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HARBARCO Learning Points about Multiissue, Multi-party Negotiations

1.

THEY INVARIABLY INVOLVE COALITIONS AND


ALLIANCES.
.
ALLIANCES ARE TYPICALLY UNSTABLE.

3.

AN ANALYSIS OF ALLIANCES IS CRUCIAL TO


SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATION.

4.

LOOK FOR AGREEMENT ON PROCESS FOR DECIDING


RATHER THAN FOCUSING ON OUTCOMES.

5.

LOCATEAFACILITATOR TO IMPLEMENT PROCESS.

6.

ALWAYS BE CORDIAL I DON'T MAKE ENEMIES.

7.

DON'T ASSUME EVERYONE AT THE TABLE


AGREEMENT.

8.

DON'T ASSUME THAT SOME PARTIES HAVE NO


PREFERENCES.

9.

PARTIES THAT REVEAL THEIR TRUE INTERESTS DO NOT


NECESSARILY DO BETTER THAN THOSE WHO REMAIN
SILENT OR BLUFF. THE ADVANTAGES OF REVEALING
ALL OF ONE'S CONCERNS ARE WORTH PURSUING
CAREFULLY.

W1~TS

HARBORCO

Summary of Points
Harborco

1.
2.
3.
4.

Union preference
2:1
1:1
No preference

2. $2B
3.$1 B
4. None
1. $600 M
2.$450 M
3. $300M
4. $150M
5. No

Reservation Price

Ports

0
5
10
17

0
0
0
0

12
8
6
0

24
18
12
0

0
2
4
9

42
35
25
0

35
29
20
0

0
0
0
0

0
8
18

40
30
23
0

10
26
40
0

30
20
10
0

0
5
10
15
23
55

0
0
0
0
0
50

60
45
30
15
0
31

0
2
4
7
10
30

4
8
15
12
0
65

2
4
6
8
0
50

13

Gov

DCR

Env

Unions

HARBORCO

Solution Set
Notes on Interpreting the Chart

1. Left half identifies the agreement for you. The first row reads:
1
2
1
4
3
and means
Outcome 1 on industry mix (primarily dirty)
Outcome 2 on ecological impact (maintain/repair)
Outcome 1 on employment (unlimited union preference)
Outcome 3 on federal loan ($1 billion)
Outcome 4 on compensation (no compensation)

2. Right half tells you the total number of points each party earns. The maximum
possible for each party is shaded. The first row reads:
56 points for Harborco
25 points for environmentalists, etc.

3. There are
55 possible agreements
9 with consensus (with an *)
4 that are pareto inefficient (boxed)
#24
#28
#33
#43

is
is
is
is

Pareto-superior to #20
Pareto-superior to #22
Pareto-superior to #47
Pareto-superior to #53

HARBORCO

Outcomes
ISSUES {alternatives2

PARTIES (points2

Resistance Points

[55]

[50]

[50]

[31]

[65]

[30]

IND

EC

EMP

FL

COM

HR

ER

UR

PR

FR

GR TOTAL

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
*9
10
11
*12
13
*14
15
16
17
18
19
20
24
21
22
28
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
1

1
2
2
3
3
3
3
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
2
2
3
3
3

3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2

4
3
4
3
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
3
4
4
5
2
3
2
3
4
3
3
4
3
4
3
4
4
2
3
4
3
4
3
4

56
56
61
70
56
61
66
57
58
63
62
63
68
59
67
63
70
56
61
59
59
59
64
64
59
59
64
55
59
64
69
55
60

25
25
25
25
25
25
25
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
22
47
22
22
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
47

75
66
68
66
54
56
58
67
76
78
60
66
68
58
50
39
41
29
31
73
81
61

40
51
36
44

72
77

77

79
76
65
68
65
67
70
67
81
69
68
75
82
89
65
74
70
67
76
69
74
71
85
69
76
73
90
87
65
76

344
342
334
333
330
331
323
340
369
361
330
358
350
343
319
326
327
319
320
327
379
324

57

49
34
25
46
31
21
44
29
34
19
33
38
58
43
40
50
53
38
48
39
50
35
40
63
48
33
53
38
34
35

76
67
70
68
59
61
64
71
66
69
65
60
63
56
59
46
48
39
41
68
68
59

68
71
64
60
62
65
55
58
60
63

379
371
364
367
368
360
361
353
339
391

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
2

3
1
2

81
83
73
69
71
73
61
63
56
83

74
65
72

PARTIES (points)

ISSUES (alternatives)
Resistance Points
#

IND

EC

34
35
*36
*37
38
39
*40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
33
*48
*49
50
51
52
53
43
54
55

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3

EMP
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

FL
3
1
2
2
2
3
1
1

2
2
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2

COM
5
3
3
4
5
5
3
4
2
3
3
4
4
5
4
3
4
2
3
4
4
3
3
4

[55)

[50]

[50]

[31]

[65)

[30]

HR
56
63
57
62
70
61
70
75
59
64
55
60
56
55
57
56
61
58
63
68
59
64
56
61

ER

UR
65
81
71
73
65
55
56
58
44
46
36
38
63
45
83
51
53
24
26
28
18
46
26
28

PR
25
40
48
33
18
23
34
19
57
42
47
32
41
31
35
54
39
63
48
33
38
42
48
33

FR
78
65
81
78
66
80
70
67
79
86

GR TOTAL
360
59
64
390
54
388
57
380
356
60
349
53
52
359
351
55
40
356
42
357
35
350
342
38
63
358
327
59
391
63
54
355
347
57
40
323
42
324
316
45
38
309
42
357
344
34
37
336

77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77

70
70
77

70
70
70
70
70
70
77

lilt;

~-

97
65
67
76
70
67
68
75
72

86
86
80
77

HARBORCO

Strategies and Tactics for Negotiating in Groups

1. Share own and


elicit others'
interests

1. Seek similar others


and construct an
alternative that
meets your
collective interests

1. Open with a high, but


not outrageously high
demand

2. Consider many
alternatives; be
creative; look for
ways to use
available resources

2. Recruit just enough


members to control
the group's decision

2. Argue the merits of


your alternative; do
not reveal your
interests

3. Don't just
compromise; make
trade-offs

3. Encourage
interpersonal
obligations among
coalition members

3. Appear unable or
unwilling to concede

4. Encourage positive
relations

4. Encourage positive
relations

5. Use threats, time


deadlines, and
promises, if necessary