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CHAPTER 21

Cutting-Tool Materials and Cutting Fluids

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-1

Cutting Tool Material Hardnesses


Figure 21.1 The hardness of various cutting-tool materials as a function of temperature (hot hardness). The wide range in each group of materials is due to the variety of tool compositions and treatments available for that group. See also Table 21.1 for melting or decomposition temperatures of these materials.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-2

Typical Properties of Tool Materials


Table 21.1
Property Hardness High-speed steels 83 86 HRA

Carbides
Cast alloys 82 84 HRA 46 62 HRC WC 90 95 HRA 1800 2400 HK TiC 91 93 HRA 1800 3200 HK Ceramics 91 95 HRA 2000 3000 HK 2750 4500 400 650 345 950 50 135 < 0.1 <1 310 410 45 60 4000 4500 0.14 0.16 100 2000 3600 29 6 8.5

Cubic boron nitride 4000 5000 HK

Single-crystal diamond* 7000 8000 HK

Compressive strength MPa 4100 4500 1500 2300 4100 5850 3100 3850 3 600 650 220 335 600 850 450 560 psi x10 Transverse rupture strength MPa 2400 4800 1380 2050 1050 2600 1380 1900 3 350 700 200 300 150 375 200 275 psi x10 Impact strength J 1.35 8 0.34 1.25 0.34 1.35 0.79 1.24 in.- lb 12 70 3 11 3 12 7 11 Modulus of elasticity GPa 200 520 690 310 450 6 30 75 100 45 65 psi x10 Density 3 kg/m 8600 8000 8700 10,000 15,000 5500 5800 3 lb/in. 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.36 0.54 0.2 0.22 Volume of hard phase, % 7 15 10 20 70 90 Melting or decomposition temperature C 1300 1400 1400 F 2370 2550 2550 Thermal conductivity, W/ 30 50 42 125 17 mK 12 4 6.5 7.5 9 Coefficient of thermal 6 expansion, x10 C * The values for polycrystalline diamond are generally lower, except impact strength, which is higher.

6900 1000 700 105 < 0.5 <5 850 125 3500 0.13 95 1300 2400 13 4.8

6900 1000 1350 200 < 0.2 <2 820 1050 120 150 3500 0.13 95 700 1300 500 2000 1.5 4.8

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-3

General Characteristics of Cutting-Tool Materials


TABLE 21.2 General Characteristics of Cutting- Tool Materials. These Tool Materials Have a Wide Range of Compositions and Properties; Thus Overlapping Characteristics Exist in Many Categories of Tool Materials.
Carbon and low- to medium- alloy steels High speed steels Cast- cobalt alloys Uncoated carbides Coated carbides Ceramics Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride Diamond

Hot hardness Toughness Impact strength Wear resistance Chipping resistance Cutting speed Thermal-shock resistance Tool material cost Depth of cut Finish obtainable Method of processing

Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Light to medium Rough Wrought Light to heavy Rough Wrought, * cast, HIP sintering Increasing Light to heavy Rough Cast and HIP sintering Light to heavy Good Cold pressing and sintering Grinding Light to heavy Good CVD or PVD Light to heavy Very good Cold pressing and sintering or HIP sintering Grinding Light to heavy Very good High-pressure, high-temperature sintering Very light for single crystal diamond Excellent High-pressure, high-temperature sintering

Fabrication

Machining and grinding

Machining and grinding

Grinding

Grinding and polishing

Grinding and polishing

Source : R. Komanduri, Kirk- Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology , (3d ed.). New York: Wiley, 1978. * Hot- isostatic pressing. Chemical- vapor deposition, physical- vapor deposition.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-4

Operating Characteristics of Cutting-Tool Materials


TABLE 21.3
Tool materials High-speed steels General characteristics High toughness, resistance to fracture, wide range of roughing and finishing cuts, good for interrupted cuts High hardness over a wide range of temperatures, toughness, wear resistance, versatile and wide range of applications Improved wear resistance over uncoated carbides, better frictional and thermal properties High hardness at elevated temperatures, high abrasive wear resistance High hot hardness, toughness, cutting-edge strength Hardness and toughness, abrasive wear resistance Modes of tool wear or failure Flank wear, crater wear Limitations Low hot hardness, limited hardenability, and limited wear resistance Cannot use at low speed because of cold welding of chips and microchipping Cannot use at low speed because of cold welding of chips and microchipping Low strength, low thermomechanical fatigue strength Low strength, low chemical stability at higher temperature Low strength, low chemical stability at higher temperature

Uncoated carbides

Flank wear, crater wear

Coated carbides

Flank wear, crater wear

Ceramics Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (cBN) Polycrystalline diamond

Depth-of-cut line notching, microchipping, gross fracture Depth-of-cut line notching, chipping, oxidation, graphitization Chipping, oxidation, graphitization

Source: After R. Komanduri and other sources.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-5

Carbide Inserts
Figure 21.2 Typical carbide inserts with various shapes and chip-breaker features; round inserts are also available (Fig. 21.4). The holes in the inserts are standardized for interchangeability. Source: Courtesy of Kyocera Engineered Ceramics, Inc., and Manufacturing Engineering Magazine, Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-6

Insert Attachment
(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 21.3 Methods of attaching inserts to toolholders: (a) Clamping, and (b) Wing lockpins. (c) Examples of inserts attached to toolholders with threadless lockpins, which are secured with side screws. Source: Courtesy of Valenite. (d) Insert brazed on a tool shank (see Section 30.2).

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-7

Edge Strength
Figure 21.4 Relative edge strength and tendency for chipping and breaking of insets with various shapes. Strength refers to the cutting edge shown by the included angles. Source: Kennametal, Inc.

Figure 21.5 Edge preparation of inserts to improve edge strength. See also Section 23.2. Source: Kennametal, Inc.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-8

Classification of Tungsten Carbides


Table 21.4 Classification of Tungsten Carbide According to Machining Applications. See also Chapters 22 and 23 for Cutting Tool Recommendations
ISO Standard ANSI Classification Number Materials to be machined Machining Operation Type of carbide Cut K30-K40 K20 K10 K01 C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 Cast iron, nonferrous metals and nonmetallic materials requiring abrasion resistance Roughing General purpose Light finishing Precision machining Wear-resistant grades; generally straight WC-Co with varying grain sizes Increasing Cutting speed Characteristics of Carbide Increasing hardness and wear resistance

Increasing Feed rate P30-P50 P20 P10 P01 C-5 C-6 C-7 C-8 Steels and steel alloys requiring crater and deformation resistance Roughing General purpose Light purpose Precision finishing Crater-resistant grades; various WC-Co compositions with TiC and/or TaC alloys Increasing Cutting speed

Increasing strength and binder content Increasing hardness and wear resistance

Increasing Feed rate

Increasing strength and binder content

Note: The ISO and ANSI comparisons are approximate.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-9

ISO Classification of Carbide Cutting Tools According to Use


TABLE 21.5 Designation in increasing order of wear resistance and decreasing order of toughness in each category, in increments of 5 P01, P05 through P50 M10 through M40 K01, K10 through K40

Symbol P M K

Workpiece material
Ferrous metals with long chips Ferrous metals with long or short chips; nonferrous metals Ferrous metals with short chips; nonferrous metals; nonmetallic materials

Color code Blue Yellow Red

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-10

Effect of Coating Materials


Figure 21.6 Relative time required to machine with various cutting-tool materials, indicating the year the tool materials were introduced. Source: Sandvik Coromant.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-11

Multiphase Coatings
Figure 21.7 Multiphase coatings on a tungsten-carbide substrate. Three alternating layers of aluminum oxide are separated by very thin layers ot titanium nitride. Inserts with as many as thirteen layers of coatings have been made. Coating thicknesses are typically in the range of 2 to 10 m. Source: Courtesy of Kennametal, Inc., and Manufacturing Engineering Magazine, Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Properties for Groups of Tool Materials


Figure 21.8 Ranges of properties for various groups of tool materials. See also Tables 21.1 through 21.5.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-13

Cubic Boron Nitride


Figure 21.9 Construction of a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride or a diamond layer on a tungsten-carbide insert.

Figure 21.10 Inserts with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tips (top row) and solid polycrystalline cBN inserts (bottom row). Source: Courtesy of Valenite.
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 21-14

Approximate Cost of Selected Cutting Tools


TABLE 21.6 Tool High-speed steel tool bits Carbide-tipped (brazed) tools for turning Carbide inserts, square 3/16"thick Plain Coated Ceramic inserts, square Cubic boron nitride inserts, square Diamond-coated inserts Diamond-tipped inserts (polycrystalline) Size (in.) 1/4 sq.x 2 1/2 long 1/2 sq. x 4 1/4 sq. 3/4 sq. 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle 1/2 inscribed circle Cost ($) 12 37 2 4 59 610 812 6090 5060 90100 1

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-15

Application of Cutting Fluids


Figure 21.11 Schematic illustration of proper methods of applying cutting fluids in various machining operations: (a) turning, (b) milling, (c) thread grinding, and (d) drilling.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 21-16