Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Achievement Motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard; ex: becoming a lawyer
eating disorder; severe weight loss accompanied by obsessive worrying about weight gain despite the fact the person is 10-15% below normal body weight; symptoms include: absence of 3 menstrual periods (females), distorted body image, intense fear of weight gain, dull eyes, baggy skin, dull hair, sallow skin, listlessness, overexercises, obsession about amount of food eaten; Onset: early adolescence, more white middle-class females; often comorbid with OCD

Anorexia Nervosa

Bulimia Nervosa

eating disorder; recurrent episodes of binging and purging (massive eating in private, hiding out then throwing up or laxative usage), looks normal in weight (often) and is obsessed with maintaining weight not necessarily losing weight ; symptoms include: bruising on hand, suspicious behavior, binging/purging, smell from skin and mouth, lank hair, rotting teeth (eventually), puffy skin; Onset: late adolescence, more white middle-class females, but rising in white males

Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

conscious experience of emotion and physiological arousal occur at the same time; ex: seeing a gun -> being scared -> shaking

Catharsis Hypothesis

releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges; ex: venting to a friend

facial expressions of primary emotions; fairly constant from one culture to another, yet people still get confused; refer to circumstances which it is appropriate for people to show emotions; ex. during surgical procedure Americans show true emotions but Japanese withhold emotions

Display Rules


state of arousal/tension that motivates behaviors; ex. Hunger, thirst

Extrinsic Motivation

external motivation; completion of activity because of the consequence: reward or to avoid punishment; ex. Job, chores, school assignment, etc.

Facial Expression

affect; emotions expression on the face

humanism; Marlow; graduation of primitive motives to more sophisticated, complex (human needs); higher motives only emerge after basic are fulfilled; Stages-physiological, safety, belonging/love (sometimes a separate stage), esteem, and selfactualization

Hierarchy of Needs


balance; stability; part of the drive-reduction theory; when individual functions effectively because drives are met
external stimulus that motivates behavior; do not need to be aware of it to happen; does not have to be primary or an active, cognitive secondary drive; ex. Bakery, impulse buys, advertisements, Krispy Kreme internal motivation; completing the activity because it please you; ex. Singing, reading, crosswords, etc.; some people turn these things into extrinsic motivations like jobs but this is rare 1880s; William James and Carl Lange; theory of emotion; stimuli in environment cause physiological change in bodies, then emotion comes; ex. I see a bear which cause my heart to race, then I become afraid part of the hypothalamus; feeding center; stimulates hunger; if destroyed, may cause starvation because organism doesn't receive cue to eat; L comes before V, therefore you have to start eating before you can stop


Intrinsic Motivation

James-Lange Theory

Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)


inner directing force; specific need or desire; arouses individual and directs behavior; ex. Hunger, thirst, achievement; can be environmental cues


condition of having excess body fat resulting in being greatly overweight; ex: a nine year old weighing 150 pounds
circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior; ex: flying only a single airline

Overjustification Effect

Primary Drive

unlearned; found in all animals and humans; motivates behavior that is vital to the survival of the individual/species; hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, BR needs

Relative-Deprivation Principle

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself; ex: kid feels poor for not having an iphone

Set Point

idea that your body returns to a preprogrammed weight; this occurs naturally (after dieting and other events)
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people's quality of life; ex: how rich you are

Subjective Well-Being

Two Factor Theory of Emotion

Schacter & Singer (1962); cognitive theory; there are bodily emotions, but we use the emotions/information to tell us how to reaction in the situation; only when we think, recognize, do we experience the emotion

Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)

part of the hypothalamus; satiety center; ceases hunger; in rats, works as a "on-off' switch (studies caused obese rats); has been challenged as the on-off switch; L comes before V, therefore you have to start eating before you can stop

Yerkes-Dodson Law

evidences arousal theory; the more complex a task, the lower level of arousal that can be tolerated without interference before the performance deteriorates; ex. used in class-driving to school, driving angry, finding a new location, boiling an egg