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Multiphase Flow As in the multiphase flow in vertical pipe, in horizontal pipe there are distinct flow regimes.

In horizontal flow there are divided up into 3 main types, Segregated Flow, Intermittent Flow and Distributive Flow. Segregated Flow is divided up into Stratified, Wavy and Annular Flow. Intermittent Flow is divided up in to Plug and Slug Flow. Distributive Flow is divided up in to Bubble and Mist Flow. These regimes are predicted by using flow regime maps such as Bakers shown here.

Horizontal Flow Regimes

Dukler Method It is based on empirical correlations of friction factor and liquid holdup. Like vertical flow, will assume kinetic energy contribution to be negligible. And there will be no potential energy contribution.
2 dp f k um = dL 2 gD

(2-33)

where
k = l 2 l
yl +

g 2 g
yg

(2-34)

The friction factor is obtained from the no-slip friction factor, fn, defined by
f n = 0.0056 + .5( N Re k ) 0.32

(2-35) (2-36)

N Re k =

1488 k um D

The 2 phase friction factor is given by the correlation


ln l f = 1 2 3 4 fn 1.281 + .478 ln l + .444(ln l ) + .094(ln l ) + .00843(ln l )

(2-37)

In the fig 2-8 the liquid holdup, yl, is a function of input liquid fraction, l with NRek as a parameter. Since holdup is needed to figure NRek, determining the liquid holdup in an iterative process.

Example of Dukler

qo = 2000 bpd o = 2 cp o = 49.9 lb/ft3

qg = 1 mmcfpd g = .0131 g = 2.6 lb/ft3

Temp = 175 oF Pipe = 2.5 Pressure = 800 psi

Find the liquid holdup 1) find the velocities ul = qo/A = 2000*5.614 / .034*86400 = 3.81 ft/sec ug = qg * z * T * psc / A *Tsc * p = 1E6*.935*635*14.7 / .034*520*800*86400 = 7.12 ft/sec um = ul + ug = 10.94 ft/sec 2) find l l = ul / um = 3.81 / 10.94 = .35 2) find liquid holup, yl This is an iterative process Assume yl = l and solve for k.
k = l l2
yl +

g 2 g
yg

49.9 .352 2.6 652 + = 19.19lb / ft 3 .35 .65

N Re k =

k u m D 19.19 10.94 .208 1488 = = 91600 . .7085 m

This gives a value of .44 for yl, use this value to calculate a k
k = l l2
yl +

g 2 g
yg

49.9 .352 2.6 652 = + = 15.86lb / ft 3 .44 .56

N Re k =

k u m D 15.86 10.94 .208 1488 = = 75800 .7085 m

yl = .46

Calculate fn

f n = 0.0056 + .5( N Re k ) 0.32 = .0056 + .5 75800 .32 = .019

Find f/fn
ln l f = 1 2 3 4 fn 1.281 + .478 ln l + .444(ln l ) + .094(ln l ) + .00843(ln l )
f ln .35 = 1 2 3 4 .019 1.281 + .478 ln .35 + .444(ln .35) + .094(ln .35) + .00843(ln .35)

f = .036 Find the gradient


2 dp f k um .036 15.86 10.92 2 = = = 5.08lb / ft 3 = .035 psi / ft dL 2 gD 2 32.17 .208

Fig 2-8