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Lin Shaodun A0066078X 1

2012/2013
Vibration Theory and Applications Assignment 1
(By Lin Shaodun, A0066078X)

1 Describe an equivalent MDF vibration system that you frequently encounter in
your daily life (different from the examples that have been presented or discussed
in the class). Attempt to build a simple model for the system and estimate its
fundamental frequency.

Answer:
Below is a subassembly used in wire bonding machine, called Heat Block slider
(Figure 1), which I spent a few months on it to improve its vibration behavior.















This system can be modeled as follow (Figure 2):

Figure 2 MDOF model of HB slider
m1

m3 m2
k1
k3 k2 c2
c3
c1
m1: Mass of slider base
m2: Mass of heat block slider
m3: Mass of clamp frame
f(t): External vibration from base
x1-3:Displacement of m1-3
k1-3:Stiffness of m1-3
c1-3:Damping of m1-3

x1
x3 x2

f(t)
Clamp Frame
Heat Block
Insert
Heat Block
Slider
Slider base
Figure 1 Heat Block Slider Assembly
Lin Shaodun A0066078X 2
The equation of motion for above system is:
m
1
x
1
+k
1
x
1
k
2
(x
2
x
1
) k
3
(x
3
x
1
) +c
1
x
1
c
2
(x
2
x
1
) c
3
(x
3
x
1
) = F(t)
m
2
x
2
+k
2
(x
2
x
1
) +c
2
(x
2
x
1
) = u
m
3
x
3
+k
3
(x
3
x
1
) +c
3
(x
3
x
1
) = u
( 1.1 )
Re-arrange in matrix form:
_
m
1
u u
u m
2
u
u u m
3
_ _
x
1
x
2
x
3
_ + _
k
1
+k
2
+ k
3
k
2
k
3
k
2
k
2
u
k
3
u k
3
_ _
x
1
x
2
x
3
_ +_
c
1
+ c
2
+ c
3
c
2
c
3
c
2
c
2
u
c
3
u c
3
_ _
x
1
x
2
x
3
_ = _
F(t)
u
u
_ ( 1.2 )
For typical steel structure, the damping ratio is relatively small ( < u.uS) and it
has insignificant impact to the system frequency, hence the damping matrix |C| can
be neglected at this moment, and Eq. (1.2) can be reduced to:
_
m
1
u u
u m
2
u
u u m
3
_ _
x
1
x
2
x
3
_ +_
k
1
+k
2
+k
3
k
2
k
3
k
2
k
2
u
k
3
u k
3
_ _
x
1
x
2
x
3
_ = _
F(t)
u
u
_
( 1.3 )
The actual value for m
1-3
and k
1-3
as follow:

m
1

15.0 kg
k
1

4.28E+08 N/m
m
2

3.0 kg
k
2

2.09E+07 N/m
m
3

3.5 kg
k
3

1.46E+07 N/m
Substitute in Eq.(1.3), we have:

M = _
1S u u
u S u
u u S.S
_ , K = _
4.64E +u8 2.u9E +u7 1.46E +u7
2.u9E +u7 2.u9E +u7 u
1.46E +u7 u 1.46E +u7
_
( 1.4 )
Using Matlab script to calculate the determinant of matrix and solve the 3
rd
order
equation:

m=[1/15^.5,0,0;0,1/3^.5,0;0,0,1/3.5^.5];
K=[4.64E8,-2.09E7,-1.46E7;-2.09E7,2.09E7,0;-1.46E7,0,1.46E7];
L=sym('L');
Eqn=det(m*K*m-L*eye(3));
Ans=real(sym2poly(solve(Eqn,L)));
f = Ans.^.5/pi/2

The solution of fundamental frequencies as follow (in Hz):

f =
892.9435
408.6768
318.3033
Lin Shaodun A0066078X 3
2. A machine tool, having a mass of m=1000 kg and a mass moment of inertia of
J0=300kg-m
2
, is supported on elastic supports, as shown in Fig. 5.18. If the
stiffnesses of the supports are given by k1 = 3000N/mm and k2 = 2000 N/mm, and
the supports are located at l1=0.5m and l2=0.8m, find the natural frequencies and
mode shapes of the machine tool.




Answer:
Assume the machine tool has translation x and rotation about its centroid, as
shown in above figure.
Equation of motion in terms of x and :
mx +k
1
(x l
1
0) +k
2
(x +l
2
0) = u
[
0
0

k
1
(x l
1
0)l
1
+k
2
(x +l
2
0)l
2
= u
( 2.1 )
Re-arrange to separate the x and terms:
mx +(k
1
+k
2
)x +(k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
)0 = u
[
0
0

+(k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
)x +(k
1
l
1
2
+k
2
l
2
2
)0 = u
( 2.2 )
Assuming free vibration motion for x and :
X(t) = A
x
sin(t +)
(t) = A
0
sin(t +)
( 2.3 )
Substitute Eq. (2.3) into Eq. (2.2), we have:
(m
2
+k
1
+k
2
)X(t) +(k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
)(t) = u
([
0

2
+k
1
l
1
2
+k
2
l
2
2
)(t) +(k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
)X(t) = u
( 2.4 )


x
l
2

l
1

Lin Shaodun A0066078X 4
Re-arrange in matrix form:
_
m
2
+k
1
+k
2
k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
[
0

2
+k
1
l
1
2
+k
2
l
2
2
_ _
X(t)
(t)
_ = j
u
u
[ ( 2.5 )
Above equation reduces to its characteristic equation:
_
m
2
+k
1
+k
2
k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
k
2
l
2
k
1
l
1
[
0

2
+k
1
l
1
2
+k
2
l
2
2
_ = u ( 2.6 )
Substitute numeric values into Eq. (2.6):
_
1uuu
2
+Suuu 1u
3
1uu 1u
3
1uu 1u
3
Suu
2
+2uSu 1u
3
_ = u ( 2.7 )
Using Matlab script to calculate the determinant of matrix and solve the 2
rd
order
equation:

Omega=sym('Omega');
m=[-1E3*Omega^2+5E6,1E5;1E5,-300*Omega^2+2.03E6];
Ans=sym2poly(solve(det(m),Omega))

The output from Matlab is:

Ans =
82.3732
70.5785
-82.3732
-70.5785
Hence the natural frequencies are: m
1
=82.3732 rad/s and m
2
=70.5785 rad/s.

Mode shapes:
(1uuu
2
+Suuu 1u
3
)X(t) +1uu 1u
3
(t) = u
p
1
=
X(t)
(t)
_
o
1
=
1uu 1u
3
1uuu
1
2
+Suuu 1u
3
= S.S476
p
2
=
X(t)
(t)
_
o
2
=
1uu 1u
3
1uuu
2
2
+Suuu 1u
3
= u.uS6u1
First Modal vector is:
|A
1
] = _
A
11
p
1
A
11
_ = j
1
S.S476
[
Second Modal Vector is:
|A
2
] = _
A
12
p
2
A
12
_ = j
1
u.uS6u1
[
( 2.8 )