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INFLUENCE OF TEST CONDITIONS The rebound numbers are influenced by a number of factors like types of cement and aggregate,

surface condition and moisture content, age of concrete and extent of carbonation of concrete. Influence of Type of Cement

Concretes made with high alumina cement can give strengths 100 percent higher than that with ordinary Portland cement. Concretes made with supersulphated cement can give 50 percent lower strength than that with ordinary Portland cement. Influence of Type of Aggregate

Different types of aggregate used in concrete give different correlations between compressive strength and rebound numbers. Normal aggregates such as gravels and crushed rock aggregates give similar correlations, but concrete made with lightweight aggregates require special calibration. Influence of Surface Condition and Moisture Content of Concrete

The rebound hammer method is suitable only for close texture concrete. Open texture concrete typical of masonry blocks, honeycombed concrete or no-fines concrete are unsuitable for this test. All correlaticns assume full compactjon, as the strength of partially compacted concrete bears no unique relationship to the rebound numbers. Trowelled and floated surfaces are harder than moulded surfaces, and tend to overestimate the strength of concrete. A wet surface will give rise to underestimation of the strength of concrete calibrated under dry conditions. In structural concrete, this can be about 20 percent lower than in an equivalent dry concrete. Injuence of Curing and Age of Concrete

The relationship between hardness and strength varies as a function of time. Variations in initial rate of hardening, subsequent curing and conditions of exposure also influence the Lelationship. Separate calibration curves are required for different curing regimes but the effect of age can generally be ignored for concrete between 3 days and 3 months old.

In very old and dry concrete the surface will be harder than the interior, giving rebound values somewhat higher than normal. New concrete with moist surface generally has a relatively softer surface, resulting in lower than normal rebound. Age of specimen: It is emphasized that when old concrete is to be tested, direct correlations are necessary between the rebound numbers taken on the structure and the compressive strength of cores taken from the structure. Experimental studies has indicated that the rate of gain of surface hardness of concrete is rapid up to the age of 7 days, following which there is little or no gain in the surface hardness; however, for a properly cured concrete, there is significant strength gain beyond 7 days. It has been confirmed that for equal strength, higher rebound values are obtained on 7-day-old concrete than on 28-day-old concrete. The use of the Schmidt hammer for testing low-strength concrete at early ages, or where concrete strength is less than 7 MPa, is not recommended because rebound numbers are too low for accurate reading and the test hammer badly damages the concrete surface.

Carbonation of concrete surface Surface carbonation of concrete significantly affect the rebound hammer test results. In old concrete where the carbonation layer can be upto 20 mm thick, the strength may be overestimated by 50%.

Testing concrete by test hammer has its own limitations. If all factors are taken into consideration the strength of concrete in a structure may be determined within an accuracy of +15%. See rebound hammer chart again and dont just consider Wmax, also see Wmin. take a photocopy of rebound hammer manual and read it carefully.

Field testing by rebound hammer

Report Report the following information, if known, for each test area. 10.1.1 General information: Date of testing, Air temperature and time of testing, Age of concrete, and Identication of test location in the concrete construction and the size of member tested. 10.1.2 Information about the concrete: Mixture identication and type of coarseaggregate, and Specied strength of concrete. 10.1.3 Description of test area: Surface characteristics (trowelled, screeded formed), If applicable, type of form material used for test area, If surface was ground and depth of grinding, If applicable, curing conditions, and Surface moisture condition (wet or dry). 10.1.4 Hammer information: Hammer identication or serial number, and Date of hammer verication. 10.1.5 Rebound number data: Name of operator, Orientation of hammer during test, On vertical surfaces (walls, columns, deep beams), relative elevation of test region, Individual rebound numbers, Remarks regarding discarded readings, Average rebound number, If necessary, corrected rebound number for a horizontal orientation of the instrument, and If applicable, description of unusual conditions that may affect test readings.