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Online Shopping provides the basic information related to the shopping so that anyone who wants to get the information related to Purchasing Item etc. can view online and search the details of their boys and girls online. My project is based on the Online Shopping, and it perform all functioning of Shopping that is Shopping, purchasing, Registration are done using this. In this online functioning all the function of Shopping is done through online. we can purchase the entire product online. In the offline functioning Customer suffers from many problems they purchased the entire item in different places. That is very time consuming process and it is not sufficient for every customer to purchase all the item from the different shop. On line process is helpful to performing easily shopping; customer directly purchased all the item and their related information very quickly. Today environment is on line based on which process is very helpful for all the Customer who lived in different place and purchased all the item at a one place directly internet application webpage .They directly logon on the webpage of online shopping and acquired all the information very quickly.

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Number Of Modules
1. User Management 2. Product Management 3. Shopping Cart Management 4. Payment Management 5. Shopping Category Management 6. Order Management 7. Report

1:- User Management

Whenever a new user wants to shop for a product. He will have to get registered with the shopping site by providing this personal details and the user name and password will be allocated to him to access the website. .

2:- Product Management

This modules deal with the management of a Wied rang of products that are covered in over business for the direct sale purpose. Maintaining the stocks, sale of the products, assembling them with their accessories etc. are managed here .Thus it forms an important units for the efficient working of any shopping complex.

3:- Shopping Cart Management

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM When a user shops he can add number of product in this shopping cart he can add or remove product from the cart and the cart is used to make purchase order.

4:- Payment Management

To confirm the order the user will have to pay the shopping amount this module is used to collect all the details of the shopping payment such as cart number , card number etc.

5:- Shopping Category Management

This module deals with the over all product categories available in over mart.The categories to which one products have been sub-divided etc. are Books,Dolls,Clothes,Watches,Electronics,Fourwheelars,Sunglasses,Shoses

6:- Order Management

All the products selected into a shopping cart will have to ordered using this form. The user provided a details such as cart no date of order ,payment no etc.This table is used to collect the finl payment.

7:- Report (Crystal Report)

To generate the output various kind of report are generated such as: 1. Payment Report 2. Order & Shopping Report 3. Project Profile Management

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The continuous improvement in the field of technology along with the ever-increasing complication day today activities has resulted in the computer-aided management in almost each and every field of work. Computer can process data towards logical conclusion, clarify and make them readily available for use, with proper programming. Computerize system are seen replacing manually systems. Computers have not only allowed the enhancement in computation speed but also have brought about considerable reduction in the error with cost effectiveness. Information technology has become the backbone of almost ever management system and hence it is very vital for efficient management online shopping.

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The Objective of my project is to

To provide the customer with the quick and accurate information regarding the shopping. Make the present manual system more interactive, speedy and user friendly. Reduce the cost of maintenance. Provide online data. Provide prompt and accurate Management system

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In the development, the Top Down methodology is adopted for designing 1. A design is said to be top down if it consist the hierarchy of module with each module having single entry and single exit subroutine. 2. From the beginning of the project, Data Flow Diagram, Entity Relationship model and next definition of each module and their relationships defined in the project with adopted the top down approach. 3. A program is partitioned into small independent modules; they are arranged in modular hierarchy in a top down approach with detail showed at bottom.

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM 4. It is an attempt to minimize complexity and make problem more manageable form by subdividing it in to smaller segments in which all detail is present called Modularization or decomposition of the problem. 5. The top level shows the most important task of the beginning, the decision of the task is retained by the middle level and the detail and testing, validation the task is performed by the bottom level of the project. Users for the best interface of the S/W.

System Analysis
Starting from a statement of the problem, the analyst builds a model of the real-world situation showing its important properties. The analyst must work with the request to understand the problem because problem statements are rarely complete or correct. The analysis model is a concise, precise abstraction of what the desired system must do, not how it will be done. The objects in the model should be application-domain concepts and not computer implementation concepts such as data structures. A good model can be understood and criticized by application experts who are not programmers. The analysis model should not contain any implementation decisions.

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Once a preliminary area of application has been identified, it may then be subjected to a more rigorous examination in a feasibility study. In the previous unit, it was discussed the steps that make up the initial investigation. By the initial investigation, a user has recognized the need, user requirements are determined and the problem has been defined. Apart from this, an initial investigation is launched to study the present system and verify the problem in a systematic way. The next step is to determine exactly what the proposed system is to do by defining it expected performance. This kind of work will be carried out in the feasibility study. A feasibility study is carried out to select the best system that meets performance requirements.

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Different Types of Feasibility

In the conduct of the feasibility study, the analyst will usually consider seven distinct, but inter-related types of feasibility. They are: 1. Technical Feasibility 2. Operational Feasibility 3. Economic Feasibility

Technical Feasibility
This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the system may vary considerably, but might include: The facility to produce outputs in a given time. Response time under certain conditions. Ability to process a certain volume of transaction at a particular speed. Facility to communicate data to distant location. In examining technical feasibility, configuration of the system is given more importance than the actual make of hardware. The configuration should give the complete picture about the systems requirements how many workstations are required, how theirs units are interconnected so that they could operate and communicate smoothly. What speeds of input and out-put should be achieved at particular quality of printing. The can be used as a basis for the tender document against which dealers and manufactures can later make their equipment bids. Specific hardware and software products can then be evaluated keeping in view with the logical needs.

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Operational Feasibility
It is mainly related to human organizational and political aspects. The points to be considered are: What changes will be brought with the system? What organizational structures are disturbed? What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff members have these skills? If not, can they be trained in due course of time? Generally project will not be rejected simply because of operational infeasibility but such considerations are likely to critically affect the nature and scope of the eventual recommendations. This feasibility study is carried out by a small group of people who are familiar with information system techniques, who understand the parts of the business that are relevant to the project and are skilled in system analysis and design process.

Economic Feasibility
Economic analysis is the most frequently used technique for evaluation the effectiveness a proposed system. More commonly known as cost/ benefit analysis. The procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a proposed system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, a decision is taken to design and implement the system. Otherwise, further justification or alternative in the proposed system will have to be made if it is to have a chance of being

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM approved. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle.


Hardware Requirements:Processor: PIII above RAM: 128 MB HDD: 20 MB Hard disk & above

Software Requirements:Operating System: XP/Windows2000 and above Front End: DOT NET FRAMEWORK 2.0 Back End: SQL Server 2000 or above Report: Crystal Report Web Server: IIS (Internet Information Services) Web Browser: IE (Internet Explorer) 6.0 or above

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Microsoft recently announced the .NET platform as their latest vision for building, deploying, and running distributed applications and systems across the Internet. .NET is a general-purpose software development platform, similar to Java. At its core is a virtual machine that turns intermediate language (IL) into machine code. High-level language compilers for C#, VB.NET and C++ are provided to turn source code into IL. The .NET platform takes advantage of several new technology standards, such as extended Markup Language (XML) and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), to fully utilize the abundance of computing and communications resources available and in use today. With the .NET platform, Microsoft hopes to supply the next-generation user experience by providing users with more personalization and seamless integration between multiple applications and devices. Because .NET has been gaining momentum through the Internet industry for a sufficient period of time much is known of the values it brings to the development process. By all measurements of .NET deployments and project completions compared to comparable projects under other environments, .NET projects are completed on or before schedule and on or under budget. Further due to standardization that is inherent in the tool, deployment complexities and 11th hour crisis that so often plague applications rollouts are significantly reduced in .NET projects. A new developer resource that has changed the landscape of implementation and deployment for designers is the .NET innovated

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM development tool of C#. C# brings with it the development orientation of managed code and metadata which is a concept that predates .NET but comes

into its full utilization in the .NET environment. Metadata introduces an interpretation layer between code and data. In this way .NET can control the code. Self describing metadata which is the structure of C# makes it possible for code to be deployed in a diverse setting of applications, environments and operating systems and it makes code immune to obsolescence due to technology evolutions because the onus of tracking such change is within, .NET not in the code itself. This is an xtraordinarily efficient design principle which is the heart of the power that .NET brings to the development, implementation and deployment setting.

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. NET Architecture
We can describe the .NET architecture as follows: It is a set of common services which can be used from a number of object languages. These services are executed in the form of intermediate code that is independent of the underlying architecture. They operate in a runtime (Common Language Runtime) which manages resources and monitors application execution. On reading this short description, one can be forgiven for drawing a parallel with Java. Indeed, Microsoft makes no secret of the fact that it drew its inspiration, in the most pragmatic sense, from existing technology and Java in particular. The primary goal of .NET is to provide developers with the means to create interoperable applications using "Web Services" from any sort of terminal, be it a PC, PDA, mobile phone, and so forth.

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1. Software Engineering and Modeling: because software is always the part of the important system, works begin by establishing requirements for all system elements and then allocating subset of these requirements to software. 2. Software Requirements Analysis: In this step it analyze the requirements for both system and the software. Main work to be done in this step is the proper documentation about the requirements of the system. 3. Design: In this step I worked on the de4signing of the software. The design process translates the requirements into a representation of the software. 4. Code Generation: In this step the design is translated into machine-readable form. 5. Testing: Once the code has been generated, a program testing is necessary. The testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software.


The Software requirement specification is produced at the culmination of the analysis task. The function and performance allocated to software as part of system engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description, a detailed functional and behavioral description, an indication of performance requirements and design constraints, appropriate validation criteria, and other data pertinent to requirements.

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In software requirement three are dealing with the requirement of the proposed system, that is, the capabilities that the system, which is yet to be developed, should have it is because we are dealing with specifying a system that does not exist in any form I the manual form of existence does not generally have the same capabilities as the eventual automated system) that the problem of requirements becomes complicated. Regardless of how the requirement phase proceeds, it ultimately ends with the software requirements specification (SRS). Generally, the SRS is a document that completely describes what the proposed software should do without describing how the software will do it.

Need for SRS

The origin of most software system is in the need of client, who either wants to automate an existing manual system or desires a new software system. The software system, it the developer creates self. Finally the end users will use the completed system. Thus there are three major parties interested in a new system the client, the user and the developer. Somehow the requirements for the system that will satisfy the needs of the clients and the concerns of the user have to be communicated to the developer. The problem is that the client usually does not understand software or the software development process, and the developer often does not understand the clients problem and application area.

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The systems objectives outlined during the feasibility study serve as the basis from which the work of system design is initiated. Much of the activities involved at this stage is of technical nature requiring a certain degree of experience in designing systems, sound knowledge of computer related technology and through understanding of computers available in the market and the various facilities provided by the vendors. Nevertheless, a system cannot be designed in isolation without the active involvement of the user. The user has a vital role to play at this stage too. As we know that data collected during feasibility study wills we utilized systematically during the system design. It should, however be kept in mind that detailed study of the existing system is not necessarily over with the completion of the feasibility study. Depending on the plan of feasibility study, the level of detailed study will vary and the system design stage will also vary in the amount of investigation that still needs to be done. This investigation is generally an urgent activity during the system. Sometimes, but rarely, this investigation may form a separate stage between feasibility study and computer system design. Designing a new system is a creative process, which calls for logical as will as lateral thinking. The logical approach involves systematic moves towards the end product keeping in mind the capabilities of the personnel and the equipment at each decision making

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM step. Lateral thought implies encompassing of ideas beyond the usual functions and equipment. This is to ensure that no efforts are being made to fit previous solutions into new situations.

System Design Considerations

The system design process is not a step-by-step adherence of clear procedures and guidelines. Though, certain clear procedures and guidelines have emerged in recent days, But still much of design work depends on knowledge and experience of the designer. When designer starts working on system design, he will face different type of problems. Many of these will be due to constraints imposed by the user or limitations of the hardware and software available in the market. Sometimes, it is difficult to enumerate the complexity of the problems and solutions thereof since the variety of likely problems is so great and no solutions are exactly similar. However, following considerations should be kept in mind during the system designing phase:

Design Objectives
The primary objective of the design of course, is to deliver the requirements as specified in the feasibility reports. In general the following design objectives should be kept in mind.

the system must be stable and can be operated by people with average.

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This involves accuracy, timeliness and comprehensiveness to the system output.

It is desirable to aim for a system with a minimum cost subject to the condition that it must satisfy all the requirements.

The system should be modifiable depending on the changing needs of the user. Such modifications should not entail extensive reconstructing or recreation of software. It should also be portable to different computer systems.

This is very important aspect of the design and should cover areas of hardware reliability, fall back procedures, physical security of data and provision for detection of fraud and abuse. System design involves first logical design and then physical construction of the system. The logical design describes the structure and characteristics of features, like the outputs, inputs, files, database and procedures. The physical construction, which follows the logical design, produces actual program software, files and a working system.

Major System Design Activities

Several development activities are carried out during structured design. They are database design, implementation planning, system test preparation, system interface specification, and user documentation.

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Database design
This activity deals with the design of the physical database. A key is to determine how the access paths art to be implemented. Program design: In conjunction with database design is a decision on the programming language to be used and the flowcharting, coding, and debugging procedure prior to conversion. The operating system limits the programming languages that will run of the system.

System and program test preparation

Each aspect of the system has a separate test requirement. System testing is done after all programming and testing completed the test on system and program test requirements become a part of design specifications a prerequisite to implementation.In contrast to the system testing is acceptance testing, which puts the system through a procedure design to convince the user that the proposed system will meet the stated requirements. Acceptance testing is technically similar to system testing but politically it is different.

Design Process
The computer system design process is an exercise of specifying how, the system will work. It is an iterative process, which is based on what the system will be do as shown in the feasibility report. Mainly, following five parts have been included in the system design process

Output Design
The starting point of the design process is the proper knowledge of system requirements which will normally be converted in terms of output.

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Input Design
Once the output requirements have been finalized, the next step is to find out what data need to be made available to the system to produce the desired outputs. The basic documents in which these data are available need to be identified. If necessary, these documents may have to be revised or new documents may have to be introduced.

File Design
Once the input data is captured in the system, these may to be preserved either for a short or long period. These data will generally be stored in files in a logical manner. The designer will have to devise the techniques of storing and retrieving data from these files.

Procedure Design
This step involves specifications of how processing will be performed. In this, there are two aspects: computer procedure Non-computer procedure The computer procedure will specify what functions will be carried out on computer, what will be different programs and in what sequence the programs will be run. The non-computer procedure will specify the manual procedures for feeding input data, receiving outputs etc.

Control Design
The control design indicates necessary procedures which will ensure correctness of processing, accuracy of data, timely output etc. this will ensure that the system is functioning as per plan.

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Development and Deployment Design

Major responsibilities include system Requirement Study, Preparing System Design Document, Preparing the Program (Form) Specs, Peer Review of the Specs, Implement Quality procedures as per the QMS Document, Documentation of SRS Revalidation & Design Documents, thorough grasping of the user functionality and applying, approving the same in the project, Developing, Testing & Debugging of Forms, User Training and Implementation of the module.

Once the analysis and design of the system has been done, it would be necessary to identify the data that are required to be processed to produce the outputs. Input is one of the most expensive phases of the operation of a computerized system and creates sometimes a major problem. Different type of problem with a system can usually be traced back to faulty input design method needless to say, therefore, that the input data are the lifeblood of a system and have to be analyzed and designed with utmost care and consideration. Input design features can ensure the reliability of the system and generate correct reports form the accurate data. The input design also determines whether the user can interact efficiently with the system.

Elements of Input Data

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM Inaccurate input data are the most common cause of errors in data processing. Errors entered by data entry operators can be controlled by input design. Input data are collected and organized into groups of similar data. Once identified, appropriate input media are selected for processing.

Input Data
The goal of designing input data is to make data entry as easy, logical and error free from errors as possible. In entering data, operators need to know the following: The allocated space for each field. Field sequence, which much match that in the source document. The format in which data fields are entered for example, filling out the date field is required through the edited format mm/dd/yy. When we approach input data design, we design the source document. Let us elaborate on each step.

Source Documents
Source data are captured initially on original paper or a source document. For example, a cheque written against an account is a source document. When it reaches the bank, it is encoded with special magnetic ink character recognition so that a reader that is part of the information system of the bank can process it. Therefore, source documents initiate a processing cycle as soon as they are entered into the system. Source documents may be entered into the system from punch cards, from diskettes, or even directly through the keyboard. A source document may or may not be retained in the proposed system. Thus, each source document may be evaluated in terms of. Its continued use in the proposed system, The extent of modification for the proposed system & Replacement by an alternative source document.

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM A source document should be logical and easy to understand. Each area in the form should be clearly identified and should specify for the user what to write and where to write it.

Input Design Guidelines

The design of input play very significant role in getting the correct output. It covers al phases of input from creation of initial data(original recording) to actual entering the data to the system for processing. The input design is the link that ties the information system into the world of its users. Some features of design may vary depending on whether the system is batch-oriented or on-line. Here, we will discuss the various objectives of input design. They focus on: Controlling amount of input Avoiding delay Avoiding errors in data Avoiding extra steps Keeping the process simple Each of the five objectives of input design is briefly discussed below:

Controlling Amount of Data

An effective design controls the quantity of data for input for the following reasons: Firstly, data preparation and data entry operations depend on people. Since labor costs are high, the cost or preparing and entering data is also high. It is quite evident, then that reducing data requirements mean lowering costs through reduced labor expense. Secondly, the input phase of computing can be slow process and take many times longer than that needed by computers to carry out their tasks. In fact, the computer itself may sit idle until data is prepared and input for processing. By reducing input requirements, the analyst will speed the entire process from data capture to processing to provide result to users.

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Avoiding Delay
When processing is delayed owing to data preparation or data entry, the cause is called a bottleneck. Avoid bottlenecks when designing input should always be one of the objectives of the analyst.

Avoiding Errors in Data

The third objective deals with errors. In one sense, the rate at which errors occur is dependent on the quantity of data. Since the lower the amount of data is inputted, there are fewer opportunities for the error to occur. Firstly, the analyst can reduce this number by reducing the volume of data dust must be entered for each transaction. Secondly, the analyst can also affect error rates of an operation through design. The manner in which data must be entered can reduce the chance of errors. Still, a third aspect of error control is the need to detect errors when they do occur. Checks and balances in the data entry programs, called input validation techniques, also detect errors input.

Presenting the data processed by a computer-based information system in an attractive and usable form has become very essential these days success and acceptance of a system to some extent depends on good presentation. Therefore, system analyst must know fully how to design output report in an attractive way. Many new output devices are being introduced in the market because of recent development in computer

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM technology. System analyst must be aware of these new technologies and try to use these new output devices if possible. Currently, excellent graphic displays are widely available. Speech output system are also fast emerging. There are three main reasons why outputs from the computer are required. They are: i. ii. iii. For communication to the persons concerned. For re-input to the computer for being connected with other data and further processing. For permanent storage.

Types of Output
Outputs of a system can take different forms. The most common are reports, displays on screen, printed forms etc. the outputs also vary in terms of their contents, type of stationery. Frequency and timing etc. besides, due consideration also need to be given as to who will use the output and for what purpose. All these points must be kept in mind while designing outputs so that the objectives of the system are met in the best possible way. Outputs of a data-processing system can be placed into two categories: Application Output Operating Output

Application Output
These are the outputs desired out of the system to meet its objectives. These are of three types: i. ii. iii. Output as a basis for decision-making. This type of output is generally required by management for decision-making purposes. Output as a requirement to meet a functional objective. Invoices, Excise Gate Pass, Purchase Orders are the examples of such output. Statutory outputs: All organization are required to produced a certain amount of reports and forms as required by law.

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Operating Output
These outputs are mainly generated for use of EDP staff and give various indications as to how the system operates. System logs, error messages, status indicators etc. are the examples of such output. These types of output are not concerned for the users.

Data Base (SQL Server 2000)
Working with an access project is very similar to working with an access database. The process of creation forms, reports, data access page macros, and modules is virtually the same as that used to create an access database. Once your connect to and SQL Server database, you can view, create, modify, and delete tables, views, procedures, user defined functions,

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM and database diagrams by using the database designer, table designer, query designer, query builder, and SQL text editor. Although the user interface for working with these database objects is different from the equivalent database objects in an access database, it is just as user-friendly. An access project also contains many of the same wizards as an access database, such as the form wizard, the report wizard, the page wizard, and the input mask wizard, these wizards help you to quickly create a prototype or simple application, and also make it easier to create an advanced application. A Microsoft access project is and access data file that provides efficient, native-mode access to a Microsoft SQL Server database through toe OLE DB component architecture. Using an Access project, you can create a client/server application as easily as a file server application. This client/server application can be a traditional solution based on forms and reports, or a web-based solution based on data access pages, or a combination of both. You can connect the Access project to a remote SQL Server database, a local SQL Server database, or local installation of SQL Server 2000 Desktop engine.

There are following type of modules in this project

1:-Table Name:-User registration

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S.NO. Column name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. UserId Password Title FirstName MiddleName LastName Home Address City State Country email Alternateemail

Data type Length Discription Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Primary key

ConfirmPassword Varchar

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2:-Table Name:- Product

S.NO. Column name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ProductID ProducName Rate Discount Offersonproduct Quantity Category

Data type varchar varchar float varchar varchar numeric varchar

Length 50 50 8 50 50 9 50

Discription Primary Key

3:-Table Name:- CategoryName

S.NO Column name 1. CategoryName

Data type Varchar

Length 50

Discription Primary Key


SubCatagory Item



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4:-Table Name:- Contact1

S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Column name Headofficeadd Addressline1 City State Contact Email Fax Branchofficeadd BAddressline2 BCity BState BContact BEmail BFax

Data type Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar numeric Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar numeric Varchar Varchar

Length 50 50 50 50 9 50 100 50 50 50 50 9 50 100

Discription Primary Key

5:- Table Name:- MainCatagory

S.NO. 1. 2. 3.

Column name CatagoryCode CategoryName PhotoUrl

Data type Int Varchar Varchar

Length 4 50 255

Discription Primary Key

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6:-Table Name:- OrderEnquiry

S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Column name Enqiryno Enqirydate Orderno Enqirydetails Enqirystatus Data type numeric datetime numeric Varchar Varchar Length 9 8 9 50 50 Discription Primary Key

7:-Table Name:- Ordernow

S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Column name orderno dateoforder shoppingcartno paymentno orderbycustomername Deliveryaddress1 Deliveryaddress2 Deliveryaddress3 contact possibledeliverydate deliverystatus

Data type int datetime int numeric Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar numeric datetime Varchar

Length 4 8 4 9 50 50 50 50 9 8 50

Discription Primary Key

8:-Table Name:- Payment

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S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Column name PaymentNo PaymentDate UserID ShoppingCartNo TotalAmount Dateofexpiry PinNo PaymentMode cartno cardno

Data type Int Datetime varchar Int Int Datetime numeric varchar varchar varchar

Length 4 8 50 4 4 8 9 50 50 50

Discription Primary Key

9:-Table Name:- PriceCompare

S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Column name productname productname company1 price1 Company2 Price2 Company3 Price3

Data type numeric Varchar Varchar money Varchar money Varchar money

Length 9 50 50 8 50 8 50 8

Discription Primary Key

10:-Table Name:- priceentry

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S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Column name productname productname company1 price1 Company2 Price2 Company3 Price3

Data type numeric Varchar Varchar money Varchar money Varchar money

Length 9 50 50 8 50 8 50 8

Discription Primary Key

11:-Table Name:- ProjectProfileManagement

S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Column name ProductCode maincatagory subcatagory Discription Rate Discount OfferScheme

Data type Int varchar varchar varchar numeric varchar varchar

Length 4 50 50 255 9 50 50

Discription Primary Key

12:-Table Name:- ShoppingCart

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S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Column name ShoppingCart QuantityPurchased Rate Discount Productname Offersonproduct Total SHoppingId ShoppingCart UserId

Data type varchar numeric money money varchar varchar money int int varchar

Length 50 9 8 8 50 50 8 4 4 50


Primary Key

13:-Table Name:- SubCatagoryItem

S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Column name SubCatagoryCode SubCatagoryName mainCatagory SubCatagoryPhotoUrl

Data type Int varchar varchar varchar

Length 4 50 50 255

Discription Primary Key

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DFD (Data Flow Diagram)

As information moves through software, it is modified by a series of transformations. A data flow diagram is a graphical representation that depicts information flow and the transforms that are applied as data move from input to output. The basic form of a data flow diagram, also known as a data flow graph or a bubble. The data flow diagram may be used to represent a system or software at any level of abstraction. In fact, DFDs may be partitioned into levels that represent increasing information flow and functional detail. Therefore, the DFD provides a mechanism for functional modeling as well as information flow modeling.

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Data Flow Diagram


Pay Slip
Payme ntNo

Shopping Cart
Produ ctId Rate

Order information
payment no dateof order

Product managment
Produ ctID PName Rate

me Pay te a ntD

User ID

Disc ount ordeno


Request Shopping payment no

Online shopping Managem ent


Shopping Details


dateof order orderno

Produ ctId Rate

User ID Pay men tDat e Payme ntNo


Order management
Discou nt

Product List

Shopping deatils


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Main Category Sub Category

C_Code, C_Name SCCode, SCname,ma inc

1.0 Master category

C_Code, C_Name SCCode, SCname, mainc

Main Category

Sub Category

Product Data

Pid,pna me,rate

2.0 Product managem ent


Product Details

User registratoin

Uid,passwor d

3.0 User registration

Uid,pass word

User Data

Shopping Details

Pid,rate,d iscount

4.0 ShoppinCart management

Pid,rate, discount

Shopping Cart Data

Order Deatils

Ono,eno ,edate

5.0 Order managem ent

Ono,eno ,edate

Order Data

Payment Details

Pno,pdate, uid

Pno,pda te,uid

Main Category

6.0 Payment management

Payment Data

Sub Category M_categ ory,s_ca tegory,p id

Searching Result 7.0 Shopping Search Engine

M_category,s _category,pid

Product Details

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User Data

Uid,passw ord

4.1 Shopping Cart Manageme nt

Uid,pass word

Shopping Cart

Product Data

Pid,pna me,rate

4.2 View Shopping Cart

4.3 Order Product

Ono,o date

Order Data

Payment Details


4.4 Payment

Pno,p date Payment Data

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Shopping Cart

Uid,pass word

5.1 Order Process

Uid,passw ord

User Data

5.2 Check Product Stock

Order Data

Ono,o date

5.4 Submit Order

5.3 Accept Payment

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Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

Data flow diagram focuses on movment of data through the system and its transformations. It is divided in to levels. Level 0, also known as the context diagram, defines the system scope. It consists of external agents, system boundary, and the data flow between the external agents and the system. Level 1 is an explosion of Level 0, where all the major processes, data stores, and the data flow between them is shown. Level 2, Level 3, etc. show details of individual processes. The notation used is the following:

External agents: They are external to the system, but interact with the system. They must be drawn at level 0, but need not be drawn at level 2 onwards. Duplicates are to be identified. They must be given meaningful names.

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Process: They indicate information processing activity. They must be shown at all levels, At level 0, only a single process, depicting the system is shown. On subsequent levels, the number of processes should be limited to 7 2. No duplicates are allowed.

Data Stores: They are used to store information. They are not shown at level 0. All data stores should be shown at level 1. Duplicates must be indicated.

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Data Flows: They indicate the flow of information. They must be shown at all levels and meaningful names must be given.

Examples: 1. Customer places sales orders. The system checks for availability of products and updates sales information 2. Company receives applications. Checks for eligibility conditions. Invites all eligible candidates for interview. Maintains a list of all candidates called for interview. Updates the eligibility conditions as and when desired by the management

Getting started:
Identify the inputs or events which trigger the system and outputs or responses from the system

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Identify the corresponding sources and destinations (external agents) Produce a context diagram (Level 0). It should show the system boundary, external agents, and the dataflows connecting the system and the external agents. Produce Level 1 diagram. It must show all the external agents, all the major processes, all the data stores, and all the dataflows connecting the various artifacts. The artifacts should be placed based on logical precedence rather than temporal precedence. Avoid dataflow crossings. Refine the Level 1 diagram. Explode the individual processes as necessary.

Points to remember: 1) Remember to name every external agent, every process, every data store, and every dataflow. 2) Do not show how things begin and end. 3) Do not show loops, and decisions. 4) Do not show dataflows between external agents. They are outside the scope of the system.

5) Do not show dataflow between an external agent and a data store. There should be a process in between.

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6) Do not show dataflow between two data stores. There should be a process in between.

7) There should not be any unconnected external agent, process, or data store. 8) Beware of read-only or write-only data stores

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9) Beware of processes which take inputs without generating any outputs. Also, beware of processes which generate outputs spontaneously without taking any inputs.

9) Ensure that the data flowing in to a process exactly matches the data flowing in to the exploded view of that process. Similarly for the data flowing out of the process. 10) Ensure that the data flowing out of a data store matches data that has been stored in it before. See the appendix for the complete data flow diagram of "Material Procurement System (Case Study)"


Up Course Contents


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P_na me

pi d


C_na me


Categorize Into

Main Category


disc ount


S C n S C C

Divide d into


Shopping Complex

Sub Category

Entity Relationship Diagram

Si d Register With Di sc ou nt Goe s to

Rat e


Odat e

Customer Enquires



P_d ate





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Pno Con tact

Card no


Cart no


Shopping Cart

Entity Relationship Diagram

ERD complements DFD. While DFD focuses on processes and data flow between them, ERD focuses on data and the relationships between them. It helps to organise data used by a system in a disciplined way. It helps to ensure completeness, adaptability and stability of data.

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM It is an effective tool to communicate with senior management (what is the data needed to run the business), data administrators (how to manage and control data), database designers (how to organise data efficiently and remove redundancies). It consists of three components.

It represents a collection of objects or things in the real world whose individual members or instances have the following characteristics: Each can be identified uniquely in some fashion. Each plays a necessary role in the system we are building.

Each can be described by one or more data elements (attributes). Entities generally correspond to persons, objects,

locations, events, etc. Examples are employee, vendor, supplier, materials, warehouse, delivery, etc.

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There are five types of entities

Fundamental entity : It does not depend on any other entity for its existence. For e.g. materials

Subordinate entity : It depends on another entity for its existance. For example, in an inventory management system, purchase order can be an entity and it will depend on materials will being on





purchase orders.

Associative entity : It depends on two or more entities for its existence. For example, Shopping will depend on the customer and the product.

Generalisation entity : It encapsulates common characteristics of many subordinate entities. For example, a four wheeler is a type of vehicle. A truck is a type of four wheeler.


entity :






aggregation of other entities. For example, a car consists of engine, chasis, gear box, etc. A vehicle can also be regarded as an aggregation entity, because a vehicle can be regarded as an

aggregation of many parts.

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They express the properties of the entities. Every entity will have many attributes, but only a subset, which are relevant for the system under study, will be chosen. For example, an employee entity will have professional attributes like name, designation, salary, etc. and also physical attributes like height, weight, etc. But only one set will be chosen depending on the context. Attributes are classified as entity keys and entity descriptors .

Entity keys are used to uniquely identify instances of entities. Attributes having unique values are called candidate keys and one of them is

designated as primary key. The domains of the attributes should be pre-defined. If 'name' is an attribute of an entity, then its domain is the set of strings of alphabets of predefined length .

They describe the association between entities.

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM They are characterised by optionality and cardinality. Optionality is of two types, namely, mandatory and optional. 1. Mandatory relationship :means associated with every instance of the first entity there will be atleast one instance of the second entity. 2. Optional relationship: means that there may be instances of the first entity, which are not

associated with any instance of the second entity. For example, employee-spouse relationship has to be optional because there could be unmarried employees. It is not correct to make the

relationship mandatory. Cardinality:- It is three types: 1. one-to-one, 2. one-to-many, 3. many-to-many.

(1)One-to-one relationship : means an instance of the first entity is associated with only one instance of the second entity. Similarly, each instance of the

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM second entity is related to one instance of the first entity. (2)One-to-many relationship : means that one

instance of the first entity is related to many instances of the second entity, while an instance of the second entity is associated with only one instance of the first entity . (3)many-to-many relationship : an instance of the first entity is related to many instances of the second entity and the same is true in the reverse direction also. Other types of relationships are multiple relationships between entities, relationships leading to associative entities, relationship and of entity AND with itself,



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ERD notation
There are two type of notation used: 1. Peter Chen notation 2. Bachman notation. Not surprisingly, Peter Chen and Bachman are the name inventors of the notation. The following table gives the notation.





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Screen Shots
Shopping Home

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User Registration

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Admin Login

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Main Category Entry

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Price Entry

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Product Entry

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Sub Category

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Login Form

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Member Home

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Shop Now

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Order Enquiry

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Price Compare

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Product Details

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Contact Searching

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About us of Shopping

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Logout Form

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Report of Product Entry

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Report of Order Now

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Report of Payment

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM Validation checks are very important in any software. Validation in cooperated in the software so that the user is not able to make wrong entries in the database accidentally or otherwise. Accordingly keys are trapped from the keyboard and validation is enforced. If the user presses a wrong key the validation code checks to see the any wrong character is not entered. There is a mechanism engineered in the software through which it automatically corrects the case sensitivity of alphabets entered in the event of any lower case character to be fed in upper case or vice-versa. Secondly, there is again a provision made in case the user leaves a entry empty, which was a mandatory field to be filled, when making inputs to the database if the user tries to enter a blank field in the database stipulated as mandatory, then a massage pops up warning the user that it is necessary to fill the field in question.

Input Verification And Control

If incorrect data enters the system, it is usually very costly to make the necessary corrections. Also how expensive would it be to have operator record a quantity of 100 rather than 10 for a shipment of sports cars. The shipping charges for sending the cars to the customer and then of having them returned would be only one of the costs. While the 90 extra cars were in transit, they would not be available to other customers (which could result in a loss of sales) or could be damaged. There are many methods, which are commonly used to verify data entering the system as input.

Key Verification
A second operator is a key the data already recorded. This method is used for verifying data recorded in Punched cards or on diskettes and magnetic tape. Then two floppies are compared to correct record, which mismatched during comparison after verifying, form the original documents. This is most effective method used by Computer Service bureaus for data validation.

Use Of Self-Checking Numbers

The computer can be programmed to reject numbers that have been transposed or have one or more wrong digits. Check digits and selfchecking number routines can be effectively used for numbers in a series.

Visually Displaying An Identifying Characteristics

When using a terminal, a part number is entered. Displayed in the VDT is the description of the part, which is visually confirmed by the operator.

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Reasonableness Test
Based upon past history, some input can be checked to see if it is reasonable. For example, because of long-standing company policy, it is unlikely that any employee will have more than 20 hours of overtime. If more than 20 hours of overtime are recorded in an employees current transaction record, an error message will be generated as the data is being edited. Similarly in Date Of Birth field, it is checked that no date is more than 31, month number is not more than 12 and the year is not more than the current year or current year minus minimum age prescribed.

Verification Of Data Type

Some input fields should contain only numeric data while others should contain only alphabetic data. The fields can be edited to make certain that only the right type of data is recorded in each field.

Sequence Check
If the numbers in the source documents are serial and the documents are in order, the input records will also be in numerical sequence. A check can be made by the program to determine whether the records are in either ascending or descending order.

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Testing Practice And Plans
It should be clear in mind that the philosophy behind testing is to find errors. Test cases are devised with this purpose in mind. A test case is a set of data that the system will process as normal input. However, the data are created with the express intent of determining whether the system will process them correctly.

Testing Objectives
The objective of the testing is: Verify integration between objects. Verify integration of all components of the software To identify the defects prior t deployment of software

There are two general strategies for testing software:

Code Testing and Specification Testing. In case testing, the analyst develops that case to execute every instructions and path in a program. Under specification testing, the analyst examines the program specifications and then writes test data to determine how the program operates under specific conditions. Regardless of which strategy the analyst follows, there are preferred practices to ensure that the testing is useful. The levels of tests and types of test data, combined with testing libraries, are important aspects of the actual test process.

Levels Of Tests:
Systems are not designed as entire systems nor are they tested as single systems. The analyst must perform both unit and system testing.

Unit Testing
In unit testing the analyst tests the programs making up a system. For this reason, unit testing is sometimes called program testing. Unit testing gives stress on the modules independently of one another, to find errors. This helps the tester in detecting errors in coding and logic that are contained within that module alone. The errors resulting form the interaction between modules are initially avoided. For each, it provides that ability to enter, modify or retrieve data and respond to different types of

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM inquiries or print reports. The test cases needed for unit testing should exercise each condition and option.

System Testing
The important and essential part of the system development phase, after designing and developing the software is system testing. It cannot say that every program or system design is perfect and because of lack of communication between the user and the designer, some error is there in the software development. The number and nature of error in a newly designed system depend on some usual factors like communication between the user and the designer the programmers ability to generate a code that reflects exactly the system specifications and the time frame for the design. Testing is an important function to the success of the system. System testing makes a logical assumption that if all the parts of the system are correct, the goal will be successfully activated. Another reason for system testing is its utility as a user-oriented vehicle before implementation. System testing consists of the following five steps: Program Testing String Testing System Testing System Documentation User Acceptance Testing

Program Testing
A program represents the logical elements of a system. For a program to run satisfactorily, it must compile and test data correctly and tie in properly with other programs. It is the responsibility of programmer to have an error free program. At the time of testing the system, there exists two types of errors that should be checked. These errors are syntax and logic. A syntax error is a program statement that violates one or more rules of the language in which it is written. An improperly defined field dimension or omitted key words are common syntax errors. These errors are shown through error messages generated by the computer. A logic error on the other hand, deals with incorrect data fields out of range items, and invalid combinations. Since compiler does not detect the logical errors, the programmer must examine the output carefully to detect them. When a program is tested, the actual output is compared with the expected output. When there is a discrepancy, the sequence of the instructions, must he traced to determine the problem. Breaking the program down into self-contained portions, each of which can be checked at certain key points, facilitates the process.

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String Testing
Programs are invariably related to one another and interact in a total system. Each program is tested to see whether it conforms to related programs in the system. Each part of the system is tested against the entire module with both test and live data before the whole system is ready to be tested.

System Testing
System testing is designed to uncover weaknesses that were not found in earlier tests. This includes forced system failure and validation of total system as it will be implemented by its user in the operational environment. Under this testing, generally we take low volumes of transaction based on live data. This volume is increased until the maximum level for each transaction type is reached. The total system is also tested for recovery and fallback after various major failures to ensure that no data are lost during the emergency. All this is done with the old system still in operation. When we see that the proposed system is successful in the test, the old system is discontinued.

User Acceptance Testing

An acceptance test has the objective of selling the user on the validity and reliability of the system. It verifies that the systems procedures operate to system specifications and that the integrity of important data is maintained. Performance of an acceptance test is actually the users show. User motivation is very important for the successful performance of the system. After that a comprehensive test report is prepared. This report shows the systems tolerance, performance range, error rate and accuracy.

Designing Test Data

: The proper designing of test data is as important as the test itself. If test data as input are not valid or representation of the data to be provided by the user, Then the reliability of the output is doubtful. Test data may be live or artificial. The live data is that which is actually extracted from the users files. After a system is partially constructed, the programmers or analysts ask the users to key in a set of data from their normal activities. It is difficult to obtain live data in sufficient amount to conduct extensive testing.

Need For Documentation

Preparation of documentation is quite important as it depicts what the system is supposed to be and how to be and how it should perform its functions. It illustrates both technically and economically how a system

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM would better serve the objectives and goals of the company. Documentation improves overall operation in addition to management and audit control. It also serves the following purposes: i. ii. iii. Reviews the progress or development of application software. Communicates facts about system to users. Communicates between personnel working on a development project.Provides necessary guidelines to allow correction or revision of a system or its computer programs.

A crucial phase in the system life cycle is the successful implementation of the new system design. Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert form the old system to the new one. The new system may be completely new, replacing an existing manual or automated system or it may be major modification to an existing system. In either case, proper implementation becomes necessary so that a reliable system based on the requirements of the organization can be provided. Successful implementation may not guarantee improvement in the organization using the new system, but improper installation will prevent it. It has been observed that even the best system cannot show good result if the analysts managing the implementation do not attend to every important detail. This is an area where the systems analysts need do work with utmost care.

Post Implementation Review

After the system is implemented and conversion is complete, a review should be conducted to determine whether the system is meeting expectations and where improvements are needed. A post implementation review measures the systems performance against pre-defined requirements. It determines how well the system continues to meet performance specifications. It also provides information to determine whether major redesign or modification is required. A post-implementation review is an revaluation of a system in terms of the extent to which the system accomplishes stated objectives and actual project costs initial estimates. It is usually a review of major problems that need converting and those that surfaced during the implementation phase.

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ONLINE SHOPPING.COM The post implementation study begins with the review team, which gathers and review requests for evaluation. Unexpected change in the system that affects the user or system performance is a primary factor that prompts system review. Once request is filed, the user is asked how well the system is functioning to specifications or how well the measured benefits have been realized. Suggestions regarding changes and improvement are also asked for.

The last part of the system development life cycle is system maintenance, which is actually the implementation of the post-implementation review plan. When systems are installed, they are generally used for long periods. The average life of a system is 4 to 6 years, with oldest application often in use for over 10 years. However, this period of use brings with it the need to continually maintain the system. Programmers/ analyst spend sufficient time for maintaining programs. The study on the maintenance requirement for the information system revealed that are: a. 60-90 per cent of the overall cost of software during the life of a system is spent on maintenance. b. In documented cases, the cost of maintenance, when measured on the basis of writing each instruction in coding form, is more than 50 times the cost of developing a system. c. The software demand is increasing at faster rate than supply. Many programmer are devoting more time on systems maintenance than on new software development. There is a backlog of new development work. The maintenance can be classified as corrective, adoption or perceptive.

Corrective maintenance means repairing, processing or performance failures or making alterations because of previously ill-defined problems.

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Adoption maintenance means changing the program functions. Enhancing the performance or modifying the programs according to users additional or changing needs are included in perceptive maintenance. The greatest amount of maintenance work is for user enhancement and improved documentation of the system for better efficiency. More time and money are spent on perceptive than on corrective and adaptive maintenance together

Maintenance covers a wide range of activities including correcting coding and design errors, updating documentation and test data and upgrading user support. Many activities classified as maintenance actually fall under enhancements. Maintenance means restoring something to its original position. Unlike hardware, software does not wear out, it is corrected. In contrast, enhancement means adding, modifying or redeveloping the code to support changes in the specifications. It is to keep with changing user needs and the operational environment. The key to reduce the need for maintenance while making it possible to carry on with essential tasks more efficiently are as follows: a. More accurately defining the users requirement during systems development. b. Preparation of system documentation in a better way. c. Using more effective ways for designing processing logic and communicating it to project team members. d. Making better use of existing tools and techniques. e. Managing the systems engineering process effectively. An addition factor in the success of the maintenance programmer is the environment. A maintenance programmer has generally been paid fewer amounts and receives less recognition than other programmers. Lighted attention has been paid to their training and career plans within the MIS function. Maintenance demands more orientation and training then any other programming activities, especially for entry-level programmers. The environment must recognize the needs of the maintenance programmer for tools, methods and training.

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1. This project is more flexible because if any changes occur in future then it is easily accomplished by the use of this project. 2. Easy to maintain and quickly generates major reports about Shopping Cart, Product etc.

Professional ASP.NET 2.0 -Wrox Beginners ASP.NET 2.0 Wrox

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Black book Microsoft Microsoft SQL Server 2000 System Analysis and Design Elias M.Awad

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