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Chapter 9

9.1. The next-state and output expressions for the circuit in Figure P9.1 are Y1 Y2 z1 z2 This gives the excitation table = w 1 + y1 y 2 = w 2 + y 1 + w 1 y2 = y1 = y2

Present state y2 y1 A B C D 00 01 10 11

Next state w2 w1 = 00 01 10 11 z 2 z1 Y2 Y1 11 11 11 11 10 11 10 10 11 01 11 01 10 01 10 10 11 10 01 00

The resulting ow table is

Present state A B C D

Next state w2 w1 = 00 D D D D 01 C D C C 10 D B D B 11 C B C C z2 z1 11 10 01 00

The behavior is the same as described in the ow table in Figure 9.21a, if the state interchanges A D and B C are made.

9-1

9.2. The waveforms are

c 1 z1 2 z2 2 2 2 3 1 3

The ow table is

Present state 0 1

Next state C=0 1 1 1 0 0

Outputs, z2 z1 0 00 01 1 10 00

The circuit generates a non-overlapping 2-phase clock. 9.3. The partitioning procedure gives P1 P2 P3 P4 = (ADGJM P T )(BEHR)(CF )(ILOSV )(KN U ) = (AD)(GP )(JM T )(B )(E )(HR)(C )(F )(ILOSV )(KN U ) = (A)(D)(GP )(JM T )(B )(E )(HR)(C )(F )(ILOSV )(KN U ) = P3

This gives the ow table

Present state A B C D E F G H I J K

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A D G D G J G J A J A 01 B B E E H H K K 10 C C F F I I I 11 z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

9-2

The corresponding merger diagram is


A B C D

E K F

This leads to the reduced ow table

Present state A B C D F G I J

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A D G D J G A J 01 B B C C F F I I 10 C C F F I I I 11 z 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

9.4. The partitioning procedure gives P1 P2 P3 P4 = (AF )(BEGL)(CJ )(DK )(HM ) = (AF )(BG)(EL)(CJ )(DK )(HM ) = (A)(F )(BG)(EL)(CJ )(DK )(HM ) = P3

9-3

Replacing states B and G, E and L, C and J , D and K , and H and M with new states B , E , C , D, and H , respectively, produces the following ow table:

Present state A B C D E F H

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A D F D A F 01 B B E E E B 10 C C C C C 11 H H H H

Output z 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

The merger diagram is


A B C D

Only C and F can be merged if the Moore model is to be preserved. Therefore, the reduced ow table is

Present state A B C D E H

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A D C D A 01 B B E E E B 10 C C C C 11 H H H H z 0 0 0 1 0 1

9-4

9.5. Relabel the ow table as

Present state A B C D

Next state w2 w1 = 00 1 5 5 1 01 3 3 6 6 10 7 4 4 7 11 2 8 2 8 00 0 0 0

Output z 01 1 1 10 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 1 0

The transition diagram is


D 8 1, 7 6 2 4, 5 C

The diagonal transitions cannot be avoided without introducing additional states. A possible modication is
D 6 8 1, 7 E 2 F 8 A 3 6 C 4, 5 G 4, 5 B

This transition diagram can be embedded onto a 3-cube as follows:


E 6 8 D 6 1, 7 2 4, 5 A 3 B C 4, 5 8 G y2 y3 y1 F

9-5

Then the modied ow table is

Present state A B C D E F G

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A G C A C 01 B B C E C 10 D B G D B 11 A F A D D 00 0 0 0 0

Output z 01 1 1 1 10 1 0 0 1 0 11 1 0 1 0 0

The excitation table is

Present state y3 y2 y1 A B C D E F G 000 001 100 010 110 011 101

Next state w2 w1 = 00 01 Y3 Y2 Y1 000 101 100 000 100 001 001 100 110 100 010 001 101 010 001 000 011 000 010 010 0 0 0 0 10 11 00

Output 01 z 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 10 11

The next-state and output expressions are Y3 Y2 Y2 z = w 2 y3 + w 2 w 1 y1 + w 1 y3 y1 = w 2 w 1 y 3 y 1 + w 1 y 3 y2 y 1 + w 2 y 3 y2 y 1 + w 2 w1 y 3 y 2 y1 = y 3 y 2 y1 + w 2 w1 y 3 y 2 + w 2 w 1 y3 y 2 + w 2 w 1 y 2 y1 = w 2 w1 + w 1 y 2 y 1 + w 2 w 1 y 3 y 1

9-6

9.6. Relabel the ow table in Figure 9.42 as

Present state A B C D

Next state w2 w1 = 00 1 5 5 1 01 3 3 6 6 10 7 4 4 7 11 2 8 2 8 00 0 0 0

Output z 01 1 1 10 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 1 0

Using pairs of equivalent states gives the following transition diagram:


C2 4, 5 B1 3 2 1, 7 A1 A2 6 8 B2 3 y2 y3 y1 D2

C1

D1

Therefore, the modied ow table is

Present state A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D1 D2

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A1 A2 C2 B1 C1 C2 A2 D1 01 B1 B2 B1 B2 C1 C2 C1 C2 10 A2 D1 B1 B2 C2 B1 D1 D2 11 A1 A2 B2 D2 A1 C1 D1 D2 00 0 0 0 0 0 0

Output z 01 1 1 1 1 10 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 11 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

9-7

The excitation table is

Present state y3 y2 y1 A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D1 D2 000 001 010 011 100 110 101 111

Next state w2 w1 = 00 01 Y3 Y2 Y1 000 001 110 010 100 110 001 101 010 011 010 011 100 110 100 110 001 101 010 011 110 010 101 111 000 001 011 111 000 100 101 111 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 11 00

Output z 01 z 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 10 11

The next-state and output expressions are Y3 Y2 Y1 z = w 2 w 1 y2 y 1 + w 1 y3 y 2 y 1 + w 2 w 1 y 2 y1 + w 2 w1 y2 y1 + y3 y2 y1 + w 2 w1 y3 + w 1 y3 y2 + w 1 y3 y1 = y 3 y2 + w 2 w1 y3 + w 1 y2 y 1 + w 2 w1 y2 + w 2 y2 y1 + w 2 w 1 y3 y 2 = w 2 y1 + w 1 y 2 y1 + w 1 y 3 y1 + w 2 w 1 y 3 y 2 = w 2 y1 + w 2 y 3 y 2 + w 1 y3 y 2 + w 1 y3 y1

9.7. Using the one-hot encoding, the FSM in Figure 9.42 can be implemented as

State assignment 0001 0010 0100 1000 0011 1001 0110 1010 0101 1100

Present state A B C D E F G H I J

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A G C F A C 01 E B C J B C 10 F B G D D B 11 A H I D D A 00 0 0 0 0 0

Output z 01 1 1 1 1 10 1 0 0 1 1 0 11 1 0 1 0 0 1

9-8

9.8. Using the merger diagram in Figure 9.40a, the FSM in Figure 9.39 becomes

Present state A B C D E G

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A B B A B 01 G C C C G 10 E B E E E 11 D C D D D

Output z 0 0 1 0 1 1

9.9. The relabeled ow table is

Present state A B C D E F G

Next state w2 w1 = 00 1 4 6 4 1 6 01 2 2 5 5 5 2 10 3 3 3 3 3 11 7 7 7 7

Output z

The corresponding transition diagram is as follows. Note that the diagonal transitions are shown only when they involve a transition to a stable state.
3, 7 3 3 A 2 B 7 2, 7

3, 6

1 5

E 5 F

9-9

The diagonal transition D C labeled 3 can be removed by using the unspecied entry in row E , such that the required transition is performed as D E F C ; this involves placing a label 3 on the paths from D to E and E to F . Similarly, the diagonal transition E G labeled 7 can be removed by using the unspecied entry in row A, such that the required transition is performed as E A C G. These modications produce the following transition diagram:
3, 7

C 3, 7 A

G 2, 7

3, 6

1, 7 5, 3

E 5, 3 F

Then the modied ow table is

Present state A B C D E F G

Next state w2 w1 = 00 A D F C A F 01 B B E E E B 10 C C E F C C 11 C G G A G

Output z 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

Thus, a possible state assignment is: A = 000, B = 001, C = 100, D = 011, E = 010, F = 110, and G = 101. Then, the state-assigned table is

9-10

Present state y3 y2 y1 A B C D E F G 000 001 100 011 010 110 101

Next state w2 w1 = 00 01 Y3 Y2 Y1 000 011 110 011 000 110 001 001 010 010 010 001 100 100 010 110 100 100 100 101 101 000 101 10 11 Output z 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

The next-state and output expressions are Y3 Y2 Y1 z = w 2 y 2 + w 1 y3 + w 2 w 1 y 1 = w 1 y 3 y1 + w 2 y3 y 1 + w 2 w1 y2 + w 2 w 1 y 3 y2 + y 2 y1 = w 1 y3 y 2 + w 2 w1 y 2 + w 2 w 1 y1 + y 3 y2 y1 = y 2 y1 + y 3 y1

9.10. The minimum-cost hazard-free implementation is f = x 1 x3 x4 + x 1 x2 x4 + x 1 x3 x4 9.11. The minimum-cost hazard-free implementation is f = x 1 x2 x 4 x 5 + x 1 x2 x3 x 4 + x 1 x2 x3 x4 + x 1 x2 x 4 x5 9.12. The minimum-cost hazard-free POS implementation is f = (x1 + x2 + x4 )(x1 + x2 + x3 )(x1 + x3 + x4 )(x2 + x3 + x4 ) 9.13. The minimum-cost hazard-free POS implementation is f = (x1 + x2 + x4 + x5 )(x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 )(x1 + x2 + x4 ) 9.14. If A = B = D = E = 1 and C changes from 0 to 1, then f changes 0 1 0 and g changes 0 1 0 1. Therefore, there is a static hazard on f and a dynamic hazard on g .

9-11

9.16. The ow diagram in Figure P9.3 meets the vending machine specication if w 2 = D and w1 = N . Therefore, the reduced ow table is the same as the same as the answer to Problem 9.3. The relabeled ow table is

Present state A B C D F G I J

Next state DN=00 1 5 8 5 11 8 1 11 01 2 2 3 3 6 6 9 9 10 4 4 7 7 10 10 10 11

Output z 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

The transition diagram is


9, 10

I 1 A

10

4 10 C 8 5 D 7

11

A suitable state assignment is: A = 000, B = 001, C = 010, D = 011, F = 111, G = 110, I = 100, and J = 101. Then the state-assigned table is

9-12

Present state y3 y2 y1 A B C D F G I J 000 001 010 011 111 110 100 101

Next state DN=00 01 Y3 Y2 Y1 000 011 110 011 101 110 000 101 001 001 010 010 111 111 100 100 010 010 111 111 100 100 100 10 11 Output z 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

The next-state and output expressions are Y3 Y2 Y1 z = Dy3 + N y3 + y3 y1 + y3 y2 + Dy1 + Dy2 y1 N = Dy 3 + y 3 y2 + Ny 3 y1 + N y2 + Dy2 y1 + Dy2 y 1 = N y3 y1 + Dy1 N + N y 3 y 2 + N y3 y2 + y 3 y 2 y1 + y3 y2 y1 = y3 y 2 y 1

9.17. A possible Moore-type ow table is

Present state A B C D E

Next state wc = 00 A A A A 01 B B B E 10 D D D D 11 C C E E

Output z 0 0 0 0 1

A merger diagram for this ow table is


A B

C E D

9-13

Merging states A, B and C into a new state A, and states D and E into a new state E , gives the Mealy-type ow table

Present state A D

Next state wc = 00 A A 01 A D 10 D D 11 A D 00 0 0

Output z 01 0 1 10 0 0 11 0 1

Then, the excitation table is

Present state y 0 1

Next state wc = 00 01 Y 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 10 11 00

Output 01 z 0 1 0 0 0 1 10 11

The next-state expression is Y = wc + cy + wy Note that the term wy is included to prevent a static hazard. The output expression is z = cy The resulting circuit is

9-14

9.18. A possible Moore-type ow table is


Next state wc = 00 A A A A A 01 B B B E B 10 D D D F F 11 C C E E F

Present state A B C D E F

Output z 0 0 0 0 1 0

The corresponding merger diagram is


F A B

C E D

Merging rows A, B , and C into a new row A gives the reduced ow table
Next state wc = 00 A A A A 01 A E A 10 D D F F 11 A E E F

Present state A D E F

Output z z 0 0 1 0

To determine a suitable state assignment, relabel the ow table as follows:


Next state wc = 00 1 1 1 1 01 2 5 2 10 4 4 7 7 11 3 6 6 8

Present state A D E F

Output z 0 0 1 0

9-15

The transition diagram is


D 1 1, 4 1, 6 1 1, 7 E

1, 2

The ow table is Both diagonal transitions, under the label 1, can be omitted because there exist alternate paths along the edges for this label. Let the transition from E to A take place via D. Then, a possible state assignment is A = 00, D = 01, E = 11, and F = 10, which leads to the excitation table:

Present state y2 y1 A D E F 00 01 11 10 wc = 00 Y2 Y1 00 00 01 00

Next state 01 Y2 Y1 00 11 00 10 Y2 Y1 01 01 10 10 11 Y2 Y1 00 11 11 10 Output z 0 0 1 0

The resulting next-state expressions are Y2 Y1 = wy2 + cy1 = cy1 + wy1 y2 + wy 2 c + wy1 y 2

The product term wy1 y 2 is included to avoid a static hazard. The output expression is z = y1 y2 .

9-16

9.19. A possible state diagram for the three-input arbiter is


Reset

000 000 A 000 xx1 B 001 xx1

000 100 000 100

0x1 x10 x10 x01

1xx

D 100

100 010

C 010

x1x

9.20. Using the mutual exclusion element, the input valuation r 2 r1 = 11 cannot occur. Hence, the ow table is Present state A B C Next state r2 r1 = 00 A A A 01 B B B 10 C C C 11 Output g2 g1 00 01 10

The excitation table is Present state y2 y1 A B C D 00 01 10 11 Next state r2 r1 = 00 01 Y2 Y1 00 00 00 01 01 01 10 10 10 10 11 Output g2 g1 00 01 10

9-17

The resulting next state and output equations are Y1 Y2 g1 g2 = r1 = r2 = y1 = y2

9-18