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Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future CIGRE TUTORIAL SMARTGRIDS TECHNOLGIES FOR

R SUPERGRIDS AND MICROGRIDS

DESIGN OF MICROGRID TOPOLOGIES UNDER THE PURVIEW OF THE SMART GRID PHILOSOPHY
by Sid Suryanarayanan
Colorado State University Sid@ColoState.Edu

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

OUTLINE
Smart Grid Ini<a<ve (SGI) in the US Smart Grid ac<vi<es in the EU Characteris<cs of a smart distribu<on system Design of evolving distribu<on systems
The microgrid or islanded distributed resource Case for evolu<onary algorithmic approaches in design A sequen<al feeder approach A mul<-objec<ve gene<c algorithm (MOGA) solu<on

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Smart Grid Ini<a<ve (SGI) in the US


Title XIII of Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 US policy for modernization of electricity T&D infrastructure US DOE characterizes a Smart grid as:
Self-healing from power disturbance events Enabling active participation by consumers in demand response Operating resiliently against physical and cyber attack Providing power quality for 21st century needs Accommodating all generation and storage options Enabling new products, services, and markets Optimizing assets and operating eciently

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

hKp://www.oe.energy.gov/DocumentsandMedia/smartgrid_diagram.pdf

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

The path toward the Smart Grid: thus far

Source: www.sgiclearinghouse.org

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Smart Grid in the EU


European Strategic Energy Technology Plan
Includes 8 European Industrial Ini<a<ves on Energy European Electricity Grid Ini<a<ve (EEGI) with ~2B over 10 years

Third Energy Package established in 2007 envisions the Smart Grid in Europe Integra<on of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Genera<on (IRED) Framework Program 6 (FP6) supports over 60 smart grid projects with ~190M FP7 supports more energy related project un<l 2013
Es<mated budget is 7% of the total (51B)

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Characteris<cs of a smart distribu<on system To determine char. of smart d-systems, a survey for industry was created in 2009
2 4 5

6 7 1

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future
Op>mizing distributed assets

Results of the smart distribu<on survey

Use of real-<me pricing, AMI, two-way communica<ng devices, and networked connec<ons between feeders. New markets with plug-and-play methodologies, supply of ancillary services, and smart-grid tailored devices

Incorpora>ng distributed energy resources (DER)

All distribu<on voltage levels enabled with two-way communica<ons Usage will be scheduled in advance and in real-<me by the u<lity 10-19% of total genera<on and < 50% of DER will be met via renewables, which will be supported by baKery storage and fast-star<ng dispatchable genera<on sources Peak-shaving at the 120 V class, such as residen<al load control, will engage within approximately feen minutes

Sensing

Digital sensors with incorporated intelligence to monitor the direc<ons and amounts of power ow and the loca<ons and usage paKerns of DER Sensors at the 15 kV class and communicate updates at least once per minute Smart meter acts as a communica<ons link and a local control system

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

What is a microgrid?
An autonomous self- sustainable subset of an area electric power system that can operate independent of the grid or in connec<on with the grid Applica<ons in civilian and military milieus Microgrids may help achieve the SGI
Source: IEEE P1547.4 "Draf Guide for Design, Opera<on and Integra<on of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems,, Work Group web site hKp://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/1547.4/private/stddrafs.html

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Some characteris<cs of the microgrid Designed to enhance reliability to loads Panoply of ancillary services Poten<al for economic incen<ves May incorporate renewable energy sources
Avenue for mee<ng RPS

Types: remote, industrial, u<lity-owned New paradigm: customer-driven microgrids


University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Design of distributed resource islands

Grid
DG

Grid

Increase annual RELIABILITY at a feasible COST


University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Design of evolving distribu>on systems


Introduc<on to the feeder addi0on problem
From a u<lity perspec<ve
Can connec<ons be made between feeders to increase reliability in islanded distributed resources (microgrids)? Where do we make those connec<ons? Given a distribu<on system with distributed genera<on (DG) sources, add networked connec<ons such that the cost of the addi<on is feasible while improving the reliability and sa<sfying power ow constraints

Feeder addi0on problem

Characteris<cs of the feeder addi<on problem

Non-linear | Non-convex | Discon<nuous objec<ve func<on values | Discrete variables

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

What does the feeder addi<on problem look like?

Slack

Feeder 1

Substa<on

Slack

Feeder 2

Slack

Feeder M

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Modeling of annual load


Annual demand: two ways of modeling annual load annual average demand at every load: i.e. 1 load level representa<ve of the annual demand 6 step-load dura<on curve representa<on (hourly demand reordered in increasing demand): i.e. 6 load levels representa<ve of the annual demand
T2=1900h

T1 =100 h

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Design of distributed resource islands


Modeling of DG
DG: aggregate power output of Renewable Energy (RE) and Conven<onal Distributed Genera<on (CDG)

Pout = CDG + RE + DS
Pout =
Capacity Factor: ra<o of the actual output of a power source and its output if it had operated at full capacity Total DG ra<ng R=RRE + RCDG

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Design of distributed resource islands Basic Reliability Concepts:


ASAI: The <me as a frac<on of a year for which the system is available Annual Outage Time, U : Time as a frac<on of a year for which the system is NOT available ~ Power Not Supplied (PNS) [MW]: Unserved load or demand that the system cannot supply

Reliability metric: Energy Not Supplied [MWh]

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Heuris<c technique
Sequen<al feeder approach
Explore all op<ons for a given topology if only one connec<on will be made Use lexicographic ordering of objec<ves Choose connec<on to make permanent When choosing the connec<on, reliability has highest priority Explore all op<ons for the new topology if only one connec<on will be made

Stop criteria:
i.

All possible topologies cost more than the maximum project cost and/or

ii. There is no further improvement in reliability

Dealing with constraints: if one or more constraints are violated, the solu<on is excluded

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Heuris>c methodology
Sequential feeder methodology

Test system "

Bus connec<vity matrix

Disadvantages
"

"

No guarantee of op<mality, i.e., that solu<on will be on the Pareto front Only yields a solu<on for the maximum project cost

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Mul<-objec<ve gene<c algorithm


Has successfully approximated the Pareto front for power system applica<ons A popula0on is comprised of individuals or chromosomes, each of which encodes a poten<al solu<on to the op<miza<on problem Evolu0onary operators are used to create individuals which may move to a higher level of tness and include muta0on, recombina0on, an example of which is crossover, and selec0on operators The tness func0on determines how likely an individual is to survive to the next genera<on

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Mul<-objec<ve gene<c algorithm Basic outline of gene<c algorithm

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Mul<-objec<ve Gene<c Algorithm (MOGA)


Mathema<cal formula<on
Variables

Objec<ve func<on 1: COST

CC :Cost of conductor [$/km] li : Length of connec<on i [km]

CDG: Cost of DG [$/MW] PDGj: Power output of DGlocated at bus j [MW]

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

MOGA Mathema<cal formula<on


Objec<ve func<on 2: RELIABILITY ~ Energy Not Supplied

Annual average load

Annual average load 6-step load dura<on curve:

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

MOGA GAs and the tness func<on


A popula>on is comprised of individuals or chromosomes ~

a poten>al solu>on to the op<miza<on problem Evolu>onary operators are used to create random individuals which may move to a higher level of tness such as muta<on, recombina<on, and crossover. MatlabTM Gene<c Algorithm Op<miza<on Toolbox (GAOT) inbuilt func<ons The tness func>on determines how likely an individual is to survive to the next genera<on ~ output of tness func<on ~

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Penalty func<ons for power ow constraints

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Importance of the ini<al popula<on for convergence


Explore 3 ways of selec<ng the ini<al popula<on

MOGA

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Applica<on to a test system - RBTS

Customer Type

Load points i

Average Load, [MW]

Max. Peak Load, [MW] 0.8367 0.8500 0.7750 1.0167 0.5222

Residen>al Residen>al Residen>al Small Industrial Commercial

1, 4-7, 20-24, 32-36 11, 12, 13, 18, 25 2, 15, 26, 30 8, 9, 10 3, 16, 17, 19, 28, 29, 31, 37, 38 14,27

0.4684 0.4758 0.4339 0.8472 0.2886

Oce Buildings

0.5680

0.9250

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

MOGA: RBTS test system Applica<on to a test system


RBTS System: Possible Connec<ons 302. We input only the 164 connec<ons with length less than 3km. Possible DG Loca<on 27 buses

DG:

DESIGN CF: wind, solar, conventional DG Total DG penetration RE penetration

PARAMETERS 0.25, 0.3, 0.8 80% Total Annual Average Load 20% Total DG penetration

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future
Solution # 1 2 Connection (s) Line 11-17 Line 1-7 Line 11-17 DG (s) bus location # 15 4 & 15 Cost [106 US $] 17.97 18.06 ENS [MWh] 31.40 21.96

3 4

If Line VOLL be chosen 11-17 Cost S 4 olu<on & 15 & 25 6 might 18.12
Line 23-29 Line 11-17 Line 23-29 Line 11-17 13 & 29 18.31

Line 1-7

21.88 21.62

Line 17-23 Line 23-29 Line 1-7

7 & 13 & 23

18.47

21.36

Line 9-15 Line 21-27

11 & 13 & 23

18.91

21.33

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

MOGA: RBTS Test system

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Conclusions Characteris<cs of a smart distribu<on system Design of distributed island resource


Microgrid Need for evolu<onary (non-tradi<onal) op<miza<on methods

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Acknowledgments
Graduate students
Ms. Hilary Brown, (CSM, Burns & McDonnell) Ms. Julieta Girldez (CSM, NREL) Mr. Sudarshan Natarajan (CSU)

Funding sources
PSERC JISEA seed grant CSU Energy SuperCluster seed grant

Collaborators
Dr. Alejandro Dominguez-Garcia (UIUC) Dr. Jerry Heydt (ASU) Dr. Sanjay Rajopadhye (CSU)

University of Bologna, Faculty of Engineering September 12, 2011