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Production of Alcohols

Production of Glycerol
Glycerol (1,2,3-propane triol) is the sim- plest alcohol with two primary and one sec- ondary alcohol groups. The two primary alco- hol groups are more reactive than the second- ary alcohol group.
glycerol always is a by-product of the alcoholic fer- mentation, in concentrations of 2.5-3.6% of the ethanol content (PASTEUR, 1858, 1860).

Most chemical processes for glycerol production use propyl- ene from which the intermediates allylchlo- ride, acrolein, or propylene oxide are obtained, and finally glycerol is synthesized. Fig. 1 shows the synthetic pathway. During synthesis, large amounts of chlorin- ated by-products are produced, that cause some environmental problems. For this rea- son, the biotechnological production of glycerol has been discussed. Recently, a direct synthesis of glycerol from COz and HZ has be- come available, but this process is not of prac- tical importance. Traditionally, glycerol was a by-product of fat hydrolysis in the soap industry.

Production of Glycerol
glycerol production with yeasts. They recommended production under alkaline conditions. A process including yeast recovery from the fermented mash by centrifugation during fermentation as well as the recovery of sulfur dioxide

Production of Butanol
Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. Because its longer hydrocarbon chain causes it to be fairly non-polar, it is more similar to gasoline than it is to ethanol. Butanol has been demonstrated to work in vehicles designed for use with gasoline without modification. It has a four link hydrocarbon chain. It can be produced from biomass (as "biobutanol") as well as fossil fuels (as "petrobutanol"); but biobutanol and petrobutanol have the same chemical properties. Butanol from biomass is called biobutanol. It can be used in unmodified gasoline engines.

Biobutanol can be produced by fermentation of biomass by the A.B.E. process. The process uses the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism. It was Chaim Weizmann who first used this bacterium for the production of acetone from starch (with the main use of acetone being the making of Cordite) in 1916. The butanol was a byproduct of this fermentation (twice as much butanol was produced). The process also creates a recoverable amount of H2 and a number of other byproducts:acetic, lactic and propionic acids, isopropanol and ethanol. Biobutanol can also be made using Ralstonia eutropha H16. This process requires the use of a electro-bioreactor and the input of carbon dioxide and electricity. The difference from ethanol production is primarily in the fermentation of the feedstock and minor changes in distillation. The feedstocks are the same as for ethanol: energy cropssuch as sugar beets, sugar cane, corn grain, wheat and cassava, prospective non-food energy crops such as switchgrass and even guayule in North America, as well asagricultural byproducts such as straw and corn stalks.[6] According to DuPont, existing bioethanol plants can cost-effectively be retrofitted to biobutanol production.[7] Additionally, butanol production from biomass and agricultural byproducts could be more efficient (i.e. unit engine motive power delivered per unit solar energy consumed) than ethanol or methanol production.[8]

Production of Isopropanol

Production of 2,3-Butanediol

Production of Other Polyols

General points in the method of manufacture.

Physical and chemical properties of polyols.

Organoleptic properties of polyols.

Nutritional aspects of polyols.

Production of Acetone

Acetone is an impor- tant intermediate in the manufacture of meth- acrylates and methyl isobutyl ketone and a solvent for resins, paints, varnishes, laquers, and cellulose acetate; it is miscible in all proportions with water. 1-Butanol is a precursor of butyl acetate and dibutyl phthalate and like acetone a good solvent. Its solubility in water is 8% (wlw). 2-Propanol or isopropanol is used in antifreeze composition, as a solvent, e.g., in quick-drying oils and ink, and in cosmetics such as hand lotions and aftershave lotions. Like acetone, it is completely miscible with water.