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BEARING

TM

With MULTIPLE DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS

TM

Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler. AE A new approach to rolling element bearing life estimation, and extension.
US PATENT 6,763,312 B1
John E. Judd Dynamic Measurement Consultants, LLC jejvibes@aol.com

Introduction
The useful operating life of a rolling element bearing is influenced by a number of factors. Some of the factors are controlled by the designer, others are controlled the user. Bearing LIFEGUARDTM is a metrics based system for monitoring and optimizing key factors under user control.

Ockhams Razor for PdM!


There is an ongoing need for simpler methods to assess machinery bearing condition. This presentation describes a process developed in a three year effort to find and test a simple but effective approach to the condition assessment of rolling element bearings!

RELIABILITY
RELIABILITY A DEFINITION The probability that a component part, equipment, or system will perform its intended function, under specified conditions of environment, and satisfactory maintenance, for a specified period of time. [Ref 9]

A SIMPLE LOOK AT BEARING LIFE ASSESSMENT: key factors!


OUTSIDE DYNAMIC FACTORS ACT TO REDUCE BEARING LIFE. INTERNAL BEARING EMMISSIONS COMMUNICATE ACTUAL CONDITION AND ALLOW ESTIMATES OF PROBABLE REMAINING LIFE.

ARE YOU LISTENING?

LIFE REDUCING FORCES

HELP!

This is what the emissions from the bearing look like! All the information you need is there!
g units vs time. Time> Frequency > Acceleration frequency spectrum.

BEARING LIFEKEY FACTORS:


Select proper bearing. Install it properly. Minimize lubricant contamination.

Control & Minimize the Forces that act to shorten bearing life. Monitor the actual condition of bearing.

BEARING FAILURE
L10 Bearing life is defined as the number of cycles that 90 % of an apparently identical group of bearings will run before spalling defect reaches 0.01 inch2 (6mm2). Timken specifies L10 for 90x106cycles. ISO 381 specifies for 1x106 cycles.

BEARING LIFEGUARDtm PROVIDES:


A MEANS TO MEASURE/CONTROL: LIFE REDUCING FORCES. ACTUAL CONDITION OF BEARING. LIFE EXPECTANCY BASED ON THESE FACTORS. ESTIMATED PROBABILITY OF NEAR TERM FAILURE.

The DF METRIC A measure of Dynamic Forces that Reduce life!


DF (DYNAMIC FORCES) RANGE 1-10

4.5

1-2=Optimum near L10 life. 2-4=Slightly High (Monitor) 4-7=Excessively High (Action) 7-10=Danger! (Shut down)

IF DF Over 4-Check for Imbalance, Misalignment or other low frequency problems!

The BD METRIC provides information on actual BEARING CONDITION


BD-BEARING DEGRADE RANGE 1-10
1-2= Optimum L10 life 2-4= Early degrade state 4-7 = Second Degrade State (Monitor) 7-10 = Final Degrade State (Replace)
IF BD EQUALS 10-PROBABILITY OF FAILURE IN 90 DAYS = 63%.

The LE METRIC Estimates effects on BEARING LIFE= C1DF + C2BD


LE -LIFE EXPECTANCY ESTIMATE 1-10

1-2= Optimum L10 life 2-4= 10 to 30% life reduction. 4-7 = 30 to 70% life reduction 7-10 =70 to 80% life reduction

IF LE 4-7, CHECK DF OR BD FOR PROBLEM!

IN ONE QUICK GLANCE:


The tech knew that the machine bearing was fine but its expected life is dropping. DF indicates that dynamic forces are causing the reduction. The machine required further checking for imbalance, misalignment or other low frequency dynamic problem.

The tech needed only three numbersand did not require:


Frequency spectra, or data analysis. A sophisticated expert analysis. High level expertise in mechanical engineering or signal processing. The tech had enough actionable information to make a decision!

NEWARK PLANT FacilityPOWER Power Plant


Cogen Plant - 10.5 MW 474,000 LBS/HR - Steam 20,000 TONS - Refrigeration

376,000 BTU/HR - Cascade Heate

2,200 KVA - Emergency Generator

A sample TFM/PdM managers report:


Main Campus

SAMPLE

Main Campus

SAMPLE

MAINTENANCE GAP= $2,200

AVOIDED COST = $22,000

MAIN CAMPUS LIFE ESTIMATE DISTRIBUTION


MACHINES

35 30 25 20 15 10 5

144 MACHINES HAVE REDUCED BEARING LIFE!

L-FACTOR
AHU PUMPS MOTORS

ILLUSTRATION

100

75

50

25

FAIL

PERCENT LIFE EXPECTANCY CLICK HERE FOR MEAN TREND

NUMBER OF MACHINES BY LIFE FACTOR

LIFE ESTIMATE DISTRIBUTION


60 50
MACHINES

BAD
AHU PUMPS MOTORS BAD MOTORS

40 30 20 10 0 1 ALERT BAD

L-FACTOR

1-3

3-7

7-10

SAMPLE

NUMBER OF MACHINES BY LIFE FACTOR

MACHINE DEGRADATION FACTOR DISTRIBUTION Things that indicate machine is in failure state
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 3

D-FACTOR NUMBER

100 MACHINES OF SAME TYPE

AHU-SAMPLE

10

15

GOOD- ALERT- ACTION

D- FACTOR NUMBER[Sample]

FACILITY LIFE ESTIMATE TREND


12 10 8 6 4 2 0JAN FEB MAR APRIL MAY JUNE
ILLUSTRATION

MEAN LIFE FACTOR TREND[100 MACHINES]

350 HORSEPOWER GAS COMPRESSOR


BDF Reading on shaft idler bearing =12 -Probability of bearing failure in 90 days 63%

1.4 g

Detailed acceleration spectrum taken after bearing failure alert. Top-before bearing replacement. BD =12 Lower-after replacement. BD =2

DEGADE FACTOR=12

3kHz

BD=12 Near Failure Bearing removed from compressor.

How is that possible? Lets take a closer look.


What are the factors that influence bearing life?
Items 2,6 & 7 ?

FACTORS

How many of these factors does Maintenance control?

1) ROTATIONAL SPEED 2) RATIO OF RATED LOAD/APPLIED LOA 3) ENVIRONMENT 4)BEARING MATERIAL 5) TIME AT LOAD 6) ASSEMBLY 7) LUBRICATION

L10 BEARING LIFE EQUATION Manufacturers rating on new bearing.

L 10 = (K 1* a1 * a2 * a3 ) [ fa * CE /P ]10/3 (hours) N K1 = 16667


L 10 is estimated life of 90% of sample test bearings under specified operating conditions. K1, a 1, 2, 3 and fa, are manufacturers constants related to material, environment, reliability %. (ie-a3 = 0.2( For 99% ) and fa = number of parallel bearings. CE/P = ratio of rated load to actual load. N = rotational speed in rpm
Ref: Timken Bearing Manual

IMPORTANT POINTS

to note in L 10 equation:
LIFE VS BEARING LOAD
2 X INCREASE RPM DECREASE BEARING LIFE factor 2 2X INCREASE BEARING LOAD DECREASE BEARING LIFE factor (C/PL)3.3! INCREASE BOTH X 2DECREASE BEARING LIFE factor 20! Drop bearing load from 50 to 40% -double bearing life!

How Bearing LifeGuard tmLE Factor Changes with Machine Speed.


DROP IN LE Life Expectancy factor VS. SPEED
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 1080 2 1800 3 3600 RPM

% L 10

WB,K2

BEARING FAILURE is difficult to predict!


Years of experience has shown that bearing failure is probabilistic and very difficult to predict accurately. Failure data indicates that characteristics follow a Weibull probability distribution. The Variance on this distribution extends from < 0.5 to >15 times the mfgs. L10 life. It is easy to see why failure prediction is difficult!

FAILURE CHARACTERISTICS
STUDIES BY FAA, NASA AND OTHERS HAVE CONCLUDED: MOST BEARING FAILURES ARE RANDOM AND SCHEDULED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ALONE IS NOT THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE STRATEGY !

CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY OF AGE RELATED FAILURES


A
UAL 4% BROMBERG 3% U.S. NAVY 3%

B C

2%

1%

17%

5%

4%

3%

AGE RELATED FAILURES [CONT.]


UAL BROMBERG 11% U.S. NAVY 6%

7%

E F

14%

15%

42%

68%

66%

29%

REF 4

AIRCRAFT COMPONENT FAILURE CHARACTERISTICS


Fe(t) VS. OPERATING TIME 4% BATHTUB CURVE 2% CONSTANT TO EXPONENTIAL 4% LINEAR INCREASE WITH TIME 89% RANDOM FAILURES REF: FAA STUDY MSG-1 BOEING 747 [See also Ref.4, Appendix A]

FAILURE CHARACTERISTICS Veridian Engineering- Overman.


Type A-- Bathtub Curve ( 4%) Type B-- Constant 1/mtbf then exp. Increase (2%) Type C-- Prob. of failure linear increase w/time (5%) Type D-- Low prob. when new then constant (7%) Type E-- Constant 1/mtbf [ Same old or new!] (14%) Type F-- Exp. decrease then constant 1/MTTF [68%]

High Number of Excessively High Stress Cycles Lead to Subsurface Material Fatique.
CYCLES TO FATIQUE FAILURE Cycles to Fatigue Failure

M
120

Ref:Shock&Vibration 3rd Ed. Carbon Steel Handbook (quenched 0.37)

CARBON STEEL (0.37 QUENCHED)

A X S T R E S S

100
PERCENT LIFE EXPECTANC
100

1000 psi

80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20
0

One year = 18 x 10^8 @ 3600 cpm


STRESS/1000psi

Two impacts per rev@ 3600 = 3.6 x10^9 /year


10^6 10^7 10^8 10^4 10^5 10^5 10^6 10^7 10^8 NUMBER OF CYCLES CYCLES(STRESS REVERSALS)

10^4

Ref; Shock & Vibration Handbook 3rd Ed.

L10 Life is reduced at higher stress levels. GENERAL FATIGUE LIFE VS LOAD % 1000000
100 10 0.1
100000 L10 GENERAL FATIQUE LIFE VS LOAD

10000

0.01

1000

Series1

0.001100 0.0001
10

MIN 5,000 15,000 20,000 Min 2,500 2500 lb 5000 lb 10,000 10000 15000 20000 BEARING LOAD Load lb ( Lbs.) lb lb

L10 LIFE VS. DEGREE MISALIGNMENT


200 150 100 50 0 0D 5D 10 D 15 D 20 D DEGREE OF MISALIGNMENT

FATIGUE CURVE

IDEAL CROWN IS = 7.7mm

SHAFT RPM VS BEARING LIFE SHAFT RPM VS BEARING LIFE (ANSI STD) (ANSI STD) 100000

10000

1000
EXAMPLE ONLY

100

10

1 900 RPM 2500 RPM 5000 RPM 10000 RPM

TOTAL BEARING LOAD

Belt tension= xlbs

Rotor weight +

Load zone force = vector sum of forces.

Dynamic force= Imbalance + Misalignment + Impacts Imbalance =1/2 rotor mass x (2 RPS)2 *mass cg offset

Von Mises & Hertzian stress loads on Bearing surface


Sub surface fatique defects migrate to surface.

Surface point contact stresses can reach 200,000 to 500,000 psi!


Ref: Harris Rolling bearing analysis

Timken exponential failure distribution

Ref: Timken Bearing Manual

WEIBULL EQUATIONS:
Re(t)

k -(t / ) Prob. of survival= e Fe(t) = 1- e-

Fe(t) = Prob. of failure = (1-Re(t) ) (t-/-)k

dFe(t)/dt = f(t)=

Rate of change of Fe(t)

f(t) = k -k t (k-1) e-(t-/-)


=
Where ;
1/ e t/

for k = 1, = 0

k= shape dispersion factor,

location, =MTTF,

t = time period
Timken Bearing uses = 0, k = 1.5 for L10

WHY BEARING FAILURE IS HARD TO PREDICT.


FAILURE DISTRIBUTIONS VS DISPERSION FACTOR
40 % UNIT FAILURES 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 L10 (@ k= 1.5) LIFE MULTIPLES L10 life (1-e -(t/MTTF))^k = 0,1% failure prob.
L10 TIMKEN STANDARD

10% FAIL

63% FAIL
MTTF(4.81 L10)
K= 0.5 K=1.0 K=1.5 K=2.0

RELIABILITY ESTIMATE
Rs = Probability of system functioning for time t with elements connected in series: k -(t / ) Rs = System Reliability = e Rs = P1*P2*Pn [Ex: 0.8*0.7*0.9= 0.504] Fs = Probability of failure = 1- Rs = 0.496

How does MDA work?

Lets look at how DF is derived. Lets look at how BD is derived. Finally, lets look at how probability of failure is estimated.

SOURCES OF LIFE SHORTENING DYNAMIC FORCE USED FOR DF


Imbalance Misalignment Eccentric Shaft Belt Resonance Other sources of low frequency motion. High frequency impacts & resonance.
ALL OF THESE CREATE STRESS REVERSALS. They are indicated and measured as low frequency bearing housing accelerations and impact energy, adjusted per ISO standards, for flexible or rigid mounting.

WHAT IS THE NATURE OF BEARING FAULTS ?


FATIQUE Spalling-subsurface fatique Peeling -surface fatique WEAR Fretting /Surface Corrosion
Abrasion Scoring Abrasion Corrosions Brinneling/Localized Fretting Smearing Pitting/Fluting PLASTIC FLOW Brinnelling Denting Material Failure FRACTURE (Catastrophic)

PROBABLE CAUSE Excessive load Lubrication Vibration/movement


Contamination Check Seals Seals Vibration Sliding friction;lubrication Electrical Discharge Excessive load Excessive Point load Hard/Cold working Latent Defect

Most faults cause impacting & high frequency energy!

MDA CONVERTS THESE ELEMENTS TO METRIC FACTORS


VIBRATION DATA IMBALANCE COUPLING GEAR MISALIGNMENT WARPED SHAFT ECCENTRICITY BELT DEFECT BELT RESONANCE PULLEY ALIGN PULLEY BALANCE BLADE PASS BEARING- CAGE BEARING INNER BEARING OUTER BALL PITTING FRETTING SCORING SPALLING
DATA INTEGRATION
PROCESS FLEX/RIGID

INFORMATION
DYNAMIC FORCES
10 ACTION/LIFE REDUCED ALERT

DYNAMIC FORCES FACTOR

1
10
PROCESS

OPTIMUM

BEARING CONDITION
NEAR FAIL ALERT OPTIMUM

BEARING DEGRADE FACTOR

US PATENT # 6,762,312 OTHER PATENTS PENDING

HOW MULTIPLE DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS WORKS?


PEAK CAPTURE 1 2 ADDER

BD
BEARING CONDITION LE LIFE EXPECTENCY

SIGNAL

FFT

SPLITTER

3 4

DF
LFD ADDER

DYNAMIC FORCE

INPUT SIGNAL PROCESSOR

ANALYSIS & SUMMING

DISPLAY

BEARING LIFE FACTOR


DF [20%] Adder BD [80%] LE A composite of DF & BD which indicates overall machine condition.

LE [100%] 1= Optimum L10 Life 10 = Minimum Life Expectancy.

DF- A measure of dynamic forces on bearing [20-40% contribution- user selectable] BD- A measure of actual bearing condition. [80-60% contribution.]

LE is a forecast of the expected bearing life!

DF INCREASE ONLY
10

BD - DF & BEARING LIFE DF =50% reduction. RELATIONSHIP[- 20%] L Cr/Ca LIFE


max
10

EXPECTED L10 BEARING LIFE

SAMPLE
BD INCREASE ONLY
DYNAMIC FORCES
1 10
DF DYNAMIC FORCE FACTOR

8 EXPECTED LIFE 10 =100% 6 4 2 0

8.00-10.00
6.00-8.00
4.00-6.00
2.00-4.00
0.00-2.00

BDF-BEARING DEGRADATION FACTOR

10

S 1

be affected by such factors as rotational speed ASSUME RATIO OF RATED TO APPLIED FORCEand imbalance.
DROPS BY 20% AS DF GOES FROM 1 TO 10

A new bearing can have low Life Expectancy! It may

WHAT IS MDA BD BEARING CONDITION?


MDA USES A COMBINATION OF POWERFUL BEARING ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Crest Factor, Kurtosis, High Frequency energy and Envelope Demodulation, or others. Each analysis technique used is based on acceleration and is converted to a 1-10 metric. The metrics are combined to provide BD = 1-10. BD is then related to estimated MTTF of bearing. BD =1, MTTF L10, when BD =10, MTTF = 2160 hrs = 63% probability of failure.

ILLUSTRATION OF IMPACTS CAUSED BY BEARING DEFECTS


Courtesy: DLI instruments, WA.

MACHINERY VIBRATION TIME WAVEFORM


Courtesy: Condition Monitoring, LLC , NJ
Peak = 0.4 in/sec

RMS = 0.17 in/sec.

CF Vel= 0.4/0.17 = 2.46 BD=4.5, LE=3.9, DF=3.9 HF=7.7 CF=14 KF=.55, ED=4.27

BRG 5, OUT, rms=2.22567

BD=11, [HF=12.7, CF=14, KF=10, ED=12.1]


10.0 RMS: 2.2 Live X1 X: 0.0799805 Y: 0.209865 5.0 Gs

Re
-5.0 -10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m

se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

ACTUAL TIME HISTORY SHOWING EXPONENTIAL DECAY


Peak--- rms.

CF = P/rms = 1-10 K= (P-rms)^4/rms =1-10

Courtesy of JLF Analysis, Schenectady, NY

KURTOSIS FACTOR VS CF & G(RMS) FACTOR 14.0 12.0 10.0 KURTOSIS FACTOR 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 S1 7 S3 S5

K is quadratic expression sensitive to both peak value and rms g value.

12.0-14.0

10.0-12.0

8.0-10.0

6.0-8.0

4.0-6.0

2.0-4.0

0.0-2.0

G(RMS)

CREST FACTOR

SAMPLE SHOWING LOW FREQUENCY ENVELOPE


Rectified Low frequency envelope.
ED = rms value of envelope = 1-10

High frequency stripped off.

Courtesy of JLF Analysis, Schenectady, NY

BRG 5, OUT, rms=2.22567

BD=11, [HF=12.7, CF=14, KF=10, ED=12.1]

10.0 RMS: 2.2

Gs
5.0

Bearing impact frequency

Low frequency demod envl.

Live X1 X: 0.0799805 Y: 0.209865

Re

-5.0

ED = Rms value of enveloped bearing impact energy!

High frequency ring down 20kHz

7 4 11 3 1 9 12 8 10 2 6 5

REFERENCE- GOOD BEARING

BD CLOSELY FOLLOWS BEARING DEFECT SEVERITY


BDF-wbk2 14 12 10

LIGHT ABRASION/ GRINDING COMPOUND LIGHT SCORING ON THREE BALLS LIGHT SCORING CONDITION MILD SCORING ON INNER/OUTER RACE HEAVY SCORING ON INNER RACE MED SCORING INNER/OUTER AND BALL HEAVY SCORING ON INNER RACE/BALL HEAVY SCORING ON OUTER RACE HEAVY SCORING ON BALLS

INCREASING BDF WITH INCREASING DEFECT SEVERITY TWELVE SKF 6205

8 6 4 2 0

V o lt s

8 6 4 2 0

SEVERE ABRAS- HVY GRINDING COMPOUND HEAVY SCORING ON OUTER RACE

WBK2- ARR

BEARING TYPE- SKF 6205

7 4 11

7 4 11 3 1 9 12 8 10 2 6 5 REF IN IN/OU 3 ABR1 1 3BAL 9 10 8 12IN2 3SCR 2 53SCR 6OUT2 BALL ABR3 OUT 1 1.75 1.89 3.2 5.47 5.6 6.9 10 12.2 12.95

BDF-wbk2 0.64 0.75

RELATION OF BD AND PROBABILITY OF FAILURE RATIO OF t/=1.0 USING K=1.5


FAILURE PROBABILITY VS DISPERSION FACTOR (1-e^ t / MTTF)^k 1.2

1.0

Assume t/MTTF =1 when BD =10

BD =10

0.8 PROBABILITY

0.6

K = 1.0 K = 0.5

0.4

K=1.5
0.2

F(t) = (1-e (t/)3/2)


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

K=0.75 BDF 1-10

0.0 RATIO t/THETA

MTTF HAS DROPPED TO 90 DAYS (21 SUBSTITUTE FOR BDF READINGS AB

PROBABILITY OF FAILURE VS.MDA-3 BD PROBABILITY OF FAILURE FOR 7 t/MTTF (1-e -(t/mttf)^1.5)MTTF In 1 6 0.1 63.2% 0.311280057 4.81*L10 t/MTTF 2160hrs 2 0.28 1.377086509 FAIL 5 4 0.46 2.680090871 PROB 6 4 0.64 4.007042122 8 3 0.82 5.240971686 10 1 6.321205588 216 2 1.18 7.22464964 1.36 7.95260925 1 1.54 8.520808949 PROBABILITY X 0 20 1.72 8.952060096 BD VALUE 1 2 4 6 8 10 22 1.9 9.271220579
PROBABILITY X10

BRG 7, REF, rms=0.223764 BD=0.6, HF=0.67, CF=5, KF=0.02, ED=0.16


10.0 RMS: 0.2

NEW REFERENCE BEARING


5.0

Live X1 X: 0.0799609 Y: 0.175307

Gs
0 Re -5.0 -10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

B7-REF (run135) TEST 1-25-04


500.0m 450.0m 400.0m 350.0m 300.0m 250.0m Ma 200.0m 150.0m 100.0m 50.0m 0

BD = 0.64 HFD = 0.6 CFD = 3.2 KFD= 0.04 EDD = 0.15 HFD= 0.6 CFD= 3.2

S1 X: 6625 Y: 0.00297311

NEW REFERENCE BEARING

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B4-ABR15 (137)
500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 0.75 HFD = 0.87 CFD = 3.5 KFD= 0.02 EDD = 0.22


VERY LIGHT ABRASION

S1 X: 2725 Y: 0.00214685

Ma

200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B11-3BALLS (run 136)


500.0m 450.0m 400.0m 350.0m 300.0m 250.0m Ma 200.0m 150.0m 100.0m 50.0m 0

BD = 1.0 HFD = 1.45 CFD = 4 KFD= 0.03 EDD = 0.37

S1 X: 5662.5 Y: 0.00749745

LIGHT SCORING ON BALLS

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B3-IN (138)
500.0m

400.0m

BD = 1.75 HFD = 2.5 CFD = 7 KFD= .03 EDD = 0.85

S1 X: 1337.5 Y: 0.027393

300.0m

200.0m

LIGHT/MODERATE SCORING ON BALLS

Ma

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B1-IN/OUT (run 134)


500.0m

400.0m

BD = 1.89 HFD = 3.24 CFD = 6.6 KFD= 0.03 EDD = 0.95


MILD SCORING

S1 X: 9037.5 Y: 0.101844

300.0m

Ma

200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B9-IN2 (run 140)


500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 3.2 HFD = 6.26 CFD = 6 KFD= 0.04 EDD = 2.5

S1 X: 6000 Y: 0.172742

200.0m

HEAVY SCORING ON INNER RACE

Ma

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B12-3SCORE2 (run 144)


500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 5.45 HFD = 8.59 CFD = 14 KFD= 0.6 EDD = 4.2

S1 X: 5987.5 Y: 0.315009

MED SCORING ON INNER/OUTER RACE AND BALLS.

Ma

200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B10-OUT2 (143)
500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 6.9 HFD = 5.5 CFD = 14 KFD= 1.5 EDD = 10

S1 X: 5875 Y: 0.264455

HEAVY SCORING ON OUTER RACE


Ma 200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B8-3SCORE (run 145)


500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 5.6 HFD = 10.5 CFD = 14 KFD= 0.24 EDD = 3.36


And BALL

S1 X: 6387.5 Y: 0.307514

HEAVY SCORING ON INNER RACE


Ma 200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

BRG 12, 3SCR2, RMS = 1.40289 BD=6.3, HF=10, CF=14, KF=1.5, ED=5.2
10.0 RMS: 1.4 Live X1 X: 0.0799805 Y: 1.11501 5.0

Gs
0 Re -5.0 -10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

B2-BALL (run 142)


500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 10 HFD = 9.2 CFD = 9.2 KFD= 14 EDD = 7.5

S1 X: 5925 Y: 0.276644

HEAVY SCORING ON BALLS


Ma 200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

B5-OUT (run 139)


500.0m

400.0m

300.0m

BD = 12.95 HFD = 13.3 CFD = 14 KFD= 14.2 EDD = 12.95

S1 X: 6637.5 Y: 0.156745

HEAVY SCORING ON OUTER RACE

Ma

200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

BRG 5, OUT, rms=2.22567

Acceleration

BD=11, [HF=12.7, CF=14, KF=10, ED=12.1]


10.0 RMS: 2.2 Live X1 X: 0.0799805 Y: 0.209865 5.0 Gs

Re
-5.0 -10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m

se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

B6-ABR30 (run 146)


500.0m

BD=12.1, HF= 14,


400.0m

CF=14, KF=14, ED=7.7

S1 X: 187.5 Y: 0.671253

300.0m

HEAVY GENERAL ABRASION


Ma 200.0m

100.0m

5.0K

Hz 10.0K

15.0K

20.0K

BRG 6, ABR30, rms=2.21398 BD=12.1, HF=14, CF=14, KF=14, ED=7.7


10.0 RMS: 2.2 Live X1 X: 0.0799805 Y: 0.415329 5.0

GS
0 Re -5.0 -10.0

20.0m

40.0m

60.0m se 80.0m

100.0m

120.0m

140.0m

160.0m

FAILURE PROBABILITY SAMPLE CALCULATION


Forecast period = t = one year = 8760 hours. L10 = 3000 at 500 rpm, MTTF = 14430 hrs. R(T) = Probability of survival = exp -(t/mttf)3/2 F(T) = Probability of new bearing failure = 1- R(T) = [1- exp -(8760/14,400)
3/2]

38%

If BD indicates MTTF drops to 8760 t/ = 1 Probability of failure in one year. F(T)= 63%

CONCLUSION- A new way to look at bearing monitoring and fault analysis.


Bearing Lifeguard TM provides three simple metrics for maintenance technicians. The three metrics provide information on forces acting to reduce bearing life, actual bearing condition and estimated remaining life. Using these factors the system provides an estimated probability of failure within the next 90 days. The system also makes available acceleration signals and demodulated envelope signals for detailed analysis if required.

BEARING

TM

Information in this presentation is provided for illustration of LIFEGUARD TECHNOLOGY & MDA principles only. Use for other purposes without express permission of DMC, LLC is strictly prohibited.

US PATENT #6,763,312 B1

Reference material used in this presentation

Shock & Vibration Handbook, Cycil Harris, 3rd Edition Rolling Element Bearings-Tedric Harris, 3rd Edition RCM, Condition Monitoring or both? Richard Overman, Veridian Engineering, Maintenance Technology, Jan. 02. NASA-Reliability Centered Maint. & Commissioning. [Appendix A], Feb. 2002 The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms-5th Edition. Mil Handbook 217E SAE JA 1011 Surface Vehicle/Aerospace Std.-Evaluation Criteria for Reliability Centered Maintenance. Vibra-Metrics Inc. Vibration Reference Guide.