;11pr tod illtioll . 11 Illl: h..').lirll ll ll g of l h e
1J)'ll i.lloIYan d JUri ng t lie- New
:;}. Fur .. x'Jlnpl<.".lhl <J \ 'l' I"illfe-
iron con rcm fur lai c l'rl'J yll ,lsJic an d hr.-I
tll"*"I,'lS is ' 1.1. l'}.: " when'a s for
Second Ijyuust y ohjtYls it is o. l i'X" It
rcmatns HI th is level (except for ,I,, :{'i1SIOllil l
h igh v;I!Ill's l u ll li l ll w N.' w Wlll' lI il
fa ll:':lH ;l1l ;I\'I" Ij.:o:" l o .I-I 'X,.
u<Jh'J e bove. uud..r n 'l1...in 1" 1I1lJ ili, Ins
mel;.tlll, iron nMy 1)(' the
"Illch ing . 11' coppe r . 'lh e- lt'Wl'r l" l' l.'h ,If in,r l I n
Ih t" Idl e " r' 'l.lyn; ."l k and Flr"t J)yn"Sly 11M )'
h. J Ul' III li lt: II...... "I' a mur,' pri lll ili n ' s lIld l lll g
1l'lhnil.lIlCIII \\'h kh t he uu-t ul was in ,'o nl ad
l.vil h tilt'"Iltu or sla g fOl ' on ly ,I sho rt lilll e
du ring I Ill' Srnd l ill f! op<'ntl iOll , l.aler
lIlil} ha ve iI H" ll \'l 'J Sl ll d ti li g ti ,r ,I
10ll Ker lim.' a uJ ;ll ;I 1.lIIpt.'ralllrr' In
or , lef Itl n .. ult' 1Ol 1"ntl e 'll ra d
' " lllkr Ulli n.' cllidl" n ll y . II"wel','r. Ih is w" u lJ
i.ll Ih .. S' Ill11' linw iIH"f,;l"'ol.' Ih t.' qU<lll li lil ":S .. r
It' r lil in ,}IIIt. r d ..n Wll ls Ill'l l wuu ltl be
n ,lr al I. ...l .1IlJ in". lrp.l r al, 'l1 wil li Ih e , tll' Pl.'r.
'1'111: s ll ll:-,," II II' 111 I, l\\' (' r in' n 1'l mle lll S(If New
I\ingl!olll ull'l, dwor k 1lI;1)" be IllL' rl''>ult o f
mort' l'f1(:.li\ 'l' rdln in g I" l' h n iqucs
I H' /), Jlfl l, ./ljn h
M.lIl }' of IIIl"a r ld ,tt"!'>;llla l)' So,.Jill l h is
,' ,111h.' II.. k t.l ll l.1 p' lf liculllr J YlliiSl YUf p..' ritod
hy prt ln.:Il'lII n . in ,,::r ipil, u, nr fltdlol:...rhr 'll
; 11l;tl y "h. llh" 'l>lI1 pll'lc .1.,1.1"II Ih'SI' Jil l\'J
' Ol lill' lt!ll,...l lIh jt. I:>fn .m III<.'n,-, eoJlL"(; lilt li ,1("
ind llJ e.1i ll T...hlc 1;a. ;\ :>u m llliJ f)' of lilt"
, 'ulIlpw;il llUl o f lla letl itrldot ,'1s ("ken fr o lll
Ih lS l"b k' , ll1d S!Jpplt-Hll' ll tl' J by ,'\ shmo!ean
I'drle MU,;,'Ulll and o l h e r Br it is h
.\ l u seu nl lIlilt,"T"i,,1 is giv"n bd" w, '111ls Us b'
Ih,' 01a rld,ldS wh lt"h ' lr e
I UPIX"' . ar s" lIil',11, 'uflllt: r .1Il0 li ll -Dron;, .:..-\..
II I,' ,,( ; lIl >ll p ..., II I " f i li i ' gi l/lip:.
is s rll'-tll, li n: II, ,'dl l:> HIl ,j gin:"n
slu. ulJ fxo u nl)' ;Ippnu;illla le. The'
,11I"y Sll ll lll la f Y- in dll.k, l)llih \KF :I1lt1/\ ,'\ S
11;11;1, "-h. rt a s l h l' 1ll,' , 111 ,I""'ni,' illl ll l ill
.." o lt-Ills a rlOdnivl'd Oldy !nun those
a l lefa " ls iHwlys". 1hy i\ .'\:-i
I II g"Il I' r ;t l ll lt'll , co r r".'r ilIU.l a r:,.cnk.,ll
. 1'I'I)('r \\' ,r.: IIMIlII)/ 11:.<'.1 up h I Ille n n; l
Ih'II,ISly, ;U1J Ilwn ar Sl'llic...I ,up pt'r Illl lil lh t"
o f tl\l" "'1i,MIt' l\i ll I-:d"lIl . \\"111"11 li n-
!>f, IIIZl' WiI\ illlf<...[un...l. II\' Ih .: Nl'W "':ill j.:,t " lll
l.r' >lI/AW;ISII ,, ,lmill ill li li lt"
",'ri. ...!
1.1'11 n vu I
H I i l"':
lnt I f..lh:
IIII ..!

1'" ,,1 Nc w "' ill j.:tl" llI
r1!1<' f/I"IIlII,wtl'r; <t Iif's "{' I,l"I" lYfl! 'S
No. or of tJhjl"t' ls
iterns t' HPJX' r "5< 11
1

I E) fll lt/ 'lr lr f.' {/ s
On ly Ihrt"(" Jlr td at'ls wr it in d llclt, l ln
lhis '<,tullv: a mlld,,1 ((';11 . 11.1. I Cl Il I.
hy XRL ' lIlJ IWIl full-slYA' Jllit" (I ' al
nos . I 'n llnrl I J6 1. illl ill.\'S{"l! hy Ar\ S, Th n' c
.<: epa nlle SiUll pks 1\'('rr an llly",-' d [nlrn Ollf' of
Ih('S(' ICa l. Ill! 11ft }: a !fell er al <;,; lInpk
<l nt! r\.,. .. iludill-nTL:I I s;un pl t's l a ke n frllln
St'1f'l-I(.,j 1111 a !'t.l' l io ll n i l ffl lm lht' 01 \ ('
f,tr nWl all ngr;tphic ('\arni ni l ll' ll l , Atl, lil i()!lal
d " nwn ts we're' nw'l.,,"rt"(l in IIws{' l"tll' r
sa mples wh k h a rt' nol t.\lIoh-J ill l/Il' milin
r("sillt.. r;,ol"s IOll ly IIH' j.:CIWfil ! s;lmpl(' d;lIa
;If(' t her r l " lUi rh("<:(' ;lf e t h("r.-fltn' jlin 'n
in fuJI hclm v. loA<, lh ef wil li Ih(' (lill n IIll (' Ill.
no , I for n ll ll p;aisllll
Tht' resuUs uh", i lll 'd fur <; i un p l('<; I \ hl l ,lIul
I J h h arT:"di",,' lsS("{!i l l Jcl a il i ll l Ilt' r ('po,r l on
t he- (' \ a min a l i. >n nf t h.. a'ltts.
11,c I r i l {'t' l'! t' m {"n l cn m pt l<; i l i' ll ' <:(\f( ' ill, n us .
axe !tl,.de!s nre so srual l ,Ifld 011(' /1 1I(';I\'il..,
n MT, tUell it was nul I....... -<-i ltk i ll musl III
fl'llll l\ 't' II rl'pt (,,<;(, fll alt n ' m..l a! ,\;, mpl., for
rlh,mi(' ahSll,.p llu n a na ly.,is . In <; m' ll .\ .
r a v !Il1u l't"S, '('Il CC was re sortedto ;t11t1, in
c-onsequence. u mlpirrlson s nr c !)(,<;,., i hk on ly
o n 111(' lJ..* 'If t he ma j, ' r nllov I" pt.' r all wr
th a n IItt";,wlll al pt:'f, .... n tagt>HIll;f"!t:s-il l,lI1<l:
Nt\ll' rt hd l'Ss . Ih i" llf"tl\ 'idt'S sUm, 'k ll l
inf ltnnatt on fll r sor m' ("ompi,riso ns 1(1
be made.
Th("rn mpk lr dal a on thr- .. r m.. ar c
inchllln i in l';I lok 4 . ,HId ,I ..uunuarv " fi ll('
OIl1n}'!. USI..J f" r the ,de\lan l a nd fur
t"qu iva wn l fUl' t11" 1lI11I}'pt"'i grvcn bokuv .
As mode l.. ar e non fun e lillllal iJlUJ cbjd l\'
con srructcd {rum shee t ruc rnl. it would
!IN' n d l(," I'\' r a nd ('asic r 1ll1l"C pun ' n ' r rc r
ra ther t ha n a lloy s for t hdr !J\ilnuf' KI IIH".
Il lII, 'l'{v(r. a<;(;III flt"<;I' t' n ff<lmlh('
rompa risou. II is gel lf'rillh-' the ca ,'iJ." th a t
models 11 ((' l1Iau(' fm m IHl:lllls of Ih ....same
cnm f't l'iil illll as th eir n lUnlrlp ilr! s
Wh('n'lliffcn 'lI ces 1k'J...-c-ur In Iht,
pr.. poruons of th e va etou s aU' l) I) f't"i tlSO'l1for
a part h'ular ax!" an d llJolk l Ior rn . l hl' " thl.'
more nrd HlI(' type tends to II<' 11M'll ror 1111'
mod el. Inter estingl y. <l fou n. l::ltl un &:pnsit
Ilj Rh6 1.
",h kh W lI S an ,I((' hak f..n n \Il: lll' n dt'pll)"ih 'll
In l h(' f)yll asl y. is in eom(1l lSlh llll
mor e IIl e Ilw ea rl k r rou nd ;lXI'S
r;l f hcr l h JJlI lI w (' ll rfl' Il I <;Ylnlllef rk u ll yp"
..... it h <; pla p 'd or illeu n '!'\! wh ich wert
pr t'dominall ll .y maJ(' . ,f bHI!J'l..t' . Thl' (,<lrl iC' r
round mo, leI" Wt'r e llltls'l
,<: im ll:rr ill for m Dn d r nmpo,s-ili llfl to I n C'
lut: l! cJ . rounu 111,, 1:<> fil l h(' r Ih a n Ill(' sitn ila rly
per-rOf'a led ba lt l(' -"u <'S
Th t>l' \-idrll n Ih l' n'furt ,. Ih 'l l
nwdcl s Wl'n ' hl l t' f1l illll i tll ) ' llIaJl' I' l lIlI: sa mt '
a!l o.... spl' d lin lliol1<: a' , t hei r fUrl d l , u1ilf
(oll nk rpOI rls. Cllmpnsl li llll wa s IhN I' f" rl' ;1II
Impor1;ml r"!r l tlf Ih ..ir a mi
a <: pe'('l " f l he " rt d ';l" ! WIIS 1ll plcd. II 1<;in fae'l
pt",:-; il->/(' l ha l m.lt1d .. \\ ('r{' nl' U1ufad un "t.l
fro m l hei r uiscarJC' d Dr de !H" ' r at d y oroh n-
do wn rull-siy.' eq u I\"llknls
ar1\'f., (1s hiH'{' als. l l->tt-n
;lIl alvSt.. ,j hv Ofddx'rjl j I 'J 7h l all d I 'j
(//. ll ,) lt n
'}.'
';l .h
111.. 1
9 '
'0;. .. "11..." .. ,
I I
' X
LX
L'
R6
6,
" 7 II
"
4"
1'l7
"
9 ' 9
IX l '
44

., X,
""
4'
1.1 44
'" K,
iOO
"" 40 fl n
of ",1' *'('IS
COPPl. ' f Hrome
II
( IJ )
III OldtJil inn III fundion a l ;1rt cffu1s. , 4 llloJ d
a rtd"t' l:'if.<u e1' And .. w ('f{' Ind udffi In
Ihe wnrey _Th e mOI,k I.. h ;1\'(' rht"<;;ilnc
das:'<ifk a lh ll1 a s Ihl'i r fU/I. t ion <l1
('o u IlIl'r p<lrts cll1rl uiITt'r fm m Ihcrn oll ly In
slU". It Is th ert,rOf e of inlert':'it In Cllmp;.lfe th c
cn mpo<;it ion of a model wil li it:"cq ul va lt'n l
fu ll-si n ,'OUl1lt' rpa rt , f-ot.....<lll <;(" l ht'
ro lnl of dmerencc which may he
is t ha t th ree- of t he tools n ' nt . nos . t J I an d
1] 5 and.lu' \0 944 1ar e made orlc edcd
br on ze ttnd se vera l of l he rl:"lll idmkr ('Hu l a;/I
;,ppn't-Iat.k amo unt s of lead. 'rtr c WCapOll :'i
a rt" allnormal hrOn1.l":'i t oll lal n iJlt.:only t r act'
amoun ts of lead and seem to he rarher more
closely cnntrullcd a lloys
Whe re there SN'mS In be no dlst tncr
differe nce of fnrm le-twr en axes us ed ;l<;lools
ur as Wl' a r " IIS thl' ("rUer i" " .. f ..i".c is
Importfmt . ft'l l:' rt'adily wk ltkJ we6p" n
bein g di s ll ng ul sh a bk' frn m t he h t' il vlc r t'll li
Tht".. lInv dl!fcr t"ll n -s us......-i;lll'd wi l h Ihl s ar ('
wt"ll t'''(e mpl1fk....1hy t ..... o II Xc:'i ( ,r t f ll,' sallll"
symmel rica l lype ICat. 10-1- Cl nd 10 ) 1.
bl-.lh from t he 10m". Thl' iir..l , wh ich is
l<lr ge Hll d r m " llhfy In f(' n t!("(i " l onl, l'i
made of copP<' r Iwit h a smHIl imw unl lJf
a rse n ic I Whtr"'il" Ihl:" !W<jlnd. <; m a ller tr<iu l("
a xr i<;m::lde Ilf bn m7.(' 11 .1 % lin .
' 7
'\
",
"I
'"
"
' 7
"
NU_Hf
II clIl s
' I
'4
I 7
"
"
",
"I () J I
uyn .l
llvn
I n l l - \ t k:
1111 1-/"":-
Inll -MI\
I nll -MK
In t I
I lIl l
11,1).
Hyn IR
NK oll w.
' Fn' .. ....\,ol'' ''''- .....r " .'. .... __
' .\.-'':I f '\ ."C't" u l t>'f'I""I'
A>e
' HJ<'
S- h
S- h mutld ..
T la ll for msl
r lnll forms) Illodd ..
L. r
I.. p. r
L. r nwdd s
sym. \\ .
L. sym. w mudd s
L. a<: YIIl(all for m...\
L <l sym. w mndf'1
I.. sym . I- I & e- ht
L sym. I- I & tht lllO. kl :'i
' (\". ,,,( ... ... r. I'''' I>rin.,.-
' ''"- <;t 'I' .\, ". "I,"'f'P'''
f'\l!.sih le Ih a l bor h these a lit's. a ndthe nt h r r
Willi a hlg:har scnk- cont ent . were lntendcd
as wea po n s, ami t ha t wel ght a nd a lloy
n llll po.sil l<llI be th e pt imm-y lTllcni:l
for t hem. with I hc provision
hul ,' s pNha p-o:; beill lt of
Import a nce .
The USl.' J for th e rrmtcmporury
\\' Illt:-r bladcd we apon t }' J)M- have
mudl In t'umrnon wu h the lugged.
f'<-r f. Jr att 'tJ. rou ml In Chill jill (' u '(' l )( th e
"i( l;Jllt , lt lll ha ve arsc-nk em ltt' IIIS ;lOd
oll ly l ll'.!'cd!l-('ii -ba fol1s' do not Incl ude till
m OIl :r. (" \(' '\('(, p l for Cil l . no. ,;,1,1. (' ltT l u<;i vf'
USO: ' <I f ril , -hn 1ll7J' for Ih e s-ha llnw
I)' p<"nl ay :ml!:l1.tosl a htl t'f peri od fnr it s
IIl(f!...lmt!on ("ompa red wll h Ih('
!I("(' I)('I fur m whi dl is-predolll inflllll y mllde
rrom ar\t: n ltJII (Hp J1('r .
Tll r re are simil.. r alloy d lffert;>ncN' in Ihc
hIler il!l;t "Swi lh <; plilytodHr lnn lf\ '('t!
..ides : fnr ("J(:unpk-. bc'lwl"t'll Ih.. asym ml"lr ica l
ha l llt' -a J((....llff! w lall ' M"('ow l ftl h'r lll t.... llitl('
Perl"d " r New aml th(' s)'III Olt't rkul
h .. , ls III t he N('w all d IJlt('r . nth
fYf'!' -l:rltu ps l lr l" mJ i\ l-toprl"d" mi nall tly of
hrlll l7A,' hUl l h('y d,ffl"T111 t h'.!qmllll ity .. fli n
i ll fhr all oy. Th l' Ir ..:>ls h-Ild 10 ha ve
lowl"! fin conl en ts th a n tlw wcapn m (FIl!:, i)
antI. whNe-as all th... w("apnns ;111'brlm 1-e.
Ih n '(' 1<)(, 1<; an ' ar.-;C' ni (,,1('oppe r. A furt h,'r
S - h
L.r
T f ;11I
L. p. f

Sq ,:.
F t>
I. S) II I.
I W Ill .W
I. asvm (all f, lnns )
I "
....11' -' II k '
\ " , _'. .. 1\ 1
, 1l1111C \ 1
Si lll l ll ll' .\in );, " 'X, Cu'X. Ni 'X )";:'x, Ca'x,
'11
1I. l J
I l b o.o z
1 }6 fIt, jlll a ll . .q O.Ol o.o t o.o j o ,o t l).ill
1\(, poin t h 1.ll l <0.0 1 < 0 (1 1
I i i and I i ll ,li t 1l1l1' 1t. lt' ill o f l ilt'
t'. III, TlIl r" t iol\" of lIi ( ' h " <111<.1 t'ul1a lt in
Thi s filii )' i rul k dll' Ib ,tl differ en t
" fI":> wer e llsc- d for ll ll' pn Xhldiul1 of Ilw",,-'
I .",h . 11"wen r. till' r
lr a n ' d,'l l ll ' ll l J u ring Sllwlli ll )!.
simila r ft tllsiJ t' r a lioll s appl y 10 k rwlIs ;ls ru
non-ferrou s Furth ermo re. (h t'r e
Rclerences
\llI d .. ....' u , ,s".,. "\' 1) 18',. /
H.t, \ J , >fI . I.. .
1,, 11.-+.... ... .
[ll." "':,I .I-; . . " ' ;'-1 .-\' 'I<, ,.. .\I ,-/,,I,,, ,,, l.>/rl,.. , :,,, I.,, ..,.1
. /I",,, ::. I.,. Ih f,,,J
l 'h..,k. 1 .\. I i.; '1:..111 ". ...,... ",1 1><.", .",,,.,,
II WIo, UIHI: I 1l ..... ' ,III /,"' 0"' / 01.' 1,.-1."''/''11'/
7 1.I. I .l f>
1' .-11. K. 'f n..-Tltl .. . . ,, \
11 0( . ....'<, "" '(" ...s "r"" .,';""/ ..lJ . /'.'Il 'T
.. n ..;"'R'l' '''-1[' h p l
Ih l ..."'I\I " l hn "'.U..;.I T...hui q....... .\ ppl l I ..'
\<.h I .;"h
Cr ;";'hk, I' T . 1':1; 11 Th.. .' .... ,,( t he <.>pp<'"
th.. ,; r,<i.. fHu,,'atl llnJI\, 'm<l n
o"ll'II .;.. .. ' '' I,o;. I : lh.' ' :.. ,h t...,. , h.: ll f ..hllll"I' .JIo>d
/",."",/.-1,""h,'"'t..,.."/... I: ' 11 II t
\' '1'.. l -tl/" .. , "11)cot .. .. r ' ''' '''I'p.-r
....,,,1,, ...'\! .. 1 . lI" .", . 1<' 111 ";0"'1'" in Ih. " ' ..,I,
T"nll ". hnu -j. I" ......>'l il/io ... r"f /y ",,,j
I " '" .\l r r.JII"' !JY111M01.'<' . Pap l u i , ...J I' 1"
I ; 4, ', "-111< ,"
\' l iI,W. .. L.I . T ,. 'II. ob, "I I.. ..onlll" ....I"" '''jlr........
Il. , ' \ " . .n' l;. h..... l,,1 .. m. l..
1 .-I'." / , lrl lf .H..I.. .. 1".1' ' , 1.... 1 W
.\ S ' t> .l 1.. 1lJ, ....
r"h>.. . l. I . K. mJ \ ld ':<'tT.-lI.I I.. ' '' 7'' N..- .tl f..
... ...ml " .,o<,<,'iJ,...",I<..'I I)(" ,"rl r lt ",,,1
"' '1' 1',., ' , 1<,"" .l, I " 'j
."
11" ' '' '' Il . S I .. 1"iIlJ ' 1. '....1..... 0\" 1... .. .. .. 1.. .. I,.....,J
I.. ,.." ..... .\ U\t \ 1.".".,,1. J : ' t
f k ""'t\ p." I & t , ,, .. IOo>l-",,) nt .).. 1.. 7' . ' 1'1\1"
.m..I\..... , >l.. "". : I'-I\\l'oI l.. ul,,, ..I ... .,,. ,( l ho, I.. ' .. I.. .. >d
"'h't \f "u" ., I. . -th
11;011. 1' ..,oJ l'u lk r, I' .. ..." ' ;1 '.\ ' '' }
1I11' ...
' U lol" IU II ;1' . /o,Ku......" ' . I ,:4
1t,,,-, ,,. 1,' /t<I rtl khrl.F. I <;1" ' So. '1<"I1I,&' '' ' rl h,,J ,,
.. .. ... I.. ll.. .... I.' UUrl'.\. ,f .. nIl4' lll ) .., l htl .. U' . ..
;.n ' \'t'f )' k w rh emnal a\'tt il<1bll: of
Nt'ilf E..a ster n iWll urWf'.Kt:-. whid l
rOllTpnris' J/l s can bemade t'l'yk'cote . I
Willi,uns ,Hill 14 7h ). l lenct'
lh t"Sil-: lli fk Ll U' t' Uf lllt' \, .II1' .....uiou .. of the
1\\'0 iU:CS itlltll)'St.,Jhe re cuumn a t prt.. -senr be
deduced.
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