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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter covers on the general research of simulation technology based of definition, understanding of the technology, problem statement, research aim, objectives, research methodology, and scope of study which includes limitation and significance of the research.


Background of Study

Finding a new method and to teach and train people using the method can be very challenging. However, this new method can trigger athletes interest and ease their training process. Thus, all the training or development centres will use the new method namely simulation technology. Simulation technology is created with the basic concepts related to the complexity of a professional sports organisation.

Based on Oxford Dictionary (2011), simulation and technology have their own meanings. Simulation is the imitation of some real things available, state of affairs, or process. In other words, simulation is a virtual reality of technology. Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organisation in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. So, the terms Simulation Technology can be determined as a method used order to solve problems using simulation or virtual reality. The simulation technology is also used in other fields such as medical, aerospace and gaming. Plate 1.1 showed illustration of simulated technology.


Plate 1.1: Simulation Technology Sadly to say that the current facilities and technologies in our local sports training centres were outdated compared to international. In order to counter the problem, simulation technology is one of the methods that can improve the quality of the local training centres and also develop the performances of the athletes. Even though this method is not widely used locally, it actually has been practiced internationally for quite some time.


Problem Statement 1.2.1 Performance

Athletes need to be exposed with advance facilities and training program that will give great impact to their qualities and performances. Most of the facilities that were used by the athletes were very outdated and oil-fashioned. It is one of the reasons why our sports industry is not as victorious as international athletes. Youth and Sports Minister YB. Dato' Sri Ahmad Shabery Cheek said, It is important to develop a new model to finance sports. Based on what the minister said, sport is one of the important sectors for our country to be developed in the new way in order to give benefits not only to the athletes but country as well.



Better Facilities

Lack of facilities has often resulted in 85 to 90 percent less utilization of most sports centres. Malaysia is one of the countries that faced the same problem. In 1960, the Wolfenden Report, Sport and the Community, and the Albemarle Report on the Youth Service both stressed the need for more and better facilities for indoor sport. Based on the two references above, researcher can make conclusion that, a better training centre is a place that attract others. The attractions can be in term of the technology used, better facilities provided and the function of space. 1.2.3 Design Intentions

When we talked about sports training centre, a lot of people do not prefer to go there mainly because of the lousy facilities provided. Therefore in this study, researcher wants to uncover a new technology which can attract people and at the same time expose them with sports awareness and healthy lifestyle. It is like killing two birds with one stone because the sports centre will not only be used but athletes but also ordinary people whose are sports lovers. 1.3 Research Aim

The aim in this research is to study on the Simulation Technology in Training Centre. Basically, the Simulation Technology will be a part of the design in Sports Development Centre. All the technical aspects of this technology can be determined and the real concept of simulation technology can be understood. From the research, its result can be use in designing the sports training centres. It can also utilized by design students as their references.


Objectives of Research

The objectives of this study are: 1) To study on simulation technology in sports training centre. In Sports Development Centre, this technology will be applied in making functional design and create an interesting training environment.


2) To understand the basic concept of simulation technology and its application to the interior part of the centre. The understanding of the simulation technology is very vital because we need to master the technical aspect and know how technology works. 3) To find the new method for training equipment and apply it into space and make it a design. Simulation technology is a new method for training centre which can transform old-fashioned training centre into a place that can boost up athletes energy. 1.5 Scope of Study 1.5.1 Delimitation

In sports, there are many technologies used but based on the research that have been done, it basically focused on simulation technology in training centres. The following are the elaborations of the research: Simulation Technology This research is narrowed down to the Simulation Technology in Training Centre. It also consists of the facilities and equipment that were provided at the training centre. This researchs aim is to study on simulation technology. Function The goal of this research is to determine on the technology method in space and its functions to the training centre. Technically Technically, the simulation concept will be applied in space and transform it as a functional space. All the latest technologies will be applied in the training centres interior. 1.6 Research Methodology 1.6.1 Primary Data Collection Structured Interview with Experts


An appointment will be made with the experts on this field. I was aiming to dig out some information and accurate data about technologies that are used in sports. Lecturers from Sports Science Faculty will be interview on the latest technologies and facilities that can be relate with the simulation technology which will be applied into the space. 1.6.2 Secondary Data Collection Current Issues

Data from the internet gives information that is related to the current issues. Useful data can be obtained from websites such as from the Malaysia Sports Council. The data about sports development, technologies and the application of the technologies into the space can be found from the web and it will ease the design process. Sports Books

Researcher can get some of the data from sports books. Analysis from the books can provide clear understanding on previous studies and their relation to the topic. In this study, books such as Sports Hall Technology will provide information on the new technology which can be analysed and the analysis will help in designing the centres.


Significant of Study The findings can be used as guidelines in the designing process. From this research, researcher must be able to interpret the basic concept of simulation technology. It covers all the concepts based on the technical aspects. As for example, how the technology is set up and finally transforms it into design in space for Sports Development Centre. This research offers other such as: a. Students will gain knowledge on the technology in sports training centre.


b. This research will also offer new experience and open students eyes for any possibilities in order to adapt the simulation technology in training centre. c. To determine the specific guidelines in designing sports training centre according to the requirement needed.


Expected Findings The findings in this research can be used and applied into the interior part of the training centres design. The data was collected and manipulated as a technical part based on technology. In this study, understanding of the simulation can also be interpreted as a design for training centre.



This chapter will explain on the terms of Simulation Technology in interiors also Malaysian and international sports history. This topic will discuss on the transformation of Ordinary Sport Centre to Advance Sports Centre. Based on the interiors, discussion will also be about the functionality of the design using the technology in sports centre. The other aspects that will be talked about in this chapter are the requirements for sports centre for advance sports centre, simulators in interiors, facilities that will be provided in sports centre and the benefits that athletes can get when they use the advance sports centre. 2.1 Evolution of Sports

The history of sports probably extended as far back as the existence of people as purposive sportive and active beings. Sport had been a useful way for people to increase their mastery of nature and the environment. The history of sport could teach us a great deal about social changes and the nature of sports itself. Sports seemed to involve the basic human skills that had been developed and exercised for their own sake, in parallel with being exercised for their usefulness. It also showed how the society changed its beliefs and therefore there were changes in the rules. Of course, as we go further back in history, the decreasing evidence made the theories of the origins and purposes of sports was difficult to support. Nonetheless, its importance in human history is unquestionable.


Plate 2.1: An Egyptian burial chamber mural, approximately 4,000 years old, showing wrestlers in action.

Sports is actually formed and managed by the government. Records of sports activities are kept and updated for most sports at the highest levels, while failures and accomplishments are widely announced in sport news. Sports are most often played just for fun or for the simple fact that people need exercise to stay in good physical condition. However, professional sport is a major source of entertainment and can generate countrys economy. 2.2 Sports and Fitness

Virtual reality offers the potential to enhance sports and fitness by creating realistic simulations and enhancing the experience of indoor exercise. Sports simulations can be in many forms depending on the purpose of the simulation. Video, computers and arcade games tend to focus on the strategy of the sport and the "fun" of the competition. Frequently, these types of games offer head-to-head competition between two players and can occasionally involve collaborative teams. Virtual reality concepts are beginning to push the realism of these games by combining three-dimensional design, sound, and high resolution graphics at relatively smooth rendering rates. Typically, these types of game simulations enhanced the players abilities in the actual sport which means the players are more


powerful and strong. However, as the realism of telepresence increases, the formation of useful mental strategies could improve performance in the actual sports. Examples include Access Software Corporation's Links386 Pro golf for the IBM PC and Sega Corporation's Outrun 2019 driving simulation for the Sega Genesis NTSC video game system. A second form of sports simulation involves using virtual reality concepts to physically immerse an individual into competition of a given sport. An example of this is the racquetball simulation implemented through the Autodesk cyberspace system (Pimentel, 1993). In this simulation, the participant uses a special racquet and a head mounted display in order to play a round of virtual racquetball. One might participate in this form of simulated sport to practice for improvement, to develop coordination, to develop a mental understanding of game strategies, to engage in fitness, or just simply to entertain oneself. Depending on the simulated sport, the impacts of physical and visual immersion can require tactile and/or force feedback. This feedback is not only can create realism by compensating for muscular movements or indicating contact with objects, but also is required to keep the virtual world from colliding with the real world which can possibly causing an injury. Most immersive sport simulations which require tactile feedback are forced to trade reality for some unnatural adjustment to the sports due to the inadequacy of current haptic VR technology. In the Autodesk racquetball simulation example, the physics of the ball trajectory was modified so that the racquetball always returned to the racquet for the next swing, thereby avoiding the problem of how to handle diving or reaching for the ball. Most competitive sports do not have adequate ways of simulating the necessary tactile or force feedback, making realistic simulations of physical immersion unachievable in the foreseeable future. It is important, however, to realize that some sports have tactile feedback devices already available in the form of fitness simulation machines. At a typical fitness center, one can choose from an array of exercise machines to use. Examples include the exercise bike, treadmill, cross country ski simulator, stair climbing simulator, and rowing machine. Each of these devices provides force feedback for the purpose of repetitive exercise. Clearly, one can visualize an immersive virtual reality system which increases the


pleasure, or decreases the boredom of using these devices by immersing the user in a realistic alternative environment. Such systems indirectly track body movements by monitoring the moving parts on the machine. To many users of repetitive exercise machines, a virtual ride through the Swiss Alps would be more enjoyable than a stationary ride through the local gym, and be worth a small increase in cost. The potential economic benefits of merging sports and virtual reality are lucrative. The exercise bike has already had one commercially successful venture in the VR direction, the LifeCycle, which can be found in most upscale fitness center. The LifeCycle model 6500 combines a visual display of hilly terrain with adjusted pedaling resistance conforming to the slope of the incline. In addition, a biofeedback sensor monitors heart rate and adjusts pedaling resistance to keep the heart rate in a predetermined range. An example of a more immersive but experimental system is the Autodesk cyberspace system adapted to an exercise bike. The user wears a HMD to generate realistic images while feedback from the cycle wheel speed and handlebar direction guide changes to the visual display (Pimentel, 1993). A prominent speaker in the world of telepresence recently said "The exercise bike telepresence system has become something of the Holy Grail of this business right now. Everyone is hoping that they can build one that is cheap enough to go into a mail order catalog." (Laurel, 1992). The problems of virtual environments for sports and fitness are scene complexity, rendering rates, 3-D sound and tactile/force feedback. The recommended study list in addition to a computer science curriculum includes 3-D graphics, rendering algorithms, scene generation, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and a basic understanding of physical fitness, anatomy, and sports medicine.




Simulation Fidelity: Keep it real In terms of traditional simulation training, it is important to consider how the simulation

looks and feels. Simulation fidelity can be used to measure effectiveness of a simulation training, how a person behaves in the simulated environment, compared to their behavior in the real-world experience . Using video-based simulations and ARTT obviously alters the physical fidelity of a simulation (i.e., how the simulation looks). Psychological or experiential fidelity is how the participant perceives the simulation and how game like they believe it to be . The effect of ARTT on psychological or experiential fidelity is still open to debate. Much skill-acquisition research would argue that changing the speed of the training environment reduces the high fidelity needed for optimal transfer of the given skill. Kolf , however, highlighted the benefits of designing fast-time simulations and suggested that implementing this method of simulation training would give pilots a more precise experience of flying while under real-world stress. Anecdotal evidence suggests that regardless of the type or amount of pre-flight simulator training accomplished by the pilot, the actual flight seems to take place in a much faster time than real time. Verbal reports following real-time simulator training revealed that pilots perceived events to happen faster in the real situations. When they performed above-real-time simulator training, the pilots described it as feeling more like the actual aircraft. Moreover, in current work in the sporting domain, testing decision-making clips in sport, feedback from coaches and players is that above real time conditions are more game like than video played at normal time. For example, Lorains and MacMahon provide promising findings in the use of above-real-time video simulations for decision making. While this research was only a one-off test of performance, elite performers displayed better results when tested on above-real-time video, compared to sub-elite and control participants, suggesting that using above-real-time video allowed the elite athletes to perform more automatically, as they would in a real game.



While the existing evidence is largely anecdotal or of single tests of performance, it does provide a useful foundation to apply this manipulation from military training to the sporting domain. It is important to note that findings in both the sporting and military/pilot domains are for elite or expert participants and may not generalize to novices. ARTT may be too difficult or the speeds implemented may be too fast for novice performers initially, but it may be an effective method of training novice performers. As when implementing any training tool, it is important to consider the level of the learner or participant. Traditional video simulations may provide a more controlled learning environment for beginners, but without any manipulations, may be too basic or simplified for training elite athletes.




This chapter will explain about the research methods that are used to conduct this study. Among the methods used are interviews with experts and collecting data from the National Sports Centre. Data and information from the sports book, sports technology journal, precedents studies from overseas will be compiled. The current issues from newspapers and from articles will be gathered to strengthen the research. This research will also include the technical aspects on how to apply the technology into space and advance sports centre. It will also state the requirements and equipment that are used in the Training Centre. 3.1 Data Collection

The information can be obtained from the primary and secondary data. The primary data is the information that is gained directly from observations, interviews, questionnaires and measurements. The secondary data refers to the information that is acquired from books, articles, magazines, journal, newspapers, unpublished thesis and precedents case study in overseas. 3.1.1 Primary Data The interviews are structured and prepared in order to obtain the information. Structured interviews with experts. Interviews approach will be used to collect data. This will be the primary data for this study. Interviews will be arranged with several people who are expert in Sports technologies especially Sports Science lecturers from UiTM Shah Alam and UiTM Penang, En Zulkhairi who is experts in technology in sports, equipment in training centre and basic requirement basic requirements for training centre. An interview will also be conducted with managers from Malaysia Sports Council (MSN) in order to get the issues especially on the weaknesses of the sports training centre nowadays. The questions that will be asked to the experts are:


1) What are the basic requirements that a Sports Training Centre must have? 2) Did the sports fields nowadays use the latest technology and can it be used in training centre in order to improve the athletes performances?

3) What are the equipments that are needed for sports centre?

4) What are the differences and similarities of sports centre and advance sports centre?

In order to obtain more information, the questions will be asked to the lecturers from the Sports Science Faculty in UiTM Shah Alam. The focuses of these interviews is to know the details on the sports fields application. The questions are: 1) Is there any application from the computer that is used on the field to train the athletes?

2) What is the main focus when begin a training session?

3) Is there any problem occur when the athletes use the equipments?

4) In your opinion, should the sports fields in Malaysia use new methods in their training?



The solid data and information about sports arena in Malaysia will be obtained from managers of MSN. Some of the questions will be asked in order to get the data about budgets and the problems in sports management. The important questions that will be asked are: 1) What are the main problems in the sports centre in Malaysia?

2) What are our local sports centre lack of? 3) Can you explain the solutions that are needed to improve our athletes performance and the sports arena?

4) What are the common areas that are important in sports centre?

3.2.1 Secondary Data Secondary data refers to information that is gathered from books, journal, articles, newspaper, thesis and internet. Information from precedents studies can also be the source of information. a) Sports Book. All the information that are gathered in completing this research are all related to the training centre. Most of the books will be borrowed from UiTM Library which is Perpustakaan Tun Abdul Razak 1 (PTAR 1) and also Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveyings (FSPU) library with help from OPAC systems. The information from the sports books are related to the requirements that are needed in designing the sports centre or training centre. Most of the details will also be fund from the books related to sports and designs.

b) Journal and Unpublished Thesis In order to get the information about the thesis that had been done by the other students, the thesis will be obtained from students from other universities such as Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). Sports journals will also be solid source of information.


c) Newspaper Cutting. In order to strengthen the data, current issues in Malaysias sports arena from the newspapers will be collected. The evidences will prove that the research has strong issues and problems that are related to the current Malaysias condition.

d) Articles and Magazines In order to dig up more information, articles and information from magazines will provide the overall views on the sports centre in Malaysia. All the information and data gathered will be analyzed in order to strengthen up the study.

e) Precedence Study Sources from the internet are also significant in order to get the information from the precedence study on the advance sports centre overseas. Information can also be searched using key words in order to add on the details about the technologies that are been used in sports centre overseas.



CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4.0 Introduction

This chapter discuss a very detail on the research with different method in order to collect primary and secondary data. It will explain specifically the method that being used such as interview with expert, precedence studies and data from the sports book, journal, newspaper cutting, articles and unpublished thesis. 4.1 Research Sample

In this research, there are two precedents study that being used. Those are The Institute for Simulation and Training, Florida and Gatton Sports Centre, UK. These two place are being selected as the precedents study sample for this research. It is because, ITS was doing the research a lots in the simulation systems for the sports and VSC is a centre that have interactive way to train the athlete.




The Institute for Simulation and Training

The Institute for Simulation and Training (IST) is a research institute of the University of Central Florida located in Orlando, Florida, USA. The director of the school is Randall Shumaker. The institute provides a wide range of research and information services for the modeling, simulation and training community of Central Florida. As well, the institute aids in undergraduate and graduate studies in modeling and simulation leading to bachelors degrees, masters degrees, professional science master's and doctoral degrees. IST is a member of the National Center for Simulation.

Plate 4.1 The entrance of Institute for Simulation and Training, Florida



4.2.1 Equipment of Simulation Systems The equipments that have been used in this institute are 3d projection at wall, ceiling and floor. It also have interactive equipment such as multi-touch screen, sensor and audio visual sensor. In this study about to understand the equipment and requirement of the technology that will be apply in the design process. 3D Projection Systems In this institute, this is the feature information about discrete event systems modeling and simulation. It includes discussion on descriptive simulation modeling, programming commands, technique for sensitivity estimation, optimization and goal- seeking by simulation. Other than that, 3D projection system also use as their research for certain event such as sports, medical and science. It have their setup for 3D effects for example the arrangement of mirror and projection. The system simulation is a set of techniques of using computers to imitate or simulate the operations of various kinds of real. The computer is used to generate a numerical model of reality for the purpose of describing complex interaction among components of a systems. Sound Reinforcement System They was researched about this system and combined it with the simulation process for example the information that given by the audio systems. The simple sound reinforcement systems is a mixing console, power amp, main speakers, monitor speakers and microphones. Rear / Front projection systems They also researched about the rear and front projection system to apply into the interiors that need the systems. This systems actually to show some visual presentation or video.

SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY IN TRAINING CENTRE Interactive wall display Moreover, they also was researched on the interactive wall display. It was using the sensor for the movement panel wall. It will detect the movement from the sensor and transfer it into the system that will move the panel. 4.2.2 The Arrangement equipment in the spaces.

Plate 4.2: Floor Interactive Projection

Plate 4.3: The location of Projector



Plate 4.4: Type of Sensor

Plate 4.5: How that sensor work



Plate 4.6: Dual Wall Interactive The diagram show the location of the sensor, projector and main area to control the activity and projection. The projector mostly located at the ceiling because it more safe and easy to cover. If not, it will show the bad view of the space. The distance between people and interactive space about 12 feet. The size of screen is suitable with the area and people can concentrate on visual information.



Plate 4.7: Projection on Floor

Plate 4.8: Dimension of the projection space



Moreover, the projector can be placed in any location that very depending on the material that have in the space. The acreage is also important factor for selecting the location of the projector and speakers. The size of the projector screen depends on the area also. The more extensive an area, the larger screen size are needed. The image that result to the screen also can create some effect which is use special method especially to create the shadow, three dimensional effects, interactive display and so on.

Plate 4.9: Location of the Projector. 4.2.3 Stereo-video Acquisition and Image Processing Application of stereoscopic video is prevalent, ranging from virtual 3D movies to high precision and high-speed 3D measurement. In recent literature, Woods (2007) shows that a miniunderwater stereoscopic video camera system designed for use on underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is suitable for underwater pipe inspection in the oil and gas industry. In the medical field, Burmeister et al. (2005) show that video clips from two synchronized Sony XC-ST50CE monochrome video cameras could be used to detect hand grasp movements and the corresponding electro myogram (EMG) bio signals at the same time with high temporal and local precision. Similar research was conducted by Tzovaras et al. (1997) and Chong (2004) to study human body motion. Williams and Ward (2003) place specific emphasis on investigating the differences between two-dimensional (2D) video presentations and VR, and three-dimensional


(3D) simulations. They emphasize the findings of research by Goodale and Milner (1992) which show that different neural pathways were stimulated in differing amounts for standard 2D video simulations compared to 3D forms of training, such as simulation, field trials and VR. The findings demonstrate the need for 3D visual information to be combined with sound or any other environmental stimuli, to create an optimal environment for learning. For this reason it is essential that 3D video images coupled with an environmental audio is used for this research.To capture a high quality stereo-video clip for sport training such as golf swing practice or rugby ball throw it was necessary to design and develop a high quality imaging system. A review of the literature shows that three types of stereoscopic video capture devices which are suitable for this application may be purchased off the shelf (Montgomery et al., 2002; Lee et al., 2004; Burmeister et al., 2005). The designs of these systems, already reviewed by Chong (2007) but repeated here for easy reference, are: (1) Two digital high-definition video (HDV) cameras, set up at a specific distance apart an

both recording a scene simultaneously (for example, the 3D Video Encoder from 3D Image Tek Corporation, Laguna Niguel, California, USA). To synchronize the HDV a gen lock device is needed which ensures accurate matching of the recorded (left and right HDV) sequences to obtain stereoscopic coverage (Woods, 2007). (2) A biprism adaptor is placed in front of the HDV. The equivalent of a stereo pair of images is formed as the left and right halves of a single CCD image using a biprism (Lee et al., 2004). (3) A 3D adaptor is placed in front of the HDV. Shutters are used to record the left and right views as odd and even fields (for example, the Nu View Adapter developed by i-O Display Systems, Sacramento, California, USA) (Chong, 2007).



Plate 4.10: Nu View 3D imaging device. As mentioned, design requires an expensive generator locking device and the system is cumbersome for normal outdoor video, and design produces an image of only half of the width of the original HDV format size. Consequently, design was accepted for this project. This design requires the mounting of a 3D adaptor on the camera lens. Two off-the-shelf adaptors were tested and a Nu View SX-2000 Stereo3D camcorder adaptor was selected for the application. The device allows recording of field-sequential video images onto an HDV tape or onto a computer disk (Fig. 1). The device also uses a field-sequential technique to capture stereoimages using a single lens HDV, and accordingly, mirrors are used to direct the incoming light rays onto the left and right viewing windows. A set of alternating shutters allows the right and left perspective view to be imaged onto the sensor as odd and even fields. Hence, each frame of video footage consists of a view from the left window as odd fields and a view from the right window as even fields. Consequently, each frame can be field-decoded (de-interlaced) to form left and right stereo-images.



4.2.4 Creating 3D Color Anaglyph Video Clips Once a set of video clips was captured in the field it was downloaded into files at a resolution of 1440 -1080 pixels. Each of these files was then de-interlaced using a free software package called Virtual Dub 1.7.5. This produced two stereo-video files which had slightly different angular offsets, as if they were from the perspective view of the left and right human eyes. The two stereo-video files were then color-tinted cyan (blue and green) and red using 3DCombine (Scullion, 2008). Finally, the two-color tinted stereo-video files were overlaid and saved as one high-resolution MPEG file with 3DCombine. 4.2.5 Ball-Throw Accuracy Checking Initially, photogrammetric techniques were tested to determine their suitability for tracking the flight path of a moving ball. The rotation of the ball during flight made it difficult to track individual targets on the ball automatically. Consequently, a device described as throw accuracy measurement (TAM) was designed and built for this study to enable a reliable automated measurement of ball-throw accuracy. It consisted of 28 lasers arranged in two gridshaped planes beaming onto 28 light-dependent resistors, which were being analyzed by a small processor for any instance of a laser beam being broken along its path (Plate. 4.11). The time and position information was then sent to an analysis computer running.

Laser Frame

Thrower 5 m Away


Plate 4.11: Schematic diagram showing projection screen



Plate 4.12: Simulation Area

Plate 4.13: Golf Simulator



Plate 4.14: Soccer Simulator Visual Sports Goaltender Simulation allows people to feel the excitement of a being a goaltender in a one on one shoot out. Watch on screen as a player twists, turns and fires foam pucks and its their job to try and stop as many as they can. The system uses 3-5 puck shooters located behind the screen. Pucks are fired through holes that are cut out of the screen to match the exact point in which the on-screen player releases the puck. Sensors located on the net determine whether the player made a great save or let one slip by.

Plate 4.15: Soccer Simulator View



Plate 4.16: Control System. The diagram showed the control system for the simulation technology. It is such as Master PC to control all the projection system, sound system, lighting and backup lighting.



4.3 Gatton Sports Centre, UK. In this precedents study sample, researcher will focus on the multi-touch screen system in their training method, the sensor and type of the sensor that they have using and computer systems that using to training. All these study will be used to design the advance sports centre in Malaysia.

Plate 4.17: VSC facade.

Plate 4.18: Hockey Ice.



4.3.1 The Interactive Video-Softball( IAV-SB) computer program

Plate 4.17: College softball player engaging IAV-SB training session. Through repeated and varied practice, declarative knowledge advances to procedural knowledge that primes rapid motor responses (Anderson,1993). The 4C/ID-Model emphasizes the value of part-task practice in building automatic recognition. These views suggest that drilland practice is an appropriate instructional method for strengthening perceptual decision-making skills to expert level. That is the intent of the computer-assisted instruction program called Interactive Video- Softball (IAV-SB) that was used in this training-based research implementation to improve the pitch recognition ability of college softball players. In VSC, its also have the training type using the computer .The IAV-SB computer program selects and randomly sequences pitches as drilland-practice items, displays the pitch on a laptop computer screen, takes learner input via keyboard or mouse, gives immediate and corrective feedback, provides a running score, gives summary drill feedback, and provides guidance to the learner in creating drills. In a typical 15-minute IAV-SB session a learner completes five or six drills while encountering up to 200 pitches. The learner selects the type of drill (Type, Location, or Zone Hitting), the video pitcher (two right-handed pitchers and one left-handed pitcher), the types of pitches (e.g., rise ball, curveball, changeup), and the level of difficulty (based on amount of ball flight shown).



4.3.2 Holographic Technology

Plate 4.18: Indoor Soccer One of the newest trends in the World of Soccer is the high-tech indoor soccer stadiums. They are used for all year around play without regard to seasonality. Many of these stadiums are owned by companies, which lease or rent them out to the teams. The business model is quite profitable and some markets have more than one company with more than one facility each. These companies also sell items such as soccer balls, refreshments and video play back services. They also often have automatic kicking machines for practice like those used in tennis or for batting training in baseball. Since these soccer arenas are indoors and climate controlled , the researcher was propose that we take the coaching and training to a much higher level. Think of the benefits if took some of the greatest plays in World Cup Soccer and allowed the kids to replay them by setting up the holographic 3D images to move in full motion video on the field.



First, put an athlete next to each of the players and then run the projection as the athletes matched them stride for stride and step for step, aligning themselves to confront the opponent by moving with the hologram into position and taking the shot or defending the goal. The athletes and players would learn immensely by watching and playing along side the greats. And all this is nearly possible. By using special coatings on the artificial grass to help the projection reflection it could be done quite easily. Think on this new technology and what it means for youth soccer. Holographic Track and Field. For the Olympic Track and Field Competition the United States always faces challenges from other very competitive nations. Track and Field in Olympic History means a lot for the United States and they show a sign of strength and honor of the individual. Generally the United States does quite well, as they have regions of their nation with year round outdoor training weather. One critical factor in track is form and pace, both of which must be mastered to be competitive. As a college track athlete and 4-minute miler, that can vouch for the fact that it is paramount that our Olympic Athletes have the best coaches and training to master these skills. An Olympic Athlete who is in search of the top of the podium and gold medal must train all year around and coaches are expensive.

Plate 4.19: Holographic track Model.



Plate 4.20: Holographic track Model. Using Holographic Technologies, which are getting closer to becoming reality to help train our track and field athletes by projecting runners to help establish the right pace to meet the goals of the workouts. Additionally holographic athletes can provide training to help with running form as they are projected to run around the track while the runner matches their pace and form.



Plate 4.21: Holographic concept.



4.3.3 Interactive Projection Nowadays, people can create more interactive visual system for show stopping interactive advertising and entertainment in public spaces. Touch screen also as the interactive system that can be combined and come out with the interactive projection. Gesture Teks patented body tracking technology responds to body movement to project dynamic interactive multimedia content, special effects, interactive advertising or games onto any surface.

Plate 4.22: Interactive Projection.



Plate 4.23: Sensor, and Interactive Projection.

Plate 4.24: Touch screen operation.



Plate 4.25: LCD screen operation.

Plate 4.25: Projected capacitive touch sreen



CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS & DISCUSSION This chapter will discuss detail about the scope of the study that must be study which is types of the interactive and the technology can be used for advance sport centre. This will focused on technology method and equipment for the simulation system. This new technology will give the benefits for the future sports centre that can be more attractive to the people and can be interactive and more interesting when people experience it. This finding and discussion will give the new idea, method, and application that can use in the future by using technology. The detailing and also the application of new technology must be research and study about the detailing of the components. The application of the new technology must be suitable with the space by itself. The biggest area or main area that want to highlight must be different with the other minor area in term of the types of the selection of new technology. From research, one of the attraction in sports centre, was depend on how it capture the people with the interactive ways and make it more interesting than the ordinary sports centre.




In this chapter, recommendation made based on the findings and overall conclusion. The recommendations are made to improve the sports centre and as a guideline to implementation the technical aspect in interior. Based on the findings, recommendation was made to make sure that sports centre will be a advance sports centre and more workable training method to the athletes. a) Technology There are several technology can be apply into the space. It was recommended that simulation technology can be one of the new method to improve our athletes performance. Based on the findings, most of the overseas sports centre already used it to their athletes. Other than that, the holographic images also can be used to make the sports centre more interactive. b) Technical The analysis was made, to design the advance sports centre, we must know about the technical of the subject and how its work during the training. For example, the interactive wall, it was recommended that to made the model of interactive wall for simulation, we must have the hanging projector at the ceiling, sensor and camera also the interactive spot to deliver the images from the projector. In designing the advance sports centre, technical aspect is important to make sure that the flow and the training activity is under control. It also recommended that, ergonomic and anthropometries was right and did not give the problem to users.



5.1 Interactive Projection (Wall, floor, ceiling) Before this, it was discuss generally about the interactive projection. In this section, it will tell about the how it works and operate as an interactive projection for wall, floor, and ceiling. Transform the floor, wall or any surface that have multi-function and into dynamic multimedia interactive visual display. Engage patrons with an interactive floor, wall, ceiling, screen and any surface. It also can have at the advance sports centre , or any public spaces.

Plate 5.1: Interactive Wall Panel



Plate 5.2: Interactive Wall Panel Detailing

Plate 5.3: Interactive Wall Panel Detailing

(Source :



5.2 Sensor Technology Without sensors most electronic applications would not exist they perform a vital function, namely providing an interface to the real world. The importance of sensors, however, contrasts with the limited information available on them. Today's smart sensors, wireless sensors, and micro technologies are revolutionizing sensor design and applications. (Source: Sensor Technology, Jon Wilson,2010) A sensor (also called detectors) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument. For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.

Plate 5.4: Type of Sensor



5.3 Types of sensor There are many different types of sensor and transducer. (a) Touch Sensor A touch switch is a type of switch that only has to be touched by an object to operate. It is used in many lamps and wall switches that have a metal exterior as well as on public computer terminals. A touch screen includes an array of touch switches on a display. A touch switch is the simplest kind of tactile sensor. There are two types of switches called touch switches: Resistance touch sensor A resistance switch needs two electrodes to be physically in contact with something electrically conductive (for example a finger) to operate. Capacitance touch sensor A capacitance switch needs only one electrode to function. The electrode can be placed behind a non-conductive panel such as wood, glass, or plastic.

Plate 5.5: Resistance touch sensor



Plate 5.6: Capacitance touch sensor

Plate 5.7: Touch User Interface



(b) Sound Sensor Sound is a mechanical wave that travels as a difference of pressure through a medium that is a solid, liquid or gas. It has a frequency within the limits of hearing, which for humans is usually considered between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz (20 to 20,000 cycles per second). This is not an absolute range; many can hear sounds above 20,000 Hz. The sound also has to be of sufficient strength to actually be heard, otherwise it is not sound. The most common type of sound sensor is based on the used of piezoelectric materials, a mechanical force produces a measurable electric current.

(c) LED Sensor In electronics, the basic LED circuit is an electric power circuit used to power a lightemitting diode or LED. The simplest such circuit consists of a voltage source and two components connected in series: a current-limiting resistor, and an LED. Optionally, a switch may be introduced to open and close the circuit. The switch may be replaced with another component or circuit to form a continuity tester.

The LED used will have a voltage drop, specified at the intended operating current. Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's circuit laws are used to calculate the resistor that is used to attain the correct current.

(Source: LED Sensor Technology, 2011)



CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS Over the past several decades, athletes performance have been a subject to how they should educate and develop. Different approach and different training method influence the way athlete and users can get the benefits. Today, sports centre around the world not just as a place to training, but also as a place that people can experience it and at the same time gave the awareness and benefits to all. From the observation, Malaysia has made it quite far in improving the space to training and still yet to improve in parts of facilities and the method that will be improve the athletes. The programs are well organize but the facilities should also be well structured. Not just the place and location can improve the performance, but the way of we educate the people from early stages also as a key to make sure that sports industry can be the one of the industry that give the benefits and improve the country economy.



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