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ECEN-326 Electronic Circuits

CH1 Why Microelectronics? CH2-CH8 Covered in ECEN325 CH10 Differential Amplifiers CH9 Cascode Stages and Current Mirrors CH16 CMOS Amplifiers CH11 Frequency Response CH12 Feedback & Stability CH13 Output Stages

Chapter 1

Why Microelectronics?

1.1 Electronics versus Microelectronics

1.2 Example of Electronic System: Cellular Telephone


1.3 Analog versus Digital

Cellular Technology

An important example of microelectronics. Microelectronics exist in black boxes that process the received and transmitted voice signals.
ECEN-325 Spring 2013 S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook) 3

Frequency Up-conversion

Voice is up-converted by multiplying two sinusoids. When multiplying two sinusoids in time domain, their spectra are convolved in frequency domain.
ECEN-325 Spring 2013 S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook) 4

Digital Signal Processing


Noise immunity, robustness. Unlimited precision or accuracy. Flexibility, programmability, and scalability. Electronic design automation (EDA) tools widely available and successful. Benefiting from Moores law The number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months, IEDM, 1975. Cost/function drops 29% every year. Thats 30X in 10 years.
ECEN-325 Spring 2013 S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook) 5

Analog Signal Processing


Sensitive to noise SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). Subject to device nonlinearities THD (total harmonic distortion). Sensitive to device mismatch and process variations.

Difficult to design, simulate, layout, test, and debug.


Inevitable, often limits the overall system performance. Scaling scenario: Enjoyed scaling until ~0.35-m technology node. High-speed, low-resolution ADCs keep benefiting. High SNR design difficult to scale with low supplies ( 3.3V).

ECEN-325

Spring 2013

S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook)

Communication Receiver

1
RF Filter

RF
AntiAliasing Filter

A/D SCF, GmC OP-RC A/D


AntiAliasing Filter

DSP
BB

DR

2
RF Filter

RF

DSP
IF or BB

Dig. Filter
DR

3
RF Filter

G LNA

A/D Dig. Mod. Dig. Filter

DSP
RF

ECEN-325

Spring 2013

S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook)

Mixed-Signal Hearing Aid

A/D AGC Decimation Filter

DSP

D/A

H-Bridge Driver

Ref: D. G. Gata, A 1.1-V 270-A mixed-signal hearing aid chip, JSSC, pp. 1670-8, Dec. 2002.

ECEN-325

Spring 2013

S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook)

Transmitter

Two frequencies are multiplied and radiated by an antenna in (a). A power amplifier is added in (b) to boost the signal.

ECEN-325

Spring 2013

S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook)

Receiver

High frequency is translated to DC by multiplying by fC. A low-noise amplifier is needed for signal boosting without excessive noise.
ECEN-325 Spring 2013 S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook) 10

Digital or Analog?

X1(t) is operating at 100Mb/s and X2(t) is operating at 1Gb/s. A digital signal operating at very high frequency is very analog.

ECEN-325

Spring 2013

S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook)

11

Why CMOS?

TI Bluetooth SoC 2005 ~ 7 mm Just 20% of SoC is RF/analog. Rest is digital logic and memory.

Desired features: Low cost Low power High integration Single chip radio
ECEN-325 Spring 2013 S. Hoyos (From Razavi's textbook) 12