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16 TENSES

Present Tense Simple Present Tense : a. Nominal simple present : tobe-1 (am-are-is) Example: She is a Teacher She is not a teacher Is she a teacher ? b. Verbal simple present : not tobe but have verb Example: I work I do not work Do I work ? She,He and It verb-1 + s, so verb that have hissing sound (x,ch,s and sh) we use the last es (mixes, teaches, kisses and washes). The use simple present tense : 1. Expressing facts 2. expressing habits Adverbs of Frequency always selalu usually biasanya often seringkali sometimes kadang2 seldom jarang never tidak pernah ever pernah PastTense Simple Past Tense : Rumus Positif (+) - Subject + to be (was/were) + complement - Subject + verb 2 + object Negatif (-) - Subject + to be (was/were) + not + complement - Subject + did not + verb 1 + object Tanya (?) - Did + subject + verb 1 + object ? Contoh Simple Past tense: He was a businessman in 1999 (+) - dia adalah seorang pebisnis pada tahun 1999 I sell these motorcycles in Surabaya(+) - saya menjual sepeda motor ini di Surabaya She did not visit me yesterday (-) - dia tidak mengunjungiku kemarin My parents were not home yesterday(-) - orang tua ku tidak ada di rumah kemarin Did you play football yesterday ? (?) - Apakah kamu bermain sepakbola kemarin ? Future Tense Simple Future Tense : Use for planing Rumus Positif (+) Subject + will/shall + verb I + object Subject + am/is/are + going to + verb I + object Negatif (-) Subject + will/shall + verb I + object Subject + am/is/are + not + going to + verb I + object Tanya (?) Will/shall + subject + verb I + object Am/is/are + subject + going to + verb I + object Contoh Simple Future tense : We will go to school soon (+) - kita akan pergi ke sekolah segera We will not go to school soon (-) - kita tidak akan pergi ke sekolah segera Will we go to school soon ? (?) - apakah kita akan pergi ke sekolah segera The students are going to have a test next month (+) - para siswa akan menghadapi ujian bulan depan The students are not going to have a test next (-) - para siswa tidak akan menghadapi ujian bulan depan Are the students going to have a test next month ? (?) - Apakah para siswa akan menghadapi ujian bulan depan ? Past Future Tense Past Future Tense:
Rumus Positif (+) Subject + should/would + be + object Subject + should/would + verb I + object Negatif (-) Subject + should/would + not + be + object Subject + should/would + not + verb + object Tanya (?) Should/would + subject + be + object ? Should/would + subject + verb I + object ? Contoh simple past future tense : He should be in Banten next month (+) - dia akan telah berada di Banten bulan depan He should not be in Banten next month (-) - dia tidak akan telah berada di Banten bulan depan Should he be in Banten next month ? (?) - apakah dia akan telah berada di Banten bulan depan ? I should be pick up when you arrive at the station tomorrow (+) - saya akan sedang sudah menjemput ketika kamu tiba di stasiun besok I should not be pick up when you arrive at the station tomorrow (-) - saya tidak akan sedang sudah menjemput ketika kamu tiba di stasiun besok should you be pick up when I arrive at the station tomorrow ? (?) - apakah kamu akan sedang sudah menjemput ketika saya tiba di stasiun besok ?

Present continuous Tense : used for activity now Rumus Present Continuous Tense : Positif (+): subject + to be (am, is, are) + Verb ing + object Negatif (-) : subject + to be + not + verb ing + object interogative?) : to be + subject + verb ing + object Example : I am watching TV now (+) Mr. Khanafi is not going to Jakarta (-) Is Mrs. Annisa cooking in the kitchen ? (?)

Past continuous Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + to be (was/were) + verb-ing + object Negatif (-) Subject + was/were + not + verb-ing + object Tanya (?) - was/were + subject + verb-ing + object ? Contoh - Past Continuous tense : He was sleeping when I came (+) - Dia sedang tidur ketika saya datang He was not sleeping when I came (-) - Dia tidak sedang tidur ketika saya datang Was he sleeping when I came ? - apakah dia sedang tidur ketika saya datang ? I was working all night yesterday(+) - saya sedang bekerja sepanjang malam kemarin I was not working all night yesterday (-) - Saya tidak sedang bekerja sepanjang malam kemarin were you working all night yesterday ? - Apakah kamu sedang bekerja sepanjang malam kemarin ? Past Perfect Tense: Rumus Past Perfect Tense : Positif (+) Subject + had + verb III + (past participle) + object Negatif (-) Subject + had + not + verb III + object Tanya (?) Had + subject + verb III + object ?

Future continuous Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + will/shall + be + verb-ing + object Negatif (-) Subject + will/shall + not + verb-ing + object Tanya (?) Will/shall + subject + be + verb-ing + object Contoh Future Continuous tense : I will be watching a movie tonight (+) - saya akan sedang menonton film nanti malam I will not be watching a movie tonight (-) - saya tidak akan sedang menonton film nanti malam Will you be watching a movie tonight ? (?) - Apakah kamu akan sedang menonton film nanti malam ?

Past Future Continuous Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + should/would + be + verb-ing + object Negatif (-) Subject + should/would + not + be + verbing + object Tanya (?) Should/would + subject + be + verb-ing + object ? Contoh Past Future Continuous tense : My brother would be finishing Thesis last week (+) - Kakakku akan telah sedang menyelesaikan tesis minggu lalu My brother would not be finishing Thesis last week (-) - Kakakku tidak akan telah sedang menyelesaikan tesis minggu lalu Would your brother be finishing Thesis last week? (?) - apakah kakakmu akan telah sedang menyelesaikan tesis minggu lalu ? Past Future Perfect Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + should/would + have + been + complement Subject + should/would + have + verb III + object Negatif (-) Subject + should/would + not + have + been

Present Perfect Tense : used for past activity until now.(pointed to output) Rumus : Positif (+) Subject + has / have + been + object Subject + has / have + verb III + object Negatif (-)

Future Perfect Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + shall/will + have + been + complement Subject + shall/will + have + verb III + object Negatif (-) Subject + shall/will + not + been + complement Subject + shall/will + not + have + verb III + object

Subject + has / have + not + been + object Subject +has / have + not + verb III + object Tanya (?) Have / has + Subject + verb III + object Have / has + subject + been + object Contoh : I have been at home for a month (+) Mr. Handoko has not eaten the sate already (-) Has Mr. Imam been here since 06.00 ? (?)

Contoh - Past Perfect tense : They had been here before 1945 (+) - mereka telah berada disini sebelum tahun 1945 They had not been here before 1945 (-) - mereka belum berada disini sebelum tahun 1945 Had they been here before 1945 ? (?) - apakah mereka telah berada disini sebelum 1945 ? She had gone to Amsterdam when I called her (+) - dia telah pergi ke Amsterdam ketika aku meneleponnya She had not gone to Amsterdam when I called her (-) - dia belum pergi ke Amsterdam ketika aku meneleponnya Had she gone to Amsterdam when you called her ? - apakah dia telah pergi ke Amsterdam ketika kamu meneleponnya ? Keterangan waktu (Adverb of time) yang umum digunakan dalam past Perfect tense ini : after, before, already, as soon as, just, yet, until, till, by the time that.

Tanya (?) Shall/will + subject + been + complement Shall/will + subject + have + verb III + object ? Contoh Future perfect tense : I will have been in this hospital until tomorrow morning (+) - saya akan telah berada di rumah sakit ini sampai besok pagi I will not have been in this hospital until tomorrow morning (-) - saya tidak akan telah berada di rumah sakit ini sampai besok pagi Will you have been in this hospital until tomorrow morning ? (?) - apakah kamu akan telah berada disini sampai besok pagi ? Majid will have rented my house next month (+) - Majid akan telah menyewa rumahku bulan depan Majid will not have rented my house next month (-) - Majid tidak akan telah menyewa rumahku bulan depan Will Majid have rented my house next month ? (?) - apakah Majid akan telah menyewa rumahku bulan depan ?

+ complement Subject + should/would + not + have + verb III + object Tanya (?) Should/would + subject + have + been + complement ? Should/would + subject + have + verb III + object ? Contoh Past Future Perfect tense : My mother should have been here at nine oclock tomorrow (+) - Ibu saya akan sudah berada disini jam 9 besok My mother should not have been here at nine oclock tomorrow (-) - Ibu saya tidak akan sudah berada disini jam 9 besok Should your mother have been here at nine oclock tomorrow ? (?) - Apakah ibu kamu akan sudah berada disini jam 9 besok ? Mari would have worked in leading companies next month (+) - MarI akan sudah bekerja di perusahaan ternama bulan depan Mari will not have worked in leading companies next month (-) - MarI tidak akan sudah bekerja di perusahaan ternama bulan depan Will Mari have worked in leading companies next month ? (?) - Apakah MarI akan sudah bekerja di perusahaan ternama bulan depan ?

Present Perfect continuous Tense : used for past activity until now. Adverb of time that used for and since. Rumus : Positif (+) Subject + has / have + been + verbing Negatif (-) Subject + has / have + not + been + verb-ing Interogative (?) Has/have + subject + been + verbing ? Contoh : I have been watching TV for two hours (+) He has been playing football since elementary school(+) Marina has not been learning english for two years (-) Have you been reading a book for an hour ? (?)

Past Perfect continuous Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + had + been + verb-ing + object Negatif (-) Subject + had + not + been + verb-ing + object Tanya (?) Had + subject + been + object ? Contoh Past Perfect Continuous tense : He had been living in Jakarta about ten years (+) - Dia telah tinggal di Jakarta sekitar 10 tahun He had not been living in Jakarta about ten years (-) - dia belum tinggal di Jakarta sekitar 10 tahun Had He been living in Jakarta about ten years ? (?) - apakah dia telah tinggal di Jakarta selamat 10 tahun ? Perbedaan antara Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous adalah : Present Perfect Continuous mengungkapkan tindakan yang terus berlanjut sampai sekarang sedangkan Past Perfect Continuous tidak.

Future Perfect continuous Tense: Rumus Positif (+) Subject + shall/will + have + been + verb-ing + object Negatif (-) Subject + shall/will + not + have + been + verbing + object Tanya (?) Shall/will + subject + have + been + verb-ing + object ? Contoh Future Perfect Continuous tense : My grandmother will have been visiting us tomorrow morning (+) - nenek saya akan telah sedang mengunjungi kami besok pagi My grandmother will not have been visiting us tomorrow morning (-) - nenek saya tidak akan telah sedang mengunjungi kami besok pagi Will your grandmother have been visiting you tomorrow morning? (?) - apakah nenek kamu akan telah sedang mengunjungi kamu besok pagi ?

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense : Rumus Positif (+) Subject + should/would + have + been + verb-ing + object Negatif (-) Subject + should/would + not + have + been + verb-ing + object Tanya (?) Should/would + subject + have + been + verb-ing + object ? Contoh Past Future Perfect Continuous tense : I would have working in leading companies for 10 years (+) - Aku akan sudah sedang bekerja di perusahaan ternama selama 10 tahun I would not have working in leading companies for 10 years (-) - Aku tidak akan sudah sedang bekerja di perusahaan ternama selama 10 tahun Would you have working in leading companies for 10 years ? (?) - apakah kamu akan sudah sedang bekerja di perusahaan ternama selama 10 tahun ?