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History of Education in Great Britain

By S.J. Curtis, M.A., Ph.D. Published 1948, 5th Edition 1963 Notes by Harley Richardson, 2011-13

Chapter 1: English Schools Before the Reformation


Records of any early schools wiped away after Anglo-Saxon invasions. Augustine came to Britain in 597, converted Ethelbert, King of Kent and allowed to establish see in Canterbury. Struggled due to unfamiliarity with Roman tongue; had to teach Latin to priests and nobles. (This established a connection between teaching of Latin and Christianity). The first schools were a means of spreading Christianity. 'School' referred to both the buildings and the collection of scholars of any age. All early schools were associated with a church. By 630s first grammar school established by Siegebert, king of East Anglia, who had been exiled to Gaul and was influenced by the schools over there. Grammar and song (Gregorian) usually went hand in hand. Early attempts to send Christianity north had mixed success. Up until the Reformation all schoolmasters were clergy. Early tensions about the teaching of pagan content at grammar schools, a hangover from the Roman Empire. Some felt it was ok if didn't conflict with church, others felt it did not sit well with teaching words of Christ. The Church had to reconsider purpose of education. Needed to train clergy to spread the word, also needed them to be intelligent. Learning of Latin became important. Led to establishment of civil service, Domesday book, etc. Phases of pre-Reformation education: 1. Formative: arrival of Christianty through to 1066 2. Development: through to Black Death in 1349, by which point universities had become established and organised 3. Consolidation Schools originally taught the Seven Liberal Arts from childhood through to university. Oldest school reputed to be Canterbury. Along with York was flourishing by 660s. 640s-680s - Winchester, Worcester, Lichfield, Herefield schools established, all attached to cathedrals.

c 705 Archbishop of York assumed right of appointing master of the school. Late 700s - Alcuin, third master of York school, argued for division into separate schools for grammar, song, theology, inspired by specialisation of schools he saw in Gaul. (Became reality at a later date). Schools then taught through to equivalent of modern university level. Bishops originally did all the teaching but began to delegate, firstly grammar and song then theology as follows: Chancellor (Bishop's deputy) - theology Schoolmaster - grammar Precentor - song

Fame of the good schools and teachers spread, esp. Alcuin who was invited to the continent by King Charles to be his educational advisor. Alfred the Great - patron of education, mainly because of attempts to repair the ravages of Viking invasions. Few could understand Mass or translate Latin to English. Grammar schools Aelfric, Abbot of Eynsham (from c1005) and a pupil of Dunstan, authored an Anglo-Saxon grammar and his Colloquy gives a picture of the teaching of the time: taught spoken Latin through Colloquies in the form of dialogues introducing everyday words and phrases. Norman conquest led to Latin being translated to Norman-French rather than English. Saxon schoolmasters replaced by Normans. Archbishop Lanfranc aimed to reform the English Church by replacing secular establishments of cathedrals with regulars, starting with Canterbury which had been damaged by fire in 1067. 1069 - fightback against Normans led to Libraries at York being destroyed by fire. (Lots of important records lost, leading to gaps in our knowledge of the history of the school). 12th C Renaissance led to foundation of medieval universities. Considerable intellectual activity due to study of canon law and Roman law (in Digest of Justinian) and influence of Aristotle's Organum (rediscovered in its entirety by 1162). Records become more plentiful. Minster at the time meant monastery = any large church. The Chancellor became the key figure. Schools had to be licensed. Growing tensions between song and grammar schools, with grammar masters senior to song masters. Grammar schools evolved into feeders for the new universities and multiplied. The Seven Liberal Arts Trivium - grammar, rhetoric and dialectic (logic) Quadrivium - arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music

Had their roots in Plato and Rome. Expanded by Augustine and others, 5th and 6th century. Coined by Boethius (c 500 AD) . Tri v Quad distinction - Isidore of Seville (c 600 AD). Liber - free - as opposed to the Mechanical Arts taught to slaves up to the Middle Ages: making of clothes and weapons, agriculture and hunting (including bakery, butchery and cooking), navigation, theatrical arts and medicine. In early cathedral schools Trivium taught to younger pupils, Quadrivium to older. Split evolved into grammar schools and universities. Grammar means study of Latin grammar. Vocational at that stage. Main text books: Ars Minor and Ars Maior by Donatus who taught St Jerome in Rome 4th C. Logic seen as a means of detecting heresy. Black Death in 1349, 1361, 1367 - killed off many teachers and priests and halted creation of new colleges - although not as claimed responsible for switch from teaching French to English in 1362 (blame that on war with France). First short-lived teacher training college established 1439. 1394 - founding of Winchester College by William of Wykeham. Biggest at that stage, focused on schoolboys rather than adults. Places given to sons of nobles. Commoners allowed too but had to pay. Grew rapidly in number. Beginnings of private school system. Little in the way of school holidays until 1518. Ceremony of the Boy Bishop on Holy Innocents' Day. Pupils swapped places with clergy. Henry VIII put a stop to it. The school day: 4-6am - rise for Mattins 9am - breakfast, for youngest only Noon - dinner 6pm - supper (main meal)

Sport frowned upon - walked to local hill in procession - ad montem instead. Eton imitated Winchester (but allowed more sport). Public schools public meant people coming from anywhere - led to boarding schools. Must have been some form of primary school (called 'vernacular' because not teaching Latin) but little known about them. Meaning of 'free' schools unclear. Might refer to lack of class barriers to attending or to liberal education offered or (probably) to lack of need to pay fees. Parental gratuities probably became expected eg the cockpenny a stipend to keep the school's fighting cocks.

Land donated to church to avoid taxation. Became a problem for kings. The Statute of Mortmain (1279) banned it but loopholes were exploited until 1391. However an exception was made for schools which let in a proportion of non-paying students. 1381 - Peasants' Revolt 13th & 14th C - school seen as a means to secure freedom from bondage. Some fined for sending their children to school without permission. A petition to stop the poor attending school was overturned by Richard II. If you could read Latin then you were deemed to be in orders and could claim privileges of clergy. Clergy were freemen and so could not be forced to be labourers. 1406 Statute of Artificers - first 'statute of education' - allowed all to send their sons and daughters to whatever school they chose. But the principle wasn't always followed. Ability was an advantage. Evidence of extent and nature of education for girls is scanty. Nunneries initially discouraged from setting up schools as wary of corruption by outsiders.

Chapter 2: The Mediaeval Universities


Earliest universities included Salerno and Bologna (law). 1170s - various schools came together as University of Paris the model for our universities. Papal bull required for university status. Students originally lived where they could. Colleges/halls grew out of providing places for the poorest students to stay. Town v Gown - students seen as reckless. 10th February (St Scholastica's Day) 1354 - In Oxford a tavern brawl led to a two day fight and deaths. King got involved and gave the university jurisidiction over the city. Univercitas simply meant group of people. Universities mostly aimed at graduates (All Souls is a legacy of this) although some under-graduates were present. Bachelors and Masters system in place from early on. Considered as two parts of the same degree. Aristotle was translated by Syrian scholars then again by Arabic scholars. Lots of errors made. Avicenna (980-1037) and Averroes (1125-98) were the main commentators. The latter's theory of unity of the intellect (said there was a single intellectual principle operating throughout human race) was unpopular with Christians. 1210 - study of Aristotle banned in Paris by ecclesiastical authorities. However the Pope overturned ban in 1229. 1263 - Urban IV officially recognised Aristotles philosophy and allowed it to be taught. Up to then the dominant philosophy was Augustines.

Albert of Cologne (1193-1280) popularised Aristotle. His pupil St Thomas Aquinas (1226-74) had access to accurate translations from the Greek and produced scholastic synthesis of faith and reason. 1270 disagreement between Aquinas and Siger de Brabant over accuracy of Averroes. Monastic orders: Franciscans more interested in winning souls than education. Dominicans had the intellectual side. Thought Aristotle had to be reconciled with Christianity. 1217 - Dominicans arrived in Paris, followed by Franciscans. 1229 - Great Dispersion, following riot in Paris. Secular masters refused to teach, allowing Dominicans and Franciscans to take their places. Henry III welcomed the secular masters to England. Opposition to mendicants from returning masters led to secular colleges of University of Paris. 1220 - Dominicans arrived in Oxford and made themselves unpopular. Fransciscans more successful. 13th C - papacy cultivated Paris as centre of theological studies in the West. Lectio would consist of a master reading and commenting on a text a paragraph at a time. Quaestio several times a year: lengthy debates, result decided by the master.

Chapter 3: English Schools and Universities in the Tudor Period


Teaching of Greek did not lead to the Renaissance, it was a result of it. Not common till 16th C. Renaissance poorly named. The main change was the rise of Humanism. Education had been about preparing you for death, became about preparing you for life. Introduction of print. Two key books: 1. The Boke Named the Governor by Sir Thomas Elyot, 1531. The first exposition of the humanistic point of view in English. Elyot was acquaintance of Sir Thomas More. 2. The Scolemaster by Roger Ascham. Ascham taught Elizabeth I. A compassionate and sympathetic teacher, thought children should be introduced to concepts when ready, would not punish pupils for failing to understand, only for misbehaviour. Henry VIII was a highly educated man. Dissolution of the monastery schools in 1545 had little actual effect there werent that many of them and not many were closed. Closure of the chantry schools was much more damaging. The 1547 Act of Edward VI abolished them.

The Tudors are reputed to be the founder of schools, but were actually the destroyers. Many schools were named after Henry or Elizabeth but these often existed previously or were set up by others and named in honour of the monarchs. (William) Lily's Grammar - published 1515, final form 1574 - taught throughout 17th C. In 1758 revised as Eton Latin Grammar. Only replaced in 1867 by Public Schools Latin Primer. Brinsely's Ludus Literarius or the Grammar Schoole (1612) is a great source of information about grammar schools. Latin was a prerequisite for study of Cicero, Vergil, Terence and Ovid in original texts. Taught as a living language. Students expected to speak it during class and at meals. Greek taught but not to same extreme. History and Geography taught incidentally. Arithmetic all but neglected. Dr Robert Recorde (physician) was first to introduce the common mathematical symbols. Two types of arithmetic: 1) Pen-arithmetic still used today 2) Counter arithmetic for those who couldn't read or write (eg ordinary tradesmen) School day for Tudor schoolchildren was twice as long as modern equivalent. Elizabeth was stuck between Recusants who resisted the Reformation and returning exiles who wanted it to go further. Catholic schools carried on in secret for a while. Many Catholics had to go abroad to be schooled. 1585 - Act brought in penalties for those sending children abroad to be taught or sending money abroad for same. 1662 - Act of Uniformity. Schoolmasters had to declare allegiance to Church of England. 1665 - A further Act prevented Protestant dissenters from teaching. Dissenter schools not allowed till 1779. Catholic teaching not allowed till 1790. Concern about leaflets and handbills indicates that reading became more prevalent. Richard Mulcaster of St Paul's School - ahead of his time. Two books: The Positions and The First Part of the Elementarie. Thought everything should start with reading. Aimed to teach more widely than to just those who knew Latin. Merchant gilds declined. Craft gilds became more important. Apprentices (started age 12) became journeymen then, if lucky, master. Over time roles become more defined and membership of gilds become more important. Liveries worn by gild members - hence 'liverymen'. Contracts between parents and teachers - indentures (because torn in two). Richest liverymen made endowments to schools and set up colleges.

Expansion of colleges during Renaissance eg Corpus Christ and Christ Church at Oxford. The Reformation cut the number of schools and endowments back. Would have been worse if not for Henry VIII who valued education. Cambridge embraced Protestantism more than Oxford and became the preeminent university during Elizabethan era. Attendance of university became something for the rich. Beginnings of tutor system.

Chapter 4: English Secondary and University Education in the 17th and 18th Centuries
By end 16th C humanism had run out of steam. Growing dissatisfaction with teaching. Felt to be pedantic and too narrowly focused. Attempts to set up academies with more relevant subjects. 1553 Edward VI Act - incorporation of five Royal Hospitals for orphans and children of the poor. The hospital schools soon followed. Public schools came to depend on more and more paying students and on the nature of their endowments. Schools with valuable land on the outskirts of London did better. Sir Francis Bacon, Locke and Milton criticised grammar schools but their own proposals were impractical. However Locke was influential in encouraging people to travel rather than go to university. Charles Hoole, experienced schoolmaster, wrote A New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching Schoole 1660. Proposed Petty Schools to teach little ones how to 'read English with delight and profit'. Leeds Grammar School - controversy over introduction of modern subjects (reflecting the citys growing industrial role) v preservation of founding principles. Lord Eldon ruled in favour of founding principles in 1805. But Grammar Schools Act of 1840 freed up schools to introduce other subjects. 1636 - Archbishop Laud, Chancellor of Oxford gave the college statutes under which it was governed until mid 19th C (much longer than they were appropriate). Run by oligarchy of college heads the Hebdomadal Council. Cambridge stayed under Elizabethan code until mid 19th C, governed by elected Caput Senatus, although electoral process became corrupt. Oxford was Royalist. In 1644 Puritans expelled non-parliamentarians. Few students during the Civil War. James Is reign. Universities given parliamentary representation, persisted until quite recently. Expelled fellows returned at the Restoration.

1662 Act of Uniformity required College heads to conform to the Book of Common Prayer, otherwise they would be expelled. Led to creation of nonconformist academies. Wadham College Oxford - John Watkins was a key figure in founding of Royal Society in 1660 or thereabouts. Grew out of the 'Invisible College': informal meetings on science between Christopher Wren and others. Early members included Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton (who gave Cambridge its reputation for maths). 18th C universities at a low point. Fellows poorly treated, expected to be celibate and became lazy. Professors who never gave a lecture. Farcical examinations. Statutes that everyone swore to obey but no one could follow.

Chapter 5: School Reform and State Intervention in Secondary Education 1805-1895


Early 19th C - education became political. Different sides associated with conservatives or liberals. 1821 - Vicesimus Knox held up Bill overturning Lord Eldon's Leeds decision. 1819 - Thomas Wright Hill and sons set up experimental school at Hazlewood near Brum, influenced by ideas of Pestalozzi. Aimed to enlist cooperation of children through interest. Wider curriculum. Generated a lot of interest at first but failed. Why? English hostility to change and theory. But they would influence Dr Arnold. 1798 - Practical Education by Richard Lovell Edgeworth and Maria Edgeworth. Updated Rousseau's ideas about adapting teaching to the requirements of the child, also influenced by Locke, Benjamin Thompson and Joseph Priestley. Based on first systematic study of child learning. Thomas Arnold, Rugby schoolmaster, key figure. Saw classics as providing a truly liberal education. Saw translation from Latin or Greek as an exercise in English composition. Believer in gradual change rather than revolution. Widespread practice of fagging - developed it into prefect system (though not his invention). Trusted his prefects although punished abuse. System adopted widely but not successful when used as head's policeforce. Rise of middle classes after reform act. Existing schools not suitable or too expensive for their needs. Railway system facilitated boarding schools. Establishment of many day schools influenced by Arnold. 1848 - Canon Woodwoods pamphlet A Plea for the Middle Classes. Thought it was pointless educating the poor until the middle classes were educated. Wanted nationwide network of schools funded by benefactors and began implementing it. Mainly interested in RE and thought boarding schools the only way to teach it.

Growing complaints about Eton. 1861 - Clarendon Commission into funding of 9 major schools. Reported 1864. Schools resisted, and most wouldn't let them visit. Commission had to find other ways to get what it wanted. In favour of classical education and Prussian Gymnasium created by von Humboldt who thought classical ideals should be blended with modern. The Commission thought existing teaching was inadequate. Difficult to find good maths, science, history and foreign language teachers. Beginnings of modern approach to curriculum, influenced by the Prussian Gymnasium. Main reason to learn classics was to improve command of English. Spread of subjects, specialising as get older. 1870s - E E Bowen introduced 'Modern curriculum' at Harrow, initially for those who had been successful at classics. Experiment successful and imitated by other public schools. 1868 - Public Schools Act. Ignored Commission, stuck to admin matters. The government felt schools were better left to sort out for themselves. Asked schools to accept the Commission's framework or propose one of their own. Established new governing bodies with power to appoint heads and determine school size and curriculum. Liberals upset and pressed for intervention but told where to go. Over time most recommendations of Commission were implemented. Schools Inquiry Commission (Taunton Commission) of 1864, reported 1868. Looked at all aspects of secondary schools. Founds things in a bad state eg West Riding only 1,836 out of 20,533 young people being taught. Buildings dilapidated. Teaching poor. Free and paying students separated by partitions. Beginnings of high schools and secondary schools offering education till ages 15/16 or 18/19. Reorganisation of endowed schools under (mostly) the Charity Commission. Recommended setting up a local authority system but still too much hostility to government interference at this stage. Took some years to implement recommendations. Demands to improve / extend education of girls led by Miss Buss and Miss Beale. 1841 - Governesses' Benevolent Association formed. 1848 - Queen's College, Harley Street set up to train Anglican governesses (incl Buss and Beale) 1860 - Bedford (Square) College for Women for nonconformists including George Elliot. 1880 - Emily Davies set up Newnham College, Cambridge. Its first principal: A J Clough. 1879 Oxfords Somerville Hall and Lady Margaret Hall. 1886 - St Hugh's Hall. Women gradually allowed to take examinations during 1860s-1920s.

Experimental higher schools established, usually funded by the Science and Art Department (and sometimes criticised for being too focused on science). 1889 - Welsh Intermediate Education Act created local authorities for each county and county borough. 1892 - failed attempt to do similar in England. 1894 - Bryce Commission, reported 1895. [more about which later] Edward Thring, Uppingham head, introduced first gym, expanded curriculum (with music, metalwork, woodwork, etc), thought 10 classes of 30 pupils was maximum practical. Interested in art and technique of being a teacher. Wrote Theory and Practice of Teaching (1883), studied by teacher trainees for many years. 1869 - Endowed Schools Act threatened to curtail freedom of public schools, led Thring to set up Headmasters' Conference.

Chapter 6: Elementary Education in the Age of Philanthrophy


Long history of private individuals funding schools. Towards end of 17th C - renewed interest in elementary education and growth of societies of such private individuals. (Inspired, it is claimed, by discovery of joint-stock companies, ie small amounts of money being put together for greater purpose and management by few). Most important was Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, founded 1698. Aimed to set up schools for the poor. By 1754 claimed to have set up 2,044 schools. Mandeville attacked them for trying to educate the poor, whose place in society was assigned, and raising their expectations inappropriately. Enthusiasm for charity schools waned second half of 18th C. Most merged with National Schools during 19th C. Locke (1697) wanted industrial schools for pauper children. A few set in early 18th C, took off when factories began to multiply. Boys were taught gardening, carpentry, printing etc. Girls - spinning, knitting, sewing and strawplaiting. Work sold and if income exceeded keep, given cash. More demand for girls' work than boys'. 1780 - charity and industrial schools in decline. Drift from country to town. Demand for child labour took children away from schools. Concern about their misbehaviour on their one free day of the week led to establishment of Sunday Schools. Early Sunday school set up by John Wesley in 1737 but movement really kick started in 1780 by Robert Raikes of Gloucester. Philanthropist, wanted to improve lot of those in Gloucester gaol. Realised that harsh methods of discipline were ineffective and thought it better to win children over and get them interested.

Successful experiment. Led to others and gradual involvement of religion. By 1803 there were 7125 schools. Opposition from those who thought Reign of Terror might spread to England and educating children might lead to revolution. Also opposed to opening schools on the Sabbath. Mrs Trimmer opened schools in Brentford in 1786. To both rescue poor and keep them in their place. Sunday schools strove towards universal education. Wales - education in a worse state due to scattered population. 1674 - Rev Thomas Gouge founded society for teaching English to poor school children. Faltered after he died but inspired others. Rev Griffith Jones set up first Circulating School in 1730. Stayed 3-6 months in an area then moved on. Taught Welsh rather than English. Very successful and other schools set up. Jones died 1761, left money to Madame Bevan to carry on his work but it faltered, due to will dispute, until upheld in 1809. Rev Thomas Charles brought Sunday schools to Wales. Led to widespread demand for Welsh bible. Church failed to exploit their success, Methodists filled the gap. Became obvious the problem of education was too big for them. Money was a problem. How to structure teaching? Andrew Bell visited India 1787. Disagreed over teaching methods with a class usher, so got an 8 year old boy John Frisken to teach the class instead, then made him the permanent teacher. Returned to England, published An Experiment in Education. Independently Joseph Lancaster opened very popular school in Borough Road. Overwhelmed, realised the older boys could teach the youngers. Claimed 1000 boys could be taught by one master. Attracted the attention of George III and the Queen. Bell introduced monitoring principles into parochial schools. Bell and Lancaster met. Some competition between them, stirred up by Mrs Trimmer who claimed Lancaster copied Bell and revealed that Lancaster was a Quaker, losing him the support of the Church. Started acrimonious war between churches, set national education back. Lancaster was showy and bad with money. Royal Lancasterian Society formed in 1808 to save him from bankruptcy. By 1851, 17,015 Church schools and 1,500 British schools. 1807 - Mr Whitbread introduced Commons Bill for establishing parochial schools in England and Wales, inspired by monitoring schools. Rejected, but it was the first attempt to have state intervention in education.

Bell's system more flexible, Lancaster's over-organised. Both led to large class sizes and general cheapness in education. Robert Owen, founder of British Socialism, manager and partner in cotton mills in New Lanark. Thought conditions deplorable, reduced working hours to 10/day. Refused to employ under 10s. Set up Great Britain's first infant school in 1816. Chose James Buchanan and Molly Young as assistants (because sympathetic to children). Modern approach, aimed to capture children's interest. Owen was a free-thinker, came into conflict with the Church and his partners. Forced out in 1824. Buchanan transfered to infant school at Westminster. Owen scathing about his abilities, but others much more positive. Buchanan and Young key to turning Owen's ideas into reality. 1820 - Samuel Wilderspin opened infant school in Spitalfields. (Trained by Buchanan but later claimed to be originator of infant schools). Rejected mechanical methods Founded Infant School Society in 1824 to found schools and train teachers. Superceded in 1836 by Home and Colonial infant School Society founded by JS Reynolds (but inspired by Dr Charles Mayo and sister Elizabeth). 1819 - Mayo visited Pestalozzi's school in French Switzerland. Opened a similar school in Epsom in 1821, then moved to Cheam. Elizabeth Mayo wrote Lessons on Objects, a reaction against verbal teaching; encouraged observation and inference from what had been seen. Led to a craze for 'object lessons. Mayo's most important contribution was in training infant school teachers. David Stow devised a Training System to provide antidote to demoralisation of industrial towns. Thought education too concerned with intellect. Wanted to train the 'whole man'. Founded Glasgow Infant School in 1826, inspired by Wilderspin and Pestalozzi and Wood. Moral training the main aim. Boys and girls should learn and play together. Thought teacher training crucial. Success of his schools led to the Normal Seminary. Sent trainers round the world. 'Picturing out' - learning by reference to everyday experience - understanding should precede memorisation. Stow's ideas were influential. 1813 - Sessional School developed in Edinburgh because children arriving at Sunday School could not read or write. Followed Lancaster's, then Bell's plan. 1819-20 - John Wood got involved, training young unemployed weavers. Became interested in how they were taught. Thought too mechanical, learnt stuff but didn't understand it. He emphasised that pupils were thinking human beings not machines. 1818 - John Pound set up school in Portsmouth for poorest children. Led to Ragged Schools (192 set up by 1858).

Mr (later Lord) Brougham championed education in parliament. The Select Committee on the Education of the Lower Orders showed that 1/16th of English population had been educated, 1/9th in Scotland, 1/20th in Wales. Praised schools which were religiously liberal and acknowledged beliefs of parents. 1818 Act appointed commissioners to investigate use of education charities. Made toothless by Lords, but provided model for Charity Commission. 1820 Education Bill suggested there should be no worship apart from Lord's Prayer. Opposed by church and withdrawn. 1825 - Broughams widely read Observations on the Education of the People. Led to creation of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 1832 Reform Bill. Mood for change. Brougham had sudden change of heart, deciding no need for compulsion as now enough children in school. JA Roebuck took up the compulsion cause, arguing parents should educate their children or send them to school. Proposed three types of state schools: infant, industrial and normal for teachers. Also division of country into districts, and school system directed by a member of cabinet. Fees where people could afford them and redistribution of endowments for those who couldn't. Bill failed. 1733 - Lord Althorp got 20k grant for education from parliament. Objections - not enough (Hume) or ineffectual (Cobbett, said crime had increased despite rise in education). Mismanaged. Industrial Revolution and Revolutionary/Napoleonic wars led to increase in need for un/semiskilled workers. Many families in poverty, had to send children to work. Apprentice system had all but broke down. Children too narrowly taught. Many children dying in the factories where they worked the water mills which powered the factories. 1802 Factory Act - Sir Robert Peel (the elder) improved conditions for apprentices and include education but rules were evaded by employers who just used child labour instead. (So hastened decline of the apprentice system ) Aim then became to secure max 10 hour day. Mainly for adults but children were used to gain sympathy. 1815 Robert Peel Bill - extended Act to other types of mills and banned employment of under 10s. Requires half hour/day instruction in 3Rs. Supported by Robert Owen. Passed in 1819 but watered down and no means of enforcing it. The Short-Time Movement, led by Richard Oastler (a Tory), accused Wilberforce and co of ignoring slavery close to home. Supported by Michael Thomas Sadler MP. An 1832 Bill failed when he lost an election. Taken up by Lord Ashley (Later Earl of Shaftesbury). Government appointed a Commission

to enquire into the conditions for children in factories. Things turned out to be much worse than people suspected. (Although there were some humanist factory owners such as John Marshall). The Government amended Ashley's bill in light of the enquiry. The 1833 Factory Act ('children's charter of 1833') banned work for under 9s, reduced hours for others (but not to 10 hrs/day as hoped). Employers had to provide schools and children had to attend for at least 2 hrs/week. Inspectors appointed, with power to withhold salaries.

Chapter 7: From the Beginning of State Intervention to the Revised Code, 1862
1834 Mr Roebuck and Mr Brougham initiated a debate about national education. Led to additional 10k grant split between National Society and British and Foreign School Society, to be used to open normal schools. Increasing tensions between Church, who felt they should control education, and nonconformists. 1839 - Select Committee appointed to manage parliamentary funds going to public education. Its first action was a proposal to set up teacher training school, with general non-denominational religious training. Dropped due to size of opposition (meant acknowledging other religions). Appointed Dr Kay (later Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth) as secretary. Thought squalor and poor conditions were biggest problems. Inspired creation of Statistical Society and others, in order to investigate conditions. Found schools had deteriorated especially private schools. 2% of children attending day schools (up to 8% by 1839 after building grants). Poor Law Reform Act of 1834 - children in workhouses must receive 3 hrs instruction / day. Kay was convinced that the monitorial system was a failure. Wanted monitors replaced by older pupil-teachers who would be apprenticed to head teachers. Experimented successfully at a workhouse school in Norwood. Conditions in schools became public knowledge via Nicholas Nickleby, based on visits by Dickens to actual schools. Kay thought more teachers were needed. In 1840 set up, and taught at, a training college in Battersea influenced by Swiss normal schools. Pupils required to do chores for 2 hours each morning. 1843 - Financial problems meant the school passed to the National Society. Stimulated church to establish more. 22 set up by 1845. Religious differences hindered the progression of education. The Church no longer represented all the people. 1839 the Committee of Council said all building grants should include right of inspection. Church objected.

Kay compromised. Led to Concordat of 1840 with the National Society, giving church right to appoint inspectors of Church schools and determine religious criteria. The 1833 legislation was being evaded by stretching working hours over the length of the whole factory day (5.30am till 8.30pm). Home Secretary Sir James Grahams Factory Bill of 1843 aimed to further improve children's conditions but failed due to disagreement over school management. The Bill proposed that schools would be managed by a committee of 7 (including 3 members of church) and a CofE headmaster. Gave too much power to the Church. Graham made concessions but nonconformists would not compromise. The Bill was dropped; set back education 30 years. 1844 - Graham s new Factory Act dropped school provisions but made some improvements to working conditions for children and led to system of 'half timers' which persisted till 1918. 1846 - Kay announced teacher training scheme. Pupil teachers introduced in the best schools, one per 25 pupils. 1839 The Committee of Council established, led to building regulations for schools. 1847 - HE Kendall produced designs for schools which were cheap (350 per school), ventilated, based on Jacobean, Tudor or pseudo - Gothic styles and has no playgrounds. Classroom arranged for mixed method teaching, children writing at the back, oral lessons at the front. Kay retired in 1848 due to ill health. Succeeded by Mr (later Lord) Lingen. The Committee of Council gradually took control of education. Became an Education Department in 1856. Concern about the cost of education and value for money increasing. Grant up to 541,233 by 1857. Led to Newcastle Commission under Sir J Pakington, reported in 1861. Generally happy with status quo, except for attendance levels and quality of and conditions in uninspected schools. Suggested grant should be related to attendance and exam results. Regulations issued as Code of 1860 by Liberal Robert Lowe, VP of the Department. Lowe was a Toryleaning Liberal, obsessed with efficiency, and free trade. Widely maligned by time Curtis was writing. Administrative burden on Department due to increase of grants and schools. Lowe decided to pay money to schools rather than individual teachers. Revised Code of 1862 tackled attendance and meagre accomplishments of younger pupils in the basics. (A Proposal to examine 3 to 7 year olds was abandoned). Lowe's 'Payment by Results' system - grant paid based on attendance and exam results as well as condition of school building. Children grouped in six Standards for examinations. Grant docked for every failed subject.

Results mixed. Class size rose to 43.4 by 1866. Attendance improved. Focus on younger and less bright; older brighter children neglected. Improvement in choice of school books. Too much focus on exams, teaching by rote and not on understanding. Too mechanical. Fewer pupil-teachers. Teachers tempted to falsify attendance records. Distrust between teachers and inspectors, persisted beyond end of Code in 1897. 1867 onwards - The Code was gradually weakened by a succession of Minutes. In Wales - rapid industrialisation in the South, quicker than England. Overcrowding, miserable conditions and riots. Authorities assumed there was no tradition of Welsh literature, so Welsh children should be taught to speak English. The 'Welsh stick' worn round neck by any pupils speaking Welsh. The pupil wearing it at end of day would be flogged. Parents blamed. Felt there was no point in sending children to school as there would be jobs either way. 1840s - Welsh people drove an educational revival, supported by Sir Hugh Owen and others and both sides of religious debate. A dearth of good teachers led to set up in 1848 of Carmarthen Training College. 1848 - Reports of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales set things back, implying that the Welsh were drunken and degenerate. Caused huge resentment for years 'Brad y llyfrau gleision (the treason of the blue books)'. The Committee of Council backed off their reforms. Welsh literary revival of 18th C. The Eisteddfod revived in 1819, hugely influential.

Chapter 8: Filling the Gaps 1870-1895


The Revised Code led to fewer schools being built. Increased population: proportion attending schools dropped back to 1830s level. 1868 - Liberals returned to power. W E Forster, Member for Bradford, became Vice President of Education Dept. A Government enquiry into number and quality of schools in major cities led to 1870 Elementary Education Act, dividing country into districts. Said schools must be efficient, open to inspection and have a conscience clause. Schools given a year to come up to scratch. Any gaps would be filled by elected School Boards. By-laws could be used to enforce attendance (London did, for 5 to 13-year olds; others didn't). Allowed individual schools to decide how they taught religion. Established dual system, still in place at time of writing [1940s]. Ongoing religious disagreements . Most new voluntary schools were CofE or to lesser degree Roman Catholic.

Children were getting more expensive to teach. In 1876, Lord Sandon's Act raised grant and penalised parents who did not have their children educated. Also banned under 10s from workplace. School Attendance Committees set up in areas without School boards. 1880 - Mr Mundella's Act made it compulsory for SBs and SACs to frame bye laws. Leaving age raised to 11 in 1893 and 12 in 1899. 1891 - parents given right to free education. Most schools became free (fees abolished 1918). 1886 - Cross Commission into elementary education (reported 1888). Emphasised need for liberal education. Criticised Payment by Results, recommended freeing up evening schools to adapt to requirements. Led to Code of 1890 which abolished grant for 3Rs, raised fixed grant, and Codes of 1893 thru 1896 which added subjects to curriculum and encouraged school trips to museums and art galleries. Main focus: teacher training. Plan to turn pupil-teachers into teachers hadn't worked. Training colleges spent most of their time teaching students basics, as they had skipped secondary education. Gradual improvement in layout of school buildings, but teachers often forced to share rooms, teach huge classes, in freezing cold. Professor Armstrong's Heuristic teaching of Science - a reaction to 1880s mechanical methods. Thought science lessons should emulate the investigations and experiments of the scientific pioneers. Lost sight of fact that children are different to adults. Pestalozzi's ideas as interpreted by Fellenberg predominated in mid century. Imperfectly grasped by Andrew Bell and others, who got the external details rather than the spirit. Froebel understood the system, its strengths and weaknesses. (But his ideas were misunderstood by Brits for some time too). 1851 - kindergarten idea introduced to Britain by Baroness von Marenholtz-Barlow, admirer of Froebel. Dickens promoted idea in Infant Gardens article (1855) but also warned against treating it too mechanically. 1874 - Froebel Society formed but made slow progress in England. Various other societies formed, coalesced into National Froebel Union in 1887. The 1871 Code recognised military drill for purposes of installing discipline, not as scientific, physical training. In 1879, Swedish drill introduced. Not popular but led to lectures on theory of physical training for teachers. 1880 - school football clubs formed in London. In 1885 WJ Wilson of Balham formed South London Schools FA, beginning of national movement. Cricket and athletics gradually introduced. In 1895 swimming became part of ordinary school life.

1848 - First municipal library, in Warrington. 1850 - first Public Libraries Act (Ewart's Act). Slow start but they became more numerous from 1870. 1877 - first collaboration with schools, in Leeds. Rollout of blackboards, wall maps and atlases. Attention given to seating arrangements. Attention also given to children living in criminal environments. Early 19th C - young criminals sentenced to transportation. 1837 - Parkhurst Prison experiment to reform children rather than transport them. Abandoned in 1864. 1847 - Select Committee re criminal law in relation to children. Led to 1854 Act instituting reformatory schools. Forty set up by 1860. 1857 Industrial Schools Act: young beggars and law breakers could be sent to industrial schools 1876 - Act instituted industrial day schools for truants. Abandoned early 20th C. 1893 Elementary Education Act (Blind and Deaf Children). 1899 Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act.

Chapter 9: The Founding of a National System 1895-1902


Bryce Commission first to involve women. Recommended breaking down barriers between cultural and practical subjects. Growth of professional organisations, eg NUT (founded 1870), Headmasters' Association (1890) and Board of Agriculture (with powers to inspect teaching of agricultural subjects). Bryce reports said schools needed central authority under a Minister of Education; local councils to take over from school boards and primary and secondary should be brought under same authority. Create Education Council to be executive. Department of Special Reports and Inquiries created. It inadvertantly helped to lay foundations for national system. 1899 Board of Education Act merged the Education Department, the Science and Art Department and the Charity Commission into the Board of Education. (Never met during 45 years of existence). Also established Consultative Commitee to advise board on any matter referred to it (but only when asked). Had to maintain register of teachers, but controversial and voluntary and dropped in 1948. MRST (Member of Royal Society of Teachers) still being added to names at time of writing. Bryce recommendations were set to be ignored. Saved by Mr (later Sir) Robert Morant, ex-tutor to Crown Price of Siam and now Assistant Director of Special Inquiries and Reports. Visited Switzerland and studied its education system. Impressed by devolved organisation. 1902 Education Act, delayed by South African war, replaced 2500 school boards and 800 School Attendance Committees with 300 local authorities.

Part II of the act dealt with higher education Part III of the act dealt with boroughs of 10000 plus people and urban districts of over 20000. Hence Part III authorities. Together known as Local Education Authorities (LEAs). Could delegate their powers, except those concerned with rates or borrowing money, thereby leaving finances under public control. Board schools became council schools aka Provided schools' (because buildings provided by LEA). Voluntary schools 'non-provided'. Fierce opposition to Bill but resignation of Lord Salisbury led to rearrangement of cabinet and promotion for Morant (to Acting, later Permanent, Secretary) who had the detailed knowledge necessary to argue the bill through. Lots of compromises made and ambiguities arising from definition of authorities. Liberals hostile, but despite landslide victory in 1906 General Election failed to repeal the bill.

Chapter 10: The Development of the National System 1902-1944


After the 1902 Act, focus switched to improving secondary education. Not yet seen as a logical progression from elementary school. More schools needed. Morant used grammar and public schools as his model and ignored peoples experience secondary schools over the previous 20 years. 1904 - Regulations for Secondary Schools attempted to define secondary schools for first time. A traditional, academic definition and not relevant to most people attending. 1904 - Code for Public Elementary Schools (intro written by Morant). 1905 - Handbook of Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers and others engaged in the Work of Public Elementary Schools issued by Morant. Encouraged teachers to experiment and discouraging uniformity in details of practice. 1906 Code - Morant established organised sports. 1906 Education (Provision of Meals) Act empowered LEAs to provide meals for children whose education was suffering due to hunger. (With parents who could afford it contributing). 1907 Education (Administration Provisions) Act... 1) gave the Board provision to attend to health and physical condition of elementary pupils. Instituted compulsory medical examination. Under powers of the Act, Morant established medical department and appointed Mr (later Sir) George Newman as Chief Medical Officer to Board of Education. Stayed there, till moved to Ministry of Health in 1919, and made huge impact. 2) gave LEAs power to compulsorily purchase land for secondary schools. Grant raised. 989 schools on grant list by 1910. 3) introduced scholarships in fee paying schools, to account for a quarter of pupils.

1911 - Morant forced out of department, after he accidentally authorised publication of a highly critical report by HMI Mr E Holmes. After the 1902 Act, the Board of Education raised the minimum age for pupil-teachers to 16 (15 in rural districts) and limited number of pupil-teachers per school to 4. Encouraged an alternative approach and gradual shift to students going from secondary school to training college. Number of pupil-teachers declined sharply after 1910. 1904 - separate Training-College Regulations issues for first time. Tightened Board control and raised standards. LEAs encouraged to build own training-colleges. Students from other areas encouraged to apply, to avoid dominance of locals. 1909 a regulation required each training-college to have a 'demonstration school' to illustrate best methods. Success mixed. After 1921 the 4 year course became the norm, giving students enough time to both study their degree and take professional training. Number of trained secondary school teachers rose dramatically. 1900 the Board recognised existence of higher-elementary schools, forerunner of central schools and previously illegal. First central schools set up in 1911 (London) and 1912 (Manchester). Provided full time general education to age 15, with focus on pupil going direct to trade or industry. 1907 the Consultative Committee investigated education for children under 5, discouraged at that time. Reported 1908, recommended no change. 1911 - nursery school opened by Rachel and Margaret McMillan in Deptford, effectively founders of the nursery school movement. Margaret McMillan was convinced that compulsory medical inspection was essential to the health of the nation. Opened clinic with Rachel in Bow in 1908, much imitated. Became convinced that prevention more important than cure and came up with idea of open-air nursery school. Required trained doctors and nurses as well as teachers. Followed best of Froebelian and Montessori principles. Space was key, everything outdoors wherever possible, even post-lunch nap. Believed nurseries were important for all children, not just well-to-do. Dr Montessori, psychiatry assistant, developed interest in mentally defective children, influenced by early 19th C Parisian physicians J Itard and E Seguin. Led to development of her didactic apparatus. Results convinced her the approach would be beneficial for normal children. Tested this in 1906, then opened first 'children's house' in 1907. The Montessori Method was translated into English in 1912.

Aim was to provide thorough and scientific training in sensory discrimination. (Now discredited in favour of sensory training through play and everyday activity). Teacher regarded as source of guidance, direction and inspiration rather than instructor. 1901 - age of employment raised to 12. 1903 Employment Act set maximum number of hours per day and week children could be employed. 1904 Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act set further restrictions and penalised adults evading the Act. 1908 Children's Act (the Children's Charter) was comprehensive and far-reaching. Established children's courts, first tried in Chicago in 1899. Young offenders dealt with in different room to ordinary proceedings. Aimed to prevent children coming into contact with adult offenders. 1920 Juvenile Courts Metropolis Act provided for special magistrates with experience dealing with juvenile offenders. 1907 Probation Act gave magistrates discretion to dismiss cases where offence trivial or offenders too young to jail. They were put under supervision of a Probation Officer for up to 3 years, usually associated with religious or philanthropic association. Instituted 'remand homes' for children awaiting trial or waiting for a suitable school to become available. (Max stay 1 month). Little Commonwealth school in Dorsetshire experimented with self-discipline getting children collectively to make their own rules which encouraged them to stick to them. George Montagu (later Earl of Sandwich) experimented with the idea, bringing Mr Lane from the US in 1913 to implement. Failed in 1918 for unrelated reasons but inspired further experiments. 1933 and 1938 Children and Young Persons' Acts remedied remaining defects in reform system. Children - under 14s. Young persons - 14 to 16 year olds. Courts given power to remove child law breakers or those in need of protection from their homes. Juvenile court given authority to send to approved schools or into care of 'fit persons' (LEAs qualified). Experiments delayed by World War I. Half the male teachers in the country were sent to war. Classes became larger due to under-staffing. Retired teachers volunteered to teach during the emergency. School premises used as billets so schools had to relocate to church halls etc. War Savings Effort. Penny banks had existed since at least 1874. Children encouraged to make regular savings which could be used in holidays or emergencies. War Savings Certificates introduced in 1916. War Savings Associations continued through to WWII. Schools encouraged to set up gardens and allotments due to food shortages. Some children excused from school to help with agriculture. Play centres established to keep children off the streets.

1916 the Ministry of Reconstruction's plans included a significant focus on education. Lloyd George appointed Mr H A L Fisher, Oxford historian, as President of Board of Education, and asked him to overhaul national system. 1918 Education Act aimed at establishing a national system for all. Extended powers of LEAs but Board's role still nebulous and weak. Attendance compulsory from 5 to 14. LAs could enact by-laws raising it to 15. Half timers abolished in 1922. Pupils leaving at 14 had to attend continuation school for 320 hours/year until 16 (later 18), organised by LEA. No child under 12 could be employed. Restrictions over when children could be employed (with a by law allowing newsagents to employ children for paper delivery). No child of school age to be employed in factories, mines or in street-trading. LEAs given powers and duties to provide facilities for physical training and organised games. 1914 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act made the provisions of 1899 Act obligatory. Powers given to LEAs to pay maintenance grants so poor children could go to secondary school. All private schools to be registered and open to inspection by Board and LEA. Grants - percentage plan introduced. State and LEA should each pay half of net approved expenditure (after LEA income deducted from gross). There was a more complicated formula for elementary schools. 1921 Education Act consolidated earlier acts and made them easier to apply. Mr Fisher realised decent teaching salaries were needed to attract the right people. 1917 minimum scale of salaries. 1919 - Burnham Committee established, consisting of representatives of education authorities and NUT. 1921 - Three standard scales (with fourth for London following later). Not generous but improved matters. Burnham Scale stayed in place till outbreak of WWII. 1922 - state of national finances meant teachers had to take 5 percent pay cut. Kay-Shuttleworth's pension scheme withdrawn at time of Revised Code. 1918 - Mr Fisher's Superannuation Act. 1922 - teachers obliged to pay 5 percent of their salary to superannuation fund. Financial difficulties after post-war boom years. Gesses Commission on National Expenditure put a break on the developments planned in 1918 Act.

Continuation schools left uncompulsory and so they faltered. Resistance from employers who resented loss of working time. Compulsory in London so some refused to employ those south of the Edgware Road. One-by-one LEAs dropped the scheme, except for Rugby at time of writing. 1924 - Labour briefly return to power, progress resumed. 1926 - The Education of the Adolescent, a report by the Consultative Committee led by Sir W H Hadow. Advocated clean break in education between 11 and 12. Secondary schooling to be shorter and more practical. Recommended replacing 'elementary' by 'primary' for all education up to age 12. All education after this age termed 'post-primary' or 'secondary'. So covered grammar schools (leaving age 16plus) and modern schools (leaving age 14-15plus). Required reorganisation of existing elementary schools into infant, junior and senior. Examinations set up at the end of primary school to determine suitability for grammar schools, selective central schools and non-selective senior schools. Inevitably meant that parents saw modern schools as inferior. Modern school curricula to be suited to needs, interests and abilities of pupils and not vice versa. Some authorities quicker to reform than others, others caught out by next economic slump, or left with large number of unsuitable schools. Leaving age of 14 meant break between primary and secondary at 11plus when 12plus would have been more appropriate. 1931 - alarming economic conditions. Sir George May's Economy Committee recommended drastic reductions, accepted by new government. Buildings grants withdrawn. Teacher salaries cut, progressive schemes abandoned, etc. 1933 - things started to recover and progress resumed, albeit more slowly and arguably more wisely. 1936 Education Act tackled practical problems of reorganisation (eg transport to schools in rural areas). Raised leaving age to 15 although with exemptions and loopholes. Due to happen in 1939 but postponed by outbreak of WWII. LEAs could give building grants to non-provided schools. In return they surrendered appointment of teachers to LEAs. Hence known as 'special agreement' schools. Made official in 1944 Act. 1911 - Consultative Committee of the Board of Education looked at external exams for secondary schools, due to confusion over numbers of exams and exam bodies. Proposed to limit number of exams and put universities in charge. In 1917 the Secondary Schools Examination Committee was formed from LEA and university representatives. Two standard exams established in same year. School Certificate taken at 16. Higher School Certificate exam (with some specialisation) taken two years later.

Exams supposed to follow the curriculum but this didn't happen. School Certificates seen (wrongly) as inferior to Matriculation Certificates by employers. Only some subjects counted towards Matriculation. Began to control direction of curriculum and adversely affect take up of some subjects. Spens Report recommended to stop awarding Matriculation Certificates based on School Certificate results. Accepted but delayed by war. 1941 - Committee of the Secondary School Examinations Committee (Norwood Committee) appointed to consider problem of exams. Recommended exams should be set by teachers, with a 7 year transition period from the old system. Also that HCEs should be scrapped and scholarships for university should be awarded by LEAs based on twice-yearly school leaving exam results. The Education of the Adolescent report had only covered secondary-modern schools. The Spens Report in 1938 rectified that, looking at organisation of all post 11 schools, particularly for pupils leaving school at 16. Considered but rejected idea of multilateral schools with common core studied for 2-3 years then specialisation. Recommended 3 types of secondary schools: grammar, technical and modern. Curriculum to be roughly similar for first 2 years to allow children to switch to a school that suited them. Courses to 16 (studied by the majority) should be complete in themselves. Largely postponed by war, but much of it enacted in 1944 Act. Norwood report considered relationships between schools covered by Hadow and Spens reports. Saw secondary as opportunity for 'a special cast of mind to manifest itself' and to develop specialist interests and aptitudes. Recommended secondary grammar, secondary technical and secondary modern schools, ideally with parity of esteem but this 'could only be won by the school itself'. Curriculum to be common for first two years. Recommended 6 month break at 16 for public service. (Conscription meant this happened anyway for boys but for 2 years). Recommended bilateral school combining grammar and modern. Public schools were complacent but challenged by reformist F W Sanderson (head of Oundle). Essentially a practical teacher with slim understanding of educational aims and little classroom experience teaching. Thought science the best of creative thought in the service of mankind. Thought schools were unsuited to children and led to boredom. Children would only work with incentives such as exams, marks and punishments but these artificial incentives destroyed spirit of work and study. Aim was to develop intense interest in work and study. Changed science lessons into practical science and then took scientific method into other subjects. Oundle helped manufacture munitions in WWI. Wales - abandoned attempt to force English upon the population. Teaching of both languages encouraged. Welsh history emphasised and Welsh taught in training-colleges. All set out in 1927 Report on Welsh in Education and Life.

Advances made in school buildings. Central halls difficult to ventilate. Pavilion schools introduced in 1907, with classrooms leading off a veranda or corridor. Over-ventilation became the problem in winter so schools experimented with folding glazed doors. Classrooms built to face south wherever possible. They were single storey buildings and so took up a lot of space. Quadrangle schools with classrooms on the long sides of the quad and assembly halls, art, science and handicraft rooms on the short. Electric light and power. Greater trend to freedom of movement for children in desk arrangement special rooms for activities. Playground space, playing fields and school gardens. All made compulsory by the Building Regulations which followed the 1944 Act. Rise of educational psychology, following the US. Social Psychology (1908), Principles of Psychology, Text Book of Psychology, and Talks to Teachers, all by William James, widely read and influential. 1905 - Alfred Binet provided first workable intelligence tests, building on the work of Sir Francis Galton and Karl Pearson. Adapted for England by Sir Cyril Burt. Individual tests, intended for discovery of dull and defective children. US army made use of more practical group tests (Alpha and Beta tests) in the war, and these were gradually introduced to English secondary school entry exams. Professor Spearman and Sir Cyril Burt used the correlation method and originated the two-factor theory.

Chapter 11: The Overhaul of 1944 and the Future


World War II delayed extension of the school-leaving age. Evacuation was planned but voluntary and not rehearsed, so parents were not convinced. In some towns as few as 20% were evacuated. Children were allocated to homes arbitrarily and often sent into homes very different to their own, causing much disruption and anxiety for them and their hosts. Air raids took a while to happen so many problems were sorted out before they hit. School hours split: local pupils in the morning, evacuees in the afternoon. Confusion and bureaucracy over who was responsible for clothing children who arrived without the necessary basics. British dominions and the US invited children abroad. Some richer parents sent their children to US or Canada. But in Sept 1940 overseas evacuation stopped after nearly 80 lives were lost when the City of Benares sank. When air raids didn't happen, parents visited their children, but this often unsettled things. Largely evacuees were happy and benefitted from better conditions and exposure to a different way of life. Made the general public aware of low standards of living of some children. Led to call for education reform.

The Battle of Britain meant children had to return to evacuation areas. All schools were closed in designated danger areas. Children left behind roamed the streets and fended for themselves. Volunteers and clergy struggled to ensure they received education. Eventually policy changed, air raid shelters were built at schools, blast walls built, schools restarted. Few schools were damaged. Children sleeping in air raid shelters coped well but their schoolwork suffered. Shortage of buildings as some schools handed over to military. Teachers in evacuation areas found they could make do with little equipment. Open air lessons and practical work. Education was a big feature of planning for post-war reconstruction. Church leaders led the way as early as 1940. The 'Green Book' proposal of 1942 was sent confidentially to educational bodies to canvas their views but accidentally became public. Widely discussed, with a general consensus of response. July 1943 - White Paper on Educational Reconstruction received favourably, leading to R A Butler's Education Bill of 4th August 1944. Parts I and V implemented immediately, Part II postponed until 1st April 1945. Some parts not implemented at time of writing. It was the fulfillment of the 1895 Bryce Commission recommendations. Board of Education replaced by Ministry of Education. Consultative Committee for BoE replaced by two Central Advisory Councils for Education for England and Wales, made up of people from within and without the education system. Part III authorities scrapped, controversially in some cases. 315 LEAs reduced to 146. Some merged in Joint Education Boards. The Act regarded education as a lifelong process with the following stages: primary, secondary and further. LEAs compelled to survey their area for present and future needs for primary and secondary ed. The Dual System continued but was modified. Recognised contribution of religion to education but placed burden on most voluntary schools to upgrade schools as they didn't meet the new standards. The Act made religious instruction and worship obligatory in every school but parents retained right of withdrawal and teachers would not be compelled to give religious instruction. Every school day must begin with collective act of worship, in assembly hall if available. Modern religious syllabuses concentrate on presenting fundamental principles of Christian religion, as opposed to previous teaching of scripture. The Act established the principle of secondary schools for all, and required abolition of fees on all maintained schools. (Lord Sandon's Act of 1876 defined parent's duty to arrange education for their children between ages of five and fourteen. This could mean home or private tuition.)

The Act made the permissive clauses of 1918 act mandatory. Became duty of the LEA to provide nursery schools and County Colleges for part-time education post-sixteen for those who don't stay at secondary or enter HE. Minimum attendance 330 hours/year in half days (not established at time of writing). The Act raised leaving age to 15, delayed till 1947 by the war. The intention was to raise this again to 16 once the country had recovered from the effects of war and schools were able to cope with the additional numbers. Heads complained of the burden of admin work, not a problem for those in direct-grant or independent schools. LEAs obliged to establish playing fields, swimming baths, gymnasia etc. Extensions to medical inspections and treatment, school meals and milk service. Estimates that 4000 out of 10000 independent schools had not been inspected. The 1918 requirement to register had not been enforced. Register of Independent Schools set up. Inspection began 1949. Number of independent schools grew, providing similar education to grammar schools in order to help children get into decent secondary schools, due to competition and waiting lists. Became possible to send exceptional pupils to secondary school six months early at 10 and a half. 1951 - Conservative government returned, with Churchill as PM. The Act did not address the secondary system. Most LEAs chose a tripartite secondary system but some opted for comprehensives which required much bigger schools of 1200 pupils. Hoped that this would break down class distinctions. Accepted without question the Hadow Report recommendation of a clean break at 11plus. Widely criticised as too early for children to specialise. Housing was the priority after the war and pace of school building modest. Nearly a million more schoolchildren due to post war bulge in birthrate. MoE arranged for prefab classrooms - HORSA huts and SFORSA furniture. Schools reluctant to take them, due to memories of post WW1 huts, but strongly encouraged, effectively compelled, in 1946. New building was restricted to replacing those bombed in the war, provision for new housing estates and for the bulge. Statutory Order 345 of 1945 laid down building standards for all schools. Most fell short. Included requirement for library, art and craft rooms, assembly hall with stage, film projection and wireless reception. Separate medical room and waiting room for parents. Decided that minimum number of teachers required was 70,000. Emergency Training Scheme launched in 1943 to bring in teachers from the Forces and other forms of national service. Ended in 1951. Provided about 35,000 teachers (of which 23,000 were men).

Institutes of Education attached to universities set up to take responsibility for training teachers. Pledge system abolished and pupils no longer expected to declare intention to become teachers until nearing the end of their degree. Aimed to bring salaries of women teachers in line with men's by 1961. By 1954 there were 241,300 teachers. More needed to support increasing secondary pupil numbers. Public schools had been subject to much criticism during war. Originally little to distinguish them from other free grammar schools - the terms were often used interchangeably. In Middle Ages Winchester and Eton became preeminent due to scale and connection with older universities. Numbers swelled in Tudor times due to foundation / refoundation of day and boarding schools at Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Charterhouse, Shewsbury, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. End 17th C - distinction increased. By 18th C narrow sense of 'public school' used. Early 19th C - stagnation led to criticism and appointment of Clarendon Commission. Recommendations made but schools largely left to reform themselves. Other ancient schools added - including Oundle and Uppingham. Rise of wealthy middle class from 1832 led to greater demand and establishment of Marlborough, Haileybury, Wellington and others. Expanded to include modern foundation and grammar schools whose heads were members of the Headmasters' Conference. (Became official in 1942). By end of 19th C held in high public esteem and popularity increased during WWI. But felt to be too narrow, snobbish and not democratic. But many public schools opted to be inspected and recognised by the Board of Education. Since 1917 state and public schools have entered pupils for the same exams. Public schools often have publically elected officials on their board of governors. State schools were influenced by public schools - organised games, prefect and house systems, experiments of Sanderson and Rouse. Crosstraffic of staff. Not true that independent schools at time of writing formed a closed system. Lots of variety. Lots of state pupils got entrance into public schools (or a subset of them). 1919 Headmasters' Conference - schools offered 10-25% places to elementary school pupils, as condition for receiving state aid. During late 19th C age of entry to larger boarding schools settled at 13. Focus on classics led to development of (mostly privately owned) preparatory schools for pupils aged 8+ preparing to take Common Entrance examinations, established 1903. Some public schools had their own prep schools.

Proposal to set up state prep schools for promising pupils, with those who don't live up to expectations transferring across to state secondaries. Character, temperament and powers of leadership would be factors. Fleming Report recommended consulted schemes for 'associated schools' and LEA support but pleased no one. YMCA founded 1844; YWCA in 1835; Boy Scout movement in 1908; Girl Guides in 1910 - influenced a minority of adolescents. The state left young people alone till between the wars. King George's Jubilee Trust purchased playing fields in 1935. In 1937 the National Fitness Trust formed to administer grants for physical fitness and recreation. Merged into National Youth Committee at outbreak of war. The state declined to create compulsory youth service, instead supplemented resources of existing voluntary groups. 1907 - Lord Haldane reorganised the army; Officers' Training Corps formed, to prepare officers for Territorial Army and Special Reserve. Two divisions: Senior Division attached to universities and Junior Division attached to certain public and secondary schools. Demand for officers in WWII led to reorganisation and extension of OTC. Divisions became Senior and Junior Training Corps. All university students of military age compelled to join STC. Compulsory service ended 1944, numbers in STC fell rapidly. Renamed University Training Corps and became part of TA in 1948. Renamed OTC. 1941 - Air Training Corps formed, then Sea Cadets and Army Cadet Force. 1942 - National Youth Committee replaced by Youth Advisory Council to advise BofE. McNair Committee reported on training of youth leaders. Public shock at cases of foster children being treated unsatisfactorily. Led to 1946 report of Care of Children Committee under Myra Curtis. Covered 124,900 children (formerly covered under Poor Law Act 1930): evacuees unable to return home, delinquents, adopted, handicapped, educated away from home, orphaned by war, mentally defective. Clyde Committee did the same in Scotland. Joint recommendations included in Children Act of 1958. Gave councils duty of care for under 17s without parents or whose parents could not afford to bring them up. The Act gave preference to private homes over larger institutions. 1947 - Report of Secondary School Examinations Council modified and extended Norwood Report. Specialisation should happen in upper years, able children should be encouraged to stay on beyond 16, sixth forms should continue, pupils should be given a report upon leaving school, tests should be given periodically. Exams at Ordinary, Advanced and Scholarship levels available to those aged 16 on Sept 1st. The latter were for gifted pupils. All subjects at all levels were optional, group system abolished. General

Certificate of Education awarded to successful candidates. Recommended exams in May so that results could reach Ministry by 1st August. Approved and first exam held in 1951.