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Global warming

Name: Salma Afifi Grade: 8 Section: A

Contents page

Introduction to global warming


What is global warming and green house gases1 What are the causes of global warming What are the effects of global warming How can we prevent global warming The Conclusion The bibliography .2 ..4 ..5 ...6 .................7

Many people started asking why animal and plant species have begun dying off or changing?? One of the biggest issues facing us right now is global warming which is caused when the earth heats up and the temperature rises. Many plants and animals cannot take the change, so they die. As people play a big part in causing global warming, they are also part in the solution.

What is global warming and green house gases

Global warming is rise in temperature which begins when sunlight reaches Earth. The clouds, atmospheric particles, reflective ground surfaces and ocean surface then reflected about 30 percent of it back into space, while the remaining is absorbed by oceans, lands and air. This in turn heats the planets surface and atmosphere, making life possible. As Earth warmed up, this solar energy is radiated by thermal radiation, travelling directly out to space, thus cooling the Earth. However, some of the outgoing radiation is re-absorbed by carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases in the atmosphere and is radiated back to Earths surface; these gases are known as greenhouse gases due to their heat-trapping capacity. This re-absorption process is naturally good; the Earths average surface temperature would be very cold if not for the greenhouse gases. Green house is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. The greenhouse effect can be thought of a process through which nature maintains a balance in the atmosphere. However, human activity in the past hundred years or so, has caused an increase in the percentage of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which has in turn increased the average temperature on earth. Main Causes of green house gases: 1-Deforestation: Deforestation increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Also, the burning of wood causes it to decay, therefore releasing more carbon-dioxide into the atmosphere.


2-Burning of Fossils: Greenhouse gases can also be released into the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels, oil, coal and many gases which last for a longer time in the atmosphere. These gases are not naturally available in the atmosphere. Therefore industries are also a major cause of the greenhouse effect. 3-Electrical Appliances: Even the humble refrigerator in the house emits gases which contribute to the greenhouse effect. These gases are known as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and are used in refrigerators, aerosol cans, some foaming agents in the packaging industry, fire extinguisher chemicals, and cleaners used in the electronic industry. 4-Population Growth: With the increase in population, the needs and wants of people increase. This increases the manufacturing and the industry process.

What are the causes of global warming . Its effects on animals and on agriculture are indeed frightening, and the effects on the human population are even scarier. The facts about global warming are often debated in politics and the media, but, unfortunately, even if we disagree about the causes, global warming effects are real, global, and measurable. The causes are mainly from us, the human race, and the effects on us will be severe. Global Warming Causes: 1.Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning power plants 40% of U.S. CO2 emissions come from electricity production, and burning coal accounts for 93% of emissions from the electric utility industry. We are highly dependent on burning coal for our personal and commercial electrical supply. 2. Carbon dioxide emissions from burning gasoline for transportation Our modern car culture and appetite for globally sourced goods is responsible for about 33% of emissions in the U.S. With our population growing at an alarming rate, the demand for more cars and consumer goods means that we are increasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation and manufacturing. 2.

3. Methane emissions from animals, agriculture such as rice paddies, and from Arctic sea beds Methane is another extremely potent greenhouse gas, ranking right behind CO2. When organic matter is broken down by bacteria under oxygen-starved conditions (anaerobic decomposition) as in rice paddies, methane is produced. Also as methane escapes from the Arctic seabed, the rate of global warming will increase significantly.

4. Increase in usage of chemical fertilizers on croplands In the last half of the 20th century, the use of chemical fertilizers has risen dramatically. The high rate of application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers has effects on the heat storage of cropland and the run-off of excess fertilizers creates dead-zones in our oceans. 3.

What are the effects of global warming There are two major effects of global warming:

Increase of temperature on the earth by about 3 to 5 C . Rise of sea levels by at least 25 meters. More details about the effects of global warming : Increasing global temperatures are causing a broad range of changes. Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing. The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average duration have increased (in addition, there has been a high correlation of hurricane power with tropical seasurface temperature). Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of other extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions. As a further effect of global warming, diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. Changes happened in some regions: North America: Decreasing snowpack in the western mountains; 5-20 percent increase in yields of rain-fed agriculture in some regions; increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in cities that currently experience them.2

Latin America: Gradual replacement of tropical forest by savannah in eastern Amazonia; risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction in many tropical areas; significant changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation.3 Europe: Increased risk of inland flash floods; more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion from storms and sea level rise; glacial retreat in mountainous areas; reduced snow cover and winter tourism; extensive species losses; reductions of crop productivity in southern Europe.4 4.

Africa: By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress; yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 percent in some regions by 2020; agricultural production, including access to food, may be severely compromised.5 Asia: Freshwater availability projected to decrease in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia by the 2050s; coastal areas will be at risk due to increased flooding; death rate from disease associated with floods and droughts expected to rise in some regions.6

How can we prevent global warming

1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. And whenever you can, recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. 2. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning 3. Drive Less and Drive Smart Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise 4. Use the "Off" Switch Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you need. And remember to turn off your television, video player, stereo and computer when you're not using them.


5. Plant a Tree During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime.

The bottom line it is coming and we have to figure out what we can do. Waters rising will be a disaster, food will be affected. This is going to hit everyone, not just the poor. We're all in trouble and the sooner we accept this FACT. We should put serious effort to overcome the problems due to it. We must try our best to solve the problem and strive as much as possible to reinstate our earth for sake of future generation.


The bibliography