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Growth and development in African culture Objectives Should be able to describe the origin of life in African culture Should

hould be able to explain how life is effectuated(how does life become what it is) State the aim of human growth and personality growthwhat are the factors of growth and development? Identify phases of the life cycle in the development of the human organism What are the issues that grow and develop? what is the difference between growth and development?

Mind-soul lives to eternity. Mind soul(component of life that is immortal) Origin of the mind-soul in the African culture In African culture the mind-soul originates from the creator. In African culture you communicate with the creator through your ancestors(mudzimu/idlozi). Communication is through dreams. Males are endowed with a seed that is passed through the father..(the mother does not contribute anything). The mothers role is to fertilize, nurture the seed and socialization (getting to know the child) but does not pass on the characteristics. These characteristics are passed on from the paternal lineage. Issues of infertility are often associated with the woman. Characteristics of intelligence, cleverness, creativity etc comes from the paternal side Nurturing, socialization, and health issues come from the mother. The role of the father is spiritual nurturing The role of the individual is to facilitate bodily growth. The individuals aim is to direct all your cognitive thinking (planning,reasoning) to your eternal life.

A mind-soul is the most reliable yardstick for measuring growth. Influences on the mind-soul/behaviour Physical Social Spiritual

(id) component of behaviourdoesnt think about other factors e.g when someone wants to eat they dont think about where the food came from..but just eat. Maternal nurturing determines the social behavior of the individual. (ego) Paternal nurturing determines the spiritual behavior and allows for development of the conscience. Growth and development can be viewed from a religious and physical aspect. Interesting fact:(Extreme beauty and Extreme ugliness is attached to id tendencies eg. witchcraft) Phase 1 Embryogeni phase- the embryo has no soul. (so if a child dies 12 hours after death the child will not have any life after death because they had no soul) Phase 2 Intellectualizing of the mind soul. (From 12-24 the child has a soul and upto puberty) Phase 3 Social growth and development. (From puberty until the first conception) Phase 4 Spiritual growth and development. From first conception until you have the last child Phase 5 Behavioural interagation. (where you have your grandchildren) Phase 6 Great grandparenthood Phase7 The spirit elder phase Great great grandparenthood Phase 8 Ancestor spirithood/or transition to spiritual life phase Each phase is measured by biological milestones.(puberty,menopause etc). Each phase is achieved by developmental accomplishments (eg you cant become pregnant if you havent reached puberty) Sub-phases: Bodily growth and dimensions of personality development Personality(unhu/ubuntu) Personality includes all of ones behavioral characteristics.

5 dimensions of personality developments: 1. Physical body characteristics -a) biological characteristics measured by biological milestonesb) psychobiological growth characteristics- it is controlled by body instinctsthis is growth 2. Mental characteristics begin when the female elders start cooing the child. This is your thinking, planning, perceiving and reasoning.this is development. 3. Social characteristics common sense and reasoning. These begin when the baby is socially registered(shown to the family elders) 4. Spiritual characteristics develop and grow moral and just sense behavior. This is when the traditional midwife shares a meal with the fatherthe mother and father must share the people they had sexual encounters with. And if it was only the father who she had sexual encounters with then he can accept the child. 5. Behavioral characteristics (begins when the baby is named) In African culture every person is buried according to their growth and development phases. (eg a baby that died before 12 hours had passed cant be buried next to the mother) Phase 1 -Miscarriages and neo-natal deaths are taken and buried by the confluence of the riversin an earthenware pot. This indicates purity of personality because there is clean water there Phase 2- after souled life the baby is placed in a grave and a flowering pot is put at the head of the grave to show that the person was going to blossom Phase 3 Burial is accompanied by a useless object(like a rat). This is to show that the person had not developed socially. Bodily aspects grow to sustain the mind-soul(life)the biological body grows while the psychobiological phase Development of mental function is measured against age and cognitive action LIFE(UPENYU/MPILO) Life is composed of the mind and the soul. The real life does not perish Beliefs about life in African cultures Mind soul/cognitive processes/represented by the dark shadow or black shadow (Raymond Moody(1975); Melvin Morse (1991) Near death experiences (NDEs) Tibetan book of the dead, Egyptian lit

Meaning of the lingering mind-soul lack of peace or displeasure= a result of untimely or accidental death Such deaths create conflict for the mind soul. It will be unfinished business.

An unhealthy mind-soul Lacks peace unhygienic Not guided by conscience Such a mind soul cannot reach or interact with the creator and other mind souls which are guided by conscience For readmission of the mind soul into the spirit world, justice must be meted out e.g.mumvuri

A healthy mind-soul Has peace and is hygienic(good thoughts) No unfinished business No mumvuri Interacts with the creator

Creating peace through conscience in an unhealthy mind-soul Justice must be meted out in order to facilitate the deceased persons mind soul to have peace through conscience A person must not be buried until the mumvuri has disappeared Disappearing of the mumvuri is associated with separation of cognitive processes from the influences of id

Concepts and contexts of NGOZI Ngozi angered/aggrieved spirit/mind soul which is disorientated not at peace Qualifies to be accepted in the spirit world as an ancestor but cannot until justice is meted out by the living on their behalf Includes mind-souls of murdered people, accidental deaths, those dying under suspicious circumstances Such deaths result in restless mind souls, in poor health, without peace

Comparison with ghosts in Western cultures Ngozi beliefs are similar to ghosts in Western Cultures Ngozi spirits cause various health problems or haunting to force family members to act for justice of the deceased Id instincts = source of ill Conscience guides mind soul to be at peace, healthy achieve purity; spiritual hygiene

Ngozi mind-soul needs justice for mind soul to have chenura/kurove guva/umbuyiso(The purification or cleansing ceremony If such a ceremony is not held, mind-soul goes Kufirira absolute death, similar to going to hell.

Views about health(Zvine huMwari mukati) Health-quality of life Life and health tied to religious beliefs After death-spiritual transformation The soul- transcends from physical into the spirit world after bodily death Life in transformed state-exist either in ultimate well being or inferior states of health Set rules to opt for either state Health reward for diligence in maintaining set rules of moral and just behavior(conscience guided behavior) Experiencing poor health-punishment for trangressions

The meaning of Health in local cultures Upenyu, hupenyu, Rupenyu/ Magariro /Impilo which means way of life Talking about health: Makadini? Tiriwadi embodied in this is a sense of well being. Peace is good or positive well being; moral and just behaviour Health is not only the absence of disease but a comprehensive of the total human circumstance including beliefs about ones cosmic existence. The presence of inner peace and harmony

Health defined in local cultures In local cultures therefore health refers to bodily or physical, mind soul and spiritual well being in which conscience guides a persons behavior or reaction to stimuli through just and moral deeds or actions. The Mweya (Spirit/conscience) and the Concept of eternal life Spirit mweya conscience part of personality (super-ego by Freud) Exerts restraint upon the mind- soul and inhibits basic impulses of the id nyama Mweya/conscience-spiritually hygienic or cleansing arm of personality (pure) Purity-synonymous with absence of evil/ill Those who maintain their behavior pure practice spiritual hygiene and are not touched by evil/ill Health quality of life; life and health are tied to religious beliefs

Concepts of Health + Hygiene in Zimbabwean African cultures All people contemplate death, hold beliefs about life about life after physical existence Others believe in total obliteration Belief in spiritual transformation Life is either in form of ultimate well-being or poor or inferior states of health There are set rules for either of the two Health-reward for diligence in maintaining set rules of moral and just behavior Such conscience-guided behavior is spiritual hygiene Concepts of POOR health and hygiene in Zimbabwean African cultures People are not always guided by conscience e.g decisions about hunger and thirst Conscience exerts restraint and inhibition where morality and justice are at stake, hence less visible not always present. (penumbra(light spirit) in relation to umbra(darkened sprit)) Person(mind soul) may choose not to be led by conscience/spirit If a person chooses behavioural conditions which induce immorality and injustice; the result is ill health through lack of peace and harmony People choose their state/quality of health

Aetiology of Disease: Major and Minor Health problems in Shona culture Life is a gift from the creator Just and moral deaths- Spirit Elder phase of life Such deaths normal transition- physical to spiritual life All other deaths are immoral and unjust Include major health problems which threaten other phases before the spirit elderarise from the evil source Diseases(zvirwere/izifo) transmitted by mamhepo (bad airs) Mamhepo environmental air at dis-equilibrium(good vs bad elements) Two types-natural or normal health problems A and serious illnesses and health problems B

Minor health problems: Illnesses associated with natural/normal Type A, Mamhepo Bad Airs Normal to feel unwell from time to time(kusandurwa/kupindurwa kwemuviri) turnover in the body physiology/blood Carried type A mamhepo Originate from natural phenomena as decaying matter seasonal and temperature changes The changes increase such bad elements causing e,g coughs, colds, allergies Concepts of pathogenesis and Type A mamhepo Bad airs

Air contains moisture/vapor muhupe Muhupe picks up odours from objects From human beings and other living things it picks up mukambari As muhupe picks up new odours, it deposits some of the previously picked op odours Strong smells and body odours are belieced to be unhealthy because they constitute air at diequilibrium They cause a variety of minor health problems The body absorbs the bad airs through skin, ingestion or inhalation This explains fears in local cultures in shaking hands, using same utensils or avoidance of smelling pit latrines