You are on page 1of 53

SESAR Definition Phase

The Concept of Operations at a glance

This document provides more detailed information on the SESAR Concept of Operations (ConOps) presented in a concise form in Deliverable 3 (DLM-0612-001-02-00). It however remains a summary description of a complex matter that cannot be described in all aspects in this document. Interested readers are therefore invited to look at the full ConOps in Task 2.2.2 Deliverable (DLT 2.2.2/D3) which shall be used as the primary reference for all future SESAR developments.

A Summary of the SESAR ConOps


1.0 Introduction
The SESAR ConOps is a trajectory based system, having seven major features, the first two of which are a necessary foundation for the others: 1. A System Wide Information Management (SWIM) network to support all major processes. 2. Collaborative Decision Making to define a rolling Network Operations Plan, and to negotiate trajectory changes. 3. A Trajectory Managed environment rather than one that is based on Airspace Management. 4. Extensive use of automation support to reduce controller task load, but in which controllers remain in control as managers. 5. New separation modes to take advantage of advanced aircraft navigation capabilities and to allow tasks to be delegated to pilots so as to further reduce controller task load. 6. Aircraft and ATM system ATM Capability Levels. 7. Airports fully integrated into the ATM network. The essence of the system is to use precise trajectory data, combined with cockpit displays of surrounding traffic:- (a) to improve predictability throughout the whole ATM system; (b) to increase capacity, productivity and safety; (c) to reduce environmental noise and emissions; and (d) to share tasks and increase the situational awareness of pilots and controllers. The technology itself is reasonably mature. However, all partners in the SWIM network will need to adapt their behaviour to the new environment. The focus will shift from the producer of information to the information itself, with generalised access enabling users to create their own applications which best suit their mission needs. They will need to agree on the level of interoperability required and to agree the rules, roles and responsibilities of information sharing. These are important since they determine which kind of information is shared by whom, with whom, where, when, why, how much, how often, at The SESAR ConOps is compatible in all respects with the ICAO Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept, as described in Doc 9854 AN/458, and represents the concrete application of this global concept, adapted and interpreted for Europe with due regard to the need to be globally interoperable.

2.0 System Wide Information Management (SWIM)


SWIM is fundamental to the whole SESAR ConOps. Without SWIM SESAR will not work. The SWIM network will be an IP based data transport network, using proven information communication technology. It will replace the current point to point data systems with a ground/ground communications network which connects all ATM partners; ANSPs, airports and airspace users, including the military. Aircraft will become travelling nodes in the network, permanently connected by a new high capacity air/ground data link. Using the SWIM network, all partners (in the air and on the ground) will become both consumers and producers of information, which they will share, tailored to their individual needs. This will allow them to make decisions based on full knowledge of accurate up-to-date information and to put back into the system the results of their decisions for others to use.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

which quality level, in what form, for which purpose, at what cost, under what liability, under which circumstances and which security levels. The benefits are considered to be substantial, not only in terms of improved decisions but also in unifying working methods across the whole European ATM network, with consequential improvements in efficiency.

The RBT is defined by the airlines Flight Operations Centre (FOC) flight planning system. Trajectories may also be defined by handing agents or pilots on behalf of smaller airlines, business aviation and general aviation flights, or by the ANSP if required (e.g. on behalf of the military). The essential point for ATM is that, instead of having several versions of the trajectory in the system, there is a unique accurate trajectory for each flight that is used throughout the ATM network. Until the aircraft is airborne, available 4D trajectory data retain a level of uncertainty that limits their use for purposes other than planning. Once aircraft are airborne, trajectories attain high precision in the time dimension, and are continuously shared and available via the NOP. Any changes that are required are made through CDM constraints arising for any reason (other flights, airspace reservations, etc.) are published via the NOP, with the airspace user adjusting the trajectory to comply in a way that best suits the users operational and business needs. However, it must be emphasised that this does not prevent controllers and pilots making time critical changes as required. Unique 4D trajectories permit a number of very significant advantages: 1. They reduce the uncertainty which in turn reduces the number of conflicts/interactions that need to be resolved. 2. When combined with improved navigation performance (vertical, lateral and in time), they reduce the amount of unusable airspace around each aircraft thus allowing more aircraft in the airspace. 3. They are a source of accurate data which can be used by automated controller support tools. 4. They redefine the need for many airspace structures which currently restrict the efficiency of flight paths, both laterally and vertically.

3.0 Collaborative Decision Making (CDM)


CDM is already used at a number of European airports. In SESAR this method of decision making will not be confined only to airports but will be further developed and spread throughout the network. It needs to cover the sharing of information related to the progress of flights (on the ground and in the air) and the actions taken on this information. It is not a separate part of the ATM network, it is a method of working which is applicable to most decision making aspects of the ATM operational concept. The airspace users start by defining and then sharing, with ATM partners, their business/mission intentions. These trajectories are then modified as necessary using a layered CDM planning process which takes account of identified constraints. The ATM planning process is one of continuous refinement as better data becomes available. There is no clearly defined starting point to the process, it starts many years before the day of operation, taking into account such considerations as staff recruitment, training plans and major system procurements. The goal of collaborative layered planning is to balance ATM resources and airspace user demand. In the months leading up to the initiation of the flight the iterative planning process refines the trajectories and the available resources and expresses these as the Network Operations Plan (NOP). The NOP is a rolling plan giving a snapshot of the network at any one time. The aim of the NOP is to facilitate the processes needed to reach agreements on demand and capacity. This planning is overseen by a Network Management function which assures, at both network and regional level, the stability and efficiency of the ATM network. The final trajectory just before flight execution is called the Reference Business Trajectory (RBT). Depending on the ATM Capability Level (see section 7.0) it is expressed in up to 4 dimensions, and is the trajectory which the airspace user agrees to fly and the ANSP and airport agrees to facilitate (see section 4.0). The features described in sections 2.0 and 3.0 above provide the essential system environment in which the following processes can deliver the benefits defined in the SESAR goals.

5.0 Automation Support


The main constraint to airspace capacity is controller task load. Therefore there must be a substantial reduction of controller task load per flight, while also meeting the SESAR safety, environmental and economic goals. Controller task load is generated from two different sources:- (i) the routine task load associated with managing a flight through a sector (such as coordination in and out, routine communications, data management), and (ii) the tactical task load associated with separation provision (conflict/interaction detection, situation monitoring and conflict resolution). As the traffic throughput increases the routine task load increases proportionally (three times the flights equals three times the task load). The separation provision task load, however, increases relative to the number of conflicts/interactions, approximately according to the square of the increase in traffic (three times the flights equals nine times the task load). To address the controller task load issue, without incurring a significant increase in ANSP costs, three lines of action are included in the concept: 1. Automation for the routine controller task load supported by better methods of data input and data management. 2. Automation support to conflict/interaction detection, situation monitoring and conflict resolution. 3. A significant reduction in the need for controller tactical intervention, by (a) reducing the number of potential conflicts using a range of

4.0 Trajectory Management


The collaborative planning process described above terminates when the RBT is published. When published, the RBT does not represent a clearance but is the goal to be achieved and which will be progressively authorised, either as a clearance by the ANSP or as a function of aircraft crew/systems depending on whether the ANSP or the flight crew is the designated separator.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

deconfliction methods, and (b) redistributing the tactical interventions to the pilots (see section 6.0 below). This will require an intense enhancement of integrated automation support while human operators are expected to remain the core of the system. Humans will need to remain in command as overall system managers, but using automated systems possessing the required degree of integrity and redundancy.

The following different levels of ATM capabilities are defined: ATM Capability Level 0: Systems that do not meet at least the ATM-1 capabilities. Capabilities of existing systems and those delivered up to 2012/2013, having largely todays capabilities. Capabilities of systems delivered and inservice from 2013, having a range of new capabilities but which do not fully meet the 2020 needs. Main capabilities required by the key SESAR target date of 2020. These will be based upon the SESAR concept needs at the time and a realistic assessment of potential capabilities. The very advanced capabilities that potentially offer the means to achieve the SESAR goals, in particular the very high-end capacity target. The timeframe for initial availability and progressive equipage is in the range 2025+.

ATM Capability Level 1:

ATM Capability Level 2:

6.0 New Separation Modes


As a further means of reducing controller task load new separation modes are introduced within the SESAR concept. Separation modes fall into three broad categories: 1. Conventional Modes: those that are essentially unchanged by SESAR. 2. New ANSP Separation Modes: new modes that are applied purely by ATC that involve Precision Trajectory Clearances (PTC). 3. New Airborne Separation Modes: new modes that involve the aircraft and in which the pilot is the separator either by delegation or as the standard case. Precision Trajectory Clearances (PTC) can either be on 2D routes (with lateral containment), on 3D routes (with lateral and vertical containment), through trajectory control by ground based speed adjustments, or through 4D contracts which prescribe the containment of the trajectory in all 4 dimensions for the period of the contract. The purpose of each of these is to reduce substantially the uncertainty of the predicted aircraft position and thus reduce the number of potential conflicts/interactions that need to be resolved by the controller. New Airborne Separation Modes use airborne systems to allow spacing and separation tasks to be delegated to the pilots. Three basic stages are envisaged; (i) pilots are required to identify a specified aircraft and maintain the designated spacing from it, (ii) pilots are required to identify a specified aircraft and to separate themselves from it, and (iii) pilots accept responsibility to self separate from all other aircraft in the vicinity. The periods and circumstances of such delegations will need to be clearly defined.

ATM Capability Level 3:

ATM Capability Level 4:

8.0 Airports
In SESAR, airports are fully integrated into the ATM network as nodes in the system. CDM will be used to ensure a seamless process over the entire planning spectrum, and will be used between airspace users, ANSPs and airports (using arrival, departure and surface management tools) to assist queue management so as to make best use of all available runway capacity. Runway throughput will be enhanced by reducing occupancy times, reducing arrival and departure spacing, wake vortex prediction systems and improved surface movement guidance systems. Safety will be enhanced by using cockpit displays giving complete situational awareness on and in the vicinity of the airports surface and allowing warnings to be provided directly to the flight crew rather than through the intermediary of a controller. It is expected that the combination of Trajectory Management, Airborne Spacing tools and precision navigation techniques will reduce air and ground holding and enable Continuous Descent Approaches thus leading to reduced noise and environmental emissions per flight as specified in the SESAR goals.

7.0 ATM Capability Levels


ATM Capability Levels are defined to describe the on-going deployment of progressively more advanced ATM systems for aircraft, ground systems and airports. Their purpose is to ensure the synchronisation of cost effective system enhancements in the air and on the ground and between ground systems.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 - THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS AT A GLANCE DOCUMENT
1.1 - THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT 1.2 - RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DOCUMENTS, STRUCTURE OF THIS DOCUMENT

7 7 7

2 - THE PURPOSE OF THE CONOPS


2.1 - THE ATM VISION AND FLIGHT OPERATION

8 8

3 - THE MAJOR PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS


3.1 - PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 3.2 - THE DESCRIPTION OF THE FLIGHT INTENT 3.3 - COLLABORATIVE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING 3.4 - THE NETWORK OPERATIONS PLAN AS FACILITATOR FOR PLANNING 3.5 - AIRPORTS FULLY INTEGRATED INTO THE ATM NETWORK 3.6 - THE HUMAN WILL BE CENTRAL IN THE FUTURE EUROPEAN ATM SYSTEM 3.7 - NEW SEPARATION MODES AND THE STRATEGY TO REDUCE CONTROLLER WORK LOAD 3.7.1 - Drivers for the separation concept 3.7.2 - The strategy to reduce controller task load 3.7.3 - New separation modes 3.8 - MINIMISING SEGREGATION 3.9 - ACCESS AND EQUITY 3.10 - ENHANCED INTEGRATION OF DIVERSE AIRSPACE USERS

9 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12

4 - ESSENTIAL ENABLERS OF THE CONCEPT


4.1 - SYSTEM WIDE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AS THE ESSENTIAL ENABLER 4.2 - THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATIONS 4.2.1 - Communications Principles 4.2.2 - Communications Services 4.3 - THE EVOLUTION OF NAVIGATION SERVICES 4.4 - THE EVOLUTION OF SURVEILLANCE SERVICES 4.5 - THE EVOLUTION OF METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15

5 - THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS AT A GLANCE (HOW IT WORKS)


5.1 - USER PREFERRED ROUTING ENVIRONMENT 5.2 - THE BUSINESS TRAJECTORY

16 16 16

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

5.2.1 - The Business Trajectory Lifecycle 5.2.2 - The Concept of Managing Trajectories 5.2.3 - Access to Trajectory Management 5.2.4 - ATM Capability Levels 5.3 - TRAJECTORY BASED OPERATIONS 5.3.1 - Using the RBT 5.3.2 - Trajectory Related Information Sharing Requirements 5.3.3 - Flight Planning to Support Trajectory Based Operations 5.3.4 - The ATM Planning Process 5.3.5 - Airspace Organisation and Management 5.3.6 - Airport Planning 5.3.7 - Trajectory Based Operations in Managed Airspace 5.3.8 - Changes to the RBT 5.3.9 - Queue Management 5.4 - OPERATIONS ON AND AROUND AIRPORTS 5.4.1 - High Level Operational Processes 5.4.2 - Remotely Provided Aerodrome Control Service 5.5 - THE APPLICATION OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND SEPARATION 5.5.1 - Airport Operations 5.5.2 - Terminal Area Operations 5.5.3 - En-Route Managed Airspace 5.5.4 - Unmanaged Airspace 5.6 - COLLISION AVOIDANCE 5.6.1 - General Considerations 5.6.2 - Cooperative Ground and Airborne Safety Net Concept 5.6.3 - Collision Avoidance in the Airport Environment

16 18 19 19 22 22 23 24 24 28 31 32 35 35 36 37 39 39 39 39 40 41 42 42 42 43

6 - HOW THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS RESPONDS TO THE CHALLENGES


6.1 - PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT 6.2 - SAFETY IN THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS 6.3 - THE HUMAN IN THE CONCEPT 6.4 - AIRSPACE CAPACITY 6.5 - AUTOMATION STRATEGY 6.6 - THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE CONCEPT 6.7 - SECURITY IN THE CONCEPT

44 44 44 44 45 45 46 46

7 - APPENDIX
7.1 - ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS

47 47

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

1 - THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS AT A GLANCE DOCUMENT


1.1 THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT
This document provides more detailed information on the SESAR Concept of Operations (ConOps) presented in a concise form in Deliverable 3 (DLM-0612001-02-00). It however remains a summary description of a complex matter that cannot be described in all aspects in this document. Interested readers are therefore invited to look at the full ConOps in Task 2.2.2 Deliverable (DLT 2.2.2/D3) which shall be used as the primary reference for all future SESAR developments. The purpose of this document is to provide management (especially those managers concerned with the development and implementation of the SESAR target system) and other interested readers with the main substance of the Concept of Operations described in the task deliverable DLT-0612-222-02-00. It explains the main principles and ideas of the ConOps without going to the expert level of detail. A common understanding of the logic, the so called story line, of the ConOps is seen as a pre-requisite for its successful further refinement and validation. Therefore, detailed descriptions, specific open items and detailed disagreements are listed in the task deliverable: these disagreements and open items are to be resolved during the SESAR development phase. In this document, existing disagreement statements are indicated in the text by a reference to the DLT-0612-222-02-00 in the format [Dxx], e.g. [D01]. The ConOps is the result of activities performed in a project definition study. This work has been to determine, to a first order, potential solutions which are considered feasible to meet the performance targets. Consequently, significantly more R&D work is required to prove that all aspects of the ConOps can deliver the expected benefits and thus, reduce the level of uncertainty associated with them prior to them being considered as fit for purpose and ready for implementation. However, it is considered that the level of detail reached in the work, the broad consensus about the major principles as outlined here and the identified issues like open items and disagreements build a commonly agreed and solid basis for further work The Concept of Operations considers the European airspace as a single resource shared by all airspace users, whose diverse and sometimes competing business needs are fully recognised and catered for. This European airspace resource is integrated into the global ATM network to ensure cost-efficient interoperability. European Member State prerogatives for, and sovereignty over, airspace management and design are fully respected. This implies that national security and defence requirements are met .

1.2 RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DOCUMENTS, STRUCTURE OF THIS DOCUMENT


Chapter 2 describes the main objective and purpose of the ConOps. Chapters 3 and 4 familiarise the reader with the major principles, characteristics, and enablers of the ConOps. It describes how the individual flight is represented, how the compromise between multiple user requests can be found in a collaborative manner and how the final results are represented in a network-wide planning. Chapter 5 leads the reader through the life cycle of flight planning and execution. It explains the planning and execution processes as well as necessary technological capabilities. The expected benefits of the ConOps are summarised in Chapter 6. The ConOps is compatible in all respects with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept as described in Doc 9854 AN/4581. It should be noted however that the ICAO document is a global operational concept, with necessarily global and mainly high level statements. The Concept of Operations is a document that represents the concrete application of the global concept, adapted and interpreted for Europe with due regard to the need to be globally interoperable.

1 Except for the permanent separation delegation described differently in the SESAR ConOps.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

2 - THE PURPOSE OF THE CONOPS


2.1 THE ATM VISION AND FLIGHT OPERATION
The ConOps is based on the following ATM Vision: Europe has an affordable, seamless system of ATM, which enables all categories of airspace users to conduct their operation with minimum restrictions and maximum flexibility while meeting or exceeding the measurable targets for safety, operational efficiency and cost effectiveness, minimising the environmental impact and meeting national security and defence requirements. This ConOps responds to the operational vision and operational objectives developed by the airspace users with due regard to the evolving capabilities and requirements of service providers and airports. The intention of the airspace user is to execute an individual flight with its business trajectory. Airlines, Business, General Aviation and the Military all have intentions and their specific trajectories have different characteristics. Due to the multiplicity of these trajectories and limited resources like airspace and airport capacity it is not possible to achieve the original intention of the airspace users for all of these flights. A compromise has to be found to optimise the execution of all flights as close as possible to the original intentions. In order to be able to accommodate the demand in the given SESAR timeframe the new ATM System will need to be flexible while offering a cost-effective service. The new ATM System (network, technologies, and procedures) should facilitate the increasing multidimensional air transport demand safely and efficiently, guided and driven by a performance framework addressing quality of service, societal needs and other areas, and in which safety is a paramount and continually improving key performance area.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

3 - THE MAJOR PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS


3.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
The main drivers for the ConOps are the main Key Performance Area (KPA) targets as defined during D2: Capacity: A 3-fold increase in capacity while reducing delays, both on the ground and in the air (en-route and airport network), so as to be able to handle traffic growth well beyond 2020. The ATM System to accommodate by 2020 a forecasted 73% increase in traffic from the 2005 baseline, while meeting the targets for safety and quality of service. To improve safety levels by ensuring that the numbers of ATM induced accidents and serious or risk bearing incidents decrease. The traffic increase up to 2020 requires an improvement factor of 3, and for the long term a factor of 10 to meet the threefold in traffic. As a first step towards the political objective to enable a 10% reduction in the effects flights have on the environment by emission improvements through the reduction of gate-to-gate excess fuel consumption, minimising noise emissions and their impacts for each flight to the greatest extent possible, minimising other adverse atmospheric effects to the greatest extent possible.

Safety:

Environment:

Cost-Effectiveness: Halve the total direct European gate-to-gate ATM costs from t800/flight (EUROCONTROL Performance Review Report 2005) to t4002/flight in 2020 through progressive reduction.

3.2 THE DESCRIPTION OF THE FLIGHT INTENT


The trajectories represent the business/mission intentions of the airspace users. By safeguarding the integrity of the trajectories and minimising changes the concept ensures the best outcome for all users. Airlines, Business, General Aviation and the Military all have business or mission intentions, even if the terminology is different and their specific trajectories have different characteristics. The trajectory is always associated with all the other data needed to describe the flight. The business/mission trajectories will be described as well as executed with the required precision in all 4 dimensions. The trajectories will be shared and updated from these source(s) best suited to the prevailing operational circumstances and capabilities and the sources include the aircraft systems, flight operational control systems and ANSP trajectory predictors. The ability to generate trajectories in the ATM system from flight plan data will be retained for those flights that are unable to comply with SESAR trajectory management requirements. The Concept of Operations is performance driven, process oriented, trajectory based, and founded on a system wide information management.

3.3 COLLABORATIVE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING


Collaborative layered planning, mediated by network management and based on Collaborative Decision Making (CDM), has the goal of achieving an agreed, stable, demand and capacity situation. Collaborative decision making in the SESAR concept means sharing of information as well as acting on the shared information. Decisions are made on the basis of common situational awareness and consequently an improved understanding of the network effects of the decisions. This improves the general quality of the decisions, helping to more accurately achieve the desired results. The CDM principle although applied to each ATM business critical process, will not interfere with the ATC or Pilot tactical, time critical decision processes. This approach to decision making empowers new and innovative solutions of which the User Driven Prioritisation Process (UDPP) is an example. In UDPP, airspace users among themselves can recommend a priority order for flights affected by delays caused by an unexpected reduction of capacity, which is then communicated to the Network Management function.

3.4 THE NETWORK OPERATIONS PLAN AS FACILITATOR FOR PLANNING


The planning at each point of time is represented in the Network Operations Plan (NOP) which facilitates the processes needed to reach agreement on demand and capacity. It is supported by a set of collaborative applications providing access to traffic demand, airspace and airport capacity and constraints and scenarios to assist in managing diverse events.

2 Expressed in 2005 Value.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Figure 1: Development of the NOP

3.5 AIRPORTS FULLY INTEGRATED INTO THE ATM NETWORK


Airport capacity is the key challenge in the SESAR timeframe. Runway throughput must be optimised at congested airports to levels that exceed present bestin-class operations. The trajectory management focus of the ConOps extends to include the airports. The trajectory is considered to continue unbroken after touchdown to the gate and from the gate to take-off. During turnaround, the trajectory is in an idle state in all but the time dimension which means that even during the turn-round it is possible to establish milestones with which the progress of the turnaround process can be monitored and the impact of events on later parts of the trajectory established at an early stage. Trajectories in the vicinity and on the surface of airports are managed by a co-operating set of partners using shared information and collaborative decision making processes. Airport throughput in adverse weather conditions (low visibility conditions) must be maintained at levels close to normal. Even with all these measures, the bulk of the required increase in airport capacity must come from greater use of secondary airports with improved links to city centres and the major airport hubs.

3.6 THE HUMAN WILL BE CENTRAL IN THE FUTURE EUROPEAN ATM SYSTEM
Humans will be central in the future European ATM system as managers and decision-makers; In the ATM Target Concept it is recognised that humans (with appropriate skills and competences, duly authorised) will constitute the core of the future European ATM Systems operations. However, to accommodate the expected traffic increase, an advanced level of automation support for the humans will be required. A more detailed explanation can be found in chapter 6.3.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

10

3.7 NEW SEPARATION MODES AND THE STRATEGY TO REDUCE CONTROLLER WORK LOAD 3.7.1 Drivers for the separation concept
It is assumed that the SESAR concept will create sufficient terminal area and en-route capacity so that it is no longer a constraint in normal operations. This capacity is a function of controller task load. To meet the capacity goal there must therefore be a substantial reduction in controller task load per flight if this is to be realised while meeting the safety, environmental and economic goals. Controller task load is generated from two different sources: there is the routine task load associated with managing a flight through a sector (such as coordination in and out, routine communications, data management) and the tactical task load associated with separation provision (conflict/interaction detection, situation monitoring and conflict resolution). As the traffic throughput increases the routine task load increases proportionately (three times the flights equals three times the task load). The separation provision task load however would increase relative to the number of conflicts/interactions and therefore approximately according to the square of the increase in traffic (three times the flights equals nine times the task load).

3.7.2 The strategy to reduce controller task load


To address the controller task load issue, without incurring a significant increase in ANSP costs, 3 lines of action are included in the concept: Automation for the routine controller task load supported by better methods of data input and improved data management; Automation support to conflict/interaction detection and situation monitoring and conflict resolution; significant reduction in the need for controller tactical intervention; - Reduce the number of potential conflicts using a range of deconfliction methods; - Redistribute tactical intervention tasks to the pilots: Cooperative separation or Self-separation [D06]. It is the latter point that is specifically addressed in separation provision. Both strategies for reducing tactical intervention are valid and could be deployed independently or collaboratively and both methods need to demonstrate their ability to work effectively in a mixed capability environment. All methods of deconfliction potentially involve constraints on the trajectory and differential aircraft performance can also impact the trajectory when tactical intervention tasks are assigned to the pilot. The objective however is to minimise these impacts commensurate with achieving the required goals.

3.7.3 New separation modes


A range of separation modes is available in SESAR to address various operational circumstances. These modes take advantage of trajectory sharing between air and ground and enhanced vertical and longitudinal navigational capabilities and fall into 3 broad categories (see also chapter 5.5.3): Conventional modes: in this context they refer to modes that are essentially unchanged by SESAR; New ANSP Modes: these are new modes envisaged for SESAR that are purely applied by Air Traffic Control (ATC); - Precision Trajectory Clearances; - Trajectory Control by Ground Based Speed Adjustment; New Airborne Modes3 [D02]: these are new modes that involve the aircraft and in which the pilot is the separator either by delegation or, in unmanaged airspace, as the standard case; - Cooperative separation (ASAS-Separation); - Self-separation (ASAS-Self Separation).

Figure 2: Separation Modes


3 Liability issues have to be resolved prior to implementation.

11

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

3.8 MINIMISING SEGREGATION


The SESAR concept aims to avoid where possible, solutions that are based on segregating traffic. For reasons of access and equity and to maximise capacity, it is not proposed to segregate aircraft on the basis of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) capability or the type of separation service being provided but an inherent prioritisation towards more capable aircraft will occur. However, special provisions will be in place to fully accommodate military operations. Since it is not expected that there will be a significant reduction in the airspace needed for diverse airspace users, in particular Military, activities, given their links with air bases and the need for new aircraft types to use increased volumes of airspace to fully exploit their capabilities, a degree of segregation in respect of such operations will remain inevitable for the safety of all aircraft . The impact will however be minimised through more accurate planning, time management and level segmentation of the segregation, and procedures that can flexibly manage real-time changes to volumes and times and promptly return any unused segregated airspace to general use.

3.9 ACCESS AND EQUITY


The SESAR concept respects the needs of all airspace users. At the traffic levels SESAR will be required to handle, the need for managed airspace will inevitably increase. However, tailoring the managed airspace to more accurately reflect the performance of modern aircraft allow the base of managed airspace to be raised in many areas giving greater freedom to those who do not require a separation service. The trade off here is between the needs of General Aviation for access to airspace without having to meet the requirements applicable in managed airspace (pilot qualifications, aircraft navigation and communication equipment) and the needs of commercial and military aviation for access and the provision of a separation service.

3.10 ENHANCED INTEGRATION OF DIVERSE AIRSPACE USERS


Airspace design and management remains a State prerogative under the SESAR concept. The focus on trajectory management however requires that coordination between different users of the airspace, especially Military and other State users, be further enhanced and optimised. The need for some flights and activities to be managed within defined airspace blocks is fully recognised. (i.e. Military). Integrating appropriate military and State partners in the information sharing environment (with proper protection of sensitive information) and optimising the military and State activity processes is the basis for the enhanced cooperation between the various users. Military activities are determined by the national security and defence policy, international security and defence commitments and the resulting political decisions, and therefore differ significantly from those of other ATM partners. The Military are participating as Aircraft Operators, Provider of Air Navigation Services and Aerodrome Operators. Military aerial activities mainly consist of training and exercises to establish and maintain capabilities and readiness postures as required by the States. Armed Forces need flexible and adequate availability of airspace and routing options according to military mission requirements, including temporary segregation from other non-participating air traffic when required. Air Defence Missions in regard to national sovereignty require unlimited and unrestricted access to all airspace at any time Tactical Ground support for military air operations by ATC will continue to play an important role in the new concept. The variety of missions and the need flexibly to react on aircrews in-flight requests, taking into consideration equipment status and the specific stress situation of combat aircrews remains valid and demands a flexible ATC system with the respective capability and capacity. Military airspace users will take advantage of improved ATC ground support enabled by enhanced levels of interoperability between civil and military CNS ground infrastructure and future aircraft capabilities. Military mission trajectories and military planning cycles for air traffic operations differ considerably from civil ones and need to be taken into consideration to satisfy military needs.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

12

4 - ESSENTIAL ENABLERS OF THE CONCEPT


4.1 SYSTEM WIDE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AS THE ESSENTIAL ENABLER
Underpinning the entire ATM system, and essential to its efficient operation, is a System Wide Information Management (SWIM) environment that includes aircraft as well as all ground facilities. It will support collaborative decision-making processes using efficient end-user applications to exploit the power of shared information. The sharing of information of the required quality and timeliness in a secure environment is an essential enabler to the SESAR ATM Target Concept. A netcentric operation is proposed where the ATM network is considered as a series of nodes providing or consuming information. The scope extends to all information that is of potential interest to ATM including trajectories, surveillance data, aeronautical information of all types, meteorological data etc. Access and utilisation of data will follow predefined agreed procedures. The need of protecting sensitive civil and military data will be respected. The SESAR information environment is globally interoperable with other similar information environments as well as legacy aeronautical information services via the use of appropriate data exchange models and common services.

Figure 3 System Wide Information Management

4.2 THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATIONS 4.2.1 Communications Principles


Traditionally, air/ground communications in ATM is a sequential process, using a voice broadcast mode where messages are specifically addressed via manual procedures. In other words, messages (e.g. clearances) can be issued only sequentially, addressing the recipient by using the appropriate call sign when there is no other communications traffic on the frequency being used. When traffic density increases beyond a certain level, the number of voice messages to be exchanged reaches a point beyond which it is no longer possible

13

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

to ensure the timely passage of information between pilots and air traffic controllers. The ConOps utilises digital data communication applications and services as the main means of communication, but there will remain circumstances in which clearances and instructions are issued by voice. Data are transferred asynchronously from the controller and pilot actions and are not subject to the voice channel load issues. This change is essential for the trajectory management process and the issuance of more complex clearances, constraints, airborne separation approvals, etc. as well as supporting automated functions. Digital data communications may eventually obviate the need for allocation of one voice channel per sector and associated frequency changes on board, since communications will be addressed to an aircraft or ground station with the delivery method being transparent, however the workload implications of such a development and the loss of the benefits of a broadcast communication channel will require careful study. Addressing changes associated with the transfer of communications will be handled automatically.

4.2.2 Communications Services


The ConOps foresees an environment in which the various elements of the ATM System operate as part of a network in terms not only of air traffic but also in terms of information management. Aircraft, airports, air traffic services units, authorised personal devices, etc. are all nodes in this network, with access and contribution to shared information. All information is exchanged in digital form (voice and data) and the traditional differences between voice communications (whether air/ground or ground/ground) and data communications disappears [D14]. This implies an end-to-end meshed (networked) communications infrastructure (air/ground, air/air, ground/ground) with sufficient performance (bandwidth and speed) to support all applications. Security will be ensured by the robustness of, and controlled access to this infrastructure for all partners extracting and/or providing information to this network. Communications is a safety critical element of ATM with very stringent requirements, including the need to protect sensitive information and the blocking of malicious intent and full interoperability between the systems. Communications service providers will develop competitive products meeting those requirements in a cost efficient manner. Since some of the information handled by the communications service providers will fall under the terms of aeronautical information as defined by ICAO, they will be required to comply with global licensing standards.

4.3 THE EVOLUTION OF NAVIGATION SERVICES


The ConOps is based on the use of navigation capabilities and shared data to enable lateral/vertical/longitudinal trajectory management. The concept itself sets challenges for the direction of future navigation capabilities. The evolution of these navigation capabilities / services is described in chapter 5.2.4 ATM Capability Levels: Laterally, the known improvements are 2D Required Navigation Performance +/- 0.3 Nautical Mile evolving down to +/- 0.1 Nautical Mile in approach and departure phase; Vertically, the known improvements are barometric Vertical Navigation (VNAV) (accuracy from +/-260ft down to +/-150ft depending on altitude) evolving to vertical containment2 along a pre-defined 3 Dimensional departure or arrival route; Longitudinally, the known improvements are improved predictions due to enriched meteorological modelling and better accuracy/resolution of wind data, improved control of a single time constraint in descent down to FAF, both improvements leading to a Controlled Time of Arrival (CTA) accuracy down to 10sec, and in the longer term, multiple time constraints management (Controlled Time of Over-fly/Controlled Time of Arrival) and longitudinal containment4 for a pre-defined segment of the cruising route (20 minutes duration in a first step).

4.4 THE EVOLUTION OF SURVEILLANCE SERVICES


SESAR considers 2 broad categories of surveillance services, Cooperative and Non-Cooperative. Cooperative surveillance requires aircraft to be equipped with functioning avionics, allowing surveillance functions to reliably, consistently, and unambiguously detect the aircraft in the air and on the ground. Non-cooperative surveillance allows an aircraft to be detected by ground, airborne, or space based surveillance systems even if it does not have functional avionics. Non-cooperative surveillance can be used when airborne or ground cooperative surveillance systems are unavailable.

4 In this context, the word "containment" implies ATM performance requirements which have to be defined and agreed, it does not correspond to the EASA definition for aircraft certification.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

14

SESAR relies on cooperative surveillance information from all aircraft as an enabler for trajectory-based operations, as well as to support the needs of non ATM users such as defence and security: it will be the main surveillance method because of the additional aircraft derived data that it can provide. Noncooperative surveillance capabilities will provide a degree of surveillance redundancy and are also specifically required for defence and security purposes. Surveillance services in SESAR will cater for a broad range of operational and traffic environments, from core European airspace and airports to remote areas. They will utilise integrated cooperative and non-cooperative surveillance to provide real-time situational awareness both in the air and at airports. Surveillance data is considered in the same manner as other ATM data and is available throughout the network and to external users in the SESAR SWIM environment. This data availability provides common situational awareness across the ATM network as well as supporting a range of collaborative processes and serving the mission specific needs of all stakeholders. Shared surveillance data will also be available to external entities (both state and commercial) with a need for the information.

4.5 THE EVOLUTION OF METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES


Based on ICAO regulations and World Meteorological Organisation recommendations the meteorological services contribute significantly to the safety, regularity and efficiency of the international air navigation. The primary role of aviation meteorology (MET) is to provide the: Necessary information to identify where and when aircraft can or cannot fly, and the; Runways, taxiways, parking stands etc. that can be used. Accurate and timely meteorological information incorporated as an integrated component to the system to support all phases of flight will be provided to the new ATM management. Such information shall be used to determine the optimum route/trajectory for an individual flight or series of flights in all planning phases, and for the execution of a flight. It is expected that the importance of meteorological information for ATM will grow in the next 10 to 15 years; meteorological information from a range of sources (including aircraft) will be integrated with other data to facilitate trajectory based planning and operations. MET must be provided in an open and interoperable form and incorporated into decision making systems and processes including the development and agreement of contingency plans to mitigate the worst effects of weather. The information will be derived from a variety of (traditional) sources including the increasing use of remote sensing systems and aircraft derived data based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). With enhanced digital communications services, the provision of MET information will encompass ground-based and potentially airborne automation systems and human users.

15

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

5 - THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS AT A GLANCE (HOW IT WORKS)


5.1 USER PREFERRED ROUTING ENVIRONMENT
In managed airspace, particularly in the cruising level regime, user preferred routing will apply without the need to adhere to a fixed route structure. Route structures will however be available for operations that require such support. In either case the user will share a trajectory the execution of which is subject to an appropriate clearance. It is recognised however that in especially congested airspace, the trade off between flight efficiency and capacity will require that a fixed route structure will be used to enable the required capacity. Fixed route procedures will be suspended when traffic density no longer requires their use. Where major hubs are close, the entire area below a certain level will be operated as an extended terminal area, with route structures eventually extending also into en-route airspace to manage the climbing and descending flows from and into the airports concerned. User preferred routings will also have to take into account the airspace volumes established for the operation of diverse (mainly military) aerial activities. For an illustration of the airspace, please refer to Figure 8.

5.2 THE BUSINESS TRAJECTORY 5.2.1 The Business Trajectory Lifecycle


The foundation of the ATM Target Concept is trajectory-based operations. A trajectory representing the business/mission intentions of the Airspace Users and integrating ATM and airport constraints is elaborated and agreed for each flight, resulting in the trajectory that a user agrees to fly and the ANSP and airport agree to facilitate. The trajectory-based operations ensure that the Airspace User flies its trajectory close to its intent in the most efficient way allowing to minimise its environmental impact. The concept has been designed to minimise the changes to trajectories and to achieve the best outcome for all users. In that respect, user preferred routing will apply without the need to adhere to a fixed route structure in low/medium density area. The Airspace User owns the Business Trajectory (BT), thus in normal circumstances the users have primary responsibility over their operation. In circumstances where ATM constraints (including those arising from infrastructural and environmental restrictions/regulations) need to be applied, the resolution that achieves the best business / mission outcome within these constraints is left to the individual user. Typically constraints will be generated / released and taken into account by various ATM partners through CDM processes. The owners prerogatives do not affect ATC or Pilot tactical, time critical decision processes (for example separation provision, weather avoidance etc)5 [D08, D12, D17]. The lifecycle of the business trajectory starts with the development of a flight by the Airspace User and ends with post-flight activities after the aircraft has reached its final point of destination. The intention of the future ATM System is to enable this to happen with the minimum number of constraints. Trajectories will be expressed in all four (4D) dimensions and flown with high precision. The Business/Mission Trajectory evolves out of a layered (CDM) planning process. The different development phases of the trajectory are the: Business Development Trajectory (BDT); Shared Business Trajectory (SBT); Reference Business Trajectory (RBT). Figure 4 shows the business trajectory lifecycle process from its initiation to manage the flight throughout the time leading up to and on the day of operation and its execution.

Figure 4: The Business Trajectory Lifecycle


5 The usage of the terms Ownership and Business is being questioned by some stakeholders.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

16

Business Development Trajectory Depending on the nature of its operations an Airspace User may start a cycle of business planning several years before the day of operation with the aim of defining its schedule and associated resource and institutional requirements. The Airspace User develops a Business Development Trajectory which is not shared outside the Airspace User organisation. The BDT goes through a number of iterations and it is constantly refined taking into account constraints arising from infrastructure and environmental considerations. Depending on the category of Airspace Users this process may be short or effectively nonexistent. Shared Business Trajectory When the user has stabilised sufficiently the BDT, it will be made available as the Shared Business Trajectory to the ATM System for planning purposes. Based on the aggregate information on the BTs the ANSP will consider the potential need to adjust airspace organisation to match the traffic flow and airports will adjust their planning for the needed capacity as much as possible. When increasingly more qualitative and quantitative information becomes available, the ANSP will plan the management of the airspace in terms of services required taking account of the traffic complexity and density. Coordination with the military and the airports will start to develop an initial operating schedule. During this phase potential discrepancies between the SBT and network constraints might already be detected and the Airspace Users will be notified with the request to adjust their business trajectory. This process is iterative until the optimum result for the users is achieved taking due account of the need to ensure an optimum overall network performance.

Figure 5: Network Performance Reference Business Trajectory The iterative process of SBTs ultimately leads to a final trajectory just before flight execution: the Reference Business Trajectory, which the Airspace User agrees to fly and the ANSP and airport agrees to facilitate. The RBT becomes instantiated before the first ATC clearance is requested or issued but it does not constitute a clearance to proceed. The RBT is the goal to be achieved and will be progressively authorised. The authorisation takes the form of a clearance by the ANSP or is a function of aircraft (crew/systems) depending on who is the designated separator. Most times indicated in the RBT are estimates, however some may be target times to facilitate planning and some of them may be constraints to assist in particular in queue management when appropriate. The RBT continues to evolve during flight execution in order to reflect all the applicable clearances and constraints and in accordance with the applicable trajectory change rules. In addition, more trajectories exist: Predicted Trajectory (PT) The airborne predicted trajectory is continually computed/updated on-board (in aircraft fitted with FMS or similar equipment) and corresponds to what the aircraft is predicted to fly. Other Trajectories Other trajectories may exist in the ANSP, Flight Operations Centre (FOC) or aircraft systems. These can be temporary trajectories that exist during various

17

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

planning or what-if actions or other more permanent trajectories that exist to serve a specific purpose or tool. They are derived from RBT (or under certain circumstances PT). One or more trajectories may exist for a flight at any time. Any partner may test and negotiate proposed changes according to agreed rules via collaborative processes. When agreed the SBT or RBT is updated with the agreed changes. Sufficient data from each version of the SBT or RBT is retained enabling its reconstitution for use as a benchmark in assessing ATM system performance. Military Mission Trajectories For the majority of operations the military mission trajectory will require complex mission-tailored routings with multiple aircraft, using mission tailored types and dimensions (volumes) of Airspace Reservations and possibly requiring additional ATM support. Another characteristic of the mission trajectory (e.g. for a business jet) is that it may enter the life-cycle at any point without the preceding events having had to be visible.

5.2.2 The Concept of Managing Trajectories


The Business/ Mission trajectories express the intentions of the airspace user and the trajectory is developed with a view to achieving the best possible outcome for the flight concerned. Any intervention with this trajectory can reduce the prospects of achieving the desired outcome: even unsolicited directs can result in unwanted distortions. While it is recognised that for separation provision reasons it is usually impractical to have an operation with no intervention at all, it is important that all tactical interventions are considered at the trajectory level and not only at the immediate aircraft level. A tactical intervention that is focused only on the aircraft without taking account of the wider impact on the trajectories concerned may result in distortions of the trajectory which can be avoided if a broader view is taken. This broader view is enabled by the SESAR information sharing environment. In this way, if several options are available for implementing an unavoidable intervention, the one with the least impact on the overall trajectory, as well as all other trajectories concerned, can be identified and used on a systematic basis. The Trajectory Management concept requires the systematic sharing of aircraft trajectories between various participants in the ATM process to ensure that all partners have a common view of a flight and have access to the most up to date data available to perform their tasks. The SESAR concept therefore assumes the existence of a standardised trajectory sharing capability that is mediated by collaborative processes. Airborne systems will be able to hold, manage and share several trajectories; duly identifying the trajectory the aircraft is actually flying. This ensures that both the airborne systems and ground systems can build and maintain an identical view of the trajectory and its details using the shared information environment. The Need to Reduce Uncertainty in Ground Trajectory Prediction The principal method of increasing airspace capacity in the period up to 2020 will be the provision of system assistance to the controller in support of the tactical control task. The controller support tools involved rely on trajectory data. The tools performance is dependent on the accuracy with which the future positions of aircraft can be predicted. Any step that reduces uncertainty of prediction will increase the usable prediction horizon and allow longer duration clearances. There are many measures that can be taken to reduce uncertainty of ground-based trajectory prediction (for example better weather forecasting, better aircraft performance models) but there are two significant steps that will yield major benefits to airspace capacity. These are the sharing of data between the FOC, the aircraft system and the ground system and the use of advanced ANSP Separation Modes (2D RNP routes, 3D profile clearances and 4D contracts) which capitalise on the precise navigation capability of aircraft. Currently, the trajectory held in the aircraft system and the trajectory calculated for that flight by the ground ATM system are different; not just because there are limited means to reconcile them, but also because the trajectories are calculated for different purposes, vary in the sophistication of their performance models, and use different assumptions. In SESAR both the aircraft and the ground systems will be using shared flight data (including trajectories) to build and maintain a common understanding of trajectory evolution. This does not imply that the ground system will no longer have specific local trajectories derived from a shared trajectory. For example, there may be what-if trajectories used in the conflict resolution process, and deviation trajectories calculated when the observed behaviour of the aircraft does not conform to the anticipated behaviour etc. Similarly, the aircraft system may maintain several trajectories, e.g. the Reference Business Trajectory, the trajectory the aircraft is actually flying (cleared trajectory) etc. Not all such local trajectories need to be shared. Pre-determined rules specify what data and what changed to data must be shared to ensure the common understanding referred to above. Ground ATM trajectories will continue to be needed to support the various ATM tasks and to enable the control of aircraft that, for any reason including failure, cannot share their trajectory. For these latter, trajectories and data from the FOC (or 3rd party) will be used if available. The data could include such specifics as current mass and/or climb descent rate achievable to permit accurate calculation of vertical trajectory after deviation from the RBT (e.g. traffic

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

18

held down prior to release for climb). A progressive improvement in the accuracy of ground-based trajectory prediction through reduced uncertainty will lead to improved performance of controller support tools (greater accuracy and longer prediction horizons) and reduced controller task load per flight (fewer clearances with longer effective duration and increased dependence on the tools themselves to monitor compliance with the clearance and to check the progression of detected potential conflicts). In addition, because the data held and used by each sub region will be common, conflict prediction will be possible over a much longer time frame and wider area than is currently possible. These improvements create most of the increased airspace capacity and safety in the period up to 2020 and beyond. The emphasis will be to design the ATC systems around aircraft and FOC capabilities. These capabilities can be expected to change in time as more features become available; however, because of the cost of recertification of airborne equipment, it is inevitable that there will be a wide variation of capability existing throughout the SESAR timeframe. The progression of capabilities can be summarised thus: Step 1 Ongoing general deployment of ground-based trajectory prediction tools supporting conflict detection, conformance monitoring and queue management, utilising flight plan data, aircraft performance tables, meteorological forecasts, surveillance data and additional trajectory and performance data from the FOC. This data, together with limited down-linked intent data (e.g. pilot selected level) from Mode S surveillance, will also allow basic intent monitoring functions to be introduced. This capability is equivalent to ATM Capability Level 1 and will continue to support operations by conventional (ATM Capability Level 0) aircraft until they are withdrawn from service (ATM Capability Levels are defined in Chapter 5.2.4); Step 2 As above, but with the addition of data from aircraft including Down-linked Aircraft Parameters (DAPs) and realtime weather measurements increase the accuracy of ground-based trajectory prediction. Clearances based on 2D-RNP and/ or single time constraints (Required Time of Arrival) further reduce lateral and longitudinal uncertainty. Further Intent data availability leads to an extension of intent monitoring. This represents ground system capability aligned with ATM Capability Level 2 aircraft; Step 3 - As above but with the addition of down-linked trajectory data with accuracy ensured by the application of Trajectory Management Requirements (TMR). Clearances based on 3D profiles/ 3D aircraft navigation capability and multiple time constraints reduce vertical and longitudinal uncertainty. Comprehensive Intent data leads to full (4D) intent monitoring. This represents ground system capability aligned with ATM Capability Level 3 aircraft. As the data sources increase in number and accuracy the ground system will assign each trajectory with a confidence level in each of the 4 dimensions based on the quality of the source data. It will be assumed that the intent of the crew is to conform to the clearance, with deviations occurring only as an exception. Greater capacity improvements can be obtained by measures to reduce future-position uncertainty than attempts to reduce separation minima below the generally available radar separation minima (5NM en-route and 3NM TMAs). Nevertheless, for maximum effect, this latter must also be considered wherever possible (e.g. ASAS applications).

5.2.3 Access to Trajectory Management


In the SESAR environment, a multitude of different access methods will be provided, each constituting an efficient method for a particular airspace user group to share their trajectories and hence communicate to the ATM network their flight intentions. This generalised access to trajectory management will encompass direct sharing by airline systems, electronic flight bag type devices as well as personal devices of all categories. The protection of sensitive data (commercial, national security, military, etc.) is ensured by the security features built into the information sharing environment. The information sharing environment obviates the need for any addressing of the shared trajectories on the level of the users. Appropriate user level applications will shield the users from the need to deal with anything other than creating the optimum trajectory for their flight.

5.2.4 ATM Capability Levels


Throughout the following sections the notion of ATM Capability Levels has been introduced. These levels are defined to describe the on-going deployment of progressively more advanced ATM Systems for aircraft, ground systems and airports. The following different ATM Capability Levels are defined: ATM Capability Level 0 (ATM-0) Systems that do not meet at least the ATM-1 capabilities; ATM Capability Level 1 (ATM-1) Capabilities of existing systems and those that are delivered up to 2012/13 and largely have todays capabilities;

19

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

ATM Capability Level 2 (ATM-2) Capabilities of systems that are delivered and in-service from 2013 onwards with a range of new capabilities but which do not meet the full 2020 needs; ATM Capability Level 3 (ATM-3) Main capabilities required by the key SESAR target date of 2020. These will be based upon the SESAR concept needs at that time and a realistic assessment of potential capabilities; ATM Capability Level 4 (ATM-4) The very advanced capabilities that potentially offer the means to achieve the SESAR goals, in particular the very high-end capacity target. The timeframe for initial availability and progressive fleet equipage is in the range 2025 and beyond depending on the specific capability. ATM-1 systems will have: To support collaborative decision making, basic information sharing: Collaborative planning applications (for example to support the Network Operations Plan). At airports automatic data sharing between operators/handlers, ATM systems and users (Airline Operational Control). High-accuracy, high frequency automated sharing of aircraft position information (for example: for aircraft Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroadcast (ADS-B) out, for ATM systems capability for automated shared aircraft position data to AOC/FOC and other service providers). Automated meteorological data reporting (through Aircraft Communications, Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) network). To support management by trajectory (including queue management and separation): ATC sectors opening/closing and grouping/de-grouping within a centre; CTA/CTO management only a single constraint managed by airborne systems; Vertical and longitudinal constraint management to prescribed accuracies only discrete constraints; 2D-RNP (appropriate to the operation); Conformance monitoring (for example: for aircraft flight management system conformance checks, for ATM systems route adherence monitoring, flight plan consistency); Safety nets (Airborne Collision Avoidance System, Short Term Conflict Alert); Medium Term Conflict Detection at ground; At airports ground based Runway Incursion Alert Systems; Aircraft/vehicle Own position information on cockpit map or vehicle map. ATM-2 systems will have ATM-1 capabilities plus: To support collaborative decision making: Basic User/ANSP datalink (for example Controller Pilot Data Link Communications consistent with the kind of services they will provide); Basic automated event reporting (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract through the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN)); Aeronautical Information Service/MET datalink (through ATN); Integration of queue management tools into the CDM processes.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

20

To support management by trajectory (including queue management and separation): CTA/CTO management improved airborne function for the descent phase Functions related to Situational Awareness and Spacing/Sequencing and Merging Cooperative-Surveillance/IN (ADS-B/IN) and sharing of aircraft parameters (for example: for aircraft to provide/receive data, for ATM/Airport systems to use the data to improve accuracy and predictive capabilities). Conflict detection and resolution applications (for ground systems). At airports Runway Incursion Alert Systems with direct alerting function to intruders (vehicle/aircraft). Position information of all aircraft/vehicle on cockpit map and vehicle map. Taxi route uplink to aircraft (sharing taxi-route, gate or runway entry point). ATM-3 systems will have ATM-2 capabilities plus: To support collaborative decision making: Trajectory sharing air/ground and ground/ground (ATM-Systems/FOC/(3rd party)/Airport) via functions designed for ATM (including TMR) Collaborative delay management applications. Increased airspace-user/service-provider datalink capabilities (for example: to support datalink communications consistent with evolving standards) To support management by trajectory (including queue management and separation): CTA/CTO management multiple constraints. Vertical navigational performance requirements to prescribed accuracy Longitudinal constraint management to prescribed accuracy. Cooperative separation functions (for example ASAS-Separation). Taxiway conflict alert with direct alerting to vehicle/aircraft. ATM-4 systems will have the ATM-3 capabilities plus: To support collaborative decision making: Meteorological data sharing. Trajectory sharing: air/air To support separation management: Longitudinal navigational performance requirements (appropriate to the operation). Self-Separation functions (for example ASAS-Self Separation). Note: For the capability descriptions that are new to SESAR a technology or application name independent approach is taken as far as possible. For example terms such as Medium Term Conflict Detection and RNP are appropriate to describe ATM-1/2 capabilities but terms such as Conflict Detection/Resolution tools and Navigation Performance Requirements are used for ATM-3/4.

21

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

5.3 TRAJECTORY BASED OPERATIONS 5.3.1 Using the RBT


The RBT can be described in terms of ATM capability level: For ATM-1 level aircraft the RBT is described by: - 2D route; - requested/cleared level and any en-route planned level changes; - applicable level constraints (e.g. altitude min/max windows for Standard Instrument Departure/Standard Arrival (SID/STAR)); - applicable time constraints (e.g. CTA); - estimates / profile level/speed at waypoints and trajectory change points. For ATM-2/3 level aircraft the RBT is described as above except for: - 3D route when applicable; - estimates/profile level/speed at waypoints and ATM significant points; - relevant containment parameters. The RBT will be flown with the required accuracy (for altitude constraints and CTA/CTO) and required containment (for lateral or vertical as appropriate to the operation). Without containment of altitude (as on a 3D route) and time (as for a 4D Contract) along the trajectory, altitude and time estimates will slightly deviate (due to actual wind) from the reference trajectory (computed with forecasted winds). The RBT is frequently updated and shared with the ground systems according to TMR. Precise trajectory prediction and reduced uncertainty achieved by trajectory-based operations will enable longer usable prediction horizons for ground-based tools. New ANSP Separation Modes will allow longer duration clearances. The move from current short-term tactical instructions to more strategic 3D and 4D clearances for suitably equipped aircraft is a corner stone of the SESAR concept. RBT are updated and revised as follows in these two distinct processes: RBT automatic update is triggered when the predicted trajectory differs from the Reference Trajectory by more than predefined thresholds indicated in TMR; RBT revision is triggered at air or ground initiative when constraints are to be changed (modified by ATC , or cannot be achieved by a/c). For DEPARTURE: Before flight time the RBT is published by the FOC (or 3rd Party) and accessed by the aircraft. The aircraft is now the prime source of the trajectory. For ATM Capability Level 0 aircraft the trajectory will be sourced from the FOC (or 3rd party) or ANSP and calculated from shared data; As the flight progresses towards take-off, the trajectory will be updated to account for various constraining factors which can only be known at or shortly before the time of operation. These include: Taxi route, departure runway and departure route; Departure and arrival management restrictions (refer to 5.3.9). When the predicted take-off time is known with sufficient accuracy, the first airborne segment of RBT will be cleared. For aircraft ENTERING European airspace:

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

22

The RBT will have been published before take-off and maintained/ updated during flight; The first relevant segment of the RBT will be cleared prior to entry; For aircraft that for any reason cannot share the trajectory then at a time prior to entering European airspace an RBT will be published by the ANSP using notified data. DURING FLIGHT: Requirements to change the reference business trajectory may come from ground or air; reasons include separation provision, sequencing, new airspace user business needs, weather, changing arrival constraints (arrival times, arrival runways and applicable arrival routes and procedures) or the inability to comply with the conditions of a constraint on the RBT (e.g. CTA); The RBT will be progressively updated and shared; Successive segments of the RBT will be cleared.

Figure 6: The unique description of the 4D Trajectory

5.3.2 Trajectory Related Information Sharing Requirements


Trajectory Management Requirements As part of the clearance process, all ATM-3 or higher capable aircraft will have Trajectory Management Requirements associated to their Business Trajectory. The goal of TMR is to reduce the uncertainty of trajectory predictions by ground and airborne applications in the most cost-effective manner. TMR specify the requirement on the aircraft to share the updated trajectory in the event that the flight detects a delta from previous predictions or on a cyclical basis. The TMR: Specify the lateral, vertical or time parameters that will trigger the update process; Specify the other event driven and periodic trajectory sharing requirements; Will specify the data content required; Will specify allowable tolerances of selected time/speed and altitude. The trajectory sharing process itself is automatic and transparent to the crew and the controller unless the update results in a new interaction for the aircraft.

23

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

5.3.3 Flight Planning to Support Trajectory Based Operations


Sharing of Flight Information within the SESAR Area For flights which will take place wholly or partly in the SESAR area, the traditional filing of flights plans is replaced by the action of sharing the information required about the flight, making it accessible for all concerned in accordance with predetermined rules. The information to be shared will be more extensive than that which is carried in todays Flight Plan message, including both trajectory information and non-trajectory related information about the flight such as equipment, status, airframe identification, etc. as required and appropriate. This sharing follows an enhanced, standardised process aligned with the lifecycle of the trajectory, ensuring that the information becomes available to the various partners at a time best suited to their contribution to the ATM processes. At any given time there is a globally unique common reference for the flight, with the trajectory and all other related information permanently correlated. User applications employed to submit the flight information (whether by an airline FOC or a single BA/GA pilot) automatically ensure that all the required information is provided and properly shared. Since the SESAR information sharing environment will be licensed to handle aeronautical information, the licensing will also cover how trajectory management based flight intention submission is allowed to satisfy the ICAO flight plan submission provisions. Sharing of Flight Information with Environments outside the SESAR Area The SESAR information sharing environment is globally interoperable and networked so that all partners can share, with appropriate access controls, information about flights partly or wholly in the SESAR area from anywhere in the world. Flight plans (as may be defined for the SESAR timeframe by ICAO) which include a European segment and are submitted from outside the SESAR area will also be accepted and processed, creating an initial shared trajectory which can then be updated by the aircraft operator when new shared data becomes available. For flights leaving the SESAR area, the aircraft operator will ensure that the necessary type of ICAO flight plan will be generated and sent by the appropriate applications.

5.3.4 The ATM Planning Process


The ATM planning process is one of continuous refinement as better data becomes available. There is no clearly defined starting point to the process, but it certainly starts many years before the day of operation if one considers staff recruitment, training plans or major system procurements. Trajectory Based Collaborative Layered Planning The goal of collaborative layered planning is to balance ATM resources and the airspace user demand. The Network Management function assures the stability and efficiency of the ATM network; particular attention is given to the airport and TMA elements. This function exists at both a regional and sub-regional level. Structurally the Network Management function is independent of users and service providers but will work transparently and collaboratively with both and with the Airports to assure the optimum utilisation of network resources which are a common, public good. A key tool for network management is the Network Operations Plan (NOP). The Network Operations Plan works with a set of collaborative applications providing access to traffic demand, airspace and airport capacity and constraints and scenarios to assist in managing diverse events. The aim of the NOP is to facilitate the processes needed to reach agreements on demand and capacity. Regional Network Management The Regional network management function is the facilitator, arbitrator and decision maker. Prior to the day of operation the regional network management role is to facilitate dialogue between airspace users, ANSP and airport operators so that traffic demand and capacity balancing issues can be resolved in an efficient manner. Regional network management oversees inter-sub-region negotiations and is responsible for checking for unexpected network effects of sub-regional decisions prior to their implementation and synchronising these measures if necessary. The prime task is to assure stability of the whole network in the face of the traffic demand and also threats such as weather phenomena and loss of significant assets such as airports or runways for whatever reason.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

24

Sub-Regional Network Management The Sub-regional network management function is in the best position to determine the optimum deployment of regional (local) resources to meet the airspace users actual or predicted demands. Working closely with military authorities via Airspace Management Cells the sub-regional network management function determines optimum airspace configurations, route structures (as required for periods/airspace where high complexity is predicted) and any essential constraints or strategies to assure the most efficient traffic flow across the sub-region. Network management implies CDM processes involving all stakeholders designed to resolve situations where sufficient capacity cannot be provided and also contributes to developing scenarios to cope efficiently with diverse events. Using the Network Operations Plan (NOP) The Network Operations Plan provides visibility of the demand and capacity situation, the agreements reached, detailed business/mission trajectory information, resource planning information as well as access to simulation tools for scenario modelling. It draws on the latest available information being shared in the system. It includes scenarios to assist in managing diverse events that may threaten the network in order to restore stability of operations as quickly as possible. In SESAR the NOP is a dynamic rolling plan for continuous operations rather than a series of discrete daily plans. Stakeholders will use the Network Operations Plan as the single portal for access to ATM information. The NOP is continually accessible to ATM partners and evolves during the planning and execution phases through iterative and collaborative processes. During this evolution, for example: Airspace Users will declare their intentions through Shared Business Trajectories possibly including the requirement for airspace reservations; Agreements, changes to resources, change proposals for trajectories etc. are entered via the appropriate NOP applications and are accessible to all concerned; Network Management, working with ANSP and Airport Operators will assess the resource situation with regard to potential demand. Network Management will facilitate dialogue and negotiation to resolve demand/capacity imbalances in a collaborative manner. Tools will be used to assess network efficiency; If after all possible demand/capacity balancing measures have been taken, there is still an excess of demand, Network Management will work in close collaboration with individual Airspace Users, Airports and ANSPs to decide if the potential level of delay is acceptable or if and how the demand and the capacity shortfall will be managed (UDPP); During the execution phase the NOP will continue to reflect updated information, including data from aircraft, ensuring access to the most up to date situation.

Figure 7: Collaborative Layered Planning

25

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Traffic Demand and Capacity Balancing Long-Term Planning Activities For long-term ATM planning purposes the Business Development Trajectory is progressively enriched and refined within the user organisation but is not yet shared or made generally available for commercial reasons or due to lack of maturity. However when queried, user intentions represented by trajectories possibly containing limited details, will be provided. Medium and Short-Term Planning This phase includes seasonal actions once the airspace users flight intentions are made available (seasonal schedules) and the output of the IATA airport slot conference is known. Flight intentions in the form of Shared Business Trajectories are known but where they are lacking, e.g. for the business and General Aviation, statistics from previous years and expert assessments will be taken into account in assessing the expected demand. The more accurate the available data the more the capacity can be adapted to match the demand. Delays may occur if there are significant short-term changes in demand. Airports will provide detailed information concerning runway and stand capacities. ANSP will provide airspace capacities, route structures and potential constraints. Military flight intentions and airspace requirements become progressively available. The Network Management function analyses the network impact of the airspace user intentions, publishes the results and facilitates collaborative dialogue to resolve traffic demand and capacity balancing issues. Scenarios are developed with the objective of preparing in advance for particular situations and events including the assessment of weather predictions based on probabilistic forecasting: what processes will be initiated, when and under what conditions. Risks are commonly shared and monitored; mitigation paths are prepared. This will ensure that the ATM system will be prepared to cope with the majority of events that might disrupt the smooth running of the day of operation. More detailed information is now available to all stakeholders via the NOP. Airspace users will utilise NOP applications so that potential changes to schedules can be evaluated (refined schedules, changes of aircraft type etc.). Likewise ANSP and Airports will be able to refine their capacity and airspace planning. This process continues in an iterative manner all the way through to the day of operations, new data that affects the plan is analysed and the plan revised as necessary. Where an imbalance between predicted traffic demand and available capacity is detected ATM partners are alerted. As the day of operation approaches the majority of user intentions are available in the form of Shared Business Trajectories with a high level of detail. Some users intentions will still not be known (Business aviation, etc.) so predictions will be used if relevant. Military intentions are now clear with a detailed plan of airspace usage and flight activity resulting from the Advance Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA) concept. Improved weather forecasts make it possible to anticipate likely trans-oceanic and trans-continental flow orientations that are influenced by the jet stream. Low visibility, high winds and other weather phenomena can be predicted allowing contingency plans to be elaborated. Network management functions (both central and regional) collaborate closely to assure that the best possible plans are in place for the day of operation. On the day of operation the additional information is available via the Network Operations Plan. Runways in use are declared and expected arrival and departure routings may be included in the SBT. Accurate weather forecasts are now available. Trans-oceanic and trans-continental flight planning has been finalised and runway capacity can be more accurately assessed with respect to wind or visibility conditions. Almost all airspace user intentions are now available and a very accurate assessment of the balance of demand and the available capacity can be made. Final details of Military activity are known along with potential flexibility that may be used to improve network efficiency. Final plans are made for sectorisation and any associated dynamic constraints6. Subsequently, Network Management informs the users via the NOP of instances where demand is likely to exceed capacity. The airspace users working together in the UDPP process assist in deciding how any potential delays will be managed. The final phase of the planning process takes place in the hour or so prior to departure when load, fuel strategies, winds, agreed delay sharing etc. are used in the final calculation of the SBT resulting in an accurate trajectory from Estimated Off Blocks Time (EOBT) from the airport of origin to Estimated In Blocks Time (EIBT) at the next airport in a (air-ground) combined SBT. A continuous reconciliation takes place during that stage taking benefit of the multiple changes and ensuring that the network remains stable. In case of instability, the Network Management function can initiate ad-hoc measures (such as capacity adjustments or constraints on individual flight trajectory) to recover the stability.
6 Dynamic constraints may be used to assist in segregating flows of traffic either laterally or vertically. They will be only applied when required.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

26

User Driven Prioritisation Process The concept recognises, however, that there will be a constant need to manage acute losses of capacity such as temporary runway closures for whatever reason. To do so, it will be the responsibility of the users to respond in a collaborative manner to the Network Management Function with a demand that best matches the available capacity. This is known as the User Driven Prioritisation process. The UDPP is initiated through the Network Management Function when the agreed mismatch between capacity and demand is reached. The Network Management Function will propose the initial set of measures. The precise rules for these initial network measures will be agreed during the planning phase and made visible via the NOP. These measures will be the starting point for the process. They serve as a common baseline enabling each partner to react to the situation on an individual basis to improve their own net return. This process leaves room for airspace users to trade slots if they individually agree to do so, based on agreements and rules that are transparent to the other actors but that respect sets of rules agreed by all parties. The process is permanently monitored by the Network Management Function in order to make sure that an acceptable solution is available in due time. In particular the Network Management function permanently monitors to see whether any adverse network wide effects develop and makes sure that all concerned parties are aware of them. Access to the Process for Unsupported Users Many users will not have access to resources equivalent to those of large operators such as the scheduled airlines or military, however they will still need access to the UDPP process. Their participation may be directly by the pilot or through a 3rd party, e.g. the natural extension of the duties of a handling agent. The effective access and participation of such users will be facilitated by the general access to trajectory management. The Result of the User Driven Prioritisation Process The result of the process described above is the users contribution for the balancing of demand and capacity, in an order of priority which contributes to the smooth flow of traffic throughout the Network, and that best reflects individual business strategies. Inevitably, there will be occasions when the traffic does not present itself in the order agreed by the UDPP. The first response to such a situation will be to re run the UDPP to try to accommodate to changed sequence. It this fails to produce a satisfactory result, service providers will be empowered to re-order errant individuals within the flows. Non-compliance with the UDPP outputs will be discouraged from the outset. If partners who are tempted to avoid compliance are aware that mechanisms exist to enforce the collective agreement, there will be little incentive to challenge such decisions, and the process will become self-organising. Effective post-assessment capabilities will monitor the process. The UDPP will also be re run following any changes in capacity after its initial deployment. The establishment of a user preferred sequence does not preclude minor reorganisation of the traffic flow by an arrival manager in the interest of achieving maximum capacity. Execution Phase The Planning phase ends with the finalisation of the RBT which the user agrees to fly and the ANSP and Airports agree to facilitate. The Execution Phase can now start. Until aircraft are airborne, available data retains a level of uncertainty that limits their use for purposes other than planning. Once aircraft are airborne trajectories attain high precision in the time dimension. This data is shared and is available via the NOP or other appropriate means. During the Execution Phase the planning process responds rapidly to the changing situation. Continuous knowledge of the traffic and the resources allows opportunities for improvements to be more easily identified and also the most appropriate solutions to be implemented in case of disruptions to the system. Sub-Regional Network Management takes most of the initiative in this phase assuring the most efficient operation. Regional Network Management assures stability of the whole network. The objective will be to deal with the majority of events with pre-defined scenarios agreed during the planning phase. Strategic de-confliction7 of traffic flows (2D and 3D route allocation for departures and arrivals) will reduce the need for tactical intervention on individual aircraft. Sectorisation may be dynamically adapted to changing traffic patterns and flows to make best use of the available ANSP resources. Close cooperation with military authorities assures the smooth transition to/from periods of airspace reservation with as much prior notice as possible so that any opportunities for efficiencies can fully exploited. During this phase, network management seeks to ensure the users business outcomes for individual flights and to maximise net system benefit.
7 The term Strategic Deconfliction is used in this context to mean actions taken when the take-off time is known with sufficient accuracy (after push-back) or even after the flight is airborne but with sufficient time to allow a CDM process to occur. It excludes tactical instructions and clearances that need an immediate response, but includes activities such as dynamic route allocation.

27

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Post Flight Phase Within the post flight phase key performance indicators are registered. Evaluations will be performed and opportunities for further improvements and quality enhancements from local to European level will be identified commonly. Military Planning Cycles Despite the fact that similarities exist between the generic SESAR trajectory planning and military planning cycles, major differences will continue to exist due to the different nature of military aerial requirements, leading to other planning timescales and limited location accuracy in regard to mission trajectories until the day of operation. Military Long Term Planning (Strategic Level) comprises the agreed yearly national and allied exercise and training plans that result in annual unit flying hour programs and airspace requirements. Large scale exercises will be published well in advance indicating the airspace and the timescale concerned, whereas the airspace requirements for the regular daily flying training will generally be specified on a monthly basis with an airspace reservation schedule and updated on a weekly basis. All the above information could be published for consideration by the NOP (Network Operations Plan) and would then become Shared Information. Military Daily Planning (Pre-tactical level) starts the day before the operation and allocates available resources to the pre-planned or incoming additional missions and may lead to changes to the previous planning. On the day of operation, these plans may again become subject to changes due to resource or meteorological constraints and higher priority military tasking. For Operational Air Traffic flights, individual Flight Plans will usually not be filed until one to two hours prior take-off.

5.3.5 Airspace Organisation and Management


Moving From Airspace To Trajectory Orientation European airspace will be a single continuum with the only distinction being between Managed and Unmanaged airspace. In Managed Airspace information on all traffic is shared and the predetermined separator is the separation provision service provider while in Unmanaged Airspace traffic may not share information and the predetermined separator is the airspace user. The role of separator in managed airspace may be delegated.

Figure 8: Airspace Structure The trajectory management concept enables the dynamic adjustment of airspace characteristics (high density changing to low density and vice-versa) to meet predicted demand with distortions to the business/mission trajectories kept to the absolute minimum. The co-ordination procedures established between the various units to reduce controller task load can often result in structural distortions to the trajectories. In the SESAR concept many of these

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

28

procedures can be eliminated by the use of shared trajectories. The trajectory-based approach recognises that sufficient airspace volumes to meet military operational and training requirements will have to be provided and that military coordination and information sharing requirements will need to be accommodated. General Airspace management and design in SESAR will serve the requirements of the trajectory managed environment, with due regard also to the needs of those operations which will continue to require the management of airspace volumes rather than individual trajectories. Service Oriented Airspace Categorisation In the SESAR area, airspace is either Managed or Unmanaged. Any airspace not specifically designated as Managed is by definition Unmanaged Airspace. Both Managed and Unmanaged Airspace is established and organised in a service oriented approach based on the characteristics described below. Characteristics of Unmanaged Airspace Physical dimensions - From ground level extending to a specified upper level regionally harmonised in the SESAR area, except for airspace volumes designated as Managed Airspace. The dimensions of Unmanaged Airspace will be kept such that they minimise the constraints to the freedoms of airspace users requiring such airspace. Internal Subdivision/organisation - No internal subdivision, visible from an ATM perspective, will be applied. Temporary or permanent structures may exist to protect specific activities (e.g. temporary exclusion zones, danger areas prohibited areas. Predetermined separator - The predetermined separator is the airspace user. It is not possible to delegate the role of separator. Air Traffic Services that may be provided - Flight Information Service and Alerting Service (including military surveillance based traffic information services) may be available and provided on request. This will include information on (de)activation of low level routings for military purposes. No Separation Service will be provided. Airspace will accommodate operations for a wide range of business, military and private users. On-demand air traffic services (Flight Information Service, Alerting Message) as well as support and assistance to military air operations, will be provided. Data management services - Aircraft operating or planned to operate in Unmanaged Airspace will have access to all relevant information available in the SWIM environment via any of the standard access methods. Flight data sharing requirements - Unmanaged Airspace is an environment in which not all traffic is known to ATM. There will be no obligation to share flight data of any kind with the ground ATM network unless a flight wishes to make use of an available Air Traffic Service. In this case, at least the predetermined minimum set of flight data (including trajectories) must be shared before departure and/or during flight using any of the available methods (depending on the ground network and/or aircraft capabilities). Aircraft in the air may share flight data (including trajectories) with other aircraft in support of procedures used to prevent collisions. All aircraft should be electronically visible. Applicable flight rules - Both instrument and visual flight rules will be used, supplemented by flight rules based on electronic visibility modes. Characteristics of Managed Airspace Physical dimensions - From a specified lower level regionally harmonised in the SESAR area, extending to an unlimited upper level. Managed airspace may extend down to ground level where service provision considerations require this (in particular around aerodromes). The dimensions of Managed Airspace will be kept to the minimum required for safe and efficient service provision. Internal Subdivision/organisation - The internal design and organisation of managed airspace will be optimised to ensure the safe and efficient management of the trajectories concerned. Temporary airspace structures to protect certain types of operation will continue to exist and will be managed in co-operation between the partners (e.g. military, police, General Aviation etc.) concerned.

29

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Often the co-ordination procedures established between the various units to reduce controller task load result in structural distortions to the trajectories. In the SESAR concept many of these procedures can be eliminated and seamless operations enabled by the use of shared trajectories. Managed airspace is a user preferred routing environment however where traffic complexity or the need to maximise capacity require, structured routes will be implemented. Their use will be suspended when they are not required. Predetermined separator - The predetermined separator is the separation service provider. The role of separator may be delegated in accordance with predefined rules. Air Traffic Services that may be provided - Flight Information Service and Alerting Service will be available everywhere in Managed Airspace. Separation services might not be provided in designated parts of managed airspace, for example, above a very high level (circa FL450+)8 [D09] the airspace will be managed but may be designated for self-separation by permanent delegation. Use of the separation service will be mandatory only where specifically prescribed (by airspace volume and time). In all other cases, appropriately equipped aircraft may request, and if possible, get approval to proceed using self-separation techniques. Data management services - Aircraft operating or planned to operate in Managed Airspace will have access to all relevant information available in the SWIM environment via any of the standard access methods. Flight data sharing requirements - Managed Airspace is an environment in which all traffic is known to the ATM network. All aircraft operating, or planned to operate, in Managed Airspace are obliged to share their flight data, including trajectories, in accordance with the applicable rules with all other, concerned nodes in the network. The rules will discourage very late sharing of initial trajectories (e.g. by means of cut-off times) before the execution phase commences. however, it is recognised that military users may need to continue with late changes due to the dynamic, and sometimes reactive, nature of their planning and actual operation. The rules will also include cut-off times for the initial sharing of information before the execution phase commences. This time may be anything between a day (e.g. for scheduled operations) and a few minutes (for pop-up flights). Applicable flight rules - Both instrument and visual flight rules will be used, supplemented by flight rules based on electronic visibility modes. Integration of Diverse Airspace Usage Requirements The SESAR concept is based on a highly flexible approach to airspace usage which ensures that possible constraints imposed by any airspace activity on other operations are kept to the absolute minimum in both time and space. Airspace Management in conjunction with an Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace Concept is considered to play a vital role as enabler to improve civilmilitary co-operation and for an increase of capacity for the benefit of all airspace users. The principles to be applied are: Full application of the agreed FUA concept in all participating States in 2020; Equal consideration of civil airspace user needs and military requirements; Protection of secure and sensitive military data; Application of agreed rules for certain priority procedures of military air operations (national requirements/international commitments); States sovereignty over and responsibility for airspace remain. The Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace Concept The advanced flexible use of airspace concept regards airspace as a single entity that is available to all users. In the future, airspace is made available in a more dynamic manner on the basis of the close cooperation between civil and military authorities. Segregated airspace required for military training and exercises is agreed in a co-operative process according to military requirements and the demand from civil traffic, determined from traffic forecasts and available shared planning information. New simulation tools will be implemented to facilitate this process. Airspace reservations are coordinated and
8 Appropriate flight level to be determined.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

30

activated after having been adjusted to match the military training and operational profile as required; this includes a limited flexibility in dimension, location and time including mobile areas. Temporary Segregated Area/Temporary Restricted Area (TSA/TRA) may be implemented for military or civil use. AFUA foresees the trend towards user preferred routings; therefore circumnavigation of airspace reservations under these circumstances will be facilitated by appropriate trajectory management techniques.

5.3.6 Airport Planning


Air transport should be seen as a continuous process with a sequence of arrival, turnaround, departure and flight cruise events in the progression of aircraft around the world. The airport can be considered as another, rather complex, sector through which the aircraft passes, where complementary processes work together in a fashion similar to a modern production facility. The airport view of the ATM concept is from the perspective of en-route to en-route as this includes the airport processes and the aircraft turnaround process.

Figure 9: Airport High-Level Processes

Therefore the SESAR concept manages aircraft turnaround and flight operation as a single continuous event. Not only the runway and surface movement of the aircraft is part of the concept but also the ground handling process needs to be addressed. This is essential if reactionary delay is to be fully addressed. Airport Capacity Development and Management While the operational concept will apply to all airports, individual elements will need to be implemented differently at each airport. Business decisions, safety and environmental considerations will determine which ones are appropriate. A number of airports formerly used for Visual Flight Rules operations only because of the cost of installing traditional landings aids like Instrument Landing Systems, will facilitate Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) departures and arrivals by application of procedures based on Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) and/or other technologies.

31

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

The Principles Airport operators own and/or operate their nodes of the Air Transport Network. It is their responsibility to provide a safe airport infrastructure in balance with environmental limitations. In partnership with all stakeholders, the airport aims at achieving a common business approach, by linking flight segments, surface operations, and the aircraft turnaround process. This requires collaborative decision making based upon: An equal acceptance of all stakeholders (level playing field); A Common understanding of the assumptions inherent in the capacity planning process and the interactions between the demand mix, airport resources and environmental regulations / limitations; A Common Planning Process to enable the use of a single demand data source or repository, reflecting customers' expectations and used as a reference for the execution phase; A Common Situational Awareness of traffic evolution during the execution phase with early & accurate information of traffic deviations to allow the recovery of the planned situation by launching timely corrective actions; A Common Performance Framework to all stakeholders sharing a common target, aiming at on-schedule performance meeting the business needs of the airspace users; A common situational awareness of the status of the turnaround process to optimise departure and arrival sequencing actions.

5.3.7 Trajectory Based Operations in Managed Airspace


The key aspect considered in managed airspace is the number of interacting trajectories. A high number of interacting trajectories is perceived by the controller as high complexity because it represents a high task-load to resolve. If the interactions are spread randomly across the area of responsibility, that also increases perceived complexity because the monitoring task cannot rely on experience and pattern recognition. Even with advanced automated support for conflict detection and resolution and conformance and intent monitoring, the controller will still be required to validate solutions and execute them at the appropriate time. The validation of system-provided resolutions requires that the controller must retain sufficient situation awareness, possibly limited to and focused on the given problem, to be able to make those decisions, however situation awareness can also be extensively supported by the system. Traffic density is not a synonym for complexity. It is quite possible to have high traffic density with relatively low complexity (e.g. many aircraft flying in the same direction at the same speed). The creation of airways has the effect of locally increasing traffic density whilst reducing complexity. The goal of the SESAR concept is to deploy tools to assist the controller with complex situations and to reduce complexity by strategic deconfliction measures where necessary to increase capacity. The reduction of complexity is carried out with the assistance of appropriate automation that achieves the goal with minimum distortion of the trajectories concerned. High Complexity Terminal Operations In Europe high complexity operations would routinely occur in terminal areas but may occur in other airspace. The particular challenge for terminal area operations is to increase the overall capacity such that closely located airports can operate at maximum capacity and a reasonable level of over-flying traffic can be accommodated. For high-complexity operations, an efficient airspace structure combined with advanced airborne and ground system capabilities will be deployed to deliver the necessary capacity and ensure separation is maintained. The concept recognises that when traffic complexity is high, the required capacity can only be achieved at the cost of some constraint on individual optimum trajectories. High-complexity terminal operations will feature separated 3D departure routes and 3D arrival routes the vertical component of which may be defined by either: Level windows for crossing points (3D cones with min/max levels) enabling aircraft to fly closer to optimum trajectories when traffic complexity allows, or;

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

32

Vertical containment with aircraft being required to fly within tubes to focus on the runway and airspace throughput when traffic complexity is high.

Figure 10: Arrival - Profile View - Cone and Tubes

Figure 11: Arrival - Profile View - Dynamic 3D Routes

These two options may be combined. The size of the level windows and where cones transition to tubes will be location and/or time dependant. Multiple 3D arrival routes may include curved route segments and will converge through successive merging points for each runway. The number of merging points and proximity to the runway will depend on the distribution of traffic flows and environmental constraints. When circumstances permit, in low/ medium traffic conditions, flights may route to a single merging point at a position on final approach.

33

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Dynamic and Pre-Defined 3D Routes The ultimate aim is to allow the aircraft to fly the optimum trajectory. In this case the tube is defined dynamically around the RBT. This implies ATM capability level 3 for air and ground. When these capabilities are not available pre-defined 3D routes, designed for different aircraft performances, will be used.

Figure 12: Arrival Routes Single Merge Point

Figure 13: Arrival Routes - Multiple Merge Points

En-Route High Complexity Operations Situations of high complex also occur in en-route airspace where appropriate solutions need to be applied. Such solutions may include the use of 2D routes or 4D contracts. Depending on the airspace and operational environment these 2D routes may be fixed or temporary in nature. User preferred routing may be suspended when analysis of the pending trajectories determines areas of high potential complexity (for example if active TSA lead to restricted airspace availability with consequent traffic congestion). These volumes will have both geographical and temporal dimensions and will be visible via the NOP along with route structures that will be used.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

34

Medium/Low Complexity Operations Medium/low complexity en-route and terminal area operations will prevail in managed airspace outside areas and times of high complexity. For these operations the goal is to provide sufficient capacity to meet demand without recourse to a structured route network. However, whilst free routing will be the normal operation for much of en-route airspace, it is likely to be the exception in most terminal areas and below a designated level in some areas. Flights will operate as near as possible to their optimum trajectory, deviating only to achieve separation from other flights and airspace hazards or for arrival management needs. The SESAR principle is that unless structured routes are needed, it is a user preferred routing environment. Where user preferred routing has to be suspended due to military requirements, the best possible balance has to be found in the given circumstances and the restriction on user preferred routing has to be kept to the minimum. There will be a need for military operations to be conducted in airspace within which free routing is permitted since the segregation of all military activity into Airspace Reservation (ARES) is wasteful in AFUA terms. Some military activity will not present a problem but mixing some military and commercial activities in the same airspace will place constraints on both. Thus, the selection of airspace within which free routing will be permitted must be the subject of validation in Simulations and R&D processes. Route structures may be retained to support transition to/from terminal area where needed and for fallback purposes. In addition, military specific route structures (currently a Tactical Navigation route network) will be kept for military flight planning purposes and most direct routings. In a medium/low complexity terminal areas aircraft will, as far as possible, fly their individual optimum climb or descent profiles. This will be a Continuous Climb Departure (CCD) or a Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) with curved segments as required for noise abatement.

5.3.8 Changes to the RBT


The airspace user may initiate changes to the trajectory at any time. The request may come from the aircraft or the FOC (or 3rd party). If a commercial airline pilot requests a change ATC will assume that the change request has been agreed with the FOC (or 3rd party). Service providers may make or propose changes to the trajectory for several reasons: ATC tactical actions related to separation and queue management; Reactions due to changing constraints or resource availability. Nothing in the trajectory management processes interferes with the controllers prerogatives to make tactical changes by issuing instructions/ clearances. The means for service providers to implement non-tactical changes will be by the imposition, amendment or removal of constraints whenever time permits. The User will propose an RBT amendment that meets the constraint. ANSPs will accept the amendment if no additional problems are created by the change. As flights will be following user-preferred trajectories whenever possible, unsolicited proposals such as higher levels or direct routings may not in fact be beneficial.

5.3.9 Queue Management


This section applies to operations in Managed Airspace and specifically to runways located in terminal areas with high complexity operations. Initial Assumptions In this section certain assumptions are made based upon the implementation of other elements of the SESAR concept: Sufficient en-route and terminal area capacity has been created to meet demand and therefore in normal operations the only nodes in the system requiring delay management are the arrival and departure streams of capacity constrained airports. In non-nominal situations it will remain the role of the Network Management function to take action;

35

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

When operating from terminal areas during periods of high complexity flights will be assigned 2D or 3D Departure Routes according to aircraft capability level and performance; When operating into terminal areas during periods of high complexity flights will be assigned 2D or 3D Arrival Routes according to aircraft capability level and performance. Queue Management Process There will be no need to finalise a departure or arrival sequence earlier than necessary flexibility being the key to maximum use of capacity. The take-off sequence is built as predicted take-off times achieve a required level of accuracy9 and the arrival sequence is built by the relevant arrival management tools once the flight passes the sequencing horizon: A flight will not be allocated a departure slot time10 if the ATM network is operating normally. Flights should expect to be able to depart when they are ready to do so, subject only to any allocated TTA at destination ground delays and any departure runway capacity constraints. This type of process maximises flexibility and capacity utilisation but still allows delays to be managed efficiently. Shared information on the progress of turnaround will be used to estimate departure demand and enable arrival/ departure balancing. In the absence of any capacity shortfall, reference trajectories will be handled on a first come first served basis. Prioritisation for departure in the event of reduced capacity will be the result of a collaborative process involving all partners.

5.4 OPERATIONS ON AND AROUND AIRPORTS


Airports and surrounding airspace are grouped together in this section to emphasise their importance in the SESAR concept.

Figure 14: Airport Operations


9 The precise point at which take-off times are known with sufficient accuracy will depend on the accuracy and reliability of the data available on the status of the turnaround process. Initially the required level of accuracy may not be achieved until the aircraft has requested push-back. It is however expected that during the SESAR time-frame the improving view on the status of the turnaround process will enable valid departure sequences to be built earlier. This earlier sequencing will enhance departure and arrival queue management collaboration. 10 This refers to a slot time as currently issued two hours before departure. The departure time (from the departure sequence) is calculated when the data achieves the required level of accuracy.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

36

5.4.1 High Level Operational Processes


Three high-level operational processes are identified, aligned with the ATM planning process: Airport Resource Planning; Airport Resource and Capacity Plan Management; Airport Resource and Capacity Management during the Execution phase. Airport organisation is aimed at supporting co-operation between all stakeholders at appropriate decision-making stages whilst ensuring a seamless process over the entire planning spectrum, starting many years ahead down to the real time. Besides these high-level operational processes, there is also a medium to long-term development process which focuses on future demand and capacity planning for airport expansion. This includes issues ranging from airport infrastructure and environmental aspects to landside capacity and regional planning. The focus of airports is equally divided between both the potential aircraft movement rate and also passenger throughput. It also must be acknowledged that the airport planning cycle is generally longer that that of the airport users. Airport Operations and Interactions with Queue Management Arrival departure and surface management tools will be used on Queue Management. All essential airport processes work collaboratively, embodied in a physical or virtual Airport Operations Centre (APOC) using CDM principles in a SWIM environment. Managing the Runway Resource Runways mostly act as single servers processing one aircraft at a time. A degree of departure and arrival queuing is a consequence of airports being used close to their capacities. The effects of weather conditions (e.g. wet runways, strong winds, low visibility) are today well known and contribute to the variability of instantaneous runway capacity and queuing. There is a trade-off between planned airport utilisation levels (i.e. setting of hourly schedule rates v. capacity) and arrival/departure queuing. Different airports adopt different strategies for this trade-off depending on business decisions, environmental constraints and local needs and priorities. Arrival and departure queue management will not by itself significantly reduce delays, nor increase capacity: but it does achieve better management of the delay process, ensuring that delay is managed in the most fuel-efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. Turnaround Process The turnaround process links the flight and ground segments. Seamless progress of the turnaround process is a main factor affecting punctuality. Cooperative mechanisms, including milestone monitoring, gate/stand management and apron management will improve visibility for ATM actors regarding the progress of the turnaround process and result in better estimated times of subsequent events such as off-blocks and take-off. Runway Operations Increasing runway throughput and runway utilisation has to be achieved within the SESAR safety goals. The most important issue is that new procedures and implementation of best practices is harmonised in such a way that no differences in operation appear for users (pilots) throughout Europe and preferably worldwide. Increased Runway Throughput The following issues can been seen as general enablers to develop and implement techniques and procedures with respect to increasing Runway Throughput: Reducing dependency on Wake Vortex separation: The existing wake vortex classifications are very broad and the introduction of automated spacing assistance provides the opportunity for a complete re-classification of aircraft into a wider range of categories more accurately based on the true wake vortex (weight, wingspan etc) and rate of decay. Pair-wise separations could in addition be dynamic, based on the prevailing wind conditions and stability of the air mass. Improved prediction and detection of wake vortex as well as new techniques (land long, Hi/Lo glide path) to assist in the

37

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

avoidance of wake vortex will combine to bring capacity and safety gains. Under certain crosswind conditions it may not be necessary to apply wake vortex minima and additionally ADS-B may be used to broadcast the aircrafts wake signature for the benefit of subsequent aircraft, making the vortices detectable to pilots of following aircraft would add a further layer of protection; Minor re-sequencing of the traffic flow to group similar category aircraft together reduces the impact of wake vortex separation for arrival and departure streams; Minimising Runway Occupancy Times (ROT): Runway occupancy is the main factor which determines the landing interval in situations where Wake Vortex separation is no issue. With reduced and above all predictable Runway Occupancy Times the runway controller could reduce the landing intervals which itself will increase landing rate. This can be achieved by a combination of efficiently designed runway exits (position and angle), improved signage, and early agreement between flight crew and the ground of which exit to use. Potential constraints to meet environmental criteria for noise, emissions and brake wear should also be considered. Procedures to vacate at an agreed turn-off could be potentially enhanced by onboard technology such as brake to vacate systems; Final Approach Spacing: Accurate and more consistent spacing on final approach will be achieved by time-based separation. This will not only mitigate the effect of (strong) headwind on the final approach, assuring robust runway throughput, but will also make it possible to introduce variable time separations dependent on crosswind conditions and Wake Vortex existence. Accurate final approach spacing can be achieved by either controller tools or onboard tools like ASAS which provide spacing advice directly to the aircrew. Current limitations on spacing due to wake vortex may be lifted under specific weather conditions enabling final approach spacing of less than 50 seconds, however these must be matched by predictable runway occupancy of the same order of magnitude; Reduced Departure Spacing: It should be feasible to reduce the time interval between two successive departures. Wake-vortex detection technology will make it possible to reduce the intervals without the risk of wake-vortex encounters. Wake Vortex separation on departure should be set as a function of the crosswind. Where reduced departure spacing cannot be achieved, due to wake vortex or required separation on departure routes and/or airways, late sequence changes could be a solution. Additional runway entries create possibilities for optimal use of sequence changes / requirements. Enhanced and accurate ground based surveillance technologies as well as airborne systems could reduce the need for specific departure intervals to achieve departure route separations. However in all cases the minimum departure spacing (take-off interval) will be based on the preceding aircraft becoming airborne. Increased Runway Utilisation The following proposals can be seen as general enablers to develop and implement techniques and procedures with respect to increasing runway utilisation: Arrival and departure management tools; Optimising runway configuration / mode of operation; Increase runway utilisation during Low Visibility Conditions (LVC); Optimum use of existing and future airport (runway) infrastructure and available capacity. Capacity of existing infrastructure is often limited by the layout of the airport. On airports with multiple runways, runway crossings cannot always be avoided. To reduce the negative capacity impact relocation of the runway crossing could be considered. To abolish runway crossing at all, which is also a recommendation of the European Action Plan on the Prevention of Runway Incursions (EAPPRI), the implementation of perimeter taxiways around the runway could be considered. Utilisation of Secondary Airports Approach and departure procedures based on SBAS and/or other technologies have to be further developed. This will enable the IFR-use of a substantial number of airports and airfields that can not afford to-days costly landing aids. General Aviation IFR activities will increase and require access to airspace and ATM services. Surface Movement Operations If surface movement capacity is to be increased without increasing the risk of runway incursions a range of actions need to be taken. Better situational awareness both for the controller, aircrew and vehicle drivers including conflict detection and warning systems will not only enhance airports surface safety

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

38

but will also create room for surface movement capacity expansion. Advanced Surface Management and Guidance Systems will provide enhanced information to controllers whilst Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) technology will provide aircrew and vehicle drivers with map, guidance and traffic information. Optimum management of surface traffic flows will not only increase efficiency and predictability during the ground movement phase but will also have a positive impact on the environment. The planning of surface routes may consider constraints imposed by the need to minimise the environmental impact especially surface holding or the need to avoid braking or changes in engine thrust levels as the aircraft moves from the runway to the stand or vice versa. Predicting the taxi times and routing of inbound and outbound traffic, the surface management tool (SMAN) can provide stable and reliable planning (target) times and is prerequisite for pre-departure sequencing and an optimised usage of the departure runways(s). Integration of the SMAN tool with the arrival and departure management tools (AMAN / DMAN) is a necessity to gain the full benefit of these tools. Achieving the optimal take-off sequence in an early stage of the outbound ground movement phase will reduce the necessity of sequence changes near the departure end of the runway. The early management of full runway length departures or intersection take-offs will also have a positive effect on reduction of Runway Incursion Risk.

5.4.2 Remotely Provided Aerodrome Control Service


The concept of remotely provided aerodrome control service applies at aerodromes where the service provider has determined that this is feasible, that the site and techniques to be used are proven to meet all appropriate safety requirements and where/ when this is cost-effective.

5.5 THE APPLICATION OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND SEPARATION


The intention of the concept is to avoid segregation in managed airspace as far as possible. Some segregation is unavoidable such as that needed to accommodate certain military and civil activities. For reasons of access and equity it is not proposed to segregate aircraft on the basis CNS capability or the type of separation service being provided.

5.5.1 Airport Operations


On the airport, the physical layout constrains the options for conflict management. Implementation of good taxiway design at both new and existing airports will reduce interactions between taxi flows, while tools such as SMAN provide taxi routing solutions that also minimise interactions.

5.5.2 Terminal Area Operations


During Periods of High Complexity During periods of high complexity, Terminal area operations will be based primarily on the issuance of clearances on 2D or 3D routes, the choice being dependant on aircraft capability and the specific traffic situation. Conventional SID/STAR will be used for non-capable aircraft but such aircraft may be subject to restrictions (e.g. less advantageous routing). Controllers will use surveillance, constraint management or ASAS separation to complement the route allocation. During Periods of Medium/Low Complexity During periods of medium/low complexity, Terminal area operations will primarily be based on the issuance of clearances on 2D separated routes or conventional SID/STAR, the choice being dependant on aircraft capability. Terminal Area Separation Modes and their Application

39

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Mode

ATM Level

Applies In Complexity

Use

Conventional Surveillance Cooperative Separation: Visual 0-4 0-4 New ANSP Modes Precision Trajectory-2D Precision Trajectory-3D 1-4 3-4 New Airborne Modes Cooperative Separation: ASAS 3-4 M/H On ATC initiative L/M/H M/H When required to maximise capacity L/M/H L/M

5.5.3 En-Route Managed Airspace


During Periods of High Complexity During periods of high complexity, en-route operations will be based primarily on the issuance of 2D clearances on user preferred routes supported by shared data from the aircraft and ground-based trajectory prediction and uncertainty calculation. Conflict management support tools will be able to predict conflicts with sufficient accuracy and look-ahead time to allow the controller to exploit the benefits of non-fixed route operations. Conventional route structure based clearances will be used for non-capable aircraft but such aircraft may be subject to restrictions. Controllers will use surveillance, constraint management or ASAS separation to complement the route allocation. To achieve the additional capacity to reach the high end SESAR goals a range of new separation modes will be employed. As such modes may have impacts on individual optimum trajectories they will be employed when maintenance of capacity and throughput is a higher priority. The appropriate mode(s) may include 4D Contract clearances and ASAS. The preferred mode(s) for use in SESAR and their exact area of application will be determined after appropriate validation. Aircraft operating according to 4D Contract will have priority and controllers will separate other flights from them providing an advantage to equipped aircraft. During Periods of Medium/Low Complexity During periods of medium/low complexity, en-route operations will be based on essentially the same principles as for high complexity en-route, but the specific high capacity modes will not be needed. All aircraft will normally be cleared on 2D user preferred routes supported by shared trajectory data (for capable aircraft) and ground-based trajectory prediction and uncertainty calculation. Aircraft will be subject to conventional ATC separation or will use ASAS capabilities. Vertical constraints will be used as required and precise longitudinal navigation may be applied either in absolute terms (CTO) or in relative terms with the spacing between flights being achieved through controller actions or ASAS when needed. Self-Separation in Managed Airspace One goal of the ASAS development path within the ConOps is to enable self-separation in mixed mode operations [D07]. The intention of the concept is to allow self-separating flights and ANSP separated flights to operate in the same airspace provided that this can be proven to meet the target level of safety in addition to providing economic and capacity benefits.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

40

Self-separation operations involve aircraft being the designated separator. When operating in managed airspace however such aircraft will still be visible to the ATM system and to other traffic: When the aircraft is the designated separator ASAS procedures will be used; Aircraft will have ATM Capability Level 4 this enables the exchange of data between ASAS aircraft and renders the aircraft visible to the ATM system; The self-separating pilot will validate successive segments of the trajectory ahead of the aircraft analogous to successive clearances by a controller; When self-separating from aircraft on Precision Trajectory clearances or under controller separation it is the ASAS aircraft that will execute any required separation manoeuvre; The objective for ASAS self-separating aircraft will be to adhere to the RBT. When a conflict is resolved the aircraft will return to the RBT; Execution of separation tasks involving ASAS aircraft will be supported by high levels of automation and procedures and will be initiated at the systemsystem level i.e. it will not be a manual task for the pilot under normal circumstances. Implementation of ASAS self-separation in mixed mode operations is however not likely before 2020 and more R&D is needed. En-route Separation Modes and their Application

Mode

ATM Level

Applies In Complexity

Use

Conventional Surveillance Procedural 0-4 0 New ANSP Modes Precision Trajectory-2D Precision Trajectory-3D TC-SA Precision Trajectory-4DC 1-4 3-4 2-4 4 New Airborne Modes Cooperative Separation: ASAS Self-Separation: ASAS 3-4 4 M/H L/M/H On ATC initiative L/M M/H L/M/H M/H For very high complexity situations The normal mode. For high complexity operations L/M/H L/M/H The normal mode.

5.5.4 Unmanaged Airspace


The prevention of collisions in unmanaged airspace is the responsibility of the airspace user and is exercised by the pilot based on the see-and-avoid principle. Advanced aircraft capabilities coupled with a requirement for all airborne aircraft to be electronically visible will bring significant safety advantages in this airspace.

41

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Unmanaged Airspace: Prevention of Collisions

Mode

ATM Level

Applies In Complexity

Use

Conventional Self Separation 0-4 L Normal mode.

New Airborne Modes Self-Separation: ASAS 4 L/M In areas where equipage levels make it practicable.

5.6 COLLISION AVOIDANCE 5.6.1 General Considerations


One of the elementary requirements for a safety net is that it must work independently from other parts of the system, on the ground or in the air. In SESAR, the dual layer safety afforded by independent airborne and ground based safety nets, Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) and Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA) respectively, will continue to play a major role in helping to ensure maintenance of the required level of safety. The use of the shared trajectory as the common view of flight intentions both in the air and on the ground will improve the reliability of STCA while reducing false alarm rates as part of multi hypothesis processing options. STCA will be used as a safety net and not as a controller tool to manage separation. At the same time, SESAR will lead the way in encouraging efforts to develop ACAS and STCA beyond their current state where a lack of proper information sharing between ground and airborne systems results in warnings and resolution advisories that are not coordinated. As a result of the delegation of the role of separator, aircraft may fly in close proximity to each other with geometries that would trigger ACAS as we know it to-day, not to mention STCA, unless those systems were made capable of recognising situations where such new separation modes were being applied [D10, D20].

5.6.2 Cooperative Ground and Airborne Safety Net Concept


SESAR requires an effective collision avoidance system that makes full use of the shared trajectories and the system wide information management approach while also eliminating common failure modes between ground based and airborne systems as well as between separation assurance systems and collision avoidance systems. One of the elementary requirements for a collision avoidance system is that it must work independently from other parts of the system, on the ground or in the air. The reason for this is to ensure that reduced system availability or common mode failure (where a single data error may invalidate several safety layers) does not prevent the collision avoidance system from generating a warning should a risk of collision present itself. In SESAR, all ATM information is shared and accessible to all partners and the ground systems and the aircraft are just individual nodes on the network. The ConOps proposes an approach where the independent warning capability of the safety nets is retained on the functional level but otherwise they are cooperating on the information management level. This means that completely independent detection logic should be present in the different systems, using several independent information sources as well as any available shared sources (e.g. altitude from barometric and non-barometric sources, shared trajectories, etc.) but the calculation results are always shared. This does not imply that the two systems would negotiate the resolution manoeuvre. Since this collision avoidance approach is based on systems able to detect collision risks and then help avoiding them, it is essential that all aircraft become cooperative. They must be visible to each other via electronic means. For certain categories of aircraft, new means of electronic visibility, with low power requirements, may need to be developed to enable wide scale application of the concept. Since the trajectory is associated with all relevant information, including the separation mode being applied, the rules and resolution advice can be adjusted

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

42

dynamically to always align with the minimum distances and separation minima implied by the separation mode in use. The warning horizon may not always be the same for the pilot and the controller and hence they may not need to get the same warning at the same time. However, they must be aware (depending on predetermined rules) of what is happening and also the action being advised to and being taken by the other partner.

5.6.3 Collision Avoidance in the Airport Environment


To reduce the risk of runway incursions better situational awareness for the controller, aircrew and vehicle drivers will be provided not only through (re)design of the taxiway lay-out and provision of visual aids (signs and markings) but also through CDTI technology. Advanced surveillance systems (e.g. ground radar in combination with multilateration technology) will constantly monitor the position, movement and intention of all aircraft and vehicles, operating in the manoeuvring area. It will provide enhanced information to controllers whilst CDTI technology will provide aircrew and vehicle drivers with map, guidance and traffic awareness information. By these means, possible conflicts and runway incursions can be detected at an early stage and alarms issued to the ground controller and also directly transmitted to the cockpit display and alarm systems of the relevant aircraft and /or vehicles. Advanced, automated, systems may be considered such as auto-brake to make it impossible for an aircraft or vehicle to cross selected stop bars.

43

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

6 - HOW THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS RESPONDS TO THE CHALLENGES


6.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENT ASSESSMENT
The preliminary assessment of the ATM Target Concept indicates that it has the potential to meet the capacity targets defined in D2 except in a few identified areas like highly congested airports and/or high density TMAs. Capacity will be provided with the required level of safety and security while minimising the environmental impact. The demonstration of the required level of safety and security needs further extensive validation during development of the SESAR ATM system. The assessment of the other performance areas shows positive contributions from the concept. Most importantly, a shared belief in this preliminary assessment has been achieved with the Stakeholder Experts through various analysis and assessment methods ranging from expert judgement to influence diagrams linking the ATM Target Concept to the delivery of the expected performance. The SESAR ATM Target Concept is likely to be affordable and economically viable to all stakeholders only under the following conditions: (on the benefits side) if the cost-effectiveness target is met and capacity and quality of service targets are met to their greatest extent, (on the cost side) if global interoperability (e.g. with NextGen) is achieved allowing significantly reduced forward fit costs. The ATM Target Concept will significantly contribute to the reduction of the environmental impact that can be attributed to ATM in terms of noise, local air quality, fuel burn and CO2 emissions11. Key environmental strengths of the ATM Target Concept are: the drive for trajectory efficiency from gate-to-gate which will lead to reduced fuel use; improved navigation capability and trajectory management which will allow for improved noise control; Collaborative Environment Management that is provided with high quality and up to date information. However, there is a trade-off between further environmental improvements and operational KPAs. Understanding and effectively managing this trade-off is vital to the deployment of the ATM Target Concept. For instance, the aim to develop regional airport capacity may have adverse environmental implications in terms of the number of people affected by noise, induced aircraft lower load factors, and increased ground transport impacts.

6.2 SAFETY IN THE CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS


While the target is to meet the overall SESAR goals relating to capacity, environment and cost-effectiveness, it is the obligation of all stakeholders in the future ATM system to achieve these goals safely. Safety in SESAR must be based on a Global System Approach. This method must be based on safety objectives validated by safety analyses, where all elements contribute to safety. This method must also determine and analyse the effects of common failure modes. This method must address the safety in all airspace. The effective safety regulatory framework will be founded on a set of basic principles developed by SESAR Work Package 1.6 (Safety Regulation) for safety regulation as they are agreed and accepted within the SESAR programme. Compliance with these basic principles is expected to ensure the safe development and implementation of the ConOps.

6.3 THE HUMAN IN THE CONCEPT


People with the appropriate skills and competences, duly authorised, will continue to form the mainstay of the ATM operation. The concept of operations aims to create the optimal balance between human and machine capabilities, providing appropriate decision independence to each in the areas they are best able to perform. In order to fully meet the safety and other performance targets of SESAR a high level of automation will be required however the human shall at all times remain the manager of the automation. In basic terms this means that the human will choose what is to be done, delegate the execution of the task(s) to the automation and be able to intervene if required. The automation support of the human roles within SESAR must be developed and implemented in a way that fosters trust and confidence by the human in the automation functions. Experience (both good and bad) regarding the successful implementation of automation to the cockpit will be used in designing automation in other areas of ATM, especially for air traffic controllers. High-reliability systems such as fly-by-wire, full automatic landing, etc have been implemented in aircraft and a similar rigor is required in the development of ground-based automation, especially when the automation function (or failure) will have consequences for multiple aircraft at a time. The tasks and nature of human roles within ATM will evolve with the automation. For air traffic controllers this will involve changes such as reduction/removal of house-keeping tasks such as frequency changes, the delegation of specific tasks or responsibilities to other agents (both human and automation),
11 CO is inextricably linked to fuel use and hence operational and cost efficiency. Its importance increases as fuel supply becomes more costly and as CO acquires a value through emissions trading. 2 2

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

44

adjustments in work-style to support a more strategic trajectory management traffic flow, changes to the staffing required at positions, etc. It is important to make sure that the job satisfaction and pride remains high and the overall human experience in the future system, while different, will not be any less attractive or important than it is today [D16]. The humans role in the system will be by design, and not become a residual task such as the human does whatever the automation cant complete. The ATM system design approach will ensure that the strengths of the human and of the automation are both maximised while the weakness of the human and the automation are both minimised. Degraded and Recovery modes of automation will especially ensure that the human is never overloaded or expected to do more than is humanly possible. System error - that is not just human error but the deficiency of human and/or automation will be monitored and lessons learnt. The human will not be responsible for automation that is not within the ATM system design (or capacity) of the human to monitor and manage. The human operator of automation will not be responsible for automation behaviour that is not within operators ability to influence. The human will not be responsible for information supplied by automation that the human is unable to verify. The human will not be solely to blame for failure to use the automation correctly if the actions of the human were not grossly negligent (as a deficiency in the automations interface to the human is also indicated). When the human has to change work practice as a work-around to a task that automation is supposed to do but doesnt, then this will be treated as a system error that should be promptly corrected. The changes in humans role within SESAR will affect staff selection, training, recency requirements (especially for emergencies involving degraded automation) and possibly even ratings and endorsements. Representatives of the humans who will operate the automation will be involved throughout the design, simulation, implementation and review of the automation [D11].

6.4 AIRSPACE CAPACITY


Controller task-load per flight is a major factor in airspace capacity. The SESAR concept will increase capacity by reducing the requirement for tactical intervention. In highly congested areas dominated by climbing and descending traffic flows this will be achieved by deploying route structures that provide a greater degree of strategic deconfliction and procedures that capitalise on the greater accuracy of aircraft navigation. New separation modes supported by controller tools, utilising shared high precision trajectory data, will reduce uncertainty and increase the valid duration of each clearance. Tools will also support task identification, clearance compliance and monitoring. Further reductions in controller workload per flight can be expected from air/ground data link communications and the delegation of some spacing, separation and flow optimisation tasks to the pilot.

6.5 AUTOMATION STRATEGY


The SESAR capacity and safety objectives can only be achieved by an intense enhancement of integrated automation support while Human operators are expected to remain the core of the system. To ensure overall performance of the net-centric and information-shared ATM network, the following widely recognised high-level automation principles will guide the development: Automate only to improve overall system and human performance, not just because the technology is available; The overall impact of automation and allocation of functions shall be systematically determined before implementation to avoid unintended results such as additional complexity, loss of appropriate situation awareness, too high or too low workload or potential for error; A balance shall be obtained between the efficiency created by automation and the need for the human to be able to recover from non-nominal and/or degraded mode of operations (automation failure strategy); Place the human in command. The human shall be the automation manager and not the automation monitor, it shall assist humans to carry out their tasks safely, efficiently and effectively; Automation should be error resistant and error tolerant; Involve users from the system design phase to ensure improvement of overall system performance and to foster trust and confidence by the human in the automation. Always consider the respective typical strengths and weaknesses of humans and of technology when deciding what to automate in the appropriate context.

45

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

6.6 THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE CONCEPT


The ConOps recognises the need to reduce the environmental impacts of the aviation sector and that, among the several strategies that could be used, that of placing constraints on demand is gaining wider community support. At the same time it is also true that the demand for air travel is increasing strongly. The ConOps, however, strives to improve environmental performance, both from an individual flight as from an overall air transport perspective. The ConOps is required to address the 2020 demand and also develop a concept that can accommodate a trebling of capacity beyond that time. In reaching the SESAR capacity goal the ConOps must also demonstrate a 10% reduction (average per flight) in the ATM contribution to the impacts on the environment. This can be achieved by significantly reducing fuel burn and resulting gaseous and particulate emissions and by decreasing the noise associated to both in-flight and surface operations. The concept considers that the dual goals can be achieved by significantly improving fuel efficiency and resulting gaseous and particulate emissions reductions and by decreasing the noise footprints associated to both in-flight and surface operations through the: Reduction of distance flown; Optimisation of flight profiles; Minimisation of airborne and ground holding. The achievement of these goals will require operational trade-offs to ensure that at any time a optimum balance between the social and economic benefits and the environmental effects is realised. The concept of Environmental Sustainability will also require the development of appropriate tools to facilitate an objective debate between the industry and society [D05].

6.7 SECURITY IN THE CONCEPT


The ConOps recognises, that the future ATM system is faced with evolving threats, and that there are strong pressures required to reduce the impact raised by a security incident. The ATM Security Objectives are to ensure: Self-protection of the ATM service as part of the critical infrastructure of modern society; Support to government agencies in dealing with security incidents. The concept of a closely integrated partnership of service users and providers is dependent on a level of trust between all the parties involved in the face of an aggressive evolving threat; the trust to be able to share information, to couple networks together, to protect airspace, to share staff and to implement joint security policies to protect the system from those who would disrupt it. The following ATM Security requirements for the future ATM target concept of SESAR are underlying: Future ATM system will meet the security and business continuity requirements from being part of critical infrastructure; System wide security management function (e.g. access control, network management) will be integrated in the ATM system architecture; ATM information networks will be protected so that the ATM applications may function securely (e.g. CDM, 4D-Trajectory Management, ADS-B, Traffic Information Service-Broadcast); Security of SWIM based information networks will be harmonised with the on-board networks of connected aircraft and the data links; SESAR architecture will provide a framework that allows for a stepwise implementation of the security measures as the threat evolves; Security vetting procedures for staff (currently a state responsibility) and the access requirements will be harmonised to allow mobility of staff; ATM will continue to support national governmental agencies in responding to unlawful acts in the airspace and on the ground; ATM will support national security in respect of flights entering national airspace; Interoperability between civil and military aircraft communication during interceptions in support of incident management will be improved; Security of airspace will be increased using the new operational possibilities for trajectory management.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

46

7 - APPENDIX
7.1 ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS
ACARS ACAS ADS-B AFUA AIS ALR AMAN ANSP APOC ARES ASAS ATC ATM ATM-n BA BDT CDA CDM CDTI CNS ConOps CPDLC CTA CTA CTO Aircraft Communications, Addressing and Reporting System Airborne Collision Avoidance System Automatic Dependant Surveillance - Broadcast Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace Aeronautical Information Service Alerting Services Arrival Manager Air Navigation Service Provider Aerodrome Operations Centre Airspace Reservation Airborne Separation Assistance Systems Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Management ATM Capability Level 0 / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 Business Aviation Business Development Trajectory Continuous Descent Approach Collaborative Decision Making Cockpit Display of Traffic Information Communication, Navigation and Surveillance Concept of Operations Controller Pilot Data Link Communication Controlled Time of Arrival Control Area Controlled Time Over

47

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

DMA DMAN EIBT EOBT FL FIS FMS FOC FUA GA GNSS ICAO IATA IFR ILS KPA LVC MET MIL MTA MTCD MVPA NOP OAT PT R&D RNP ROT

Dynamic Mobile Area Departure Manager Estimated In Blocks Time Estimated Off Block Time Flight Level Flight Information Service Flight Management System Flight Operations Centre Flexible Use of Airspace General Aviation Global Navigation Satellite Service International Civil Aviation Organisation International Air Transport Association Instrument Flight Rules Instrument Landing System Key Performance Areas Low Visibility Conditions Meteorological Military Military Training Area Medium Term Conflict Detection Military Variable Profile Area Network Operations Plan Operational Air Traffic Predicted Trajectory Research and Development Required Navigation Performance Runway Occupancy Time

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

48

RTA SBAS SBT SESAR SID SMAN STAR SWIM TACAN TC-SA TMA TMR TP TSA TTA UDPP VFR WMO WP

Required Time of Arrival Spaced Based Augmentation System Shared Business Trajectory Single European Sky ATM Research Standard Instrument Departure Surface Manager Standard Terminal Arrival Route System Wide Information Management Tactical Air Navigation System Trajectory Control by Ground Based Speed Adjustments Terminal Manoeuvring Area Trajectory Management Requirements Trajectory Prediction Temporary Segregated Area Target Time of Arrival User Driven Prioritisation Process Visual Flight Rules World Meteorological Organisation Work Package

Definitions
When the following terms are used in this document, they will have the meaning as specified hereunder. 4D Contract An ATC clearance that prescribes the containment of the trajectory in all 4 dimensions for the period of the contract during which the uncertainty associated with future predicted position does not increase with the prediction horizon. A set of consecutive segments linking waypoints and/or points computed by FMS (airborne) or by TP (ground) to build the vertical profile and the lateral transitions; each point defined by a longitude, a latitude, a level and a time.

4D Trajectory

Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA) An airspace management concept in which airspace is managed as a single entity and in which there are no fixed structures and airspace reservations for special airspace activity are allocated in real time.

49

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Airspace Reservation (ARES)

(ICAO) A volume of airspace temporarily reserved for exclusive or specific use by categories of users. These airspace reservations may be stationary, like an ad-hoc TSA, or moving along with the flight path to facilitate aerial operations like en-route Air to Air Refuelling. An ATM tool that determines the optimal arrival sequence times at the aerodrome and/or possibly at other common route fixes (e.g. IAF). An ASAS application in which the role of separator is temporarily delegated to aircrew to assure airborne separation with regard to other aircraft under specific circumstances. In ASAS Self-Separation the aircrew are the designated separator for a defined segment of a flight during which they shall assure airborne separation between themselves and all other aircraft. An ASAS separation provision mode in which the separation responsibility remains with the ground controller and the aircrew are instructed to maintain a specified time or distance from a designated aircraft, usually the preceding aircraft in the arrival or departure stream. An ASAS application that enables flight crew to maintain their position in a sequence previously determined by a controller or to merge their routes onto a single, predefined, route. An ASAS application presenting the controller with an opportunity to devolve the crossing and passing task to the pilot, on an individual aircraft basis, whilst retaining responsibility for separation from other aircraft. Used for airspace user business planning and not shared outside the user organisation. A 4D trajectory which expresses the business or mission intentions of the user with or without constraints. It includes both ground and airborne segments of the aircraft operation (gate-to-gate) and is built from, and updated with, the most timely and accurate data available (FOC, FMS, etc.). An environment in which the consequences of decisions taken are visible to all partners. In the ATM context, complexity refers to the number of simultaneous or near- simultaneous interactions of trajectories in a given volume of airspace. For automation, complexity is relevant only in terms of calculation effort, not the ability to solve a given set of problems. Beyond a certain level of complexity, humans can no longer oversee all the consequences of the interactions and automation support is required if traffic is to be handled safely and efficiently. See also Density. The tool used by an organisation to establish the desired approach it wishes to take to realise a system or service. The ConOps documents the high level decisions and agreement that define the approach and the organisational structure needed to put that approach into operation. Two aircraft are operating with less than the prescribed separation minima. An ATM imposed time constraint on a defined merging point associated to an arrival runway. An ATM imposed time constraint over a point. The term refers to airborne separation applications implying temporary delegation of the role of separator. In the ATM context, density refers to the number of simultaneous or near- simultaneous trajectories present in a given airspace volume. High densities require specific procedures to ensure that the required capacity to handle traffic can be provided. See also Complexity. An ATM tool that determines the optimum departure sequence and times from an aerodrome (for multiple runways if appropriate) taking into account all applicable constraints due to the surrounding terminal airspace.

Arrival Manager (AMAN)

ASAS-Separation

ASAS-Self Separation

ASAS-Spacing

ASAS-Sequencing and Merging

ASAS-Crossing and Passing

Business Development Trajectory (BDT) Business Trajectory

Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) Complexity

Concept of Operations (ConOps)

Conflict Controlled Time of Arrival (CTA) Controlled Time Over (CTO) Cooperative separation Density

Departure Manager (DMAN)

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

50

Dynamic (Route) Allocation)

Allocation of one of a number of predefined routes on the basis of availability, user preference and/or aircraft performance. A constraint placed on a trajectory with the purpose of avoiding an area with military or other similar activity. The owner of the trajectory decides how to satisfy the constraint with the most appropriate change. The high precision of 4D navigation allows properly equipped aircraft to avoid the temporary trajectory exclusion volumes with minimum business trajectory disruption. Two aircraft are sufficiently close to each other that continued monitoring or an action is needed to ensure that separation is maintained. Characteristic indicating the ability to exchange, integrate and manage content between systems. Applied to a system or capability, indicates a situation in which a user/organisation continues to use a system or continues to operate with capabilities which no longer provide the full range of functions or the level of economy other, newer systems would. Airspace in which all traffic is known to the Air Traffic System. The military mission trajectory is a 4D trajectory more complex than a civil business trajectory. A military mission trajectory will usually consist of a transit to and from an airspace reservation with mission specific dimensions and characteristics. Outside and inside of an airspace reservation a single trajectory could be used by multiple aircraft (e.g. formation flights, air refuelling) demanding increased separation requirements. Additionally, a single airspace reservation could be approached and departed by individual aircraft or formation flights on different trajectories. Participating as a part of a continuously-evolving, complex community of people, devices, information and services interconnected by a communications network to achieve optimal benefit of resources and better synchronisation of events and their consequences. (Wikipedia) The Network Operations Plan works with a set of collaborative applications providing access to traffic demand, airspace and airport capacity and constraints and scenarios to assist in managing diverse events. The aim of the NOP is to facilitate the processes needed to reach agreements on demand and capacity. The Operational Concept describes a proposed system in terms of the user needs it will fulfil, its relationship to existing systems or procedures and the ways it will be used. It is used to obtain consensus among the acquirer, developer, support, and user agencies on the operational concept of a proposed system. The airborne predicted trajectory is continually computed/updated on-board (in aircraft fitted with FMS or similar equipment) and corresponds to what the aircraft is predicted to fly The tactical establishment and maintenance of a safe, orderly and efficient flow of traffic. It includes the handling of queues, both in the air and on the ground. It operates on individual flights and is closely related to, and sometimes indistinguishable from, the Separation Provision process. It aims to facilitate the highest achievable capacity of the ATM System and to manage delays in a fuel-efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The business trajectory which the airspace user agrees to fly and the ANSP and Airports agree to facilitate (subject to separation provision). Most times indicated in the RBT are estimates, some may be target times (TTA) to facilitate planning and some of them may become constraints (CTA, CTO) to assist in queue management when appropriate, e.g. at AMAN horizon. EU States, Switzerland and other states that adopt the SESAR principles. Published business trajectory that is available for collaborative ATM planning purposes. The refinement of the SBT will be an iterative process.

Dynamic Mobile Area (DMA)

Interaction

Interoperable Legacy

Managed Airspace Military Mission Trajectory

Net-centric

Network Operations Plan

Operational Concept (OC)

Predicted Trajectory (PT)

Queue management

Reference Business Trajectory (RBT)

SESAR Area Shared Business Trajectory (SBT)

51

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

Surface Manager (SMAN)

An ATM tool that determines optimal surface movement plans (such as taxi route plans) involving the calculation and sequencing of movement events and optimising of resource usage (e.g. de-icing facilities). A distributed processing environment which replaces data level interoperability and closely coupled interfaces with an open, flexible, modular and secure data architecture totally transparent to users and their applications. An ATM computed arrival time. It is not a constraint but a progressively refined planning time that is used to coordinate between arrival and departure management applications. The separator is defined as the agent responsible for separation provision for a conflict and can be either the airspace user or a separation provision service provider. The trajectory is the description of movement of an aircraft both in the air and on the ground including position, time, and at least via calculation, speed and acceleration. (ICAO) Trajectory Management Requirements (TMR) are associated with the Reference Business Trajectory for ATM 3 Capable aircraft. TMR specify the aircraft requirement to share the revised trajectory in the event that the flight detects a delta from previous predictions. The airspace user owns the Business Trajectory, thus in normal circumstances the users have primary responsibility over their operation. In circumstances where ATM constraints (including those arising from infrastructural and environmental restrictions/regulations) need to be applied, the resolution that achieves the best business / mission outcome within these constraints is left to the individual user. Typically constraints will be generated or released by various ATM partners through CDM processes. The owners prerogatives do not affect ATC or Pilot tactical decision processes. The volume of airspace around an aircraft within which its actual position is assumed or predicted to be. The higher the uncertainty, the larger this volume is. Airspace other than managed airspace.

System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

Target Time of Arrival (TTA)

The Separator

Trajectory

Trajectory Management Requirements (TMR)

Trajectory Ownership

Uncertainty

Unmanaged Airspace

User Driven Prioritisation Process (UDPP) A process during periods of reduced capacity in which the service provider declares the available capacity and users, interacting collaboratively and collectively with the provider, propose specific flights to fill it.

SESAR Definition Phase: the Concept of Operations at a glance

52

What is SESAR?
The SESAR programme is the European Air Traffic Management (ATM) modernisation programme. It will combine technological, economic and regulatory aspects and will use the Single European Sky (SES) legislation to synchronise the plans and actions of the different stakeholders and federate resources for the development and implementation of the required improvements throughout Europe, in both airborne and ground systems. The products of the SESAR Definition Phase will be the result of a 2 year study awarded to an industry wide consortium supplemented by EUROCONTROLs expertise. It will ultimately deliver a European ATM Master Plan covering the period up to 2020 and the accompanying Programme of Work for the first 6 years of the subsequent Development Phase. The SESAR Definition Phase will produce 6 main Deliverables over the 2 years covering all aspects of the future European ATM System, including its supporting institutional framework.

The Market

Market Requirements

The Top Product

How to Build it!

Action Plan

GO!

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

The SESAR Consortium has been selected to carry out the Definition Phase study which, for the first time in European ATM history, has brought together the major stakeholders in European aviation to build the Master Plan; this is considered to be a major achievement.

Who is the SESAR Consortium?


AEA (Association of European Airlines), Aroports de Paris (ADP), AENA (Aeropuertos Espanoles y Navegacion Area), AIRBUS, Air France, Air Traffic Alliance E.I.G / G.I.E, Amsterdam Airport SCHIPHOL, Austro Control GmbH, BAA (UK airport group), BAE Systems, Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (DFS), Deutsche Lufthansa AG, DSNA (Direction des Services de la Navigation Arienne), EADS, ENAV, ERA (European Regions Airline Association), FRAPORT, IAOPA (International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations), IATA (International Air Transport Association), Iberia, INDRA, KLM, LFV (Luftfartsverket), LVNL (Air Traffic Control The Netherlands), Munich International Airport, NATS (National Air Traffic Services), NAV Portugal, SELEX Sistemi Integrati, THALES Air Systems, THALES AVIONICS. The SESAR Associated Partners are: ATC EUC, Boeing, CAA UK, ECA, ELFAA (European Low Fare Airline Association), ETF, EURAMID, IFATCA, IFATSEA, Honeywell, Rockwell-Collins, Dassault Aviation (representing EBAA). Research Centres: AENA, DFS, DLR, DSNA, INECO, ISDEFE, NLR, SICTA, SOFREAVIA.
+33 (0)1 46 04 22 27

The SESAR Definition Phase is funded by the European Commissions TEN-T Programme and EUROCONTROL

www.sesar-consortium.aero

info@sesar-consortium.aero