in part by NSF Grant DMS9322675, the Marsden fund UOA520, and the Swiss National Science Foundation.
1 Supported
Chapter 1 Introduction.
denite, i.e.
, > 0
.
for
= 0,
  =
Exercise 2.1.1
 ,     .
Theorem 2.1.2
If C is a closed convex subset of H and is any vector in H, there is a unique C which minimizes the distance from to C , i.e.     C .
Proof. This is basically a result in plane geometry. Uniqueness is clearif two vectors
and
in
and these two vectors dene a plane and any vector on the line segment
. d be the distance from C to and choose a sequence n C with n  < d + 1/2n . For each n, the vectors , n and n+1 dene a plane. Geometrically it is clear that, if n and n+1 were not close, some point on the line segment between them would be closer than d to .
between and would be strictly closer to To prove existence, let Formally, use the parallelogram identity:

n + n+1 2 n n+1 2  =  +  2 2 2
5
= 2(
or
n+1 2  n +2 
(n )
from
Exercise 2.1.3
of
If
consisting of all
H.
and that
to
C), ker
ker
We will be especially concerned with s eparable Hilbert Spaces where there is an orthonormal basis, i.e. all the a sequence
{1 , 2 , 3 , ...}
i , j = 0 i .
for
i=j
orthogonal to
Exercise 2.1.4
Show that is
{i }
is
{i } is dense in H.
then the
a : H K is said to be bounded if there is a a  K   H. The inmum of all such K is called the n orm of a, written a. The set of all bounded operators on H is written B (H). Boundedness of an operator is equivalent to continuity. To every bounded operator a between Hilbert spaces H and K, by exercise 2.1.3 there is another, a , between K and H, called the a djoint of a which is dened by the formula a, = , a .
A linear map (operator) number
with
Exercise 2.1.5
Prove that
a =
The identity map on H is a bounded operator denoted 1. An operator a B (H) is called selfadjoint if a = a . 2 An operator p B (H) is called a projection if p = p = p .
a B(H) is called positive if a, 0 B(H). We say a b if a b is positive. An operator u B (H) is called an isometry if u u = 1. An operator v B (H) is called a unitary if uu = u u = 1. An operator u B (H) is called a partial isometry if u u is a projection.
An operator The last three denitions extend to bounded linear operators between dierent Hilbert spaces.
a B (H)
selfadjoint operators. A positive operator is selfadjoint. Find an isometry from one Hilbert space to itself that is not H = 2 (N) is a ne example. There is an
nth.
If
(n + 1)th. H
show that the map
Exercise 2.1.9
K
projection.
is a closed subspace of
PK : H
is linear and a
Exercise 2.1.10
If
{ H : , = 0 S }. K = K u . u, PK = 1 PK . u H uH
is also
If If
K u
and
The subspace
is then closed and called the initial domain of closed and called the nal domain of the initial and nal domains.
The commutator
the subspace
u.
composition of the projection onto its initial domain and a unitary between
[a, b] K
of two elements of
B (H)
is the operator
ab ba.
Exercise 2.1.13
In general
If
a = a
then
aK K (aK K and
if f
[a, PK ] = 0.
a K K) [a, PK ] = 0.
(a)
of
a B (H)
is
{ C : a 1
and that if
is not invertible}.
Exercise 2.2.1
with either
a
or
a
in
C (a).
The spectral theorem takes a bit of getting used to and knowing how to prove it does not necessarily help much. If one cannot see the spectral decomposition of an operator it may be extremely dicult to obtainexcept in a small nite number of dimensions where it is just diagonalisation. But fortunately there is nothing like a course in operator algebras, either C or von Neumann, to help master the use of this theorem which is the heart of linear algebra on Hilbert space. The book by Reed and Simon, Methods of mathematical physics vol. 1, Functional Analysis, contains a treatment of the spectral theorem which is perfect background for this course. establish terminology. from the Borel subsets of th (a) (when a = a is normal i.e. [a, a ] = 0) to projections in The spectral theorem asserts the existence of a projection valued measure a or more generally when We will make no attempt to prove it herejust give a vague statement which will
B (H),
written symbolically
E (),
such that
a=
dE ().
B (H)), as a limit of sums of vectors a = dE () or simply in terms of measurable functions , a = d , E () . The projections E (B ) are called the spectral projections of a and their images are called the spectral subspaces of a. Given any bounded Borel complexvalued function f on (a) one may form f (a) by f (a) = f ()dE ().
If
is a sigmanite measure on X and f L (X, ), 2 2 the operator Mf : L (X, ) L (X, ), Mf g (x) = f (x)g (x), is a bounded esssup operator with Mf  = (f (x)). If f is real valued then Mf is self x X adjoint. Find (f ) and the projectionvalued measure E ().
Exercise 2.2.2
Exercise 2.2.3
measure or
If
dim(H) <
The example of exercise 2.2.2 is generic in the sense that there is a version and of the spectral theorem which asserts the following. If H is any vector a = a B (H), let K be the closed linear span of the {an : n =
0, 1, 2, 3, ...}, then a denes a selfadjoint operator on K and there is a nite measure on the spectrum (a) such that (K, a) is isomorphic in the obvious 2 sense to (L ( (a), ), multiplication by x). Continuing such an argument by restricting to K one obtains a full spectral theorem.
8
Exercise 2.2.4
as functions of
is the dierence
a+ a
obtained
a,
1/2
Given an arbitrary
a B (H)
we dene
a = (a a)1/2 . u
such that
Exercise 2.3.2
and that
a = ua,
ker(a) .
is unique subject to the condition that its domain subspace is u is Im(a) = ker(a ) .
, = ,
,
The Hilbert space tensor
H K is then the completion of H alg K. It is easy to see that if a B (H), b B (K), there is a bounded operator a b on H K dened by a b( ) = a b .
Exercise 2.4.1
the map
Let
L2 (X, H, )
f f
H. For each H and f (x) = f (x) . Show that H L2 (X, ) onto L2 (X, H, ).
10
Chapter 3 The denition of a von Neumann algebra and some basic examples.
3.1 Topologies on B(H)
(i) The norm or uniform topology is given by the norm
a
dened in the
B (H)
of pointwise convergence on
i = 1, , n}
i = 1, , n}
B (H)
Exercise 3.1.1
(strict in innite dimensions). (weak operator topology) < (strong operator topology) < (norm topology)
11
Note that a weaker topology has less open sets so that is a set is closed in the weak topology it is necessarily closed in the strong and norm topologies. We will now prove the von Neumann density or bicommutant theorem which is the rst result in the subject. We prove it rst in the nite dimensional case where the proof is transparent then make the slight adjustments for the general case.
Theorem 3.1.2
with
subalgebra of
B (H)
containing
1,
M M . y M then y M . To this end we will amplify the action of M on H to an action on HH dened by x( ) = x . If we n choose an orthonormal basis {vi } of H then H H = i=1 H and in terms of matrices we are considering the n x n matrices over B (H) and embedding M
Proof. It is tautological that So we must show that if in it as matrices constant down the diagonal. Clearly enough the commutant of
on
second commutant consists of matrices having a xed element of the diagonal. Let
n v be the vector n i=1 vi i=1 H and let V = M v H H. Then M V V and since M = M , PV M (on H H) by exercise 2.1.13. So if y M (on HH), then y commutes with PV and yM v M v . In particular y (1v ) = xv for some x M so that yvi = xvi for all i, and y = x M .
Theorem 3.1.3
containing
be a selfadjoint subalgebra of
B (H)
1.
Then
M =M
M M . N (a, 1 , 2 , ..., n , ) be a strong neighbourhood of a. n n We want to nd an x M in this neighbourhood. So let v i=1 H be i=1 i n and let B (H) act diagonally on i=1 H as in the previous theorem. Then the same observations concerning matrix forms of commutants are true. Also M n commutes with PM v which thus commutes with a (on i=1 H). And since 1 M , av = ai is in the closure of M v so there is an x M with xi axii  < for all i. aM
and
Corollary 3.1.4
1)
If
M = M
is a subalgebra of
B (H)
with
1 M,
TFAE:
M =M 2) M is 3) M is
Denition 3.1.5
B (H)
Example 3.1.6
1.
B (H)
containing
A =
Exercise 3.1.9 Let (X, ) be a nite measure space and L (X, ) as a *subalgebra of B (L2 (X, )) as multiplication
Example 3.1.10
If
S B(H), 1
and
we call
(S S )
generated by S. It is, by theorem 3.1.3 the weak or strong closure of the *algebra generated by
S.
begin by considering some family of operators with desirable properties and then taking the von Neumann algebra they generate. But is is quite hard, in general, to get much control over the operators added when taking the weak closure and all the desirable properties of the generating algebra may be lost.(For instance any positive selfadjoint operator
limit of projections.) However, if the desirable properties can be expressed in terms of matrix coecients then these properties will be preserved under weak limits since the matrix coecients of form
, a .
at the heart of the subject and will provide us with a vast supply of interesting von Neumann algebras quite dierent from the rst 3 examples. 2 Let be a discrete group and let () be the Hilbert space of all functions 2 f ( )g ( ). An f : C with f ( ) < and inner product f, g =
orthonormal basis of
()
is given by the
f=
by
f ( )
in the
sense.
(u f )( ) = f ( 1 ). Note that u u = u and that u ( ) = . Thus u is a unitary group representation called the left regular representation. The u are linearly independent so the algebra they generate is isomorphic to the group algebra C. The von Neumann algebra generated by the u goes under various names, U (), () and L() but we will call it vN () as it is the group von Neumann algebra of .
13
To see that one can control weak limits of linear combinations of the
u ,
= Z/nZ. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 . . 0 0 0 1 0 . . 0
With basis
u0 , u1 , u2 , , un1 , u1
is
0 0 1 0 . .
. 0 0 1 0 .
. . 0 0 1 0 u1
and
which is a matrix constant along the diagonals. Clearly all powers of element of the algebra they generate will have the matrix form (when
all linear combinations of them have this property also so that an arbitrary
n = 6):
a f e d c b
b a f e d c
c b a f e d
d c b a f e
e d c b a f
(Such matrices are known as circulant matrices but to the best of our knowledge this term only applies when the group is cyclic.) If by another nite group the same sort of structure would prevail except that the diagonals would be more complicated, according to the multiplication table of the group.
(, ) matrix entry of 1 a nite linear combination of the u 's will depend only on . As observed
Now let It is still true that the above, the same must be true of weak limits of these linear combinations,
be an innite group.
vN (). vN ()
have matrices (w.r.t. the basis {(, ) : 1 is constant}.
Exercise 3.1.11
or
or some other
similar expression.....
Using the number
vN ()
as a sum
c u .
c u
14
is in
. (Apply
c u
to
id .)
(ii)
c u )(
d u ) =
c d1 )u u
on the right hand side con
verges since
where the sum dening the coecient of c and d1 are in 2 . Exactly what functions Case 1.
dene elements of
vN ()
is unclear but
= Z.
It is well known that the map c n n cnein denes a unitary V 2 2 1 ik from () to L (T). Moreover V un V (e = V un (k ) = V (k + n) = ein eik so that V un V 1 is the multiplication operator Mein . Standard spec tral theory shows that Mein generates L (T) as a von Neumann algebra, 1 and clearly if Mf L (T), V Mf V = cn n where cn ein is the Fourier series of
f.
dene elements of
vN (Z)
c which L functions.
In case we forget to point it out later on when we are in a better position to prove it, one way to characterise the functions which dene elements on vN () is as all functions which dene bounded operators on 2 (). This is not particularly illuminating but can be useful at math parties. At the other extreme we consider a highly noncommutative group, the free group on Case 2.
n generators, n 2. = Fn .
Just for fun let us compute the centre Z (vN ()) of vN (Fn ), i.e. those c u that commute with all x vN (). By weak limits, for c u to be in Z (vN ()) it is necessary and sucient that it commute with every u . This clearly is the same as saying c 1 = c , , i.e. the function c is constant on conjugacy classes. But in Fn all conjugacy classes except that 2 of the identity are innite. Now recall that c is in !! We conclude that c = 0 = 1, i.e. Z (vN ()) = C1. Note that the only property we used of F to reach this conclusion was that every nontrivial conjugacy class is innite (and in general it is clear that
Z (vN ())
with
in a nite conjugacy
class.) Such groups are called i.c.c. groups and they abound. Other examples
vN (Fn ) = vN (Fm )
for
n=m
( 2)?
and
CFn
CFm
15
vN ().
A von Neumann algebra whose centre is
Denition 3.1.12
factor.
B (H)
so that
This exercise is supposed to explain the origin of the term factor as come from a tensor product factorisation of The factor we have constructed as see this consider the function , or
and
B (H). To tr(a) = a1 , 1
from
tr( c u ) = c1 . This may is clearly linear, weakly 2 continuous, satises tr (ab) = tr (ba) and tr (x x) = c  0 (when x = c u ). It is called a trace on vN (). If = Z it obviously equals 2 f ()d under the isomorphism between vN (Z) and L (T). 0
Exercise 3.1.15
tr(ab) = tr(ba), dim H < show that there is a constant K with tr(x) = Ktrace(x). (ii) There is no nonzero weakly continuous linear map tr : B (H) C satisfying tr (ab) = tr (ba) when dim(H) = . (iii) There is no nonzero linear map tr : B (H) C satisfying tr (ab) = tr(ba) and tr(x x) 0 when dim(H) = . (iv) (harder) There is no nonzero linear map tr : B (H) C satisfying tr(ab) = tr(ba) when dim(H) = .
(i)If is a linear map with
Thus our factors
tr : B (H) C
vN ()
when
is i.c.c.
B (H)
when
dim H <
than when
Let us make a couple of observations about these factors. cannot be constant and nonzero down the diagonal. (Take 1)They contain no nonzero nite rank operators for such an operator x x of necessary.)
a a
2)They have the property that tr (a) = 0 a = 0 for a positive element 2 (a = a by the spectral theorem and all spectral projections of a, hence ,are in the von Neumann algebra generated by a.) 3)They have the property that uu = 1 u u = 1 (i.e. they contain no
1 uu
is too and
tr(1 uu ) =
16
Exercise 3.1.16
Show that in
vN (), ab = 1 ba = 1. 0, ab = 1 ba = 1 in F .
Show that if
is
As far as I know this assertion is still open in nonzero characteristic. The above exercise is a result of Kaplansky. The next observation is a remarkable property of the set of projections. 4) If
= Fn , {tr(p) : p
a projection in
that one may obtain every real number in this interval, consider the subgroup generated by a single nonzero element. By the coset decomposition of Fn 2 the representation of a on (Fn ) is the direct sum of countably many copies of the regular representation. The bicommutant of argument,
ua
is then, by a matrix
vN (Z)
vN (Z)
with a subalgebra of
vN ().
Under this identication the traces on the two group algebras agree. But as we have already observed, any element f L (0, 2 ) denes an element of
vN (Z)
is a projection so by choosing intervals of appropriate lengths we may realise projections of any trace. We used the bicommutant to identify
It is instructive to point out a problem that would have arisen had we tried 2 to use the weak or strong topologies. A vector in () is a square summable 2 sequence of vectors in (Z) so that a basic strong neighbourhood of a on 2 () 2 would correspond to a neighbourhood of the form {b : i=1 (a b)i  < } 2 for a sequence (i ) in (Z) with i=1 i 2 < . Thus strong convergence 2 on (Z) would not imply strong convergence on ()! This leads us naturally to dene two more topologies on
B (H).
Denition 3.1.17
{b :
i=1
(a b)i 2 < } for any and any sequence (i ) 2 i=1 i  < , is called the ultrastrong topology on B (H).
The topology dened by the basic neighbourhoods
{b :
i=1
 (a b)i , i  < } (i ), i
in
2
for any
>0
(Z)
with
B (H).
17
Note that these topologies are precisely the topologies inherited on if it is amplied innitely many times as
B (H)
B (H) 1K
with
dim K = .
Exercise 3.1.18
B (H)
ogy are stronger than the strong topology and weak topology respectively. Show that the ultrastrong and strong topologies coincide on a bounded subset of as do the weak and ultraweak topologies. Repeat the argument of the von Neumann density theorem
Exercise 3.1.19
is it true that
{tr(p) :
vN ()
: M N
is a
and
is there a unitary
u:HK
18
H. a = a
is an element of
EP1) If projections.
are in
all its
E ()
of
a.
Or the prop
may be
an explicit part of the theorem. Borel functions will be in the bicommutant. EP2) Any element in
is a linear combination of
unitaries in
M.
a=
and if a is selfadjoint, u+ u . 2
EP3)M is the commutant of the unitary group of representation. This follows from EP2)
Exercise 4.0.20
Show that
B (H).
: B (H) B(H)
19
{a } is a net of selfadjoint operators with a a for and a  K for some K R, then there is a selfadjoint a with a = lim a , convergence being in the strong topology. Furthermore a = lub(a ) for the poset of selfadjoint operators.
If
Theorem 4.0.21
a for the limit can be found by weak compactness of the unit ball. Then a , is increasing with limit a, for all H and a a . So lim a a = 0 in the strong topology. Now multiplication is jointly strongly continuous on bounded sets so slim a = a. Note that we have slipped in the notation slim for a limit in the strong topology (and obviously wlim for the weak topology). If a and (a ) are as in 4.0.21 we say the net (a ) is monotone convergent to a.
Prof. A candidate EP4)
B (H)
p q pH q H p q = orthogonal
projection onto
pH q H
p = 1 p p q = (p q ) = orthogonal
projection onto
pH + q H .
Exercise 4.0.22
Show that
sups and infs) since the intersection of closed subspaces is closed. EP5) The projections in Proof. If
B (H).
strong limit is
is a set Wof projections in M then nite subsets of S are a p is a net in M satisfying the conditions of 4.0.21. directed set and F pF Thus the strongWlimit of this net exists and is in M . It is obvious that this
pS
p,
B (H).
p M , pH
. Thus the intersection of these subspaces is also. T EP6) Let A be a *subalgebra of B (H). Let W be ker(a) and K = a A W . Then K is invariant under A and if we let B = {aK : a A}, then 1K is in the strong closure of
20
p and q
are projections
is in the strong closure of the algebra theory, if a = a the range projection Pker (a) is in the strong closure of the algebra generated W by a so we may apply the argument of the proof of EP5) P to conclude that is in the strong closure of A. But this is 1K . aA ker(a) Thus if we were to dene a von Neumann algebra as a weakly or strongly closed subalgebra of
B (H),
B (H)
tant. However on the orthogonal complement of all the irrelevant vectors it would be a von Neumann algebra in the usual sense. EP7) If
(M p)
and
M is a von Neumann algebra and p M is a projection, pM p = pM p = M p as algebras of operators on pH. Thus pM p and M p
pM p and M p commute with each other on pH. Now x (M p) B (pH) and dene x = xp(= pxp) B (H). Then if y M , yx = yxp = ypxp = (xp)(yp) = xpy = x y , so x M and x = px p. Thus (pM ) = pM p which is thus a von Neumann algebra. If we knew that M p were a von Neumann algebra on pH we would be
Proof. Obviously suppose done but a direct attempt to prove it strongly or weakly closed fails as we would have to try to extend the limit of a net in
M p on pH to be in M . So instead we will show directly that (pM p) M p by a clever extension of its elements to H. By EP2 it suces to take a unitary u (pM p) . Let K H be the closure of M pH and let q be projection onto it. Then K is clearly invariant under M and M so q Z (M ). We rst extend u to K by u
for
xi i = u
xi ui
is an isometry:
xi M
and
i H.
We claim that
u
xi i 2 =
i,j
xi ui , xj uj
=
i,j
px j xi pui , uj upx j xi pi , uj
i,j
= ... = 
This calculation actually shows that isometry of So
xi i 2
K.
By construction
u q M
and
u is well dened and extends to an u commutes with M on M pH,hence on K. u=u qp. Hence (pM p) = M p.
21
Corollary 4.0.23
over the map isomorphism.
Proof.
*algebra homomorphism property are obvious so all we have to show is injectivity. But if the projection
xM onto M pH
If or
and is in
Corollary 4.0.24
implies either
Proof. Let
a=0
M is a b = 0.
factor and
b M
then
ab = 0
Exercise 4.0.25
a projection in
S,
then
pSp
generates
pM p
(if
is
is not closed
under multiplication.
Exercise 4.0.26
W are nite dimensional subspaces of M and M respectively then the map a b ab denes a linear isomorphism between V W and the space V W spanned by all vw with v V and w W .
Show that if is a factor and and
EP8) If and and
a M and a = ua is the polar decomposition of a then u M a M . Proof. By the uniqueness of the polar decomposition both a u commute with every unitary in M .  )
is metrizable on
EP9) None of the topologies (except they all are on the unit ball (when except the norm topology. Proof. bounded.
B (H)
but
is separable) and
First observe that a weakly convergent sequence of operators is This follows from the uniform boundedness principle and 2.1.5
{i , i = 1, } be an orthonormal basis of H and let ei be projection onto Ci . Consider the family {em + men : m, n = 1, }. Let V a basic ultrastrong neighbourhood of 0 dened by and {i : i 2 < } and let  V be the corresponding seminorm, then writing i i 2 i 2 i = j j j we have i,j j  < . Now choose m so that i m  < 2 /4 i 2 2 and n so that /4m2 . Observing that en (i )2 = in 2 we have i n  <
Here is the cunning trick. Let
=
i
em 2 + m
i
en 2
/2 + /2
so that
m to occur innitely
and
to force
em + men
to be in
V,
basis of zero for any of the topologies (except of course the norm). If we consider the unit ball, however, we may choose a dense sequence i of d(a, b) = [ i 2i (a b)i 2 ]1/2 which is a metric on the unit ball dening the strong topology. (Similarly for the weak topology.) unit vectors and dene We leave nonseparability of
B (H)
EP10) An abelian von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is generated by a single selfadjoint operator. Proof. Let
{e0 , e1 , e2 , }
dense in the set of all projections in the Abelian von Neumann algebra A. 1 Let a = n=0 3n en . The sum converges in the norm topology so a A. The norm of the selfadjoint operator a1 = n=1 is obviously at most 1/2 so that the spectral projection for the interval way we see that all the
[3/4, 2]
for
is
e0 .
Continuing in this
en s are in {a} . This relegates the study of Abelian von Neumann algebras to the spectral
theorem. One can show that any Abelian von Neumann algebra on a sepa rable Hilbert space is isomorphic to either ({0, 1, , n}) (where n = is allowed) or L ([0, 1], dx) or a direct sum of the two. This is up to abstract algebra isomorphism. To understand the action on a Hilbert space, multiplicity must be taken into account.
23
24
Theorem 5.1.1
there is an
If
is a factor and
and
xM
with
pxq = 0.
Moreover
Proof. Suppose that for any unitary u M , puq = 0. Then u puq = 0 and W W u pu q = 0. But clearly uM u pu commutes with all unitaries u M u M
so is the identity. The reason we have called this an ergodic property is because of a pervasive analogy with measuretheoretic dynamical systems (and it will become much more than an analogy). serving the measure A transformation 1 is called ergodic if T (A)
(X \ A) = 0
A X . If T is invertible one can then show n that there is, for any pair A X and B X of nonnull sets, a power T n 2 N of T such that (T (A) B ) = 0. Or, as operators on L (X, ), AT B = 0 where we identify A and B with the multiplication operators by their charn acteristic functions. The proof is the samethe union of all T (A) is clearly invariant, thus must dier from all of X by a set of measure 0.
for a measurable
Corollary 5.1.2
Proof. Let such that
Let
and
u be the pxq = 0.
pxq
for
p and q had been swapped around in the proof, so we interchanged uu and u u in the statement.
25
Denition 5.1.3
pM
If
(q p) (q = 0 or M
i
q = p).
Exercise 5.1.4
tor.
is minimal in
pM p = Cp.
Denition 5.1.5
B (H) 1 be the constant diagonal matrices on H K. Its commutant 1 B (K) will be our model. It is the algebra of all matrices dening bounded
Let operators with every matrix entry being a scalar multiple of the identity matrix on
H.
Theorem 5.2.1
spaces
If
and
and a unitary
u:LHK
with
{p1 , p2 , ...} be a maximal family of minimal projections in M such that pi pj = 0 for i = j . (We assume for convenience that L is separable. Our rst claim is that i pi = 1 so that L = i pi L. For if 1 i pi were nonzero, by corollary 5.1.2 there would be a u = 0 with uu p1 and u u 1 i pi . By minimality uu is minimal and hence so is u u contradicting maximality of the pi . Now for each i choose a nonzero partial isometry e1i with e1i e1i p1 and e1i e1i pi . By minimality e1i e1i = p1 and e1i e1i = pi . Then M is generated by the e1i 's, for if a M we have a = i,j pi apj the sum converging in the strong topology, and pi apj = e1i e1i ae1j e1j p1 M p1 = Cp1 . Thus there are scalars ij so that a = i,j ij e1i e1j . (The details of the convergence of the sum are unimportantwe just need that a be in the
Proof. Let strong closure of nite sums.) If 2
u:
of
{pi }, uf =
let
i
Observe that
u is unitary and u e1i u is a matrix on 2 (X, p1 L) with an identity operator in the (1, i) position and zeros elsewhere. The algebra generated by 2 2 these matrices is B ( (X )) 1 on (X ) p1 L and we are done.
26
Remark 5.2.2
We avoided all kinds of problems in the previous theorem by constructing our isomorphism using a unitary between the underlying Hilbert spaces. In general given von Neumann algebras
and
N M
generated by and
and
respec
it suces to construct
(if possible !!!) a unitary u between their Hilbert spaces so that T is contained in uSu . To try to construct an isomorphism directly on S could be arduous at best.
and
K we dene M N to be {x y : x M, y N }.
HK
Exercise 5.3.1
M alg N
Show that
M N
Denition 5.3.2
units (s.m.u.)
of size
= 1.
Show that if
Exercise 5.3.3
Neumann algebra 2
M,
then the
an s.m.u.
in a von
factor isomorphic to
is isomorphic (unitarily equivalent to in this 2 instance) The von Neumann algebra e11 M e11 B ( ({1, 2, ..., n})).
and that
(n1 , n2 )
according to:
n1 = n2 =
M , and M.
27
We see that the isomorphism problem splits into abstract isomorphism (determined by isomorphic to A type In factor is by denition one for which
n2 alone), and spatial isomorphism, i.e. unitary equivalence. n = n2 . It is abstractly B (H) with dim H = n. The integer n1 is often called the
be nite dimensional.
be a nite dimensional von Neumann algebra on k the Hilbert space H. Then M is abstractly isomorphic to i=1 Mni (C) for some positive integers k, n1 , n2 , ..., nk . (Mn (C) is the von Neumann algebra of all
Theorem 5.4.1
nn
Let
matrices on
ndimensional Hilbert space.) Moreover there are u : i 2 (Xi , Ki ) H (with Xi  = ni ) with
Z (M ) is a nite dimensional abelian von Neumann algebra . If p is a minimal projection in Z (M ), pM p is a factor on pH. The theorem follows immediately from theorem 5.2.1 and the simple facts that Z (M ) = k i=1 pi C where the pi are the minimal projections in Z (M ) (Two distinct minimal projections p and q in Z (M ) satisfy pq = 0), and M = i pi M pi .
The subject of nite dimensional von Neumann algebras is thus rather
M.
Let us deal rst with the factor case of this. Let us point out that the
identity of
Theorem 5.4.2
k > 0
such that the subfactor
Proof. Let and
If
and
pM p is a type mk = n.
N1 and N2 be type Im subfactors with generating s.m.u.'s {eij } {fij } respectively. If k is the integer (in the statement of the theorem) m for N 1 then 1 = 1 eii and each eii is the sum of k mutually orthogonal minimal projections of M , hence n = mk . The same argument applies to N2 . Build a partial isometry u with uu = e11 and u u = f11 by adding
together partial isometries between maximal families of mutually orthogonal projections less than respectively. Then it is easy to check that i ej 1 uf1j is a unitary with wfkl w = ekl . So wN2 w = N1 .
e11
and
f11
w= M
n Now we can do the general (nonfactor) case. If N = i=1 Mki (C) and = m j =1 Mrj (C) and N M as von Neumann algebras, let pj be minimal
28
and
qi be those of N .
p j qi N
ij
pj qi N pj qi M qi pj
Exercise 5.4.3
ei is a minimal Mr j C.
Example. Let the form:
ij dened factor qi N , ij =
pj ei
M = M5 (C) M3 (C) X 0 0 0 X 0
and
0 0 z
X 0
0 z
is isomorphic to
where and if
M2 (C) C
The matrix
of edges between
and
being
ij .
the size of the corresponding matrix algebras. Thus in the above example the picture would be: This diagram is called the Bratteli diagram for
N M.
Exercise 5.4.4
sion
N M
N.
29
30
Theorem 6.1.1
Let
be a subspace of
B (H)
and
and let
:V C
with
be a linear
H, 1 , 2 , ..., n
n
1 , 2 , ..., n
(x) =
i=1
xi , i
(ii) (iii)
(ii) (iii) are obvious, so suppose is strongly continuous. Then let 1 , ..., n be vectors such that xi  < 1 i (x) < 1 for 2 x V . Then there is a constant K > 0 so that (x) < K i xi  . Let on V 1( ) by = 1 ...n i H and let K = (V 1)( ). Then dene (i xi ) = (x). Observe that is welldened and continuous so extends to (x 1)( ) = (x 1)( ), . K and there is a vector = i K with (x) =
Proof. (i)
Exercise 6.1.2
Replace weak and strong by ultraweak and ultrastrong, and 2 convergent ones in the previous theorem. If
Corollary 6.1.3
sures coincide.
is a convex subset of
B (H),
31
Proof.
Two locally convex vector spaces with the same continuous linear .
functionals have the same closed convex sets. This is a consequence of the HahnBanach theorem to be found in any text on functional analysis.
Corollary 6.1.4
If
dim H =
the proof here actually on B (H). proves that the weak and ultraweak topologies dier, and to get the result here Proof. Let (i ) be an orthonormal basis of H and let (x) we need to use the previous exercise
1 i n2 xi , i . Then is ultraweakly continuous but not strongly continuous. For if it were n weakly continuous it would be of the form i=1 xi , i and (p) = 0 where p
is the projection onto the orthogonal complement of the vector space spanned by the
i .
But by positivity
(p) = 0
forces
p(i ) = 0
for all
i.
vN () we already met the desirability of having a normThis is not guaranteed by the von Neumann
Theorem 6.2.1
the unit ball of
Let
be a *subalgebra of
B (H).
is strongly dense in the unit ball of the weak closure adjoint part of the unit ball of
of
A,
M. 1M
and the worried reader may check
that we never in fact suppose 1 A. We may further suppose that A is normclosed, i.e. a C algebra. Consider the closure of Asa , the selfadjoint The * operation is weakly continuous so if x is a net converging x converges to x so the weak closure x M , x + 2 of Asa is equal to Msa . Let us now prove the second assertion of the theorem. Let x = x M , part of to the selfadjoint element
A.
1 , ..., n , > 0 dene a strong neighbourhood of x. We must 2t come up with a y Asa , y  < 1, with (x y )i  < . The function t 1+t2 is a homeomorphism of [1, 1] onto itself. So by the spectral theorem we may 2X choose an X Msa with X  1, so that = x. Now by strong density 1+X 2 choose Y Asa with
and
x < 1,
and

y=
y  1.
32
yx= = 2(
2Y 2X 2 1+Y 1 + X2
Y,
we see that
x M
x 1.
a b c d is equivalent to strong convergence of the matrix entries so A M2 (C) is a b 0 x strongly dense in M M2 (C). Moreover if strongly c d x 0 a b then b tends strongly to x. And b  1 follows from   1 c d a b 0 and b , = , . c d 0 M M2 (C). Strong convergence of a net
to
0 x
x 0
a c
b d
Corollary 6.2.2
If
is a *subalgebra of
B (H)
containing
then
is a
is weakly compact.
than the weak topology, and a closed subset of a compact set is compact. Conversely, if the unit ball of closed. Let net
weakly converging to
with
33
34
and
uM
with
if there is a partial
Observe that
is an equivalence relation.
Theorem 7.1.2
The relation
e
and
f v
and
imply
e f.
satisfy
uu = e, u u f
vv = f, v v e.
Note the
v fn v
less than
to .
projections in and
less than
f, v
and
u.
Let
e =
i=0
f vv f = f so that e f . Also e = (e e1 ) + (e1 e2 ) + + e and f = (f f0 )+(f1 f2 )+ + f are sums of mutually orthogonal projections.
35
i=0
But for each even i, u (ei ei+1 )u = fi+1 fi+2 so ei ei+1 fi+1 fi+2 , and v (fi fi+1 )v = ei+1 ei+2 so one may add up, in the strong topology,
all the relevant partial isometries to obtain an equivalence between
and
f.
vN ()
tr(e v v ) = 0
which implies
e = vv.
However in general it is
certainly possible to get a projection equivalent to a proper subprojection of 2 itself. Just take the unilateral shift on B ( (N)) which exhibits an equivalence between
basis vector. This is analogous to the notion of an innite setone which is in bijection with a proper subset of itself.
Denition 7.1.3
nite if
A projection
pq
for some
algebra
is called in
Neumann algebra is called nite if its identity is nite, and it is called purely
innite if it has no nite projections other than
We will show that purely innite von Neumann algebras exist though it will not be easy.
If
dim H =
then
B (H)
is innite.
vN ()
is nite.
pq
and
is nite then
is nite.
pp,
If
p < p,
p=p
then
p + (q p) p + (q p) = q .
Remark 7.1.7
in
M B (H)
if
Theorem 7.1.8
or
is a factor and
p, q
are projections in
M,
either
p.
36
Proof.
Consider the family of partial isometries u with uu p, u u q . This set is partially ordered by u v if u u v v and v = u on the initial domain u uH of u. This partially ordered set satises the requirements for Zorn's lemma so let u be a maximal element in it. If u u = q or uu = p we are done so suppose q u u and p uu are both nonzero. Then by 5.1.1 there is a v = 0 with v v q u u and vv p uu . But then u + v is
larger than
Exercise 7.1.9
tor
We see that the equivalence classes of projections in a factor form a totally ordered set. are: 1) 2) 3) 4) It is known that, on a separable Hilbert space, the possible isomorphism types for this set
{0, 1, 2, ..., n}
where
is allowed.
We added 0 to the list for type In , so the comment below about type III and type I1 makes sense
Strictly speaking this is nonsense as type III is the same as type I1 and II1 is the same as II . We mean not only the order type but whether innite or not. Observe that the type II1 case certainly exists. has projections of any trace between We saw that
is
vN (F2 )
and
1.
it is clear that the trace gives an isomorphism between the ordered set of equivalence classes of projections ant the unit interval. We will proceed to prove a statement generalising this considerably.
Denition 7.1.10
H
(i) (ii) (iii)
on
tr : M C
satisfying
tr(1) = 1.
In general a linear functional on a *algebra A is called positive if (a a) 0 (and (a ) = (a) though this is redundant if A is a C algebra), and faithful if (a a) = 0 a = 0. A positive is called a
state if
Denition 7.1.11
trace)
A linear functional
37
It is our job now to show that a II1 factor has a unique ultraweakly continuous tracial state, which is faithful. First a preliminary result on ideals.
Theorem 7.1.12
mann algebra
Let
M = M e.
Proof.
If
M. M is
e M
such that
is in
Z (M ).
M M is an ultraweakly closed *subalgebra so it has a largest projection e. Since e M, M e M. On the other hand if x M let x = ux be its polar decomposition. Since u x = x, x M M . Hence xe = x and x = ux = uxe M e. So M = M e. Uniqueness follows easily since f = xe f e. Moreover if M is 2sided, for any unitary u M , uM = M = uMu = M e = M ueu so ueu = e by uniqueness. Hence e Z (M ).
Corollary 7.1.13
Proof. Let
Tr
on
M = {x M : T r(x x) = 0}. Then since x a ax a2 x x, M is a left ideal and since T r (ab) = T r (ba), M is a 2sided ideal. Moreover by the Cauchy Schwarz inequality T r (x x) = 0 i T r (xy ) = 0 y M . Thus M is ultraweakly closed, being the intersection of the kernels of ultraweakly continuous functionals. Thus M = M e for some central projection. And e must be zero since M is a factor.
If
Corollary 7.1.14
projection,
and
pM
is a nonzero
pM p
pH . pM p which is non
restricts to a trace on
zero by faithfulness and all the other properties are immediate. Since a mini
The uniqueness of
Theorem 7.1.15
Proof. Let
d = inf {tr(p) : p M, p2 = p = p = 0}. Suppose d > 0. Let p be a projection with tr(p) d < d. Then p is not minimal since we have seen that M is not isomorphic to B (H). So there is a nonzero projection q < p. But then we have tr(p q ) = tr(p) tr(q ) tr(p) d < d. This is a contradiction. So d = 0.
38
Theorem 7.1.16
positive nonzero
Proof. For Then
M be a type II1 factor with an ultraweakly continuous 2 trace tr . Then {tr (p) : p M, p = p = p} = [0, tr (1)].
Let
consider
S = {p : p a projection in M and tr(p) p is a chain in S , p = p M and p is in the strong closure of the p so p is in S . So by Zorn, S has a maximal element, say q . If tr (q ) were less than r , then by 7.1.8, q p. So choose q = q, q < p. Applying 7.1.14 to p q we nd a projection strictly between q and p. r }. S
is a partially ordered set and if
r [0, tr(1)]
Corollary 7.1.17
interval
The map
tr
dered set of equivalence classes of projections on a type II1 factor and the
[0, tr(1)].
Proof. By 7.1.16 it suces to show that the equivalence class of a projection is determined by its trace. This is immediate from 7.1.8.
Exercise 7.1.18
a subfactor
Let
N M
with
N = Mn (C).
nN
there is
Corollary 7.1.19
Tr
tr
tr,
is positive.
By the previous exercise, 7.1.17, and the uniqueness of the trace on a matrix algebra,
tr
and
Tr
tr
is rational. Given
tr(p)
ei
of
subprojections as follows:
ei with tr(ei ) = T r(ei ) and tr(p) (p ei )M (p ei ) is a type II1 factor so tr and T r agree on projections in it whose tr is arbitrarily close to tr (p ei ). So choose in it a projection ei+1 between ei and p, on which tr and T r agree and with 1 . Then tr and T r agree on tr(p) tr(ei+1 ) < i+1 i ei which is equal to p by the faithfulness of tr .
Suppose we have already constructed Then
We shall see that a positive trace on a type II1 factor is normcontinuous and a selfadjoint operator is actually a normlimit of linear combinations of its spectral projections so in fact an apparently weaker property than ultraweak continuity is all we used in the previous corollarynamely that the trace of the supremum of an increasing net of projections is the supremum of the traces.
39
Corollary 7.1.20
i
Let
tr.
Then
T r = tr
T r.
Proof.
Z (M )
is trivial.
choose by faithfulness a projection p Z (M ) with 0 < tr (p) < 1. Dene )tr(xp). Then T r is an ultraweakly continuous normalized T r(x) = ( tr1 (p) trace dierent from tr on 1 p.
be a nonzero positive self adjoint operator. Show + + that there is a bounded piecewise smooth function f : R R such that
Exercise 7.1.21
af (a)
Let
Exercise 7.1.22
previous exercise to show that a 2sided ideal contains a projection, then add projections to obtain the identity.)
A = M2 (C), A
is embedded
a a 1. Iterate this procedure to form an An of *algebras with A1 = A and An+1 = An A, and consider the *algebra A = n An which could also be called alg,n=1 An . If we normalise the matrix trace on all matrix algebras so that tr (1) = 1 then tr(a 1) = tr(a) so that tr denes a positive faithful normalised trace on A . Elements of A can be thought of as linear combinations of tensors of the form a1 a2 a3 1 1 1 , on which the trace is just the product of the traces of the ai s. We now turn A into a von Neumann
as diagonal matrices: increasing sequence algebra .
AA
x, y = tr(y x). Then A is a preHilbert space and let H be its completion. Note that Mn (C) is a von Neu 2 mann algebra so tr (y x xy ) x tr (y y ). This means that the operator Lx on A , Lx (y ) = xy , satises Lx ( ) x  (where x is the operator norm of the matrix x and   is the Hilbert space norm of ) and so extends uniquely to a bounded operator also written Lx on H. One checks that (Lx ) = Lx so x Lx denes a faithful (=injective) representation of the *algebra A on H . Let M be the von Neumann algebra on H generated by the Lx and identify A with a subalgebra of M .
Dene an inner product on
by
The trace on
is dened by
1 A
considered as a vector in
tr(a) = a, H. So tr extends
40
where
is the element
to a trace on
which is
ultraweakly continuous, positive and normalised. It is also unique with these properties by the uniqueness of the trace on the ultraweakly dense subalgebra
of
M.
tr
is faithful on
is a
type II1 factor . It is important to note that this does not follow simply from the faithfulness of prove it.
tr
on
A.
Lx was bounded, the same calculation, with tr(ab) = tr(ba), would have shown that Rx , right multiplication by x, is also bounded. Associativity shows that Lx and Ry commute on A , hence on H. Thus M commutes with Ry for each y A . Now we can show faithfulness: if tr(x x) = 0 for x M then for each a A we have
When we showed that
x(a)2 = xRa ( )2 = Ra x( )2 Ra 2 x 2 = Ra 2 tr(x x) = 0.
Since
x = 0.
So
tr
is faithful on
which is thus a
type II1 factor . Many points are raised by this example. the properties of the vector The easiest to deal with are
M = H
and
M = H.
Let
M be a von Neumann algebra on H. A vector H is called cyclic for M if M = H and separating for M if (x = 0) (x = 0) for all x M .
Denition 7.2.1
Proposition 7.2.2
rating for
is cyclic for
i
is sepa
Proof.() Exercisein fact done in the discussion of () Let p be the projection (1 p) = 0 so p = 1. The construction of onto the closure of
above.
M .
Then
pM
. But
from
as the GNS construction (GelfandNaimarkSegal). Given a positive lin ear functional satisfying (a ) = (a) on a *algebra A we let N be {x A : (x x) = 0}. We also dene a sesquilinear form , on A by x, y = (y x). This form is positive semidenite but this is enough for the CauchySchwartz inequality to hold so that
0 y A}
so that
is a subspace and
A/N .
x , Lx
41
is a linear functional on a C algebra satisfying (a a) 0 show that (a ) = (a). Moreover if A is unital show that is normcontinuous and in fact  = (1).
If
one may
Proposition 7.2.5
is a unital
C algebra
and
is a positive
(y x xy ) x2 (y y )
Proof. Let (1). x2
(a) = (y ay ).
Then
(x x)
on a unital (x) on the Hilbert space H of the GNS construction via left multiplication: (x)(y ) = xy . Moreover  (x) x and (x ) = (x) since (x)y, z = (z xy ) = y, (x )z . Note that (x) = (x)1, 1 .
It follows immediately that, given a positive linear functional each
C algebra,
xA
Denition 7.2.6
on
If
is a
C algebra
and
A,
resentation
Proposition 7.2.7
is a
C algebra
on
and
and
on
A is actually a von Neumann algebra , (A) will not in general be one H . However we will see that if is ultraweakly continuous then (A)
If
A be a C algebra on H containing 1. If is a positive linear functional on A and H is a vector with (i.e. is positive), then there is a t A with = t .
Let
Proof. Dene a sesquilinear form
Lemma 7.2.8
(, ) on A by (a, b ) = (b a). CauchySchwarz and give that (a, b ) a b  so (, ) is welldened and there is a bounded positive operator t on A with a, tb = (b a). But a, tbc = (c b a) = b a, tc = a, btc so that t A on A . If p = pA , tp is a positive operator in A and if s = t, (a) = a, t = as, s .
.
42
Corollary 7.2.9
(on a
If
on
and
algebra
H)
(a) = a, with = .
is positive
Proof. For
Theorem 7.2.10
If
and
is a positive
ultraweakly continuous linear functional on M then there are vectors with i 2 < so that (x) = xi , i for x M .
Proof. Let
i H
i , i
on
(N), (x) =
x,
is an ultraweakly continuous positive linear functional on the von Neumann algebra M then the GNS representation is ultraweakly continuous onto a von Neumann algebra on H .
If
Proof. We saw in the last theorem that The map
Corollary 7.2.11
(x) = x 1( ),
By 7.2.7 we
on
x x1
is ultraweakly continuous.
is ultraweakly continuous since the reduction to continuous. So the kernel of of the form
M 1( )
is ultraweakly
M e for some e in the centre of M . It follows that is injective on M (1 e) and since the norm of an operator x is determined by the spectrum of x x, the unit ball of the image of M is the image of the unit ball which is
weakly compact so by 6.2.2 we are done.
and
and
of the Hilbert
space
respectively. Let
M = {p, q }
Show that
Exercise 7.3.3
Show that if
a B (H), 0 a 1,
a a(1 a)
is a projection on
H H.
a(1 a) 1a 1 0 ? 0 0
a = (p q )2 and A = {a} . Show that a Z (M ) and that {a0 + a1 p + a2 q + a3 pq + a4 qp : ai A} is a *algebra (which is necessarily weakly dense in M ).
Let
Show that
pM p p
is abelian, generated by
pqp.
and
q
in
Show that
p =q
M.
tion of
pq .)
Show there is a
Exercise 7.3.7
p = e11 .
22
(eij ) M
with
Exercise 7.3.8
B M2 (C) for some abelian von Neumann algebra B generated by b, 0 b 1, with p correspondb b(1 b) 1 0 ing to and q corresponding to 0 0 b(1 b) 1b
Show that
is spatially isomorphic to
and
Exercise 7.3.9
Show that
pqp =qpq
in
Exercise 7.3.10
group).
Show that
(innite dihedral
Z (Z/2Z).
(Hint
2p 1
and
2q 1
44
on a von Neumann algebra M is norm continuous so denes an element of M . Our goal in this chapter is to show that the set of all such is a closed subspace M of M and that the duality between M and M makes M equal to the Banach space dual of M . We will rst establish this in the special case M = B (H).
Lemma 8.1.1
bases of
If
H,
then
ai , i
(where
Proof. We have
ai , i =
i i
 ai 2 ai , j 2 ) aj , i 2 )
=
i
(
j
 
i
=
j
( =
j
 aj 2
45
=
j
aj , j
where every number is positive so the order of the sum is immaterial. The number written
ai , i
a,
T race(a).
An element
Denition 8.1.2
.
If
a B (H) is said to be of
trace class if
T race(a) <
(i )
ai , i
i
converges absolutely and is called the trace,
T race(a), H
of
a. a1 = a
Theorem 8.1.3
T race(a) a1 .
of compact operators,
I1 ,
in
denes a norm on
function
a1
dened by
it is complete. Moreover
Proof. The only thing not proved in Reed and Simon is completeness. For this observe that if
an
is a Cauchy sequence in
 1 ,
(an )
suppose
>0
and
large enough
an am i , i < .
i=1
So for any
N,
N
an am i , i < .
i=1
Now if bn tends in norm to b, then bn  tends in norm to b (obviously bn bn b b, and approximate the square root function by polynomials on an interval) so for each xed i,
n
So
lim an am i = a am i . a I1
since
N i=1 a am i , i < and letting N tend to we see that I1 is a vector space, and also that an a in  1 .
46
a h
is trace class
B (H)
by
h (x) = T race(xh).
Denition 8.1.4
for the state
h .
Each
Proposition 8.1.5
element of
B (H)
is
h1 .
Proof. Since of
h is compact, choose an orthonormal basis (i ) of eigenvectors h with eigenvalues i and let h = uh be the polar decomposition. Then
h (x) =
i=1
xuhi , i
h (x)
i=1
x  hi 
= x
i=1
= x h1 .
Moreover evaluating If
on
gives
h  = h1 .
HilbertSchmidt if
are Hilbert spaces, a bounded operator x : H K is called 2 x x is trace class, i.e. i=1 xi  < for some (hence any) orthonormal basis (i ) of H. The set of all HilbertSchmidt operators 2 from H to K is written (H, K) and if x is HilbertSchmidt, so is x , and x and is compact.
Theorem 8.1.6
a B(H), b B(K) and x 2 (H, K) then bxa 2 (H, K). If x (H, K) and y 2 (K, H) then yx is trace class. With the 2 inner product x, y = T race(y x), (H, K) is a Hilbert space in which the
If 2
Proof. See Reed and Simon.
Exercise 8.1.7
HilbertSchmidt operators.
47
Exercise 8.1.8
K H
Let
to
H and K are Hilbert spaces construct (H, K) and show that it is unitary.
If
x2
Lemma 8.1.9
For then let basis
If
(H, K) and y
x = ux
of the nal domain of u and extend it to an orthonormal basis of K. Also extend (u i ) to an orthonormal basis of H by vectors in ker(x). Then
(i )
T race(xy ) =
i
uxyi , i
=
i
Let
>0
2 y 2 . = h .
Corollary 8.1.10
B (H),
If
so that
(i ) and (i ) in 2 (N, H) so that (x) = i xi , i . 2 Then if we dene a and b from (N) to H by a(f ) = i f (i)i and b(f ) = i f (i)i , a and b are Hilbert Schmidt and (x) = T race(b xa) which is T race(xab ) by the previous result.
Proof. By 6.1.2 there are Putting everything together so far, we have identied the image of the Banach space I1 under the map h h with the closed subspace of B (H) consisting of ultraweakly continuous linear functionals. To close the loop we only need to show that the Banach space dual of
I1
is
B (H).
for
Theorem 8.1.11
x B (H)
so that
 1 ,
there is an
x of I1 by x(v ) = v, so one may dene a sesquilinear form on H by (, ) = (x). Boundedness of x follows from that of so there is an appropriate x B (H). To show that the norm of x as an element of the dual of I1 is actually x, suppose x = 1 and choose a unit vector with x  almost equal to 1. Then T r (hx) is almost 1 if h is the partial isometry which sends v H to . v, x x 
and dene an element
Exercise 8.1.12
Now we pass to von Neumann algebras though in fact these results work for any ultraweakly closed subspace of
B (H). B (H)
then
Theorem 8.1.13
V
If
which
(V ) = 0
then
(x) = 0 xV.
V = for
x /
and
nonzero on
x.
Exhibit a nonzero trace class operator on
2
Exercise 8.1.14
orthogonal to
()
which is
vN ().
If
Theorem 8.1.15
topology on
B (H)
then it
V.
as the dual of
V .
is a Banach space with dual B and V is a weak* closed subspace of B then V is the dual of B/V (surjectivity of the natural map from V to the dual of V /B is a result of the previous
Proof. If
theorem), so V is a dual space. So we just have to identify the Banach space B/V with the space of weak* continuous (as elements of B ) linear functionals on
V.
B = I1
we are done.
Exercise 8.1.16
V
If
B (H),
show that
49
Denition 8.2.1
:AB
a ) =
(a ) A.
(a )
of selfadjoint operators in
Theorem 8.2.2
Proof. That ultraweak implies normal is obvious. For the moment we refer to Dixmier for the other direction and content ourselves to remark that our proof of the uniqueness of the trace on a II1 factor used only normality (a selfadjoint operator is a norm limit of linear combinations of its spectral projections) so that a normal trace is attached to it by its algebraic structure alone. Observe that by 6.1.2 any ultraweakly continuous linear functional is a linear combination of positive ones (by polarisation) so the predual of a von Neumann algebra is dened entirely by the algebraic structure. In fact the predual is unique up to isometry. There is another important structure theorem for whose proof we will also provisionally simply refer to Dixmier:
Theorem 8.2.3
x x id,
a reduction to a closed
50
Lemma 8.3.1
1/2)
so that
Let
R+
aM
let
(a) = a , (M1 ) (M ).
: M M , between M and M .
is not in
1 2D (h) + (h ) 2 (h) (h ). D <  (h) =  (uh1/2 h1/2 ) (h) (uhu ),
a contradic
51
52
will be a von Neumann algebra with an ultraweakly contr and L2 (M, tr) will be abbreviated to
algebra and a positive linear functional on it. If we apply this construction to L (X, ) with trace given by f d, the Hilbert space would be L2 (X, d). 2 For this reason, if M is a type II1 factor we write L (M, tr ) for the GNS p Hilbert space obtained from the trace. In fact one can dene L spaces p 1/p for 1 p using the L norm xp = tr (x) . A noncommutative p version of the Holder inequality shows that  p is a norm and L (M ) is 1 the completion. We set L (M ) = M and we shall see that L (M ) is the predual of
M.
If
Proposition 9.1.1
ball of
is a
 2
 2
on the
unit ball is the same as the strong (and ultrastrong and *strong) topology.
xn is Cauchy in  2 then for each a M , xn a is also since xa2 a xn 2 . So we can dene x on the dense subspace M of L2 (M ) by x(a) = limn xan . Since x 1, we have x    for M 2 so x extends to a bounded operator on L (M ) which is obviously in M , and x = x = limn = limn xn in  2 .
Proof. If 53
 2
a a
denes the
 2
topology. Moreover
shows that
 2
controls
the strong topology on the unit ball. Finally note that in the statement of the theorem it does not matter what representation of
the ultrastrong topology does not change under the manipulations that we used to get the GNS construction from a II1 factor on an arbitrary Hilbert space.
2 The action of M on L (M, tr ) is called the standard form of M . Note 2 that vN () on () is already in standard form. (We see that we could have
obtained our rst example of a II1 factor by applying the GNS construction to the group algebra form.
tr(
Denition 9.1.2
tion which is the
Lemma 9.1.3
(i) (ii)
For
x, a
in
M,
and
in
L2 (M )
J, J = , JxJ (a ) = ax
Proof.
(i) If (ii)
on
L2 (M ), JM J M
For
on
L2 (M ),
if
x M , Jx = x .
a M,
then
Jx, a = Ja, x = a , x = , xa = x , a .
54
Theorem 9.1.6
For
on
L2 (M ), JM J = M
Proof. If we can show that x x, is a trace on M we are done since 2 2 by the above results L (M ) can be canonically identied with L (M ) so that the two also for But for
separating for
hence
on
()
Ju J = 1 . And more generally the commutant of the left action 2 of M on L (M ) is the algebra of right multiplication operators. In 2 particular the commutant of a type II1 factor M on L (M ) is also a type II1 factor . This is not the case for M on an arbitrary Hilbert space. For 2 instance we could consider M 1 on L (M ) H for some innite dimensional H. Then the commutant of M 1 would be JM J B (H)innite matrices over JM J .
Denition 9.1.7
type II1 factor and
M B (H)
with
dim H = .
Let
Proposition 9.1.8
that
pM
so
pM p
is a II factor.
{p } of mutually orthogonal projections in M with Put q = p . If 1 p were p then we could contradict the maximality of the family {p }. So write 1 = q + p with q p. Since M is innite the set of indices {} is innite so we may choose a bijection with itself minus 0 and write q + p 0 + =0 p = p 1. We conclude that p is equivalent to 1 so we may suppose it equal to 1. We may then construct a system of matrix units by using partial isometries implementing the equivalences between the p to obtain the result
Proof. Choose a maximal family
p = p .
55
Note that we used implicitly in the above proof the fact that the supremum of nitely many nite projections is nite. This will be covered in a series of exercises on projections. It could conceivably happen that, given a II factor of the form
pM p
depends on
introduce the trace on a II factor which will make this issue more clear. If
tr
by
from
(M B (H))+
(the set
of positive elements of
M B (H)),
to
[0, ]
tr((xij )) =
i=1
tr(xii ) H
to
where we have chosen a basis of the innite dimensional Hilbert space identify
M B (H)
M.
M be as above. (i) tr (x) = tr (x) for 0. (ii) tr (x + y ) = tr (x) + tr (y ). (iii) If (a ) is an increasing net of positive operators with a = a then tr( a ) = lim tr(a ). (iv) tr (x x) = tr (xx ) x M . (v) tr (uxu ) = tr (x) for any unitary u M and any x 0 in M . (vi) If p is a projection in M then p is nite i tr (p) < . (vii) If p and q are projections with p nite then p q i tr(p) tr(q ). (viii) pM p is a type II1 factor for any nite projection p.
Let
Proof. The rst two assertions are immediate. For (iii), note that the
Theorem 9.1.9
diagonal entries of positive matrices are ordered as the matrices, and all numbers are positive in the sums. (iv)Is obvious using matrix multiplication. (v) follows from (iv) via uxu = (u x)( xu ). For (vi), if tr (p) < but p is innite, there is a proper subprojection of If
The
tr(p) = then if q is a projection of nite trace, q p and if q p then tr (p q ) = so one may construct an innite sequence of mutually orthogonal equivalent projections less than p. Using a bijection with a proper subsequence, p dominates
an innite projection so is innite itself. (vii) follows easily as in the case of a type II1 factor . For (viii) simply observe that
tr(p) < q.
means that
for some
1's
on the
qM q
Corollary 9.1.10
tr M
to the interval
Let
B (H).
Then
tr
denes an
[0, ].
Proof. Given the previous theorem, we only have to prove that any innite projection is equivalent to the identity. But if p is innite choose u with uu = p and u u strictly less than p. Then (u )n u are a strictly decreasing sequence of equivalent projections so we may write p as an orthogonal sum p = p + i=1 pi with all the pi equivalent for i 1. Now write the identity as a countable orthogonal sum of projections all II1
p1
B (H)
1 p.
B (H) case, the trace cannot be normalised (by tr (1) = 1 in the type II1 factor case or tr (minimalprojection) = 1 in the B (H) case). This allows for the possibility of an automorphism of M with tr ((x)) = tr (x) for x 0 and > 0, = 1.
Unlike the II1 case, or for that matter the
: M N is a *homomorphism from a type II1 factor is an isomorphism, strongly continuous on the unit ball.
57
58
[0, ].
Denition 10.0.13
Hilbert space from
If
M module
we will mean a
write that
H together with an ultraweakly continuous unital *homomorphism H. Thus M acts on H and we will action simply as x for x M and in H.
The identity
In fact the ultraweak continuity condition is superuous. map makes the Hilbert space on which
M is dened into an M module. Given M on H and another Hilbert space K, x x id makes H K into 2 an M module. The GNS representation makes L (M ) into an M module. (The notion of M M bimodule is dened similarly as two commuting actions 2 of M on some Hilbert space, L (M ) being the rst example.) There is an obvious notion of direct sum of M modules. We will compare a given M 2 module H with L (M ) by forming the direct sum of it H and innitely many 2 copies of L (M ).
u : H L (M )
is
M linear).
M module K = L2 (M ) 2 (N). Let p = id 0 B (K) 2 2 be the projection onto H and q = 0 id be the projection onto L (M ) (N). Both p and q are in M (on K) which is a II factor since q is clearly innite in
Proof. Form the 59
e is a rank one projection in B ( 2 (N)) then (0 (1 e))M (0 (1 e)) 2 is a type II1 factor , being the commutant of M on L (M ). Since q is an innite projection in M , by 9.1.10 there is a partial isometry in M with u u = p and uu q . Using the obvious matrix notation for operators on K, let u be represented by
and if
a b c d
Then calculating so that
u=
for some isometry Moreover the fact
is equivalent to
wx = (x 1)w
x M .
Corollary 10.1.2
Proposition 10.1.3
then
uu M
on
isometry
so by 9.1.9
Observe that if M were replaced by C in the above construction the number tr (uu ) would be the dimension of H.
For a type II1 factor (or the n n matrices) and an M module H, the number tr (u u) dened by the two previous results is called
Denition 10.1.4
dimM H,
whose
M dimension
of
H.
M dimension
is any number in
(M 1) [0, ].
Trivial examples
dimM (H) < i M is a type II1 factor . (ii) dimM H = dimM K i M on H and M on K
spatially isomorphic). (iii) If
Hi
M modules, dimM Hi .
i
dimM (i Hi ) =
(iv) (v)
dimM (L2 (M )q ) = tr(q ) for any projection q M . 1 If p is a projection in M , dimpM p (pH) = trM (p) dimM (H). M
is nite, hence a type II1 factor
For the next two properties we suppose with trace (vi) If (vii)
trM
Proof.
equivalent to
on
M linear isometry u we see that M on H is unitarily uu L2 (M ) 2 (N). This makes (i) and (ii) obvious. M linear
isometries
ui
from
Hi
to
L2 (M ) 2 (N)
and
compose them with isometries so that their ranges are all orthogonal. Adding we get an M linear isometry u with uu = ui u i . Taking the trace we are done. For (iv), choose a unit vector
uu
(N)
and dene
u(v ) = v .
where
Then
is
JqJ e
where
(v) Let us rst prove the relation in the case projection in Then
H = L2 (M )q
is a
M with q p. pxp p(x)p is a unitary from L2 (pM p) to pL2 (M )p which inter2 twines the left an right actions of pM p. Hence pM p on pL (M )q is unitarily 2 equivalent to pM p on L (pM p)q . So by (iv), dimpM p (pH) = trpM p (q ) = trM (p)1 trM (q ) = trM (p)1 dimM H. 2 2 Now if H is arbitrary, it is of the form e(L (M ) (N)) for e (M 1) / But e is the orthogonal sum of projections all equivalent to ones as in (iv) with q p. H = e(L2 (M ) 2 (N)) so M = e(JM J B ( 2 (N))e and p denes the isometry in the denition of dimM (pH). But p is a projection less than e in a II factor so by uniqueness of the trace, dimM (pH) = tr(M 1) (p) = tr(M 1) (p)/tr(M 1) (e) dimM (H) = trM (p) dimM (H).
(vi) We may suppose 61
L2 (M ), dimM (H) dimM (H) = 1 so by (v) and 2 (vi) the result is true for M modules of the form L (M )p. Also if one forms k K = i=1 H then dimM 1 (K) = k dim H and dim(M 1) K = k 1 dimM by 2 2 k (v). But any H can be obtained from L (M ) as i=1 L (M )p for suitable k and p.
(vii) Observe that, on
Example 10.2.2
the unitary
If
( )
2
(0 ) and = [ : 0 ].
[M : N ]
of
in
Show that
[M : N ] = 1
N = M.
Discrete series representations of locally compact groups. Reduction by a nite projection in the commutant of a type II1 factor occurs in the representation theory of locally compact groups. If a discrete series representation is restricted to an icc lattice it generates a type II1 factor . The coupling constant is given by the ratio of the formal dimension and the covolume of the lattice. We illustrate in the case of
P SL(2, R)
mations of the upper half plane dened by invertible real is a fundamental domain illustrated below: DO FIGURE
az + b cz + d
2 2 matrices D
= P SL(2, Z)
P SL(2, Z) cover H and are disjoint apart from boundaries which are of Lebesgue measure 0. Thus if is an 2 invariant measure equivalent to Lebesgue measure, L (H, d) gives a unitary representation of which is unitarily equivalent to the left regular repre2 2 sentation tensored with the identity on L (D, d), making L (H, d) into a vN ()module whose vN () dimension is innite. dxdy The measure is invariant but we want to vary this procedure y2 dxdy slightly. For each n N consider . This measure is not invariant but y 2 n
The set and all its translates under 62
a b c d
1 az + b ) f( n (cz + d) cz + d
P SL(2, Z) so we obtain (unitarily dxdy 2 equivalent) vN ()modules Hn = L (H, ) for each n. y 2 n The commutant of vN () on Hn is a II factor. But as is well known, 2 holomorphic functions form a closed subspace of L functions which is manifestly invariant under P SL2 (R). The ensuing unitary representation is known to be irreducible and in the discrete series of P SL2 (R). It can be shown to be a nite projection in . Thus we have a concrete example of a vN ()module with nite vN ()dimension or coupling constant. In general, if G is a locally compact group with Haar measure dg , the
ing as far as how the representation looks to discrete series representations are precisely those irreducible unitary representations that are direct summands of the left regular representation on L2 (G, dg ). So if is a discrete subgroup with a fundamental domain D so that
is covered by the
(D)
vN ()
module. The
obvious question is to calculate its coupling constant. This turns out to be quite simple because of a key property of discrete series representations. series representation
H is a Hilbert space aording a discrete G, then the functions g g , , the socalled coecients of are in L (G, dg ). We may then imitate the usual procedure 2 for nite or compact groups embedding H in L (G, dg ). And the usual Schur orthogonality of the coecients of a representation yields a number d such
See [ref robert] for the proof that if
of 2
that
d
G
If
g , , g dg = ,
, .
G is compact and Haar measure is normalized so that G has measure 1, d is the dimension of the vector space H. In general d depends on the choice of Haar measure but obviously the product of d with the covolume dg D 2 does not. The coecients give an explicit embedding of H in L (G, dg ) and
a straightforward calculation of the trace of the projection onto the image of
in
vN ()
63
Example 10.2.5
bedding). a subspace of
Each matrix unit eij gives an L2 (N Mn (C)) which is an orthogonal direct sum of these 2 equivalent subspaces. Hence [N Mn (C) : N ] = n .
Proposition 10.2.6
(a) (b)
If
then
M M
dimM (H) 1.
dimM (H) 1. H
to
Proof. Both assertions follow immediately by comparing direct sum of copies of it.
L2 (M )p
or a
In fact both conditions in the last proposition are i. For that one needs L2 (M ). In fact the original denition of the Let
Choose
and let
and
and
respectively.
Then
q be p M
q M
normalised traces the coupling constant was dened as the ratio the hard part being to show that this ratio is independent of constant with our
Assuming
Example 10.2.7
(due to M. Rieel) If
(X, )
is
a countable group acting by measure preserving transformations on (X, ) 2 so that acts by unitaries u on L (X, ) in the obvious way. We say that
D X is a fundamental domain for if X = (D) and (D (D )) = 0 for all , = id. (One may clearly suppose the (D) are disjoint by removing a set of measure zero.) In this situation the abelian von Neumann algebra L (X ) of invariant L functions may be identied with the space L (D ). Now suppose and are two groups acting on X as above with fundamental domains D and E respectively. We may consider the von Neumann 2 algebra M, on L (X, ) dened as {{u : } L (X ) } .
a measurable subset
64
a group. An action of
is a homomorphism
g g
from
G on M AutM of
(where automorphisms may be assumed ultraweakly continuous if necG essary). The algebra of xed points for the action is denoted M and is a von Neumann algebra . A special case of some importance is when the is a unitary group representation g ug with ug M ug = M g G. In that case setting g (x) = ug xug denes an action of G on M (and M ). We say that
is implemented by the unitary representation ug . If the ug are actually in M , we say that the action is inner as an inner automorphism of M is by denition one of the form Ad u(x) = uxu for u a unitary in M . An
the action automorphism is called outer if it is not inner. Actions are not always implementable though the notion depends on the Hilbert space on which
acts.
Exercise 11.1.1
T is a bijection of X 1 which preserves the measure class of (i.e. (A) = 0 (T (A)) = 0.) show how T denes an automorphism T of L (X, ). Show further that 2 this automorphism is implemented by a unitary u on L (X, ).
If is a measure space and
A bijection subset
(X, )
AX
implies either
(A) = 0
or
T (A) = A (X \ A) = 0.
for a measurable
65
Proposition 11.1.2
points for
f L and T (f ) = f . After throwing away a null set we may assume that f (x) = f (T (x)) for all x X . Then for every > 0, by the denition of the essential supremum, ({x : f  f (x) < } = 0. But this set is invariant under T so it is equal to X up to a set of measure 0. Letting tend to 0 we see that ({x : f (x) = f }) = 0. So we may assume f (x) = eig(x) for some measurable g taking values in [0, 2 ). Repeating the argument for g gives f constant almost everywhere. () If A is a measurable invariant set then its characteristic function is xed by in L i A is invariant.
Proof. () Let
Exercise 11.1.3
implementable for
Let
x =
0 1 1 0
y =
Show that
0 i i 0 Ad ux , Ad uy
and
z =
1 0 0 1
and Ad uz dene an
Exercise 11.1.4
II1 factor in standard form and more generally any automorphism group pre
B (H)
vN (F2 )
The most useful is that of pointwise *strong convergence, i.e. we assume that the map
g (g )(x)
x M.
Typically many
other notions of continuity will be equivalent to that and even a measurability assumption can be enough to ensure this continuity. We will always assume pointwise *strong continuity when referring to an action of a topological group.
Exercise 11.1.7
66
An action of
on
is said to be ergodic if
M G = Cid.
Show that if G acts preserving on (X, ) then the re on L (X, ) is ergodic i the only measurable subsets satisfy either
(A) = 0
or
SU (3)
It is shown in [] that
SU (2)
if a compact group acts ergodically on a von Neumann algebra then that von Neumann algebra has a faithful normal trace.
is an action of the locally compact group G with Haar measure dg on the von Neumann algebra M on the Hilbert space H. Form the Hilbert space K = L2 (G, H) = L2 (X ) H and let G act on K by ug = g 1, being the left regular representation. Further, let M act on K by ( xf )(g ) = g1 (f (g ))
.
Exercise 11.2.1
of
Show that
Exercise 11.2.2
Show that
Note that this gives another way of making a group action implementable, at least when it is locally compact.
Denition 11.2.3
M G is the {x : x M }.
If
M , H, G
and
generated by
{ug : g G} M
with
and
. Note M that nite linear combinations g xg ug form a dense *subalgebra of M G. Moreover the ug are linearly independent over M in the sense that g x g ug = 0 xg = 0 for each g in the sum. This dense subalgebra could be called the
>From now on we will drop the
and identify
G is compact or abelian, but we shall be mostly interested in the case where G is discrete as then we may replay the matrix element game that we played for vN () to gain control
There is a welldeveloped theory of of weak limits of elements in the algebraic crossed product. (In fact of course
G when
vN () is the special case of the crossed product when M = C and the action
is trivial.) Indeed we see
G is discrete, any element of M G g xg so that the sum g xg ug stands for a certain 2 matrix of operators on K = H (G). Moreover any matrix of this form which denes a bounded operator on K is in M G. This is because the sum converges pointwise at least on the dense set of functions of nite support from G to H. In the case where the
immediately as in 3.1.10 that if denes a function crossed product is a II1 factor we know that the commutant consists of right multiplication by elements of right multiplication by case later on. Moreover the formulae
(M G) g xg ug and
ug
and
xM
(
and
xg ug ) = y g ug ) =
g
g (xg1 )ug {
h
xg ug )(
xh h (yh1 g )}ug
are justied by matrix multiplication. We shall now provide some sucient conditions for always assuming
G to be a factor
is discrete.
Denition 11.2.4
G
for which
An action
of
on
in
g M
Proposition 11.2.5
on the factor
Proof. If that next
is an outer action of
then
xg ug Z (M ) then equating coecients in the expression x commutes with M gives us yxg = xg g (y ) y M ,g G. By the lemma this implies xg = 0 for any g = 1. Thus x M and since M is x=
Let
Lemma 11.2.6
x = 0,
Then with
Aut M
for a factor
M.
Suppose there is an
x M,
yx = x(y )
is inner.
68
y M.
were unitary this would be obvious. So take the adjoint of the relation to obtain x y = (y )x y M . Thus yxx = x(y )x = xx y and xx Z (M ). Similarly x x Z (M ). But xx and x x always have the same spectrum so since M is a factor both xx and x x are equal to the same positive number are done. These two results prompt the following denition.
Proof. If
Dividing by
converts
Denition 11.2.7
called free if An action
An automorphism
is
yx = x(y )
is called free if
y M x = 0.
is free for every
g = id.
The argument of proposition 11.2.5 shows in fact that if on a von Neumann algebra
then
Theorem 11.2.8
gebra
M,
then
Proof. This follows immediately from the preceding remark. To understand the meaning of freeness for automorphisms of the form
T we need to make a hypothesis on (X, ) as otherwise one could envisage a T which is nontrivial on X but for which T is the identity. So we will suppose from now on that (X, ) is countably separated. This means there is a sequence Bn of measurable sets with (Bn ) > 0 for which, if x = y , there is an n with x Bn but y / Bn . Obviously Rn is countably separated.
Exercise 11.2.9
Show that
T = id
means that
Tx = x
almost everywhere.
Proposition 11.2.10
({x : T (x) = x}) = 0.
If
is a transformation of
(X, )
then
is free i
T = id
then
A f = T (f )A
() First throw away any xed points of T . Then suppose f1 T (f2 ) = f2 f1 f2 L . Let A be the support of f1 . Then since T has no xed 1 points, A = n (A Bn \ T (Bn )). If f1 were nonzero in L , we could thus choose an n for which (A Bn \ 1 T (Bn )) > 0. Set f2 = Bn . Then for any x A Bn \ T 1 (Bn ) we have 69
f1 (x)f2 (x) = 0 but f1 (x)f2 (T x) = f1 (x)Bn (T x) = 0 since x / T 1 (Bn ). Thus f1 T (f2 ) = f2 f1 in L . So the measure of A must be zero. We conclude that if is a countable group acting freely and ergodically on a measure space (X, ), preserving the class of , then the crossed product L (X, ) is a factor. Note that if is abelian, ergodic implies free.
Exercise 11.2.11
L (X, )
when
is abelian and
is discrete is called
Example 11.2.12 X = Z, = Z
measure. The action is free and ergodic and
acting by translation,
counting
L (X, ) = B ( 2 (Z)).
Example 11.2.13
sion.
T (z ) =
is ergodic.
(hn )
X = G = G is a
nN H (the set of all sequences) with the product topology. compact group so has a Haar measure . acts on X by left
translation. The action is clearly free and ergodic as we shall now argue. There is a particularly von Neumann algebraic way to view this example without even constructing the space (X, ) ! be the group algebra of the dual group Let A = L (H ) = CH usual trace. As in section 7.2, form the algebraic tensor with product trace
tr.
tr to obtain an abelian von Neumann algebra. It may be identied with L (G, ) so the Hilbert space H of the GNS construction is L2 (X, ). But it is clear that an orthornormal basis of H is given by nite sequences (n ) of which dene elements 1 2 1 1 1 in alg,nN A. elements of H The point is that these basis vectors are eigenvectors for the action of on L2 (X, ): (hn )(1 2 1 ) = (
n
70
n (hn )) 1 2 1 .
Ergodicity follows easily since the only basis element which is xed by all the
(hn )
equal to
1.
Exercise 11.2.16
H = Z/2Z in this example then the subalgebra of the crossed product generated by alg,nN A and is the algebraic innite tensor product of M2 (C).
Show that if
Both of the last two examples are special cases of a more general one:
is a countable dense
subgroup acting (freely) by left translation. The Peter Weyl theorem shows that this action is ergodic.
Example 11.2.17
If
Bernoulli Shift.
is any innite group and A = CZ/2Z we may form the tensor product indexed by of a copy of A for each . The von Neumann algebra thus obtained is once again the L space of the innite product measure space, this time with the set indexing the product being . As in the previous 2 example we can obtain a basis of L indexed by funcions from to the set {0, 1} which are almost always 0. These functions are the same as nite subsets of and the action of on the Hilbert space is by permuting the
basis in the obvious way. Ergodicity follows from the fact that the orbit of any nonempty subset is innite. One could also chose another trace than the usual one and modify the orthonormal basis of specied. We give a few more examples of free ergodic actions without supplying proofs of ergodicity.
A accordingly.
Example 11.2.18 SL(2, Z) acts on T2 = R2 /Z2 via the linear action on R2 . Example 11.2.19 P SL(2, Z) acts on R {} by linear fractional transformations.
Example 11.2.20 SL(2, Z) acts on R2 by linear transformations. Example 11.2.21 Q acts on R by translation.
There are two fairly easy ways to see that this action is ergodic. The rst is to reduce it to a dense subgroup of a compact group by observing that an L function on R which is invariant under translation by Z denes an L function on the quotient
T.Then
The second way is a direct attack which should generalise to show that bullshit 71
translation by any countable dense subgroup of a locally compact group is ergodic. If f L (R) is invariant under Q, set things up so that there are sets and
A B
and
g (A) g (B ) = .
Cover
Some of
and
B in nonnul sets. But all these intervals are all g cannot be invariant up to sets of measure zero. Q Q
acts on
R
but using a
H = Z/2Z CH
CH
which is dierent from the usual one. Such a trace which we could call The product measure is not absolutely continous
and
1p
for
0 < p < 1.
with respect to Haar measure, and it is not preserved by group translation so this example is perhaps most easily approached by the von Neumann algebra construction where one can implement the action of nN Z/2Z by 2 unitaries. These unitaries come from ones on L (H ) which exchange two points of unequal weight so they must be correctly scaled.
Exercise 11.2.24
Type I : Type Type
acts transitively.11.2.12
Type II1 :
preserves a nite measure. 11.2.13,11.2.15,11.2.17,11.2.18 II : preserves an innite measure.11.2.20,11.2.21 III : preserves no measure equivalent to .11.2.19,11.2.22,11.2.23
Em : M
M which assigns aid to the element is destined to play a big role in the theory. It is called the conditional expectation onto M and
obviously satises the following contitions:
2 EM = EM . (ii) EM (x) = EM (x ), EM (1) = 1, EM (x x) = 0if f x = 0. (iii) EM (x x) EM (x )EM (x), E (x) x. (iv) EM (axb) = aEM (x)b for a, b M . (v) EM is ultraweakly continuous.
(i) So
EM
The
EM
is an
M M bimodule
72
map.
acts nontransitively,freely and ergodically, preserving the nite measure then L (X, ) is a II1 factor. If preserves the innite nite measure then L (X, ) is a II factor unless acts transitively in which case L (X, ) is type I.
If
Proof. (i) It is clearer to prove a more general statement (in the case where preserves
Theorem 11.3.1
and
(X ) = 1).
So suppose
tr
Then we claim
M = A
(or a nite dimensional factor). By previous results we need only show that it has an ultraweakly continous positive trace. So dene
T r = tr EA
on
M.
T r(au bu ) = T r(bu au ). For either side of 1 the equation to be nonzero means = amd then the left hand side is 1 1 tr(a (b)) = tr( (a (b))) = tr(b (a) ) which is equal to T r(bu au ). (ii) If is innite and does not act transitively then there are no atoms hence there are subsets Y of X of arbitrary positive measure. Let Y have nite nonzero measure and let be the function ( ) = ,id Y . Then au , = (au ) = id, Y a(x)d(x). One easily checks that ((pau p)(pbu p)) = ((pbu p)(pau p)) so by 4.0.25 denes a positive ultraweakly continuous trace on p(A )p which is a type II1 factor . But A is not itself a type II1 factor since A contains
linearity it suces to prove an innite family of equivalent mutually orthogonal projections. By 9.1.8 we are done. (iii) If
(X, ) = (, counting
Exercise 11.3.2
sure
If
acts ergodically on
(X, )
preserving the
nite mea.
We now want to show that there are factors that are neither of type I nor type II . Suppose that M = L (X, ) is a type I or II factor. Then it has a trace absolutely continous with respect to
X, ,by reversing the procedure of theorem 11.3.1 and dening the measure (A) to be tr (A ) (A L (X, ) M ). Invariance of the measure is no problem. The snag is that tr (A ) could be innite for every nonnul set A. We will show that this is not the case. To
We would like to dene an invariant measure on this end the concept of lower semicontinuity will be useful.
tr : M+ [0, ].
73
Denition 11.3.3
such that
If
x X and > 0 u U. K R.
there is an
f : X R is open set U X
Exercise 11.3.4
(a)f
1
Prove that if
X. a a 
Exercise 11.3.5
from
H f
H,
the function
B (H)
to
Exercise 11.3.6
tinous if it exists.
is lower semicon
Lemma 11.3.7
Let
tr : M + [0, ]
be
M = N B( 2 (N))
on
N a type II1 factor or C we may assume by 10.2.6 that there is a vector e11 H with a trace on e11 M e11 . So if i = ei1 we have, up to a scalar,
tr(x) =
i=1
xi , i .
By the previous exercises and weak compactness of the unit ball, we are done.
x M1,K let W (x) be the weak closure of the convex set of nite sums { i i = 1, i > i i ui xui : 0, ui unitary in L (X, )}. Then W (x) M1,K and if (y ) = tr(y y ) for y W (x) then attains its minimum at a unique point E (x) of W (x).
With notation as above, for
Proof. Note rst that {z M : tr (z z ) < } is a vector space on which z  = tr(z z ) denes a prehilbert space structure. (Since (a + b) (a + b) 2(a a + b b) as operators, and the parallelogram identity passes to the potentially innite sum dening of
Proposition 11.3.8
tr.)
Moreover
W (x)
so by lower semicontinuity
Proposition 11.3.9
projection in
Suppose that
with
Proof. Let
E = EL (X,) . By the uniqueness of E (p) it commutes with every unitary in L so it is in L by 11.2.11. On the other hand E (y ) = E (p) for all y W (p) by the bimodule linearity of the conditional expectation and its ultraweak continuity. So E (E (p)) = E (p) = E (p). But (E (p) (p) = tr(p). Finally E (p) = E (p2 ) which is a positive nonzero selfadjoint operator and hence has nonzero trace.
Theorem 11.3.10
rated measure on
Let
nite measure space (X, ) so that there is no nite invariant X absolutely continuous with respect to . Then L (X, ) is
on
By the previous result (A) would have to be nite 2 and nonzero for some A since the L functionf = E (p) must dominate a by multiple of to
(A) = tr(A ).
A for some A (e.g. let A be those x with f (x) suciently close f ). But then by ergodicity X = (A) (up to null sets) so that is nite. It is automatically absolutely continuous wrt . Invariance of 1 under follows from tr (u xu ) = tr (x) for x 0.
A factor not of type I or II is called a type III factor.
Denition 11.3.11
Example 11.2.22 provides a type III factor since the subgroup ergodically so the only possible invariant measure is a multiple exercise 11.3.2 and this is not invariant under multiplication!
Q acts of dx by
Note that the above technique works in somewhat greater generality than actions of groups on measure spaces.
Exercise 11.3.12
M
= 1.
75
76
position and momentum operators of quantum mechanics. Our immediate motivation for studying unbounded operators here is to facilitate the study of arbitrary von Neumann algebras acting on GNS Hilbert spaces. Here we establish the necessary preliminaries on unbounded operators. The material closely follows Reed and Simon [2].
on a Hilbert space
consists of a linear
D(T ),
the domain of
T,
D(T )
to
H.
Example 12.1.2
(i)
Mx ,
multiplication by
on
D(Mx ) =
f L2 (R) :
(ii)
T =
d on dx
In order to do some analysis we want to restrict our attention a little so as not to consider completely arbitrary linear maps.
77
Denition 12.1.3
T (T )
Let
be an operator on
H.
The graph of
is
(T ) = {(, T ) : D(T )} H H.
is closed if is closed in
H H.
is closed and
Note that if
D(T ) = H
then
is bounded
HH
implies
= 0.
Proof. Straightforward. Many operators are not closed, but can be extended to a closed operator.
Denition 12.1.6
denoted
S T,
if
Let S, T be (S ) (T ). An operator
operators on Equivalently
H. T is an D(S ) D(T )
extension of
and
S, T D(S ) = S .
Denition 12.1.7
extension.
Lemma 12.1.8
tension
Suppose
is preclosed. Then
T . (T ) = (T ).
is called the closure of
Denition 12.1.9 T
Proof of Lemma. contains because:
T. A
of
T . (A)
is closed and
(T )
so
(T ) (A). (T )
T)
(0, ) (T ) (A) = A(0) = 0. T is the smallest closed extension because for all closed extensions A, (T ) = (T ) (A).
Remark 12.1.10
operator: (i)
(0, ) (T ) = 0. D(T ), n 0
and
(ii) (n
T n
converges)
T n 0.
Exercise 12.1.11
(i) Dene
on
L2 (R)
with compact
by
functions
78
(ii) Dene
from
L2 (R)
to
by
Show that
f.
Denition 12.1.12
subspace
D0 D(T )
such that
T is a closed T D0 = T .
is a linear
We can perform basic arithmetic operations with (unbounded) operators as follows: S + T is the operator with domain D (S + T ) = D (S ) D (T ) and (S + T ) = S + T . ST is the operator with domain D(ST ) = { D(T ) : T D(S )} and (ST ) = S (T ). Of particular importance is the adjoint.
Denition 12.1.13
Let
H.
Let
D(T ) = { H : H such that < T , >=< , > D(T )} = { H : C > 0 such that  < T , >  C   D(T )}.
For and
D(T ))
Note that if
ST
then
T S .
{0}].
Proposition 12.1.16
1. 2.
Let
is closed. is dense i
D(T ) T
T = T .
3. If
is preclosed then
(T ) = T .
i
for all
D(T )
i
u:HHHH
u(, ) = (, ).
is closed.
Now:
(T )
79
2.
(T ) = ((T ) ) = u (T ) ,
so
all
D(T )
is preclosed i
D(T ) = {0}
2
i
D(T )
is dense. so
In that case
(T ) = u(T )
= u (T )
= (T ) = (T ),
T = T .
3.
T = T = T = (T ) .
An operator
Denition 12.1.17
T is symmetric if T T . Equivalently < T , >=< , T > for all , D(T ). T is selfadjoint if T = T . A selfadjoint operator T is positive if < T , > 0 for all D (T ).
be a closed operator on
H.
The resolvent of
is
(T ) = {1 T : D(T ) H
The spectrum of
is a bijection}.
is
(T ) = C\(T ). 1 T : D(T ) H
is a bijection then
T )1
Note that if
(1
is bounded by the Closed Graph Theorem. The spectrum is highly dependent on the domain. set of absolutely continuous functions on Let
[0.1].
Let
T1 =
D(T1 ) = {f AC [0, 1] : f L2 ([0, 1])} D(T2 ) = {f AC [0, 1] : f L2 ([0, 1]), f (0) = 0}.
Show that
T1
and
T2
(T1 ) = C
while
(T2 ) = .
F a measure2 able, realvalued, a.e. nite function on X . Let D (Mf ) = {g L (X, ) : 2 f g L (X, )} and let Mf g = f g . Then Mf is selfadjoint and (Mf ) = ess.range(f ) = { C : ({x :  f (x) < }) > 0 > 0}.
be a nite measure space and
80
Proposition 12.2.4
(X, )
Exercise 12.2.5
A be a self
H with dense domain. Then there exists a nite measure (X, ), a realvalued a.e. nite function f on X and a unitary operator u : H L2 (X, ) such that uAu = Mf
Proof. See [2]
orem allows us to dene a Borel functional calculus for self adjoint operators. Given a Borel function h on the spectrum of A, dene h(A) = u Mhf u.
A : H K
(A A)1/2
and
Range(A A)1/2
and
Range(A)
and
A = v (A A)1/2 .
(iii) If
A = uB for some positive B and partial Range(B ) then u = v and B = (A A)1/2 . A = (AA )1/2 v .
isometry
(iv) In addition
Proof. (i) Since
P : (A) H be projection onto the rst component. Since A is an operator Ker(P ) = {0} and hence Range(P ) is dense in (A) (so P P H is a core (A)
is closed, it is a Hilbert space. Let for
A).
Let
H, P = (, A ).
D(A),
< , >=< P , (, A ) >=< , > + < A, A > < , >=< A, A > A D(A ) and A A = .
81
In addition
Range(A A +
It is easy to see that A A is symmetric, so A A + 1 (A A + 1) . Let D ((A A + 1) ). Since Range(A A + 1) = H there exists ). D(A A + 1) with (A A + 1) = (A A + 1) (= (A A + 1) Ker((A A + 1) ) = {0} because Range(A A + 1) = H, and hence D(A A +1). Thus (A A +1) = A A +1 and so (A A) = A A. =
Finally, for positive,
D(A A), < A A, >=< A, A > 0 so A A i.e. (A A) [0, ) (just use the Spectral Theorem).
is
(ii) As we noted above, D (A A) is a core for A. D (A A) is also a core for 1/2 A = (A A) (use spectral theory). Thus AD(A A) = RangeA and AD(A A) = RangeA. Note that for D(A A),
A 2 =< A A, >=< A, A >= A 2 , v : A A , D(A A), extends to a partial isometry with initial space AD (A A) = RangeA and nal space AD(A A) = RangeA.
so that the map For
For
n D(A A)
with
(n , An ) (, A ).
Then
An = v v An = v An v A.
Since is closed,
D(A).
and
Hence (iii) If
D(A) = D(A)
then
A = v A.
A = B u = Bu . A A = Bu uB = B 2 since u u is projection onto Range(B ). By uniqueness of the positive square root 1/2 of a positive operator (Exercise 12.3.3), (A A) = B . Thus the initial space of u is Range(A) and uA = A = v A so u = v . A = uB
(iv)
A = v (A A)1/2 so A = (A A)1/2 v and hence AA = v (A A)1/2 (A A)1/2 v = v (A A)v (Exercise 12.3.3). Thus v implements the unitary equivalence 1/2 = v (A A)1/2 v and of AA Range(A) and A ARange(A ) . Hence (AA ) 1/2 then A = v (A A) = (AA )1/2 v .
Note that it was very important in (i) to establish that contained a core for A and hence was dense. It was not clear a D(A A) contained any elements other than 0. (i) Let
Remark 12.3.2
D(A A)
priori that
Exercise 12.3.3
T 1/2 T 1/ 2 = T .
82
M is a von Neumann algebra on H, an element a B (H) au = ua for every unitary in M . This inspires the following.
If
is in
i
T : D(T ) H is a linear operator on the Hilbert space H and M is a von Neumann algebra on H we say that T is aliated with M , written T M if, for any unitary u M , uD(T ) = D(T )
and
Denition 12.4.1
uT = T u D(T ).
Lemma 12.4.2
If
then
T M
if
T M . M
. But
T M
i
u(T ) = (T )
Lemma 12.4.3
2. If
If
then
(T )
is a
22
matrix of operators in
M. f (T ) M
T = uT 
then
uM
and
T .
1. is obvious from the characterisation of aliation given in the proof of the previous lemma. 2. follows from uniqueness of the polar decomposition and the bicommutant theorem.
83
84
using a faithful
Htr with respect M and its commutant. This is because the map J , which is the extension to Htr of the * operation on M , is an isometry. So x JxJ is the extension to Htr of right multiplication by x . Unfortunately if we use a (normal) nontracial state the * operation is no longer an isometry and there is no reason to expect either it or right multiplication by elements of M to have bounded extensions to H . But as we shall see, the * operation is actually 1/2 preclosed in the sense of unbounded operators and if S = J is the polar
normal trace produces a perfectly symmetric Hilbert space decomposition of its closure S , we will show that 1/2 it it will satisfy M = dynamicsa one parameter
JM J = M ! Quite remarkably, the operator M so that a state actually gives rise to a automorphism group of M (and M )!!
We will prove these results using a method of van Daele for which we have followed some notes of Haagerup ([],[]). But before getting started on this dicult theory it is essential to do some elementary calculations to see how it all works out in the
22
matrices.
Exercise 13.0.4
form i
Let M be M2 (C). Show that any state on M is of the (x) = T race(hx) for some positive h of trace 1. And that is faithful
(x) = T race(x
for some
0
1+
, 0 1.
With notation as in the previous exercise, suppose be the * operation on the GNS Hilbert space
85
Exercise 13.0.5
faithful and let
is
H .
Calculate
1/2 the polar decomposition S = J and show that z z Show that M = M for z C so that z (x) =
SM S = JM J = M . z xz = M denes a
representation of
as automorphisms of
which are
automorphisms i
z iR .
Exercise 13.0.6
nn
and
M and hence M . (The same data as a faithful normal state.) Let S0 and F0 be the conjugate linear operators with domains M and M dened by S0 (x) = x and F0 (x) = x for x M and M respectively.
In the sense of unbounded operators
F0 S0
Lemma 13.1.1
so that
Proof.
and
S0 F0
S0
and
F0
S0 (a), a extends to a bounded S0 (a), a = (a ) , a which is bounded as a function of a by CauchySchwartz. Hence a is the domain of S0 and S0 (a ) = (a ) = F0 (a ). Interchanging S0 and
To show
H.
But
F0
Let
Denition 13.1.2
S = J
1/2
Observe that
Let
and
F S
be the closures of
S0
and
F0
respectively.
S. S2 = 1 2 kernel J = 1
in the sense of 1 /2 and J J =
unbounded operators.
1/2
1/2 .
Theorem 13.1.3
set of all
(Takesaki,[].)
S = F , F = S
is the
and
Proof. Let
(, F ) be in the graph of F . By the denition of F we know that , (a ) = a , F . Now dene operators a and b with domain M by ax = x and bx = x F . Then a and b are closable for if x and y are in M we have a(x ), y = x , y = , (x ) y
86
= (y ) x , F = x , y F = x , b(y ) b a . Let c be the closure of a. Then c = a = and c = a b so c = F . Now by construction the domain of a is invariant under the unitary group of M and on it a commutes with the unitaries in M . This means that c is aliated with M . At this stage we have shown that the graph of F consists of all (c, c ) where c is a closed densely dened operator aliated with M and D (c) D (c ). We now want to show that the graph of F is contained in the graph of S . c c be its polar decomposition. This is not hard. Let c be as above and c = Then if fn (t) = t for 0 t n and fn (t) = 0 for t > n we have that fn ( c c) c c on any vector in the domain of c, and since c is aliated with M , fn ( c c) M so that ufn ( c c) is in the domain of S and tends to . Moreover fn ( c c)u tends to c = F so (, F ) is in the graph of S . Thus F S and we have already observed that S F . Hence S = F and S = F .
so that as before and
a b
Corollary 13.1.4
is
J 1/2 . M
.
and
Lemma 13.1.5
with
in the
there is an
aM
Proof. Assuming
(x) = x, a
with
a  1 we may apply theorem 8.3.1 to the and (x) = x, to obtain the existence of x, a = ax, + 1 xa, = x, a + 1 a, x .
dened by an
aM
Provided
a is in the domain of F
a = (S + 1 F )a.
a, x = x, a a
so by Cauchy Schwartz
is in the domain of
F = S .
Corollary 13.1.6
an M
with
an
Proof. Set
= (S + F )
the previous lemma there are an M with F = J (1/2 + 1/2 ) has bounded inverse (in the usual sense of unbounded 1 1 operators) so put n = (S + F ) (an ). So an = (S + F ) an . Moreover 1/2 an = 1/2 (1/2 + 1/2 )1 Jan
+ 1/2 )1 is bounded by spectral theory. So 1/2 an (S + F ) (S + F ) = 1/2 . In the same way 1/2 an 1/2 . M
and
We put everything together with a lemma linking subspace to which many functions of
on a dense
can be applied.
Lemma 13.1.7
then
If
and
are in
D(S ) D(F ), a ,
and
as in 13.1.5,
SaS, + 1 F aF , = a , .
Proof. By moving one
and
are x and y respectively, both in D (F ), for x and y in M . But on M , SaS acts by right multiplication by a so SaS, = xa , y = Sa, x y . On the other hand, systematically using F = S we obtain F aF x, y = y x, a = Sx y , a = F a, x y . Combining these two we see
see by the previous lemma that we may assume and
a , x y = a ,
Exercise 13.2.1
f
Let
be the strip
{z C : 1/2
f (0) =
Hint: Integrate
f (z ) sin z
S.
88
Proposition 13.2.2
a=
Proof. Since
2it
1/2
J =
1 /2
we have
H0 be the dense subspace of all vectors in H which is the union of [a,b] ( for 0 < a < b < . Certainly H0 D(S ) D(F ), H0 is invariant z z under J and for z C, and moreover for H0 , z is an entire function of z .
For
, H0
f (z ) = 2z az , z .
Then Also
f (0) = a,
H and a cyclic and separating vector for M . Suppose S is the closure of x x on M . 1/ 2 Let = S S , and J be the antiunitary of the polar decomposition S = J .
Let
Theorem 13.2.3
JM J = M it M it = M t R a M
we know that
Proof. If
2it
. Conjugating by a unitary
it Ja J it dt M 2cosht
and writing
u M
= e2
Fourier transforms of the strongly continuous rapidly decreasing functions it Ja J it it Ja J it and u u are equal. Hence it Ja J it M for all real
with vectors if you are not happy with Fourier transforms of operator valued functions.) Putting
t=0
we see
JM J M
and by symmetry
JM J M
. Hence
JM J = M
89
Denition 13.2.4
The operator
ular conjugation and the strongly continuous oneparameter group of auto it it morphisms of M dened by t (x) = x is called the modular automorphism group dened by
13.3 Examples.
Example 13.3.1
ITPFI
The acronym ITPFI stands for innite tensor product of nite type I. These von Neumann algebras are formed by taking the *algebra m union
A
in
as the
of tensor products
Am =
Am+1
Mnk .
One may then perform the GNS construction with cyclic and
separating vector
given by
1 A ,
M =
Mnk (C)
acting on
H .
and all the states are the same is called the Powers
factor and the product state the Powers state as it was R.Powers who rst showed that they give a continuum of nonisomorphic type III factors. A slight snag here is that we do not know that on
M.
will soon see that the state is indeed faithful, i.e. Recall from exercise 13.0.6 that, for
is cyclic for
J and M .
we
Mn (C), and h (x) = trace(xh) where h is the diagonal matrix (density matrix) with hii = i , i = 1, i > 0, j i e and n (eij ) = eij (where dependence on h has been then Jn (eij ) = i ji j
suppressed). To diagonalise the modular operators on vincing to choose an orthonormal basis
di of the diagonal matrices, with d1 = 1. Then a basis for the Hilbert space H is formed by tensors k=1 vk where vk = 1 for large k , and is otherwise a di or an eij with i = j . We can guess that J is, on each basis vector, the tensor product of the J 's
coming from the matrix algebras. Dening it as such it is clearly an isometry
x A , JxJ is in M by the nite dimensional calculation! But the linear span of these JxJ is dense so is cyclic for M and hence separating for M . We are hence in
on
H .
a position to apply Tomita Takesaki theory. Each of the basis elements is in M so S ( k=1 vk ) = k=1 wk where wk is vk if vk is diagonal, and eji if 90
vk = eij .
that
So
JS
J (x) = Jm (x)
and
and
(x) = m (x)
for
x Am ,
=
k=1
hk
Example 13.3.2
Let
Groupmeasurespace construction.
(X, )
pre
serving the class of the nite measure . The Hilbert space of the crossed L (X, ) is L2 (X, ) 2 () and as we saw in chapter 11 the vector 1 id is a cylic and separating vector for M = L (X, ) . product
is preserved by the the Radon Nikodym theorem L1 functions h so that (h (y )) = (x) where (y ) = yd. We know that, if x L (X, ) then S (u x) = x u 1 . In general X we will not be able to completely diagonalise but the same argument as in the previous example gives that the domain of is
Since the class of guarantees positive
{f : L2 (X, ) :
on which
(f )( ) = h f ( ),
and
1/2 (Jf )( ) = h f ( ).
We can now nally answer the question as to which sums elements of M = L (X, ) .
x u
dene
Theorem 13.3.3
is such that
x L (X, )
x u , interpreted as a matrix of operators as in section 11.2, denes a bounded operator, then that operator is in M = L (X, ) .
x u commutes with Jxu J And for this it suces to check that the 2 commutation holds on functions of the form f for f L . This is just
Proof. for all By 13.2.3 it suces to show that and
x L (X, )
a routine computation.
91
Show that example 13.3.1 is in fact a special case of this groupmeasurespace example in which L (X, ) is provided by the tensor products of the diagonal elements and the group
Exercise 13.3.4
is a restricted innite
Cartesian product of cyclic groups, constructed from the nondiagonal Conclude by the method of 11.2.15 that ITPFI algbras are factors.
eij 's.
This example brings to light a signicant inadequacy of our treatment of TomitaTakesaki theory. We would like to treat the case where the measure of the space is innite. Although of course we could choose an equivalent To do this we would have nite measure, this choice may not be natural. factor is to the trace on a type
II1
to understand the origin of the term modular used above as coming from the modular function on a nonunimodular locally compact group. reader to Takesaki's book [3]. serious treatment of weights would take many pages so we simply refer the
Example 13.3.5
If
ug
and
vg
regular representations respectively. If H is a subgroup, the projection pH = 1 2 (G) onto functions that are right translation hH vh projects from H  invariant under
H,
G/H .
on
G/H
is a direct summand of
the left regular representation and we have from EP7 of chapter 4 that the 2 commutant of the action of G on (G/H ) is pH (G)pH where (G) is the algebra generated by the right regular representation (of course isomorphic to
C).
pH vg pH
functions on cosets of
G,
the space of H H biinvariant 2 functions and we see it is the commutant of G on (G/H ). It is known as the Hecke algebra for the pair where
HgH which form the double coset (G) spanned by these double cosets is (G, H )
H \G/H .
is the group of
upper triangular matrices. The coset space is then the socalled ag variety and the Hecke algebra in this case leads to a lot of beautiful mathemtatics. See Bourbaki []. Nothing could better indicate how dierently things work for innite discrete groups than how the Hecke algebra works. Far from being direct summands, the quasiregular representations can be totally dierent from the left
92
regular representations and can even generate type III factors! These Hecke algebras give nice examples where the modular operators can be calculated explicitly.
Denition 13.3.6
(a)
A subgroup
is called almost
gHg 1 H
orbits of
is of nite index in
for all
g G. H
(i.e. the
on
G/H
G one may construct operators in the commutant G on 2 (G/H ) as follows: Given an element x of G/H let x be the characteristic function of x. 2 These functions form an orthonormal basis of (G/H ). Moreover each vector x is cyclic for the action of G hence separating for the commutant. If D is a double coset of H dene TD by the matrix
If is almost normal in of the quasiregular representation of
(TD )x,y =
Clearly
1 0 H
if
y 1 x = D ;
otherwise.
TD
is bounded since
G.
TD = TD1 .
It is also easy to check that
TD TE =
F
nF D,E TF
nF D,E =
#(E/H ) 0
if
otherwise.
H G and write it HvN (G, H ) by H is faithful and normal, and TD H , TD H = 0 unless D = D so that the TD 's are orthogonal. It is thus easy to calculate the operators for the modular theory on H (note that this 2 is not (G/H )). We guess as usual that J (TD ) = (constant)TD1 and by counting cosets in double cosets (or sizes of orbits of H on G/H ) we nd
von Neumann algebra of the pair
vector state
dened on
93
(#(D/H ))1/2 (#(H \D))1/2 . Thus as TD of H so essentially selfadjoint and (TD ) = #(H \D) TD #(D/H )
before
JS
t (TD ) =
it
TD .
Examples of almost normal subgroups are not hard to nd. The classical example of Hecke himself is the case where the case of the translations.
In this case the Hecke algebra is abelian. Bost and Connes in [4] examined
ax + b group over the rationals with the subgroup being integer They showed that HvN (G, H ) in this case is a type III factor
that this is not always so. If we are particularly interested in the modular group t it would be useful to be able to guess it and show that the guess is right without bothering about the domain of
Schwinger) condition from quantum statistical mechanics allows us to do just that. The modular group came from the nontracelike property of a state and the KMS condition allows us to correct for that. numbers (remember that Let us do a formal calculation assuming that the modular group can be extended to complex
is xed by
S, J
and
):
(xy ) = = = =
We conclude that
y , x y , J 1/2 x1 x1 , Sy y x1 , .
94
Exercise 13.4.1
If M is nite dimensional and is a faithful state, show that t = and that for each x and y in M there is an entire function F (z ) with, for t R,
and
F (z )
of the
Denition 13.4.2
on
Let
M , and be a faithful normal state satises the KMS condition for if t = and , for each x and y in M , there is a function F , continuous and bounded on the strip {z : 0 m(z ) 1}, analytic on the interior of the strip and such that for t R, M.
We say that
F (t) = (t (x)y ) F (t + i) = (yt (x)).
and
If is a faithful normal state on a von Neumann algebra M then t is the unique one parameter automorphism group satisfying the KMS condition for .
This chapter has been heavily technical so we defer the proof, which is by approximation on dense subspaces of the domain of an interesting corollary, identifying a part or trace.
Theorem 13.4.3
to which
the previous
on which
behaves as a
Corollary 13.4.4
1. 2.
For
aM
(ax) = (xa)
t (a) = a
for all
x M.
for all
t R.
2) Observe that for x M , x , a = , xa = , ax (by 1). So Sx, a = a , x so that a D (S ) and S (a) = . So (a) = a, it a = a and nally t (a) = a for all t R.
Proof.(1 (2
Use the
Schwarz reection principle to create a holomorphic function, constant on in the union of the strip with its complex conjugate. Thus the strip and
R,
is constant on
(xa) = (ax).
95
Denition 13.4.5
.
dened by either of
the conditions of the previous corollary is called the centraliser of the state
96
Theorem 14.1.1
algebra
Let
and
M.
t ut
from
to the
unitary group of
so that
t = Adut t
t R.
ut t (us ) = ut+s .
Morevoer
ut
on M M2 (C) by ((x)ij ) = 1 0 1 ((x11 ) + (x22 )). The projection p = is xed by by 13.4.4. 2 0 0 So denes a one parameter automorphism group of pM M2 (C)p which satises the KMS condition for . Hence t (x e11 ) = t (x) e11 . Similarly 0 0 t (x e22 ) = t (x) e22 . Let Vt = t (1 e21 ). Then Vt Vt = and 0 1 1 0 0 0 Vt Vt = . Hence Vt = for some unitary vt M . Routine 0 0 vt 0
Proof. We dene the faithful normal state computations give the rest.
Corollary 14.1.2
M
is of type III.
If
is a factor and
phi
and
then
97
Proof. By the previous result it suces to exhibit a single faithful normal state on a type II factor with inner modular group. In the II1 case use the trace and in the II case choose a faithful normal state
on
B (H)
and use
tr ,
using the KMS condition (if necessary) to very that the modular
group for the tensor product is the tensor product of the modular groups.
tR
for which
is inner is inde
M,
is called
T (M ). T (M ) for the Powers factor R where this refers all nk = 2 and all states having the same density
Theorem 14.1.5
T (R ) =
.
2 Z log 2 = id
log
so
2 Z log
T (R ).
of the
= k=1 Adu
is outer whenever the unitary For this rst dene and observe that if = Adv then (uk 1 1) v = id on the matrix algebra Ak = k 1 M2 (C). By exercise 5.3.3 this means that v = uk w . Now it is clear from our basis that we can choose p j =1 xi 1 with nonzero inner procuct with v . But then xing p and letting k tend to innity we see that
u is uk = k 1u
not a scalar.
(p j =1 xi 1), v =
j =1
The left hand side does not depend on
xi , u 1, u k
and
k p
1, w .
 1, u  = 1
is a scalar
Schwarz inequality. We conclude that the Powers factors nonisomorphic for dierent values of
98
If
S (M )
is
the intersection over all faithful normal states responding modular operators A factor
.
is of type III i
0 S (M ).
is a closed subgroup of
(Connesvan Daele)
S (M ) \ {0}
R+ . 01
if
Denition 14.2.4
A factor
Theorem 14.2.5
is of type III .
In his thesis , Connes showed that every type III factor for action of If algebra whose generator scales the trace by
0<<1
is Connes thesis
A is a locally compact abelian group with an action on a von Neumann on the crossed M , there is an action of the Pontryagin dual A product M A satisfying a (x) = x a (a)ua (ua ) = a
for if
xM ua are the
99
A is nite consider the projection p = a ua M A. A Show that pM Ap = M p and thus show that (M A) A is isomorphic to M MA (C).
If
Observe that the crossed product of a von Neumann algebra M on H by the modular group does not depend, up to isomorphism, on the faithful normal state . This follows from theorem 14.1.1 by dening the unitary 2 on L (R, H) by
Exercise 14.2.6
V f (t) = ut f (t)
where of
ut .
Conju
by
R.
on
Z (M
M.
(Takesaki duality) The crossed product
Theorem 14.2.9
(M
is isomorphic to the tensor product
Thus if
R)
M B (H)
for
H = L2 (R).
Theorem 14.2.10
III1 :
If
is III1 .
III :
0<
III0 :
is of type III ,
Ergodic nontransitive if
is of type III0 .
Moreover any ergodic nontransitive ow arises as the ow of weights for some type III0 factor.
100
Chapter 15 Hyperniteness
Denition 15.0.11
*subalgebras of A von Neumann algebra
An
of nite dimensional
which generates
Theorem 15.1.1
II1 factor.
x2 = tr(x x)1/2 on M . It is not hard to show that a von Neumann subalgebra N of M is strongly dense in M i it is dense in 2 . Given a subalgebra A of M and a subset S M
Sketch of proof. One works with the norm one says
S A
if for each
xS
there is a
yA
with
of
S M M with
and every
S A.
101
The next step is to show that the A in the preceeding condition can be n n chosen to be the 2 2 matrices for some (possibly very large) n. This part uses what might be described as II1 factor technique. One begins with
and approximates all its minimal projections {ei } by ones whose traces are n numbers of the form k/2 . The matrix units of A can be changed a little bit
 2 so that, together with matrix units conecting projections of trace 1/2n less than the ei , they generate a 2n 2n matrix algebra containing, up to , the matix units of A. Perturbation of the matrix units will involve results
in of the form:
u M satises (uu )2 uu 2 < v M with v u2 < F ( ) (for some nice function f with f (0) = 0).
If
or:
If p and q are projections with pq 2 < pq = 0 and q q  < F ( ).
with
or:
fij
are almost
nn
fij fji 2 < fij fkl j,k fil 2 < 1 n
n i=1
f ii2 <
units
n n matrix F (0) = 0.
eij
with
where
depends
Such results are proved by a skilful use of the polar decomposition and spectral theorem. Thus one shows that in a hypernite type II1 factor one has: Property * :
SM
and every
>0
there is a
2n 2n
matrix subalgebra of
with
S A.
One may now proceed to prove the theorem by choosing a sequence nk nk
 2 dense
xk
in
matrix algebras
Ak
For each
k = 1, 2, 3, ...,
{x1 , x2 , ..., xk }
Ak . 1/k
102
Ak 's is clearly dense in  2 . This is enough to prove theorem since the Ak 's can be used to give an isomorphism of M with type II1 factor M2 (C) constructed in section 7.2. Ak+1 eij
from
Ak
one needs to arrange for the new algebra Now use property * to obtain a
Ak+1 .
In
xi
eij .
eij
fij
close to the
eij .
the
fij
to
eij
Ak+1
This completes the sketch of the proof. The technique involved is considered standard in von Neumann algebras and the details can be found in .
dixmier
If
is the group of nitely supported permutations of a countably innite set then vN (S ) = M2 (C).
Proof. The subgroups of show that
Corollary 15.1.2
vN (S )
is hypernite.
It is surprising at rst sight that the type II1 factor from an ergodic measurepreserving transformation each (1) (2)
>0
AX
with and
T i (A) T j (A) =
1 i < j n,
u1
on
H is equivalent to injectivity
B (H)
onto
M.
This theorem,
whose proof is a great, great tour de force, has a raft of corollaries, many of
103
which were open questions. Let us just mention the fact that it follows easily that any subfactor of
R.
as
R which is innite dimensional is in fact isomorphic to vN (), as well as L (X, ) is hypernite as soon
is amenable.
of 20th.
century mathematics.
Connes showed in that there is only one for each scaling factor
tracescaling automorphism of
R B (H)
conjugacy. Together with this shows that for each a unique injective factor of type III .
with
krieger injective
Using results of Krieger in , his thesis and , Connes showed that hypernite type III0 factors are classied by their ow of weights (up to conjugacy of ows, not orbit equivalence). This means that there is a rather large number of III0 factors but their classication is in the realm of ergodic theory rather than von Neumann algebras. The remaining case of injective type III1 factors was solved by Haagerup
ueIIIone
in . There is just one such factor and a hypernite factor is generically of type III1 .
104
M is a type II1 factor , a central sequence in M is a (xn ) with limn [xn , a]2 = 0. A central sequence if limn xn tr (xn )id2 = 0. M is said to have
if there is a central
The collection of all central sequences is clearly a C subalgebra of (N, M ). If is a free ultralter on N, the subalgebra I of (N, M ) consisting of sequences with limn xn 2 = 0 is a 2sided ideal of (N, M ). Note also that M is embedded in (N, M ) as constant sequences.
With notation as above, the ultraproduct of M along is by I . It is written M . The algebra of ( )central sequences is the centraliser M = M M of M in (N, M ). the quotient of
Denition 16.1.2
(N, M )
denes a trace on
by
M . M
is complete
Exercise 16.1.3
in

Show that the unit ball (in the C norm) of 2 so that M and M are von Neumann algebras.
xn = 1 1 1...x 1 1... with the x in the nth. slot in the tensor product. For large enough n, xn will commute with any element in the algebraic tensor product so by the obvious (in the II1 case!) inequality [xn , a] 2xn  a2 we see that (xn ) is central and clearly nontrivial if x is not a scalar. Just as
clearly the central sequence algebra is noncommutative as we only need to choose
and
(xn )
and
(yn )
is a factor.
Theorem 16.2.1
Proof. If
(xn )
represents an element
X R ,
= {1} 1
1
and
Proof.Write
as
x u .
x x1 2 .
x tr(x)id it suces to prove the result if tr(x) = 0 x2 = 1 so that for such an x we must show 1 14 max{[x, u ]2 , [x, u ]2 , [x, u ]2 }. We rst make a simple estimate. If is any subset of and then
By replacing
by
x 2
x1 2  =
2x2 (
x x1 2 )1/2
106
so that if
{, , }
we have

where
x 2
x1 2  2
1 2
x1 2
x  + 2 .
x 2 +
2
x 1 2 +
x 1 2
x  4 . y
from the inequalities
y= 1 3y 4
Let as desired.
1 2y + 2
and
1/14
It is easy to come up with groups having subsets as in the previous theorem. For instance if
G = F2 ,
free on generators
and
h,
let
be the set
of all reduced words ending in a nonzero power of g . Let = g , = h and = h1 . The same works for more than two generators. We conclude:
Theorem 16.3.2
.
107
108
109
110
Chapter 18 Subfactors
111
112
113
114
115
116
Theorem B.0.3
M
Let
be
Proof. Perform the GNS construction with canonical cyclic and separating 1/2 vector and modular operators S = J . Recall that f () = for any it it function of with f (1) = 1. In particular (t (x) = ( x , so t preserves
.
(t (x)y ) = it y , x
and
(yt (x)) = = = =
So let
= y , = x and let pn be the spectral projection for for 1 the interval [1/n, n] so that pn tends strongly to 1 and are bounded on pn H . The functions Fn (z ) = iz pn ,
are then entire and
Fn (t) (t (x)y ) =  it (1 pn ),  (1 pn )    Fn (t + i) (yt (x)) =  1/2it (1 pn ), 1/2  (1 pn )1/2  1/2 .
117
and converge uniformly on its boundary. By the PhragmenLindelof theorem Now let us prove uniqueness of the modular group with the KMS condition. Let
. t
preserves
oneparameter unitary group t ut by ut x = t (x). By Stone's theorem it it is of the form t D for some nonsingular positive selfadjoint operator
A.
D = .
(t)t (x)dx f
for all
functions
of compact support on
R.
strongly so
f (log(D))x =
is in and
(t)Dit (x)dx f
A. Thus the spectral projections of D are in the strong closure of A A is dense. Moreover z Dz x is analytic for x A since x is in the spectral subspace of A for a bounded interval. Also A is invariant z under D by the functional calculus. To compare with dene, for x and y in A, the entire function F1 (z ) = Diz y , x .
Let for
be the function, analytic inside the strip and continuous and bounded
and
G(z )
1 mz 1
by
G(z ) =
Since
F (z ) F1 (z ) F (z ) F1 (z )
if if
mz 0; mz 0.
G is analytic for 1 < mz < 1, hence equal to 0, and since both F and F1 are continous on the strip, (yt (x)) = F (t + i) = F1 (t + i) = D1it y , x . In particular putting t = 0 we get F
and
F1
Dy , x
So
1/2 y D
is in the domain of
1/2
and
y = Dy .
z agree on A. But multiplication by the function e + 1 is a linear isomorphism of Cc so by functional calculus (D +1)A = A which is thus dense. Since D + 1 is invertible by spectral theory, any (, (D + 1) )
Thus and
essentially selfadjoint on
D + 1 can be approximated by (An , (D + 1)An ). Thus D is A, and both and D are selfadjoint extensions restriction of D to this domain. Thus D = .
119
120
Bibliography
[1] F.M. Goodman, P. de la Harpe, and V.F.R. Jones, Coxeter graphs and
transitions with spontaneous symmetry breaking in number theory, Selecta Math. (New Series),1, (1995), 411457.
121
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