You are on page 1of 39

Renewable Energy in India

Rangan Banerjee Energy Systems Engineering

Lecture in CEP course on Wind Energy IIT Bombay , April 16th ,2007

ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM


PRIMARY ENERGY

COAL, OIL, SOLAR, GAS POWER PLANT, REFINERIES REFINED OIL, ELECTRICITY RAILWAYS, TRUCKS, PIPELINES WHAT CONSUMERS BUY DELIVERED ENERGY

ENERGY CONVERSION FACILITY

SECONDARY ENERGY

TRANSMISSION & DISTRN. SYSTEM FINAL ENERGY

AUTOMOBILE, LAMP, ENERGY UTILISATION EQUIPMENT & SYSTEMS MOTOR, STOVE


USEFUL ENERGY END USE ACTIVITIES (ENERGY SERVICES)

MOTIVE POWER RADIANT ENERGY DISTANCE TRAVELLED, ILLUMINATION,COOKED FOOD etc..

India- Primary Commercial Energy


Hydro Nuclear 2.4% 1.8% Nat gas 9.1% Wind 0.2%

2003-4 Total comm 14000 PJ Biomass 6500 PJ (33%)

Oil Import 24.9%

Coal 51.7%

Total 20500 PJ 19700 PJ (-non energy)

Oil (D) 9.8%

India - Fossil Fuel reserves


Fuel Coal Oil
(Million Tonnes)
+Lignite

(Million Tonnes)

N.Gas
Billion m3 Tonnes

Reserves Prodn R/P 2003-4 ratio 34000 414 ~83 (P) 140 P+I 760 33 23 (7) (117) 920 32 29 PHWR ~50 10GW

Uranium 61000

Data Source Plg Comm IEPC, 2006

Need for Alternatives


Fossil fuel reserves limited India - 17% of World population, 4% of primary energy Present pattern predominantly fossil based (87% comm, 64% total) 52% of households unelectrified Linkage between energy services and quality of life

Characteristics of Renewables

Large, Inexhaustible source -Solar energy intercepted by earth 1.8*1011 MW Clean Source of Energy Dilute Source - Even in best regions 1kW/m2 and the total daily flux available is 7 kWh/m2 Large Collection Areas, high costs Availability varies with time Need for Storage, Additional Cost

Renewable Energy Options

Solar Wind Biomass

Small Hydro

Tidal Energy

Ocean Thermal Energy Solar Thermal

Wave Energy

Solar Photovoltaic

Geothermal*

Applications

Power Generation Cooking Heating-Water Heating, Space Heating Transportation Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Distillation Drying

Power Generation Options


Power Generation

Centralised Grid Connected

Decentralised Distributed Generation Isolated Demand Side Management (Solar Water Heater, Passive Solar)

Cogeneration/Trigeneration

Geothermal/OTEC/Tidal/Wave
World Geothermal COMMERCIAL 8240 MW Cost Estimates 4c/kWh $2000/kW No Indian experience 50 MW plant J & K planned LF 20% No Indian experience (3.6MW planned Sunderbans) India 1MW gross plant under construction India 150kW plant Thiruvananthpuram

Tidal

PROTOTYPE

240 MW FRANCE 50 kW 210 kW NELHA < 1MW Grid Connected

OTEC

PROTOTYPE

Wave Energy

PROTOTYPE

Renewable Power Generation


8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Each data point corresponds to installed capacity as on March of that year

Source: MNES, NEW DELHI

Renewable installed capacity and generation


Installed Capacity* (MW) Wind Biomass Power Biomass Gasifier Bagasse Cogeneration Small Hydro Waste to Energy Solar PV Total
5000 376 69 540 1826 41 2.74 7855
*as on March-2006

Estimated Capacity factor


14% 70% 70% 60% 50% 70% 20%

Estimated Generation (GWh)


6132 2306 423 2838 7998 251 4 19952

Renewables in Power

Power generation 6500 PJ -46% of Comm Energy, 33% of total Installed Capacity 130,000 MW (2004), Nuclear 2720 MW(2004) Renewables 7855(2006) Gross Generation 633000GWh (2003-4) Nuclear 17780 GWh(2003-4) Renewables 19950 GWh (2006) Renewables ~ 6% of Capacity and 2-3% of generation

Wind Power
5000 MW installed Single machine upto 2.1 MW Average capacity factor 14% Capital cost Rs 45crores/MW, Rs 2-3/kWh (cost effective if site CF >20%) India 45000 /13000 MW potential estimated 32%/ year (5 year growth rate)

Satara, Maharashtra
40 A n n u a l L o a d F a c to r (% ) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005 data : 2006 Update Martinot

Source:Martinot(2006)

Small Hydro Power

Classification - Capacity -Micro less than 100 kW Mini 100 kW - 3 MW Small 3 MW - 15 MW Micro and Mini - usually isolated, Small grid connected Heads as low as 3 m viable Capital Cost Rs 5-6crores/MW , Rs 1.50-2.50/kWh 1846 MW (7%/year)

200 kW Chizami village, Nagaland

Aleo (3MW) Himachal Pradesh

BIOMASS CONVERSION ROUTES


BIOMASS
THERMOCHEMICAL COMBUSTION RANKINE CYCLE BIOCHEMICAL

GASIFICATION PYROLYSIS DIGESTION PRODUCER GAS BIOGAS

FERMENTATION ETHANOL

ATMOSPHERIC Duel Fuel SIPGE Gas Turbines

PRESSURISED

Biomass Power

Higher Capacity factors than other renewables Fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal waste Atmospheric gasification with dual fuel engine 500 kW gasifier - largest installation Combustion 5-7.5 MW Rs 2.50-4/kWh

100 kWe Pfutseromi village, Nagaland

Kaganti Power Ltd. Raichur Distt. A.P. 7.5 MW

Biogas

45-70% CH4 rest CO2 Calorific value 16-25MJ/m3 Digestor- well containing animal waste slurry Dome - floats on slurry- acts as gas holder Spent Slurry -sludge- fertiliser Anaerobic Digestion- bacterial action Family size plants 2m3/day Community Size plants 12- 150 m3/day Rs 12-14000 for a 2m3 unit Cooking, Electricity, running engine

Pura, Karnataka

Bagasse Cogeneration
Incremental Capital Cost 30000 (Rs/kW) Life 20 years Boiler Efficiency 70% Bagasse NCV = 3400 kcal/kg (dry basis), Price Rs 1.50/kg Discount rate = 10%, O&M cost = Rs 0.5/kWh 2500 tcd plant 9.5 MW export, 0.93 kg extra/ kWh Load factor 0.4 0.5 0.6 Rs/kWh 2.60 2.40 2.27

2 2 a ta 330o C FEED W ATER

5 8 T /h r

F eed w ater

4 .5 T /h r B O IL E R
0 .5 T /h r

2 7 T /h r

2 6 T /h r

PRDS

BA G A SSE 0 .5 T /h r M IL L IN G
PRDS

6 a ta
~ P ro cess

2 .5 M W STEA M T U R B IN E

2 a ta

F la s h e d C o n d e n s a te

P ro cess

S c h e m a tic o f ty p ic a l 2 5 0 0 tc d S u g a r fa c to r y

B O IL E R F e e d w a te r

75 TPH , 65 a ta , 4 8 0 O C

STEA M T U R B IN E 13 M W 9 .5 M W P ow er export

BA G A SSE
( A lt e r n a t e f u e l) ~

PR O C ESS 2 a ta 2 a ta

CO NDENSER

Condenser

6 a ta 4 .5 T P H

1 .0 M W M ill d r iv e s

BFP PR O C ESS

2 .5 M W C a p tiv e lo a d

P R O P O S E D P L A N T C O N F IG U R A T IO N : O P T IO N 2

Technology Options for Solar power


Solar Power

Thermal

PV

Low Temp. <100 o C

Medium Temp. Up to 400 o C Line Focusing Parabolic

High Temp. >400 o C

Material

Production Process

Single Crystal Silicon Polycrystalline Silicon Amorphous Silicon CdTe/ GAAs

Solar Flat Plate Collectors

Solar Chimney

Solar Pond

Parabolic Dish

Central Tower

Wafer

Thin Film

Solar PV

India -2740 kW Grid connected systems (25-239 kW) Array efficiency in field 12-15% Cost Rs 26cr/MW Rs 15-20 /kWh

Vidyut Saudha Building, 100 kWp , APTRANSCO (2001) BHEL

Mousuni Island , 105 kWp, West Bengal Renewable Energy Agency (2003 )

Comparison of Solar Thermal Power Generation Technologies


Efficiency Technology Solar Flat Plate Collectors Solar Chimney Solar Pond 2% 1% 1-2% Indian Experience 10 kW exptl unit at IITM No experience 50 kW Spain Experience for hot water Bhuj (Israel power 5MW) 50 kW system in SEC Planned 35MW solar in 140 MW ISCC at Mathania Demo unit 10 kW Vellore No experience Status D D D Capital Cost (Rs/kW) Rs. 300.000 Rs. 200,000 ($4600/kW) Electricity (Rs/kWh) _ _

Line focussing Parabolic

Peak 20% Average 1114%

Rs. 140,000 ($3000/kW) ~390 MW of operating plants Rs. 150,000 ~Rs. 200,000 ($4700/kW)

15 c/kWh Rs. 6/kWh

Paraboloid Dish Central Tower

29% peak 1218% 23% peak 714%

D D

Fuel GTG 2sets 35 M W each GTG-2 sets of of35.2 MW ~ Air Gas Turbine sets

Proposed ISCC

Steam , 103 b,500 o C

W HRB Aux. Firing Flue gas from GT Solar Radiation 391 o C Heat exchanger Steam turbine To W HRB ~ 103 b,371 o C Steam , 103 b,500 o C Feed water Heat exchanger
75.5 M W

Solar Heat Exchanger

Heat Transfer oil, 291 o C

BFP

Condenser

b- bar

Comparison of Power Generation Methods


Coal Efficiency (%) 35-40 PV 8-14 Wind 30-40 Biomass Gasifier 20-30

Emissions (kg 0.85CO2/kWh) 0.9 Net Energy Ratio 0.350.4


Source: Manish et al

0.012- 0.060.050.04 0.13 0.08 1.6-4.2 8-26 8.5-12.5

Household Cooking fuels


BiogasNo cooking 0.3% 0.7% Others Coal 2.8% 1.6% Kerosene 2.7% Dung 10.7% LPG 5.0%

1999-2000 Rural Household


Fuelwood 76.1%

Data Source: NSSO,2002

Cooking Energy
30% of total primary energy use Predominantly biomass used in chulha Efficiency low ~ 10% Indoor Air pollution- health impact Transition to convenient fuels with income Improved Chulha

Technology options

Improved Chulha Solar Cooker flat plate box type Scheffler cooker Biogas Cooking Biomass Gasifier Scheffler Cooker

Kitchen

Solar Cooking
Tirumala(Tirupati) 4 T/day of steam food for 15000 people Solar parabolic Concentrators Solar cooking Suitable for Institutions/ Community kitche Householdsdifficult change in cooking habits Army mess, Ladakh

Thermal Applications
Steel Reheating Furnace Raipur Investment 37.5 lakhs, Annual savings 30 lakhs , Simple Payback period 1.25 years, IRR 80% (IITB, Cosmos) (Rice Husk, wood) 1.25 Mkcals/hr NARI, Sugarcane Leaves, Bagasse, Ceramic Tile furnace 0.25 Mkcals/hr Silk Drying TERI, payback period 2.5 years Carbon Dioxide Manufacture

Steel Rolling Mill Reheating Furnace Raipur 1.25 Mkcal/hr

Silk Drying TERI

Solar Thermal Heating


Fresnel Paraboloid Reflector with point focus(Two axis tracking) ,110 -200C possible. Mahananda Dairy Latur 160 m2 unit installed , 30 lakhs investment, 4.6 lakhs annual saving Hospital 20 beds,16 m2,1000 lpd 1.6 lakh,SPP 3.2 years,CSE Rs 2.68/kWh Hotel ,30 rooms,34 m2, 2125lpd, 3.4 lakh,SPP 3.9 years, CSE Rs 3.31/kWh

ARUN160 Mahananda Dairy, Latur

Comparison of Renewable Hydrogen Methods


PVHydrogen 1094 2.9 2.3 51.4 WECSSMR Hydrogen 381 48 0.9 10.4 11.5 12.8 0.6 192

Cost (Rs/kg) Emissions (kg CO2/kg H2) Net Energy Ratio Primary Energy Consumption (MJ/kg H2)

Conclusions

Modern Renewables low share, high potential Solar Thermal for low grade heat almost cost effective, Biomass thermal applications Wind, Small Hydro power cost effective Most renewables subsidised, policy support Growth rates in renewables high 20-25% per year. Can the growth sustain? Will capital cost reductions occur? Market penetration Strategies? Mainstreaming of renewables

References

World Energy Assessment Energy & the Challenge of Sustainability,UNDP, 2000, AKNReddy,R H Williams, T. Johannson,Energy After RioProspects and Challenges-,UNDP, 1997, New York. MNES Annual Report, 2005-2006, March 2006 Integrated Energy Policy Report, Planning Commission, 2006 Martinot, REN 21 Renewables 2005 Global Status Report, Washington DC and Global Update Parikh, P. P., Biomass Gasifier Based Thermal Application Package For Steel Re-rolling Mill Furnaces MNES (2002) S.P.Sukhatme, Solar Energy, Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi,1997 Banerjee, Comparison of DG options, Energy Policy, 2006 Manish, Pillai, Banerjee, Sustainability analysis of renewables, Energy for Sustainable Development , December 2006