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Grade 9 Review Assignment (Final Exam) Name _____________________ Due by 08:30 the day of your final exam.

ALL LATE ASSIGNMENTS GET A ZERO!! 1) The table below describes some particles. Electron 12 12 10 10 9 Neutron 12 14 12 8 10 . . I the particle with the same mass as a neutron J the particle that dictates the position of the element in the Periodic Table The atoms of an element can be represented by a set of three letters, yzX a) What does each letter stand for ? iX ii y iii z b) How many neutrons are there in these atoms? i 107-47Ag ii 63-29Cu iii 11H iv 20-10Ne v 238-92U c) Bromine atoms have 36 neutrons. Describe a bromine atom, using the method in b.

Particle A

Proton 12

3)

B C

12 12

D E . . . . .

8 9

a Which three particles are neutral atoms? b Which particle is a negative ion? What is the charge on this ion? c Which particle is a positive ion? What is the charge on this ion? d Which two particles are isotopes? e Use the periodic table to identify A to E. 2) The following statements are about the particles that make up the atom. For each statement write: p if it describes the proton e if it describes the electron n if it describes the neutron 4) For each of the six elements aluminium (Al),boron (B), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S), write down: a) I which period of the Periodic Table it belongs to . ii its group number in the Periodic Table . iii its proton number . iv the number of electrons in its atoms . v its electronic configuration . vi the number of outer electrons in its atoms . b) The outer electrons are also called the _____ electrons. What is the missing word? (7 letters!) . c) Which of the above elements would you expect to have similar properties? Why? 5) This diagram represents the electronic arrangement in an atom of an element. a. a i Give the electron distribution for the atom. ii What is special about this arrangement?

. . . . . . . .

A the positively-charged particle B found with the proton, in the nucleus C the particle that can occur in different numbers, in atoms of the same element D held in shells around the nucleus E the negatively-charged particle F the particle with negligible mass G the number of these particles is found by subtracting the proton number from the nucleon number H the particle with no charge

b. c.

b Which group of the Periodic Table does the element belong to? c Name another element with the same number of outer-shell electrons in its atoms.

a diagram to show its electron structure. 6) Read this passage about metals. Elements are divided into metals and non-metals. All metals are electrical conductors. Many of them have a high density and they are usually ductile and malleable. All these properties influence the way the metals are used. Some metals are sonorous and this leads to special uses for them. . a Explain the underlined terms. . b Copper is ductile. How is this property useful in everyday life? . c Aluminium is hammered and bent to make large structures for use in ships and planes. What property allows it to be shaped like this? . d Name one metal that has a low density. . e Some metals are cast into bells. What property must the chosen metals have? . f Give the missing word: Metals are good conductors of .......... and electricity. . g Choose another physical property of metals, and give two examples of how it is useful. . h Phosphorus is a solid non-metal at room temperature. What other physical properties would you expect it to have? . h Write a word equation for the reaction between lithium and fluorine. . g Draw a diagram to show what happens when a lithium atom reacts with a fluorine atom.

. e How does a non-metal atom become an ion? . f Draw the structure of a fluoride ion, and write a symbol for it, showing its charge.

8)

These are some properties of substances A to G.

. i Explain how the chemical properties of metals and non-metals can be used to tell them apart.

. a Which of the seven substances are metals? Give reasons for your choice.

7) This question is about the ionic bond formed between the metal lithium (proton number 3) and the non-metal fluorine (proton number 9). . a How many electrons does a lithium atom have? Draw a diagram to show its electron structure.

. b Which of the substances are ionic compounds? Give reasons for your choice.

. c Two of the substances have very low melting points, compared with the rest. Explain why these could not be ionic compounds.

. b How does a metal atom obtain a stable outer shell of electrons? . c Draw the structure of a lithium ion, and write the symbol for it, showing its charge.

. d Two of the substances are molecular. Which two are they? . e i Which substance is a giant covalent structure? . ii What other name is used to describe this type of structure? (Hint: starts with m.)

. d How many electrons does a fluorine atom have? Draw

. f Name the type of bonding found in:

. iB . ii C 8) Silicon lies directly below carbon in Group IV of the Periodic Table. Here is some data for silicon, carbon (in the form of diamond), and their oxides.

. iii E . iv F d i From c, deduce the formula of zinc sulfide. ii Is this formula consistent with the charges on the two ions? Explain your answer. e Name another metal and non-metal that will form a compound with a similar formula. 10) Write the formula for these compounds: a water b carbon dioxide c sulfur trioxide

. a In which state are the two elements at room temperature (20C)? . b Which type of structure does carbon (diamond) have: giant covalent, or molecular? . c Which type of structure would you expect to find in silicon? Give reasons. . d In which state are the two oxides, at room temperature? . e Which type of structure has carbon dioxide? . f Does silicon dioxide have the same structure as carbon dioxide? What is your evidence? 9) The compound zinc sulfide has a structure like this:

d magnesium chloride e methane f carbon monoxide g sulfur dioxide h sodium chloride i hydrogen chloride j ammonia 11) For each compound, write down the ratio of atoms present: . a copper(II) oxide, CuO . b copper(I) oxide, Cu2O . c aluminium chloride, AlCl3 . d nitric acid, HNO3 . e calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 . f ethanoic acid, CH3COOH

a Which does the diagram represent: a giant structure, or a molecular structure? b Which type of bonding does zinc sulfide have? c Look carefully at the structure. How many: i sulfur ions are joined to each zinc ion? ii zinc ions are joined to each sulfur ion?

. g ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 . h ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4 . i sodium phosphate, Na3(PO4)2 . j iron(II) sulfate, FeSO4 . k cobalt(II) chloride, CuCl2 12) Write the chemical formulae and name for the

compounds with the structures shown below:

16) Some magnesium and an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid were reacted together. The volume of hydrogen produced was recorded every minute, as shown in the table:

. a What does an excess of acid mean? . b Plot a graph of the results. . c What is the rate of reaction (in cm3 of hydrogen per minute) during: i the first minute? . 13) Write these as word equations: a Zn+ 2HCl ZnCl2 +H2 b Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O c 2Mg+CO2 2MgO+C d ZnO+C Zn+CO e Cl2 + 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br2 f CuO + 2HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + H2O 14) Complete these equations and please give the type of reaction for each: . a ... C + ........ 2CO . b 2CuO + C 2Cu + ........ . c C2H6 ........ + H2 . d ZnO + C Zn + ........ . e NiCO3 NiO + ........ . f CO2 + ........ CH4 + O2 . g NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 + ........ . h C2H6 + O2H2O +........ ii the second minute? iii the third minute? . d Why does the rate change during the reaction? . e How much hydrogen was produced in total? . f How long does the reaction last? . g What is the average rate of the reaction? . h How could you slow down the reaction, while keeping the amounts of reactants unchanged? 17) Suggest a reason for each observation below. . a Hydrogen peroxide decomposes much faster in the presence of the enzyme catalase. . b The reaction between manganese carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid speeds up when some concentrated hydrochloric acid is added. . c Powdered magnesium is used in fireworks, rather than magnesium ribbon. 18) In two separate experiments, two metals A and B were reacted with an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid. The volume of hydrogen was measured every 10 seconds. These graphs show the results:

. 15) Look at this reaction: NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) a Which type of reaction is it? b It is exothermic. What does that mean?

a. Which piece of apparatus can be used to measure the volume of hydrogen produced? What other measuring equipment is needed?

20) Some pondweed is placed as shown:

b. Which metal, A or B, reacts faster with hydrochloric acid? Give your evidence.

c. Sketch and label the curves that will be obtained for metal B if: . i more concentrated acid is used (curve X) . ii the reaction is carried out at a lower temperature (curve Y) a I Name the gas that collects in the test tube ii What other product is produced? . b This experiment must be carried out in the light. Why? . 19) Marble chips (lumps of calcium carbonate) react with hydrochloric acid as follows:CaCO3 (s) 1 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) a What gas is released during this reaction? b Describe a laboratory method that could be used to investigate the rate of the reaction. c How will this affect the rate of the reaction? i increasing the temperature ii adding water to the acid d Explain each of the effects in c in terms of collisions between reacting particles. e If the lumps of marble are crushed first, will the reaction rate change? Explain your answer. 22) The table below is about the preparation of salts. . i Fill in the missing details. ii Write balanced equations for the eight reactions. . c Using the apparatus above, suggest a method by which the rate of reaction could be found. . d What would be the effect of bringing a lamp close to the beaker? Explain your answer. . 21) Please circle the correct answers in the following, choosing the correct word from each pair in brackets. Acids are compounds that dissolve in water giving hydrogen ions. Sulfuric acid is an example. It can be neutralised by (acids/bases) to form salts called (nitrates / sulfates). Many (metals/non-metals) react with acids to give (hydrogen/carbon dioxide). Acids react with (chlorides/carbonates) to give (hydrogen/carbon dioxide). Since they contain ions, solutions of acids are (good/poor) conductors of electricity. They also affect indicators. Litmus turns (red/blue) in acids while phenolphthalein turns (pink/colourless). The level of acidity of an acid is shown by its (concentration/pH number). The (higher/lower) the number, the more acidic the solution.

23) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the chemical name for Epsom salts. It can be made in the laboratory by neutralising the base magnesium oxide (MgO). . a Which acid should be used to make Epsom salts? . b Write a balanced equation for the reaction. . C. i. The acid is fully dissociated in water. What is the term that describes this? ii Which ion causes the acidity of the acid? . d What is a base?

. b Now predict the missing data for rubidium. . c In a rubidium atom: i how many electron shells are there? ii how many electrons are there? . iii how many valency electrons are there? 26) The Periodic Table is the result of hard work by many scientists, in many countries, over hundreds of years. They helped to develop it by discovering, and investigating, new elements. The Russian chemist Mendeleev was the first person to produce a table like the one we use today. He put all the elements he knew of into his table. But he realized that gaps should be left for elements not yet discovered. He even predicted the properties of some of these. Mendeleev published his Periodic Table in 1869. The extract on the right below shows Groups I and VII from his table. Use the modern Periodic Table to help you answer these questions. a What does Period 2 mean?

24) This extract from the Periodic Table shows the symbols for the first 20 elements.

Look at the row from lithium (Li) to neon (Ne). . a What is this row of the Periodic Table called? . b Which element in it is the least reactive? Why? Look at the column of elements from lithium (Li) to potassium (K). c What is this column of the table called? d Of the three elements shown in this column, which one is the most reactive? 25) Rubidium is an alkali metal. It lies below potassium in Group I. Here is data for Group I:

b I How does Group I in the modern Periodic Table differ from Group I in Mendeleevs table? . ii The arrangement in the modern table is more appropriate for Group I. Explain why. . iii What do we call the Group I elements today? c i The element with the symbol Mn is out of place in Group VII. Why? What do we call the Group VII elements? ii Where is the element Mn in today's table? . d Mendeleev left gaps in several places in his table. Why did he do this? . e There was no group to the right of Group VII, in Mendeleevs table. Suggest a reason for this omission. 27) This question is about elements from these families: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals (Group II), transition elements, halogens, noble gases. . A is a soft, silvery metal that reacts violently with water.

. a Describe the trends in melting point, boiling point, and reactivity, as you go down the group.

. B is a gas at room temperature. It reacts violently with

other elements, without heating. . C is an unreactive gas that sinks in air. . D is a hard solid at room temperature, and forms coloured compounds. . E conducts electricity, and reacts slowly with water. Its atoms each give up two electrons. . F is a reactive liquid; it does not conduct electricity; it shows a valency of 1 in its compounds. . G is a hard solid that conducts electricity, can be beaten into shape, and rusts easily. . a For each element above, say which of the listed families it belongs to. . b i Comment on the position of elements A, B, and C within their families.ii Describe the valence (outer) shell of electrons for each of the elements A, B, and C. . c Explain why the arrangement of electrons in their atoms makes some elements very reactive, and others unreactive. d Name elements that fit descriptions A to G. e Which of A to G may be useful as catalysts?

. b Which elements will react with cold water? . c Choose one metal that will react with steam but not cold water. Draw a diagram of suitable apparatus for this reaction. (You must show how the steam is generated.) . d i Name the gas given off in b and c. . ii Name another reagent that reacts with many metals to give the same gas. . 30) Look again at the list of metals in 29. Carbon can be placed between zinc and aluminium. a Which two of these will react? i carbon + aluminium oxide ii carbon + copper(II) oxide iii magnesium + carbon dioxide b Write a word equation for the two reactions, and underline the substance that is reduced.

. .

28) The elements of Group 0 are called the noble gases. They are all monatomic gases. . a Name four of the noble gases. . b i What is meant by monatomic? . ii Explain why the noble gases, unlike all other gaseous elements, are monatomic. When elements react, they become like noble gases. c i Explain what the above statement means. ii What can you conclude about the reactivity of Group VII ions?

31) When magnesium powder is added to copper(II) sulfate solution, a displacement reaction occurs and solid copper forms.

. a Write a word equation for the reaction. . b Why does the displacement reaction occur? . c. Use the reactivity series of metals to decide whether these will react together: i iron 1 copper(II) sulfate solution ii silver 1 calcium nitrate solution . iii zinc 1 lead(II) nitrate solution . d For those that react:

. 29) . a Which element is stored in oil?

i describe what you would see ii write the balanced equations for the reactions.

32) This table gives information about the extraction of three different metals from their main ores:

ii Give one harmful effect of nitrogen dioxide. b What is meant by a catalytic reaction? c In one reaction in a catalytic converter, nitrogen monoxide (NO) reacts with carbon monoxide to form nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Write a balanced equation for this reaction.

a Arrange the three metals in order of reactivity. b i How are the two more reactive metals extracted from their ores? ii Explain why this is a reduction of the ores. c i How is the least reactive metal extracted from its ore? ii Explain why this is a reduction of the ore. iii Why can this method not be used for the more reactive metals? d Which of the methods would you use to extract: i potassium? ii lead? iii magnesium? d Gold is found native in the Earths crust. Explain what native means. f Where should gold go, in your list for b? g Name another metal that occurs native. 33) a Draw a diagram of the blast furnace. Show clearly on your diagram: i where air is blasted into the furnace ii where the molten iron is removed iii where a second liquid is removed b i Name the three raw materials used. ii What is the purpose of each material? c Name a waste gas from the furnace. d i Write an equation for the chemical reaction that produces the iron. ii Explain why this is a reduction of the iron compound. iii What acts as the reducing agent? 34) In the catalytic converters fitted to modern cars, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust gas are converted to other substances. a i Why is carbon monoxide removed? . 34) Dilute sulfuric acid has typical acid properties. An excess of it is added to test-tubes W, X, Y and Z, which contain these powdered substances: W copper(II) oxide X magnesium Y calcium hydroxide Z sodium carbonate a In which test-tubes will you observe fizzing? b In which test-tube will a coloured solution form? c In which of the test-tubes does neutralization take place? d Name the four salts obtained, after reaction. e Write balanced equations for the four reactions. 35) Ethanoic (Acetic) acid is a weak acid. a. Explain what this means, using an equation to help you. b. Ethanoic acid reacts with carbonates. i What would you see during this reaction? ii Write a balanced equation for the reaction with sodium carbonate. 36) Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is an important fertiliser. The ions in it can be identified by tests. a Name the cation present, and give its formula. b Which of these tests will confirm its presence? A When aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to a solution of the compound, a white precipitate forms. This does not dissolve in excess sodium hydroxide. B On heating the solid with solid sodium hydroxide, a gas is given off. It turns damp red litmus paper blue. C On heating the solid with dilute hydrochloric acid, a gas is given off. It turns damp blue litmus paper red. c Name the anion present, and give its formula

37) On the line, tell if the the reaction is a Single Replacement Reaction [SR], Double Replacement [DR], Combination [CB], Decomposition [D], Incomplete Combustion [IC], or a Complete Combustion [CC]. Please also balance each reaction. ___ BaO2 ---------> O2 + Ba C6H12O6 + O2 -----> Hg + CH4 + Li + CuO + O2 ------> O2 -------> H2O -------> H2 -------> H2O + HgO CO + H 2O CO2

LiOH + H2 Cu + H2O

38) Complete each of the following equations. You need not balance them. Mg + HCl ------> Al(OH)3 + Ca3(PO4)2 -------> C5H10 + O2 -------> Cl2 + KI -------> Be + N2 --------> MgCO3 ----------> 39) Give either the name or the formulae for the following: HI PbO Ag3PO4 tellurium hexafluoride nitrogen trichloride trisulfur dinitride Co(HSO4)2 Ba(ClO)2 PF5 P3N5 Cl2O3 NaBr silicon dioxide sulfur hexafluoride aluminum acetate calcium chloride KCN HI

CsCl FeO LiMnO4 S3N2 N2O4 barium hydroxide copper II phosphate phosphoric acid tellurium hexafluoride iron II acetate lead IV sulfide antimony pentachloride diiodine pentoxide acetic acid CCl4 ClF3 HNO3 N2

Br2 H2CO3 H2SO4 IF7

Fe(NO2)2 Cu3(PO4)2 H3PO4 sulfurous acid

40) Give the name and symbol for each of the following elements: a. 1s22s22p63s1 b. 1s22s22p3

c.

1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2

d.

1s22s22p63s23p64s1

41) What is the maximum number of electrons in each of the following subshells? a) 2s b) 4p c) 3d d) 1p

e) 4f f) 2p g) 2d h) 6g 42) Write the orbital electron configurations for the following elements. a) P b) Y c) Cs d) Re 43. a) P3b) Mg2+ c) Cs+ d) O2e) U3+ e) Cm f) He g) Ni h) S

Write the orbital electron configuration for each of the following:

Across: 3 formed by a slow metal reaction with air and water 5 describes the fast reaction of hydrogen near a lit splint 7 the reaction between sodium and water! 8 this is increased in terms of particle collision by increasing concentration 11 increasing this usually makes the reaction go faster 14 particles must do this before they react 16 more chance of collision when more of this for a solid? 17 these help reactions go faster 19 reactions are like this at low concentration 20 amount of this increases with time in a reaction 22 a biological catalyst 25 the particles must have this energy to react

Down: 1 increasing this usually causes a greater chance of collision 2 the graph line at the start of a fast reaction looks like this 4 this is usually when the reaction is fastest 6 particles have this kind of energy 9 the letters of the chemical symbol for slowest reacting Halogen "Astatine" (at the bottom of Group 7 of the Periodic Table) 10 the letters of the symbol for a fast reacting metallic element named after the famous scientist Marie Curie 12 the reactant that is not all used up is in .... 13 increasing the temperature gives the particles more ... 15 form of limestone reacting slowly 18 form of limestone reacting fast 21 heading back to the heart after some fast respiration reactions in an exams! 23 an oxide of nitrogen formed by reactions in a hot car engine 24 the symbol letters for a metal that dissolves moderately fast in acid