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Libro Conplido en los Juizios de Las Estrellas Author(s): A. R. Nykl Source: Speculum, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Jan., 1954), pp. 85-99 Published by: Medieval Academy of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2853869 Accessed: 06/06/2010 16:45
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LIBRO CONPLIDO EN LOS JUIZIOS DE LAS ESTRELLAS


BY A. R. NYKL

AMONG the several projects left unfinished by the untimely death of Antonio Garcia Solalinde in 1937 was the edition of the Libro conplido en los juizios de las estrellas, a translation into Old Castilian of Ibn abi-r-Rigal's book Al-Bdri' fi ahkdkm an-nugum, completed about 1256 A.D. by order of Alfonso X el Sabio. Editorial work on the transcribed text of the unique manuscript of the first five partswas resumed in the sunmmerof 1952 at the Spanish Seminar of Mediaeval Studies at the University of Wisconsin by Victor R. B. Oelschlager and James H. Herriott. Work on the prefatory matter and a brief commentary was distributed among three collaborators in the following manner: Oelschlager was to deal with the Castilian text, Herriott with the Latin translations, and myself with the Arabic manuscripts, explanation of the technical terminology, such as atacir (attasyir), alcotcode,cotcode (al-kadkhudah), hileg, hyleg, yles, alhileg (hilag, hailag, al-hailag), mubtez, almubtez (mubtazz, al-mubtazz), ayz, hayz, alhayz (hayyiz, al-hayyiz), adurugen (ad-darigan), trino (tathlith, muthallatha), sextil (tasdis), quadratura(tarbi'), opposicion (muqabala), conjuncion (muqarana), quemazon(alihtiraq), llegamiento (al-ittisal), baxamiento (hubfit, suqut), algamiento (su'fd, irtifa'), pars fortunae (sahm as-sa'ada), redramiento (ruufi'), medio cielo (wast as-sama'), faz (wagh, sura), bebenia, bebiniya (baibaniya, babaniya), iahuzahar (gawzahar), neubahar (nawbahar), tazmin (taSmim), dustoria (dastiiriya), aliernistar (al-guwirast?), dignidat (ha7z), and so forth; brief notes to the text, proper names, data on the author, the translator, and the Arabic manuscripts. The data on the author, the translator, and the Arabic manuscripts may be of interest to mediaevalists in general, and may elicit welcome comments.
THE AUTHOR

The author's full name is given in Carl Brockelmann's Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (Leipzig, 1898), I, 224, as Abu 1-Hasan 'Ali b. abt-r-rigal as Saibant al katib al Magribi. In the Supplement, I, 401 (Leiden, 1937), and in the second edition of the GAL (Leiden, 1943), the name is transcribed as Abu'l-Hasan 'All b. abi-'r-Rigal as-Saibani al-Katib al-Iagribi al-Qairawani (died not before 432/1040). The translator mistook the nisba "as-Saibani" for an adjective meaning "grey-haired" (cf. Dozy, Supplement, I, 808: "grison, homme a cheveux gris") according to the Vocabulista in Arabico (ed. Schiaparelli, Florence, 1871),' hence el cano el notario (al-kdtib in Dozy, Supplement, II, 442, notaire, though the usual meaning of al-katib is a writer, a scribe, a secretary (Lane, Lexicon, Book I, 2091); "also a learnedman was so called by the Arabs, because, in general, he who
1 In modern Moroccan ibani=vieillard; Henri Mercier, Methode moderne d'arabe parlUmarocain, Grammairearabe (Rabat, 1945), p. 196.

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knew the art of writing was possessed of science and knowledge; writers among them were few.") The mistranslation el cano occurs only once in the Castilian text; elsewhere el notario alone is used. The Latin translation omits both the nisba and the title of al-kdtib. Nallino in his Albatenii Opus Astronomicum (Milan, 1903-1907), ii, xi, gives some information on the Latin translations and states that the work was composed before 428 H. (the year began on 24 October 1036 A.D.), and not after 454 H. (the year began on 16 January 1062), according to Heinrich Suter, Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke (Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik, x [1900], pp. 100, 214, and in the Nachtrdge und Berichtigungen zu "Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke" (Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematik, xiv [1902], pp. 172-173. In his excellent work, Las Matemdticas en la Biblioteca del Escorial (Madrid, 1929), p. 19, D. Jose A. Sanchez Perez states: - Es este un celebre AlUBenabirichal el Xaibani el Cdtib el Magrebi(Abulhasdn). astronomoy un gran astrologojudiciariopersa que floreci6 a mediados del siglo XI. Muchosautorescomo Nicolas Antonio,Casiri,Menendezy Pelayo, Rodriguezde Castro se equivocatamBoncompagni y Amadorde los Rios le suponenespafiol,err6neamente. bien al suponerlodel siglo IX; Nallino ha demonstrado que su gran obra de Astronomia no pudo hacerlaantes de 1036ni despuesde 1062.2 There is no evidence whatever that Ibn abi-r-Rigal was a Persian, or Hispalensis (Sevillian) as stated by Casiri in his BibliothecaArabico-hispana Escurialensis,
Vol. I (1760), p. 362, No. CMXVIII,and by Wuestenfeld, or "arabe toledano"

according to Rico y Sinobas, Los Libros del Saber de Astronomia, Vol. v, part 1, p. 278 (perhaps on the authority of Nicolas Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus, II, 390: "Ali Aben Ragel Toleti sub Almemone seu Hah-Menone Rege, Ferdinandi I. aetate, qui regnare coepit in Castellanis anno undecimi saeculi secundo supra tricesimum, astrologico studio celebris," etc.), or "wahrscheinlich aus Cordova gebtirtig," according to Suter, op. cit., p. 100. In his article on Ibn abi-r-Rigal in the Encyclopedie de l'Islam, II, 378, Suter changed his opinion to "on ignore s'il est originaire de l'Espagne ou du Nord de l'Afrique." In view of the nisba "al-Maghrebi," our author considered himself and was considered as belonging to the western part of the Muslim world; had he been,
de Ahmed a Additionalinformation underthe same heading: - Astrologia judiciariay comentario of Casiri'sLatin Abenhasan. Manuscrito Arabe de Casiri.(This is an inexactabbreviation num.9043 "Poemade Astrologia adjectisin idemCommenjudiciariaquodediditAli Ben AlragialCordubensis: tariisAhmadiBen Alconphud Constantiensis Hispani, qui septimoEgiraeseculoenituit: Nazm 'Ali b. Abi-r-Rigdl sarhAhmadb. al-Qunfiidh." This may have been the source of Suter's al-Qurtubi; aus Cordovagebirtig.") - De iudiciis astrologiae. "wahrscheinlich Traducidodel castellanoy este del arabe,escritopor AbolhazenAly Abenragel.ManuscritoJ-II-17. El "explicit"esta fechadoen 1460. ManuscritoJ-II-7, del siglo XV. El primerotraducidopor Alvaro y el segundopor Gil de Tebaldos.(Additional detailsin NicolasAntonio,Bibliotheca HispanaVetus,II, 81; 82, n. 2; 83, 84, libri de iudiciis astrorum, summacuraet diligentistudiode ex85.) - Albohazen Halyfilii Abenragel tremabarbarie vindicati,ac latinitatidonati,per AntoniumStupamRhaetum Basilea, Praegalliensem, 1551;410 pags. El libro esta divididoen ocho partesy no contiene una sola figura.La edicionm4s antiguase hizo en Venecia,1485.

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in addition to that, a native of Spain (Al-Andalus), his nisba would have been amplified by "al-Andalusi." The only purely Andalusian characteristic appears in the manuscript Berlin 5892, which gives him the title al-wazir al-kdtib (cf. Nykl, El Cancionerode Aben Guzmdn (Madrid-Granada, 1933), p. xx, concerning the title al-wazir in the days of the Reyes de Taifas). Brockelmann in GAL, Supplement I, 401, adds the nisba "al-Qairawani" and states, in accordance with Suter, "hatte vielleicht an al-Kfihi's Beobachtungen in Bagdad (378/988) teilgenommen, lebte zeitweilig am Hofe des Ziriden Mu'izz b. Badis al-Mansir (406-54/1016-22) in Tunis und starb nicht vor 432/1040." Two of the author's linguistic characteristics are Maghrebi. They may have inadvertently slipped into his manuscript, but were faithfully reproduced by the copyists of the Umumi manuscript (fol. 170) and of the India Office manuscript: wa naqulu and, though the correct form and aqulu appears most of the time. The only peculiarity, frequently found in Ibn Quzman, is the use of the accusative instead of the nominative in the sentence (Umumi fol. 82): fa-in kdna makdna n-nuhufsi sa'dan. A careful study might disclose other syntactical and lexical peculiarities which would warrant the conclusion that the author was a native of Morocco (perhaps of the 'idwat al-Andalus in Fas), who may have visited Spain, and like Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi was rather proud of being a native of the western part of the Muslim world. This would also be borne out by the phrase "e ningunos de los sabios non se acuerdan con ella, e mayor miente los de partes de occidente" (wa qalla min al-'ulamd' man ya'malu bihi wa siyyamd ahlu l-Maghrib: "and few scholars follow this opinion, especially among those of Maghrib"; p. 32; Umumi 26a, Paris 19a). Steinschneider, Die hebrdischen tbersetzungen des Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher(Berlin, 1893), pp. 579-580: des Mittelalters;die Quellen Ibn abi 'l-Ridjal... ist einerder berUhmtesten Astrologen zu Baldi3p. 60] aber im iiber ihn sind mehr als zahlreich,[Note 301: Zusammengestellt sehr wenig kritisch;man hat sogar die PrUfungdes HauptwerkesvernachAllgemeinen di Bernardino 3 Fulltitle:"Vite inedita etc.,in the arabi Baldi," tratteda un'opera di matematici
Bullettino di Bibliografia e di Storia delle Scienze Matematiche e Fisiche of Baldassarre Boncompagni,

his manu1617.From died10 October on 5 or 6 June1553; Baldiwasbornat Urbino, Bernardino


selected the articles on owned by Boncompagni,Steinschneider script De le tite de' Matematici, Mashallah,Al-Ferghani,Al-Kindi, Abf Ma'sar, Thabit b. Qurrah,Al-Battani, Al-ManSur,Ibn

Italiana.- Monsignor v (1872), 493-508. ConcerningPrince B. Boncompagnicf. Enciclopedia

andtreated dabirb. Afla*,Al-Bitriui, 'Ali b. abi-r-Rigal, 'Alib. Ridwan, Az-Zarqali, Haitham, that Ibn abi-r-Rigal He correctly erudition. themwithhis accustomed rejectsBaldi'sstatement the poetandthe astronomer between andmakes the distinction wasa Persian, (cf. Note 9 infra). The nameof the wasa nativeof Toledo. whoclaimthat Ibn abi-r-Rigal He alsoquotesauthors Franco. ben as is Josef 8 Note translator Ghedalja (cf. infra) given Portuguese Hermann Hankel, of anarticle is a translation there In thesame by Professor volume, pp.343-401,
to it is givenby G. Bouchon entitledStoriadellematematiche presso bibliography gli Arabi;additional dermathematischen HeinrichSuter'sbook Geschichte 1872).This reviewmay (ZUrich, Wissenschaften und Astronomen Die Mathematiker have promptedSuter to workhard on the excellentmonograph, was Frangois field in this modern The in 1900. first und ihre Werke, der Araber pioneer published
II (1868), in the Bullettino, 119-206, life andworkis described whose by E. (1826-1864) Woepcke Narducci.

in Vol.v, p. 297, rather Hankel in Vol.VI(1873), reviews, critically, pp.65-68.Professor Brandely

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lassigt, das Ubrigens wegen der zahlreichen, allerdings in den Ausgaben wunderlich entstellten angefuihrten Autoritiiten fir die arabische Literaturgeschichte benutzt werden konnte. [Note 302: Ich nehme Anstand, mein Register ohne Controlle des arabischen Originals mitzuteilen.] Ich kann auf verschiedene, sich daran knUpfende Forschungen hier nicht eingehen und gebe nur die Resultate eines frUiheren Artikels, mit Weglassung einiges Zweifelhaften. [Note 303: Baldi, p. 57 ff. u. 91, 95.] Abu 'l-Hasan Ali ibn abi 'l-Ridjdl (vulgo Aben Ragel Albohazen,Haly, etc.), vielleicht spanischer Abstammung, lebte gewiss
in Afrika (um 1010-20)4 .... Ali ist der Verfasser eines astronomischen Werkes Al-Bdri'5

(das Ausgezeichnete, lateinisch: Completus) ms. Brit. Mus. 1347 (p. 623) und India Off. 735, woraus ich (l.c. p. 95) nur einige Stellen nach Mitteilung O. Loth's veroffentlichte; ein Fragment findet sich vielleicht in ms. Esc. 918 (Cas. I, 362). Das Werk ist in VII1 Tractate geteilt, der VIII. (Electiones) ist fast nur ein Plagiat einer Abhandlung dariiber von Zael (Sahl b. Bischr). [Note 304: Baldi, p. 67 ff.] Dieses Werk wurde auf Befehl Alfons X. spanisch ibersetzt und beendet 1256 von Jehuda b. Mose (Musca, Mosca) Kohen, dem Arzte. Ein Exemplar dieser tYbersetzung existirt in Madrid; den Prolog und einige andere Stellen giebt Rico y Sinobas im V. Bande der "Libros del Saber de Astronomia."6 Die spanische tYbersetzungwurde wiederum auf Befehl Alfons' ins Lateinische Ubersetzt von Aegidius de Thebaldisaus Parma und dem Protonotarius Petrus de Regio (Real). Diese lateinische tUbersetzungerschien Ven. 1485, 1525, latinisirt von Ant. Stupa, Basel, 1551, 1571. Tr. IV-VIII einer tYbersetzungin einem spanischen Dialect (an der portugiesischen Grenze, nach Nb.7 2031) in hebr. Lettern8 enthalt Ms. Bodl. Uri 435 (geschr. 1410-12). Die latein. {tbersetzung wurde wahrscheinlich dreimal ins Hebr. ibersetzt, namlich von Salomo Davin aus Rodez." F. Wuestenfeld, Die ibersetzungen Arabischer Werke in das Lateinische seit dem XI. Jahrhundert (Gottingen, 1877), pp. 89-91: tiber den Verfasser 'Ali ben Abul-Rigal ist nur so viel bekannt, dass er aus Sevilla gebiirtig und ein guter Dichter war;9 Proben von ilm stehen in einem Diwan spanischer Dichter im Escurial Codex 436; ein einzelnes seiner Gedichte Uber Astrologie ist com4 No should have said "Nord Afrika"and authorityis given for this statement. Steinschneider Tunis. specifically 5 The title is given in Hebrewletters.

6 The passages are: Vol. v, part 1, pp. 256-257; 258-259; 269-270; 277-278; 283-285; 289-290;

in Toledoin 1258-62 not in the Prologue. Onp. 44 thereis a longpassageon the astronomical congress A.D. J. DominguezBordonain a briefarticle"El 'Librode los Juiciosde las Estrellas'traducidopara de Madrid,viii Alfonsoel Sabio"in the Revistade la Biblioteca Archivo y Museodel Ayuntamiento not knowingthat this the bookand quotesthe passageon Mercurio, (1931),171-176,brieflydescribes conand otherpassageshad alreadyappeared in Rico y Sinobasas stated above. His transcription tains severalerrors. 7 Neubauer,Catalogue of Hebrew of theBodleianLibrary(Oxford,1886). Manuscripts 8 The beginning of Part IV readsthus: "Y aquiconpiecA en ista partidas as nacengas* y conteense nacencas* y a crianga* y ylies y alcodcodey os juizos das cinco casas.This is a translationof the Arabic(Umumi):"wa huwa l-auwalumin al-mawalid, fihi at-tarbiyaw'al-hailagw'al-kadkhudah 'ala khamsatabuyitin" ("it is the firstof nativities;it containsthe [chapters] w'al-kalam concerning the bringingup, and al-haildg, and al-kadkhuddh, and the discourseconcerning the five houses"). Furtherdetailson pp. 597 and 1003. 9 This statementis due to a misapprehension. In Casiri,I, 127, No. ccccx.xxvi concernsMutammad b. 'Asakir'sKitdbtawsi' at-tawsi,fi nazmil-muwasaahdt, Textus et OrdoOdarum(cf. Nykl, muwassa.as. The poet listedunder Poetry, p. 340), whichlists 28 poets who composed Hispano-Arabic No. 26, Ibn abi-r-Rigalal-Isbili, has nothingto do with our author.The latter'sonly poetic effort knownis the urgtza (poemin the meterragaz)on astronomy, cf. the followingnote.

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mentirt von Almed ben Hasan Ibn el-Kunfud,l0 gest. im J. 571, welcher sein Buch dem Abu Jahja, einem Wezire des Mutawakkil, dedicirte, Catal. Codd. or. bibl. Bodl. Vol. in, pag. 282, worunter demnach nicht der Chalif von Bagdad verstanden werden kann, wohl aber el-Mutawakkil 'Omar Ibn el-Aftas, Sultan von Badajoz.11- Nach der hebraischen tbersetzung ware der Vorname des Verfassers nicht Abul-Hasan, sondern Abul-Husein;12 nach dem Vorkommen im Arabischen und Lateinischen ist aber Abul-Hasan das Richtige; Exemplare des Arabischen Originals sind in London Catal. Mus. Brit. No. 623 und Catalogue of the library of the Indian Office, by O. Loth, No. 735. Die tberreichung der Castilischen tYbersetzungan den Konig Alfons X. durch Jehuda ben Musa fand im J. 1256 statt und bald nachher erfolgte die tbertragung ins Lateinische durch Aegidius.

Symon de Phares,'3 Recueil des plus celebres astrologues et quelques hommes doctesfaict par ... du temps de Charles VIII,e publie d'apres le manuscrit unique de la Bibliotheque Nationale par le Dr Ernest Wickersheimer(Paris, 1929), p. 184:
Haly Abenragel, excellant docteur, subtil et parfond en la science de astrologie, fut environ ce temps, [i.e., A.D. 1125] lequel, comme appert en la somme qu'il a faicte de astrologie, estoit l'un des grans qui fust ou monde en son temps, au moins que l'on sceust, lequel a traicte sur toutes les parties de astrologie bien compendieusement et grandement et plus que nul devant luy aye este, quant a la partie judicative et recueillit en icelle somme l'oppinion de cinquante deux docteurs, tous grans et clers hommes, qui furent devant lui en Perse et en Mede et en Grece, en Arabie, es Indes, en Ytalye, en France et autre part, dont les noms d'aucuns s'ensuyvent. C'est assavoir Algar14. . . et plusieurs autres espars par sa dite somme, que je laisse pour cause de brevete. Cestui Haly Habenragel est le docteur plus complect qui plus amplement escripvit es jugemens particuliers de astrologie que tous ceulx qui ont este devant lui, comme dit est, et fut translate son livre par l'ordonnance de ce noble roy de Castille et d'Arragon, Alphonce, excellant astrologien, de langue arabicq en lengue hyspanique et depuis mis en latin par deux souverains clers et notables hommes de l'empereur. Fist autres plusieurs notables livres, tables et traictiez et, entre les autres, en fist ung "qui dictus est Liber secretorumstellarum," ouquel est contenue la division des faces, selon l'ordre des signes. Concerning these "other books" Suter, in the Nachtrdge, states: "In seinem Hauptwerk: :Liber completus in iudiciis astrorum zitiert Abenragel zwei eigene Schriften, welche nicht mehr vorhanden zu sein scheinen: 1) Liber signalium seu

notarum; 2) Tabulae solvendi nodos et exponendi adspectus, beide astrologischen


Inhalts (vergl. Steinschneider, Vite di matem. arab. di B. Baldi, con note, p. 78 des "Estratto" v.J. 1873).15 The first-named appears under the title Libro de las Sennas in the translation and Kitdb ar-rumuz in the Arabic manuscripts. The second-named one does not seem to appear in the Castilian translation of the first five parts of the original. In the division of the complete work into eight parts our author has a famous Hasan(b. 'All) lbn al-Qunfudh died 810/1407-08;Brockelmann, GAL,II, 241; Suter, al-QustantlnI,
op. cit., 170, No. 422; Encyclopediede l'Islam, ii, 378. 11Cf. A. R. Nykl, Hispano-Arabic Poetry and its Relations with the Old Provengal Troubadours (Baltimore, 1946), pp. 171 ff. 12 In Hebrew letters. 13Died about A.D. 1499. '4 List taken from De judiciis astrorum, evidently the Venice 1485 edition. '5 Cf. Note 3 supra. 10Full information on this subject is given in Les Manuscrits arabes de l'Escurial, p. 9: Almad b.

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predecessor in the person of Abfi Ma'sar, whom he frequently quotes and whose Kitdb al-madkhalal-kabir is also divided into eight parts. In this particular both of them were preceded by Iulius Firmicus Maternus, author of Matheseos Libri VIII, published by W. Kroll and F. Skutsch (Leipzig, 1897, 1913). To a non-specialist Abu Ma'gar's book would appear more learned and more scientifically written. The reason why Ibn abi-r-Rigal's book had a wider appeal and enjoyed more popularity is to be sought in its containing a wider range of specific situations on which an astrologer's advice would be sought by superstitious Europeans during the sixteenth century.
THE TRANSLATOR In his aforesaid work D. Jose A. Sanchez Perez writes under the title lehuda:

Existebastanteconfusion respectoal nombrecompletode este traductorde la escuelade Alfonsoel Sabio. Tanto Rico y Sinobasal editar "Los libros del saber de Astronomia"
como el R. P. Fray Felix Perez-Aguado en su estudio "Las Academias hebreas en Espara" (La Ciudad de Dios, tomos xxix, xxx y xxxI) presentan como distintos a dos personajesl6

lehuda el Coheneso, alfaqui del rey, y Iehuda fi de Mose fi de Mosca. Me inclino a pensar que fueran una sola persona llamada lehuda Abenmusa Abenmoscael Coheneso,la cual era alfaqui del rey. - Astrologia de Ali ben Ragel, traducida por lehuda ben Musa; revisadapor Egidio de Tebaldoy Pedro de Regio. Manuscrito J-II-7, folios 3 a 162. - Haly Abenragelde judiciis astrologiae,Alvaro interprete.Manuscrito J-II-17. En el folio 1 dice que "Iuda hijo de Musa lo tradujo del arabe en espafiol y Alvaro de espanol al latin." Como se ve, en ambos manuscritos, que se refieren a la Astrologia de Ali Benabirichal, se le denomina lehuda Abenmusa. Con este mismo nombre traduce del caldeo y del arabe varias obras astronomicas por encargo de Alfonso el Sabio.1' Con el nombre de lehuda Abenmoscaes el traductor del Lapidario de Alfonso X."

IehudaAbenmusa, IehudaAbenmosca, IehudaBarmosseh que los denominan: ha-Cohen,

Concerning the foregoing statement a few precisions are necessary. In the Lapidario, Ic, 2, the translator is called "Yhuda Mosca el menor," whereas the translator of Al-Bdri' is called "Yhuda fi de Mosse Alcohen, su alfaquin e su mercet"; in Cruzes A-5 we find "Hyuhda fy de Mosse al Choen Mosca, su alfaquim et su merced"; in the explicit: "Ihuda su alfaquim, e su mercet, fy de mosse alchoen"; in the Astronomia, I, 153; "Hyuda el Cohemso alhaquim"; in the Astronomia, III, p. x: "Juda fi de Mosse Alcohen su alphaqi et su mercet"; ibid., p. xiii: "su phisico." Since alphaqi, alfaquim= al-bakim, corresponds to phisico, it would seem that "et su mercet" should be corrected to metge (physician). On the whole, Yhuda had a good knowledge of Arabic, but not of the deeper
Muslim disciplines, such as Qur'an exegesis, jurisprudence and genealogy, and
16This may have been due to Phares,op. cit., 201: "Yhuda,filiusMusce,IIe de ce nom, fut en ce Ala courtdudit roy Alphonce temps [i.e., in 1267]souverain astrologien et, par son commandement, translatale livre de ce tres notabledocteurHali Abenragel, de languearabiqueen languematernelle Cestuifut moult appreciepour sa souffisance dudit illustreroy Alphonce." hispanique. 17 This statementwouldneed amplification on the basis of NicolAsAntonio,op. cit., ii, 82, n. 2; 83, 84, 85, 104.

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cared little about the correct vocalization of proper names. This is proved by his translating the nisba "as-Saibani," which designates an Arab tribe, by el cano, and reading Nunegent instead of Nawbakht, Atenohy or Atunehy instead of AnNawbakhti, Azarony instead of Al-Birufin, Abnefarfan instead of Ibn al-Farrukhdn, Nofil instead of Thd'ufil, Almaaz instead of Al-Mu'izz, and so forth. His translating sahm as-sa'dda by partefortuna indicates his finding difficulties in rendering technical terminology into Castilian. For that reason he occasionally uses the correct Latin form pars fortunae and even whole phrases, given him possibly by one of his colleagues. Steinschneider in Die hebriischen Cbersetzungen,p. 979, considers Jehuda b. Moses (Mosca el menor?) Kohen, "Arzt in Toledo," as the author of all the translations from Arabic into Castilian in Alfonso X's workshop, and quotes the statement "que era mucho entendudo en la arte de Astronomia e sabie e entendie bien el aravigo e el latin"; this latter statement appears to be exaggerated. Further study of the text will throw more light on this aspect of Yhuda's merits as a translator. Castro in his Espaia en su historia, p. 496, note 2: "No se si el don Yhuda Mosca, a quien en 1266 dan una casa en Jerez "por mandado del rey" es Yehuda el Coheneso o su padre (ver Baer, Die Juden im chrisilichen Spanien, I, 58-59)." The preamble of Yhuda's translation is an excellent example of his perfect knowledge of the art of flattery. He knew that the king had a passion for books on astronomy and astrology, hence brought him the Libro conplido, recommended it highly and was forthwith commissioned to translate it. El noble rey don Alfonso... qui sempredesque fue en este mundoamo e allegoa ssi las scienciase los sabidoresen ellas, e alumbroe cumpliola grant menguaque era en los ladinos por defallimientode los libros de los buenos philosophose priuados;porque Yhuda, fi de Mosse Alcohen,su alphaquine su mercet, fallandotan noble libro, e tan como es el que acabado,e tan conplidoen todas las cosas que pertenecenen astronomia, fizo Aly, fi de Aben Ragel, por mandadodel antedichonuestrosennor,a qui Dios de uida, traslatolo de lenguaarauigaen castellana. Yhuda's method seems to have been dictating from the Arabic to a scribe and possibly revising the translation somewhat before it was finally copied in its definitive form. The pioneer translator could not hope to render all the nuances of the highly cultivated literary Arabic in the rustic spoken Castilian, and frequently had to have recourse to picturesque neologisms, approximations and explanatory redundant phrases. At present there are two desiderata: a critical Arabic text of AlBdri' on the basis of the best available manuscripts, and then its translation into modern Castilian, before Yhuda's effort can be fully appraised and evaluated. In its present form it must be looked upon as a specimen of the aljamiado literature written in Latin characters. Yhuda abbreviates and changes conveniently when he is at a loss to find a fitting word. He does not want to lessen his reputation by appearing to be stumped. At times he adds explanatory phrases when he feels that they are needed for the better understanding of the context. The complete study of this

92

Libro Conplido En Los Juizios De Las Estrellas

aspect of his work would require several years of patient labor on the basis of a critical edition of the Arabic text. From what Yhuda says in the passage quoted above no indication can be gathered as to where or how he found the book and what made him to think so highly of it, but there is no doubt that the king had an implicit faith in Yhuda's judgment, and entrusted him with the task of rendering it into the vernacular, fully confiding in his physician's ability to accomplish the difficult assignment satisfactorily. It is doubtful that either Alfonso or his astronomical experts could fully understand the exact meaning of Yhuda's often strangely twisted phrases. The translators into Latin acquitted themselves of their task in a surprisingly less confused manner than one could expect. As an example let us quote the beginning of the passage on Jupiter (al-muStari): Ivpiter es planeta de la egualdad, e de la comunaleza, e del bien, a del ameioramientol, e del entendimiento, e del seso e piedat que es temprado e egual; e fortuna por catamiento e por corporal ayuntamiento. Significa el bien, e la meioranca, e la ley, e la simplicidat, e la castidat. Endereca e non danna, puebla e non yerma. Aborrece Saturno e sus naturas, tornal e uiedal de sus malos fechos. Es de fermoso parecer e de apuesta persona, obediente, manso, fiel, leal, piadoso. Manda el bien e muestra lo; e uieda el mal e aborrece lo. Ayuda a los pobres e gouierna a los que lo an menester; e uerdadero en sos fechos e en sus dichos, de buen solaz e de buen amor, e de buena amiztat e uerdadera. The Arabic text reads: Kawkabu l-'adli w'al-khairi w'a$-$alahi w'al-'aqli w'al-fahmi w'al-'ilmi li-annahu mu'tadilun muqta$idun sa'dun bi n-nazari w'al-mugama'ati, dalilun 'ala 1-khairi w'a$w'an-nuski w'al-wara'i w'al-'ibadati; yu$lihu wa la yufsidu, ya'muru wa la yakal&ahi hrabu; yunkiru 'ala zuhalin tabi'atahu wa yarudduhu 'an Zulmihiwa istitatihi wa gawrihi; gamilu l-manzari, lasanu l-hai'ati, ah.ibu huda wa baha wa sakinati wa waqari wa ra'fati wa ralmati; ya'muru bi l-ma'rffi yanha 'an il-munkari wa yarfa'u ahla s-san'ati wa yasuddu faqata dhawi l-iftiqari w'al-faqati; ?adiqu l-lahgati karimu 1-mu'asarati w'almawadda. (Umumi 19). Compare the following English translation with Yhuda's Old Castilian: Star of justice and goodness and righteousness and reason and understanding and forbearance and knowledge, because he is balanced and moderate, of good omen in look and cohabitation (?), indicator of good, righteousness, ascetic behavior, continence and worship; improves and does not corrupt, builds and does not destroy; disapproves the nature of Saturn and restrains him from his tyranny, wrong-doing and injustice; is of beautiful appearance, handsome form, possessor of good guidance and beauty, gentleness, and godliness; commands the right and forbids evil, exalts working people and provides for the poor and the needy; is truthful in his words, noble in his social relations and love. The beginning of the passage on Saturn (zu.al): Saturno es la planeta uieio grant, cansado; planeta de despreciamiento, e de cuydados, e de tristezas, e de enfermedades luengas. Su natura es fria e seca. Semeia a melanconia ques gouierna de todas las umores; e ninguna de las vmores non se gouierna della. Es seco e enuidioso, tiene luenga sanna. De poca fabla, non quiere conpanna, quiere estar sennero e apartado. A profundos asmamientos e sotil memoria. Piensa e cata en las cosas antiguas. Non a entendimiento ligero; es mintroso e traidor.

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The Arabic text reads:

93

Al-kawkabu as-Saikhu 1-kabiru 1-haramu, kawkabu 1-mahanati w'al-humimi w'alghumimi w'al-amradi 1-mutatawalati. Tabi'atuhu barida yabisa tasbahu 1-mirrat assawda' allati tamudduha t-taba'i'u kulluha wa la tamuddu hiya say'an minha. Wa huwa gafin'8 basfd tiaqfd, nazru l-kalami; yuhibbu l-waldata w'al-khalwata, ghawamida 1-fikari;'amiqu n-nazari daqiqu 1-fitnati; ahibu rawiyati wa nazari fi 1-umfiri1-qadimati; laisa lahu badihatun; kadhdhab, ghaddar. (Umumi 18). Star [resembling] a very old, decrepit old man; star of contempt, anxieties and worries and prolonged illnesses. His nature is cold, dry; it resembles melancholy [saiidade] which is strengthened by all humors, yet does not strengthen any of them at all. It is tyrannical, envious, hateful, sparing of words; loves to be alone in solitude, and abstruse thoughts; has a deep insight and subtle intelligence. Can relate and discourse on things of old; has no spontaneity [intuition]; is a great liar and traitor. The Latin translation of these two passages in the Venice 1485 printed edition clearly shows that it has been made on the basis of the Castilian: Iuppiter est planeta equalitatis: communitatis: melioramenti: intellectus: sensus et pietatis: quia temperatus est et equalis: et fortuna per aspectum et corporalem coniunctionem: significat bonitatem: meliorationem: legem: simplicitatem et castitatem: dirigit et non dannat: populat et non destruit. Abhorret Saturnum et eius naturas: prohibet et retrahit eum a suis malis operibus. Est formose apparentie et composite persone: mansuetus: fidelis: legalis et pietosus: precipit et ostendit bonitatem: prohibet et abhorret malum: adiuuat pauperes: gubernat quibus expediens est: veridicus in dictis et factis suis: boni solatii et amoris: bone ac vere amicicie et sine fraude: Saturnus est planeta senex magnus fessus: vilipensionis: anxietatum tristitiarum et longarum infirmitatum: natura eius frigida et sicca: assimilatur melancolie que gubernatur de omnibus honoribus [corrected on the margin: humoribus] et nullus de ea: siccus est et inuidus: longam tenet iram: pauca loquitur: non vult societatem: stare vult solus et separatus: profundas habet opiniones: memorie subtilis: cogitat et inspicit in rebus antiquis: non habet agilem intellectum: timorosus est et proditor. In the last line timorosus is a mistranslation of the Castilian mintroso. In the Notes to the Castilian text I have pointed out a number of passages illustrating what has been said above concerning Yhuda's method of meeting the great difficulties he was constantly encountering and which he certainly did not anticipate when he glibly promised to make the translation in accordance with the Arabic saying al-gahil gasir (the ignorant is daring). Wuestenfeld, op. cit., xviii, mentions the Basel 1551 edition (cf. Note 2) and adds on p. 91: ". ... deutet schon dieser Titel darauf bin, dass nicht etwa der arabische Text dabei verglichen, sondern nur der lateinische Ausdruck verbessert ist, um die vielen von den t)bersetzern gebrauchten spanischen, franzosischen und italienischen Worter und Wendungen zu beseitigen." This statement is based on a misapprehension, traceable to Stupa's prefatory remarks, as can be seen from the following examples of Stupa's text: Ivpiter est planeta aequalitatis, communitatis, commendationis, intellectus, sensus & pietatis: quia temperatus est & aequalis, & fortuna per aspectum & corporalem coniunctionem, significat bonitatem, correctionem, legem, simplicitatem & castitatem: dirigit et
18 Confusion betweenthe verbs

gafd (to tyrannize),and gaffa (to dry).

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Libro Conplido En Los Juizios De Las Estrellas

non damnat, populat & non destruit. Abhorret Saturnum & eius naturas, prohibet & retrahit eum a suis malis operibus. Est formosae apparentiae & compositae personae, mansuetus, fidelis, legalis, pius. Praecipit et ostendit bonitatem & abhorret malum, adiuuat pauperes, gubernat quibus commodus est, ueridicus in dictis & factis suis, boni solatij & amoris, bonae ac uerae amicitiae & sine fraude. Saturnus est planeta senex, magnus, fessus, paruae aestimationis, anxietatum, tristitiarum, et longarum infirmitatum. Natura eius frigida et sicca, assimilatur melancholie, que generatur de omnibus humoribus, et nullus de ea. Siccus est, inuidus, longam seruat iram, pauca loquitur, non cupit societatem, stare uult solus et separatus, profundas habet opiniones, memorie subtilis, cogitat et inspicit res antiquas: non habet agilem intellectum, timet multum et est proditor. Stupa did improve the Latin somewhat, but some of his improvements disfigured the meaning, for example: "generatur" instead of gubernatur; pius instead of pietosus (piadoso= misericors). The Arabic mugdma'atun may mean corporal ayuntamiento (coitus, commerce charnel), but also "combining with someone and aiding him to do a certain thing," hence "combining, coming together, getting together." Of special interest is the rendering of the Arabic karlmu l-mu'daarati w'almawadda by de buen amor e de buena amiztat e uerdadera (cf. Juan Ruiz and Breviari d'amor: "amors veraye"). It is very unfortunate that only five parts of the whole work have come down to us in Castilian. From the contents of the nmissing three parts we can judge that we could have learned a good deal about the contemporary habits and rules of hygiene.19 This deficiency can be remedied by the study of the Latin translation and its comparison with the Arabic text.
19Part vII has 103 chapters dealing with variegated subjects: 2. When to begin work. 5. About entering the bath (.ammdm). 6. Haircutting. 7. Blood-letting and leech-applying. 8. Cutting of nails (manicure). 10. Accumulating and obtaining of wealth, and wiping out debts. 11. Buying and selling. 12. Selling of farm produce. 13. Loans. 14. Borrowing. 15. Moving from one dwelling to another. 16. The art of chemistry. 18. When to begin teaching jurisprudence (fiqh) and matters of religion (din). 20. Founding of cities and dwellings. 21. Bringing forth waters, rivers and digging canals. 22. Purchase of landed property. 23. Cultivating landed property. 24. Exploiting water mills (sessicas molinarum). 25. Planting trees and crops. 26. Leasing of land. 27. Renting of masqaf and surety on produce. 28. Driving the devil (saitdn, duende) from the house. 30. Getting a child. 31. Nursing. 32. Weaning. 34. Circumcision. 35. Presents. 36. Sending of messengers. 37. Letter writers. 38. Meals. 39. Drinks. 40. Getting a physician. 41. Preparing the bath. 42. Extracting the dead baby from mother's womb. 44. Treatment of the sick. 45. Abdominal pain. 46. Treatment of eyes. 47. Taking laxatives. 48. Taking astringents. 49. Snuffing medicine, vomiting, gargling. 50. Buying of slaves. 51. Freeing of slaves and prisoners, and keeping horses. 52. Buying of beasts of burden and cattle. 54. About marriage. 55. Election concerning war. 56. Purchasing war material (weapons). 57. About fighting and peace. 58. Destruction of fortresses. 59. Producing war material for fighting the enemy. 60. Partnership and (business) matters between two persons. 61. Pursuing a fugitive slave. 62. Confession of a thief and of a spy. 63. Hunting in mountains and plains (deserts) and in sea. 64. Playing dice, chess and the like. 65. Sexual desire. 67. About last will. 68. Concerning inheritance. 70. Choosing the time for travel. 71. Pleasure trip. 72. Elections for him who wants to return from his trip quickly and safely. 73. Secret trip. 74. Travel on water. 75. Purchase of a vessel, entering it, and sailing it. 76. Launching the ship. 77. Teaching of science and literature ('ilm wa adab). 78. Teaching of singing and other forms of entertainment. 79. Starting on a journey. 81. Contracts of governors. 82. Contracts for collecting taxes, country property, mayordomos. 83. Contract of judgeship. 84. Election concerning contracting of viziers, secretaries, office clerks. 85. Election of governors or substitutes. 86. Con-

Libro Conplido En Los Juizios De Las Estrellas


ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS In 1864 Moritz Steinschneider

95

wrote in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen-

ldndischenGesellschaft(xvIIm, 155): Wennich erst on dieserStelle von Ali Ibn (Abi'r)Ragal oder Rigal

(dJ(.1) spreche,

so geschieht es nur aus dem ausserlichen Grunde, dass ich erst durch Christmann auf diese Quelle gefiihrt worden, und dass ich die chronologische Reihenfolge nicht fur so wesentlich hielt, um ihrentwillen alle Verweisungen an verschiedenen Stellen der Abhandlung nochmals zu revidiren.... Als ein Mann aus dem Magreb20wird er von Abr. Zakut... genannt. Das Werk, welches uns hier interessirt, ist: "Albohazen Haly filii Aben-Ragel liber de judiciis astrorum" in 8 Bichern, auf Befehl Alfons des X, zuniichst von Jehuda b. Moses ins Spanische und von Andern ins Lateinische ibersetzt, und zwar benutzte ich die Ausgabe Basel 1551. Diese tbersetzung ist nicht ohne Zusiitze geblieben, denn die Stelle "AbrahamJudaeus dixit etc." (1.VIII c. 33 zu Ende, p. 400) ist offenbar den astrologischen Schriften des Ibn Esra entnommen. Das Original ist ohne Zweifel das bei I.CH.21 II, 4, , J man n. 1063 genannte r.'lkl l, dessen Anfang >L\d g,sJl , hier im "Prooemium Interpretum" suchen muss, niimlich in den Worten: "Dixit autem Haly.... Gratias uni Deo victorioso." Die Hs. des Tippo (p. 104, n. xiv), welche nur

scheint .^JIj 41 Kapp. enthaltensoil, ist wohl nur ein Fragment?Verschieden

tl.I

22

bei Casiri I, 362, n. 918 in 4 Biichern. Sollte Jemand eine arab. Hs. unseres Werkes kennen, so wUrde er mich durch Angabe derselben sehr verpflichten. By the last sentence Steinschneider evidently meant "a complete manuscript." He does not say where he obtained the information concerning the "Hs. des Tippo" which is taken from Charles Stewart, A Descriptive Catalogue of the

Oriental Library of the late Tippoo Sultan of Mysore23 (Cambridge, England,


1809), p. 104:' 'Large Quarto, Niskh Character. The most excellent Rules of Astronomy; being a very diffuse work on Astrology, Geometry, and Geomancy, in Forty-one chapters. Author, Aly Ibn al Rijal." Jean R. Watson, Assistant cerningone who wishesto travel with the king. 87. Entry of Sultans in the assemblyof ministers. to be a Sultan.90. Teaching 88. How a personshouldhand in a petitionto the Sultan.89. Preparing of crafts.91. Teachingthe handlingof arms.92. Teachinghow to swim.94. Thingsthat earnpraise and and askingfavors.96. Aboutfriendship and commendation for one. 95. Choosing appointments love. 98. Horse racing. 100. What the hours are indicating.102. Times in which the obtainingof wishesis to be hopedfor. 103. How to know when a thing will happen. 20 me-ma'reb in Hebrewletters. 21 On editionof Fligel (Leipzig,1835-1858),cf. EncycloHadjdjiKhalifaand his Kashfaz-zunun, 'an asdmil-kutub w'al-funiin p6diedel'Islam,ii, 216-218.The full title of the workis Kashfaz-zunuin the titles of books and names of disciplines).The second volume (Removingof doubts concerning is translatedby containsthe letters bd-gim and was publishedin 1837. Al-bdri' fi akcdman-nugum de astrologia Fluegel:liberexcellens judiciaria.The nameof the authoris given thus: as-saikh'All b. and respected"; al-katib.The book is describedas "a largebook, celebrated as-SaibanI, abi-r-Rigal asrdrihd then followsthe incipitin the third person:gama'a fihi ma'dni'ilm in-nuzgmwa ghard'iba min kutubi'ulamd'ihd wa addfailaihi mdintakhabahu f.; Yhuda's filratuhu (should read:antagathu etc. Then he mentions 'alaihi tagribatuhu, translation: wa athbata (shouldread:athbatat) annasque) whichhe named of it (lakhkhaqahu) that Ag-ihabAbmadb. Timurbaga madea briefcondensation This book is mentionedalso on p. 43. as-sdti'(flaminglightning,fulmendiffusum). Al-barq 2 Corrected in ZDMG,xxv (1871), 427: al-mawdlZd. 23 OnTipU Sultan,cf. Hastings,Encyclopedia andEthics,Ix, 69; Tippooin Encyclopedia of Religion
Britannica, xvI, 44, under "Mysore;" Encyclopedie de l'Islam, iv, 824.

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Libro Conplido En Los Juizios De Las Estrellas

Keeper of the Indian Office Library writes me: "The explanation of the mistake in Stewart's catalogue is fairly obvious. He or one of his munshis looked at the end of the list of contents and saw that it ended with a Chapter 41." When in 1877 Otto Loth published A Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts of the India Office,he put in square brackets at the end [Tippu], but it is not certain that Steinschneider was aware of the fact that this manuscript and Stewart 104 were identical, when he later published a few extracts from it. What seems to have aroused his doubts as to the Escorial manuscript being a different work was Casiri's statement "tetrabiblus": "Codex literis Cuphicis24 exaratus, isque mutilus, que continetur Tractatus amplior de Astrologia Genethliaca tetrabiblus, inscriptus Liber ceterisartepraestans\ \j ~ uJ1. 1. auctore Abilhassano Ben Abi Alragelo (tJl . ~\3t.t i) :r! Hispalensi, Astrologorum aetatis suae principe: quod opus, ut Sectae Mahometanae dissonum, & Regibus maxime injurium, ex Regis Marochani Zaidani, atque Antistitum decretis proscriptum est Marochi die 3. Gemadi posteriori anno Egirae 905. Christi
1499."25

Steinschneider's appeal does not seem to have reached the British Museum, where in the Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium qui in Museo Britannico asservantur.Pars secunda, codices arabicos amplectens (London, 1846) a complete manuscript of Al-Bdri' is described under No. MCCCXLVII: "Codex chartaceus in 4 to., pp. 373: exaratus A.H. 1172, A.D. 1758. Abu-l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Abi-l-Rijal el Shaibani. Opus magnum de Astrologia, octo partibus \^. com"Liber excellens de judiciis astrorum prehensum. Tit. c9MJL. ~'\~0\ ~ t et horoscopis." The above information was available to Steinschneider since 1877, thirteen years after his appeal in the ZDMG, xvIII.26 Shall we assume that already then his interest in this work was on the wane? In 1898 Brockelmann lists in GAL, I, 224, four manuscripts: Brit. Mus. 1347, India Office 735, Paris 2590, Stewart 104, unaware of the identity of India Office and Stewart.27 Two years later, Heinrich Suter in Die Mathematiker und Astronomen, etc., under the title El-bari' fi aaikdmel-nugum ("das vollkommenste Buch iiber die Urteile aus den Gestirnen") lists Brit. Mus. 1357, India Office 735, Escurial 918, Paris 2590, and two additional ones: Berlin 5892, Algier 1516. Nallino, op. cit., ii, xi, refers to the Paris manuscript with the remark: "Adeo negligenter exaratus est hoc caput in codice Arabico Parisiensi, ut nullam ex eo utilitatem capiendam existimaverim," quotes Suter's monograph, but makes no reference to Brockelmann. For the first five parts, however, this manuscript could not be declared as being entirely useless.
24 Not the Cuphic, but Maghrebi handwriting is meant. 2 The correct date is 995 H. 26 Wuestenfeld's book was also published in 1877. 27 In the second edition (Leiden 1943), p. 256, four other manuscripts are added: IJamid. 826/7, Zawiyat SIdi Hamza (Besppris, xvIII, 88), Alex. Uisab 43, Rampir I, 682.

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Suter in his article on Ibn Abi-l-Ridjal in the Encyclopedia of Islam (English ed., ii [1916], 356, and French edition [1927], II, 378) makes the vague statement: "I1 existe encore en arabe dans differentes bibliotheques (Berlin, Paris, Brit. Mus., Ind. Office, Escurial, etc.)," likewise without any reference to Brockelmann, but in the bibliography mentions his own monograph containing more precise information, as stated above. Sarton in his Introduction to the History of Science (Washington, 1927), I, 715716, gives the reference to GAL, I, 224. Espasa, I, 372, under Aben Ragel (Ali) says without giving any references: "Astrologo arabe del siglo XI, autor de un libro de hor6scopos, que fue traducido al latin con el titulo De judiciis seu fatis stellarum. Tambien escribi6 De revolutionibus nativitatum. En la biblioteca del Escorial existen varios manuscritos de este sabio arabe." It seems that this information is based on Nicolas Antonio, op. cit., i, 390: "eoque libro vixit, quo posteris Apotelesmaticam sive iudiciariam astronomiam amantibus prodesse voluit. Is dicitur De iudiciis seu fatis stellarum Venetiis editus ab Erhardo Radelz anno 1485. Basileae apud IHenricumPetri. Interpretatus quisnam fuerit ex Arabico, nondum legi. Hispane etiam conversum fuisse ab anonymo, etc." It would seem that Steinschneider (1816-1907),28 who was eighty-two when the first volume of Brockelmann's GAL was published in 1898, had lost interest in examining the four (really three) manuscripts listed therein, in addition to the Escorial fragment. He may have become aware of the magnitude of the undertaking. Without trying to diminish his unsurpassed merits as a bibliographer, it is clear that his chief strength was in the Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, not in Arabic.29 In the Supplement to the GAL, I, 401 (Leiden, 1937) Brockelmann lists the Escorial manuscript Casiri, I, 362, No. 918, known already to Steinschneider; Rabat 465 (Bibliogheque de l'icole Superieure de langue arabe);30Alger 1516 (Grande Mosquee d'Alger, catalogue of M. ben Cheneb);31Berlin 5892, Heidelberg ZS VI 214; Caetani 64, 222; Fstih 3417, Damaid Ibr. 843; Kopriilii 922; 'Umumi 4654, NO 2766, 2779, Welieddin 2253-60; extracts: Fatih 3416, Besir Aga 434, Qara Mustafa P. 382,32 and states that Ibn abi-r-Rigal used k. alBzzdag, "d.i. die persische Ubersetzung von Vettius Valens' Anthologie." Thanks to the good offices of friends and colleagues it was possible to assemble
28 For his 29 This is

cf. TheJewishEncyclopedia, xi, 486. very interesting biography in hisDie arabischen aus demGriechvocalizations provedby hisincorrect Obersetzungen

ischen (Centralblattfiur Bibliothekwesen,Beiheft xni [Leipzig, 1893]). For example, p. 79: "Sirr al Israr, Secretum Secretorum, die Pseudopolitik (Sijdsa) ist ein Werk, worin einige Spuren des Neoplatonismus durch eine starke Dosis Aberglauben fast verloscht sind." Correct vocalization, especially of proper names, is extremely difficult, even for the Arabs, as evidenced by Casiri, Joao de Sousa, and others. 30 To be corrected: Bibliotheque Generale du Protectorat, Institut des Hautes-itudes Marocaines. s' To be corrected: Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger. 2 For details concerning the Istanbul manuscripts cf. Max Krause, "Stambuler Handschriften islamischer Mathematiker," in Quellen und Studien zur Geschichteder Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik, Band II, Heft 4, pp. 437-532 (Berlin, 1936).

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the most important data on all the above-mentioned manuscripts.33 Five of them could be examined on the basis of photostats: British Museum, India Office, Paris, Umumi, Escorial. Likewise the Leiden manuscript of Abfi Ma'sar's Kitab al-madkhal al-kabir. Karl Dyroff's work on the part of this manuscript, shows, as was already said, that the task of propublished in F. Boll's Sphaera34 ducing a critical text of Al-Biri' on the basis of the five manuscripts mentioned, and possibly also Berlin, Caetani, and Alger, would by no means be an easy task and would require a patient labor of several years, even if one were to limit one's self to the first five parts, corresponding to the Castilian version. The remaining three parts of the Arabic text would have to lean on the Latin translation, comparing the available manuscripts with the edition printed in Venice (A.D. 1485) and that of Basel (A.D. 1551) in a "latinized" form. Three of the Arabic manuscripts examined by me begin with a Table of Contents of the first five parts: India Office, Umumi, Paris. They seem to go back to the same original, especially the two first-named ones, but the Table of Contents is not as detailed as that which appeared in the original used by Yhuda b. Mosse. The most authentic of the three seems to be the Umumi, which is also the oldest, as regards the first four parts. The description of the Berlin manuscript in Ahlwardt's catalogue would point to a greater completeness. The British Museum manuscript begins very promisingly, but after fol. 30 shows a great carelessness of the clumsy copyist who was wielding a rather heavy
S. Fulton, Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and manuscripts at the British Museum; Jean R. Watson, Assistant Keeper, India Office Library; Professor Louis Giacomo of the Institut des HautesEtudes Marocaines, Rabat; Professor Francesco Gabrieli, Rome; Madame M.-R. Guignard, Bibliothecaire du Cabinet oriental, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris; Professor Philippe W. Margais, Universite d'Alger, Professor Dr Hellmut Ritter, Editor of Oriens; Miss Johanne Vindenas, Librarian of the Oriental Institute, the University of Chicago. 34Neue griechische Texte und Untersucht,ngenzur Geschichteder Sternbilder, mit einem Beitrag von Karl Dyroff (Leipzig, 1903), pp. 482-539. For further pertinent information and bibliography the following works could be consulted: A. Bouche-Leclercq, L'Astrologie grecque(Paris, 1899); Cataloguscodicum astrologorumgraecorum,in eleven volumes (Brussels, 1898-1934); Ioannis Hasfvrti Medici ac Astrologi praestantissimi De cognoscendis et medendismorbis ex corporumcoelestiumpositione libri IIII (Venice, 1584); Lvcii Bellantii Senensis mathematici ac physici De astrologica veritate liber quaestionum, Astrologiae defensio contra loannem Picvm Mirandvlanvm; Gabrielis Pirovani philosophi De Astronomiae veritate dialogvs absolvtissimvs(Basel, 1554); William Lilly, An Introduction to Astrology (London, 1852), first published in 1647; Jos. Blagrave, Introduction to Astrology in three parts (London, 1682); William Lilly, An Easie and Plain Method Teaching how to Judge upon Nativities (London, 1658); Dariotus Redivivus, or a briefeIntroductionconducingto the Judgementof the Stars (London, 1653); Charles Burman, The Lives of thoseEminent Antiquaries Elias Ashmole, Esq. and Mr. William Lilly, writtenby themselves(London, 1774); Ebenezer Sibly, The OccultSciences: A CompleteIllustration of the Celestial Science of Astrology, in four parts (London, 1778-1788). Sibly seems to lean on Lilly, and the latter, who was a good Latin scholar, appears to follow the Liber completus. Good bibliographical information can be found in an unpublished Harvard Ph.D. thesis (1932) by George O. S. Darby, An Astrological Manuscript of Alfonso X, dealing with Picatrix. Against astrology: William Rowland, Judiciall Astrologie Judicially Condemned(London, 1652). On its influence in literature: Benedetto Soldati, La poesia astrologicanel (Florence, 1906); R. P. Iacques de Billy, S.J., Le Tombeavde l'Astrologieivdiciaire (Paris, quattrocento 1657), mentions Aben Ragel on pp. 123, 129, speaks of Hylech, Alcochoden, Atazir, Almuten, Annimodar, Algebutgthar, Albumazar, Alphonsus Rex Castellae.
33 A.

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reed pen (qalam). Thereafter, at least four different hands are discernible, as if the manuscript had suffered damage and had to be patched up. In the Umumi manuscript a similar patching up appears between fol. 92b and 98a. In the Paris manuscript a different hand begins on fol. 158b. The preceding folios show damage along the margins, as stated in the Cataloguedes manuscritsarabesof McGuckin de Slane (Paris, 1883-1895): "Les feuillets du ms. ont souffert par l'humidite." The India Office (i.e., Stewart 104) is written by the same copyist throughout in an even naskhi hand. It is blurred in many places making a large number of lines nearly illegible. The copyist was not an Arab but a Hindu Muslim who knew Persian, and was weak in literary Arabic. His master may have given him the permission to abbreviate or leave out such parts of the manuscript which were not of special interest in the Mysore milieu. Thus, for example, chapters XXXVII-XL in the second part are left out entirely; lacunae, abbreviations, and discrepancies are numerous. The Escorial fragment is well described in Les Manuscrits arabes de l'Escurial, decritsd'apres les notes de Hartwig Derenbourg,revueset completeespar Dr. H. P. J. Renaud, tome ii, fasc. 3: Sciences exactes et sciences occultes (Paris, 1941), under the new No. 923, p. 30. The description does not mention the fact that in 778 H. the work was given to the Gdmi' aS-Surafa' in Marrakes by the builder of the mosque amir almu'minin 'Abdallah b. Muhammad as-sarif al-Hasani as a perpetual waqf never to be taken out of the khizdna (treasury). But in the beginning of the month Gumada II, 995 H. it was looked over by the amir al-mu'minTnAba l-'Abbas Ahmad al-Manuiir, who found it filled with astrology, hence contrary to the Islamic law. Therefore he declared the waqf null and void and had the book removed from the treasury. Dates of the principal Arabic manuscripts: 1. Umumi 4654 (parts 1-4), note of ownership 868 H. 2. Welieddin 2253 (parts 5-8), 654 H. 3. Escorial 918 (923), 995 H. 4. Paris 2590: XVIIth century A.D. 5. India Office 735 (Stewart 104), 1122 H. 6. British Museum 1347: - 1172 H./1758 A.D. 7. Alger 1516: two different hands, 1174 and 1197 H. 8. Caetani 222: 1220 H. 9. Berlin 5892: circa 1250 H./1834 A.D. Further details are obtainable in the catalogues mentioned. After fi a.kdm an-nuigm the British Museum and the Berlin manuscripts add: w'at-tawali' which may be an imitation of Al-Qummi's work (357/964), cf. GAL, I, 223.
MADISON, WISCONSIN