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J. Ganesh Prasad Reddy1, K. Ramesh Reddy2

1

Associate Professor, Department of EEE, VVIT, Nambur, Pedakakani (M); Guntur (Dt); A.P, India.

2

Professor, Dean, Department of EEE, GNITS, Shaikpet, Hyderabad, A.P, India. quality of source currents to a large extent. It affects the voltage at point of common coupling (PCC) where the facility is connected. This has adverse effects on the sensitive equipments connected to PCC and may damage the equipment appliances. Excessive reactive power demand increases feeder losses and reduces active power flow capability of the DS, whereas unbalancing affects the operation of transformers and generators [2-3]. Many techniques have been proposed to improve the supply side power factor to cancel out the harmonics generated by power electronic loads. The remedies to PQ problems are reported in the literature and are known by the generic name of custom power devices (CPD) [4]. The DSTATCOM (Distribution static compensator) is a shuntconnected CPD, with the load which takes care of the compensation of reactive power and unbalance loading in the DS (i.e PQ problems). Similarly, the application of Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) Multilevel Voltage source converter with split capacitors for three-phase three-wire system is found to be satisfactory [6-12]. Among the different control techniques applied to three-phase three-wire compensators, the SRFT (synchronous reference frame theory) based technique is found to be suitable for the control of DSTATCOM[14]. This paper presents various issues in design of Proportional Integral (PI) and comparison between the level shifted carrier (LSCPWM) and phase shifted carrier pulse width modulation (PSCPWM) techniques are used to obtain switching logic for DSTATCOM. The performance of these controllers is demonstrated with linear resistive-inductive (R-L) loads through simulation results using Power System toolboxes (PST) of Simulink / MATLAB. II. DESIGN OF MULTILEVEL BASED DSTATCOM A. Principle of DSTATCOM A D-STATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator), which is schematically depicted in Figure-1, consists of a twolevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC), a dc energy storage device, a coupling transformer connected in shunt to the distribution network through a coupling transformer. The VSC converts the dc voltage across the storage device into a set of three-phase ac output voltages. These voltages are in phase and coupled with the ac system through the reactance of the coupling transformer. Suitable adjustment of the phase and magnitude of the D-STATCOM output voltages allows

Abstract- This paper presents an investigation of five-Level Cascaded H bridge (CHB) Inverter as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) in Power System (PS) for compensation of reactive power and harmonics. The advantages of CHB inverter are low harmonic distortion, reduced number of switches and suppression of switching losses. The DSTATCOM helps to improve the power factor and eliminate the Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) drawn from a Non-Liner Diode Rectifier Load (NLDRL). The D-Q reference frame theory is used to generate the reference compensating currents for DSTATCOM while Proportional and Integral (PI) control is used for capacitor dc voltage regulation. A CHB Inverter is considered for shunt compensation of a 11 kV distribution system. Finally a level shifted PWM (LSPWM) and phase shifted PWM (PSPWM) techniques are adopted to investigate the performance of CHB Inverter. The results are obtained through Mat lab / Simulink software package. Keywords- DSTATCOM, Level shifted carrier Pulse width modulation (LSPWM), Phase shifted carrier Pulse width modulation (PSPWM), Proportional-Integral (PI) control, CHB multilevel inverter, D-Q reference frame theory.

I. INTRODUCTION Power Quality (PQ) is the key to successful delivery of quality product and operation of an industry. The increased application of electronic loads and electronic controllers which are sensitive to the quality of power makes serious economic consequences and of revenues loss each year. Poor PQ can cause malfunctioning of equipment performance, harmonics, voltage imbalance, sag and flicker problems, standing waves and resonance are some of the issues that adversely affect production and its quality leading to huge loss in terms of product, energy and damage to equipment. Thus, it becomes imperative to be aware of quality of power grid and the deviation of the quality parameters from the norms / standard such as IEEE-519 standard [1] to avoid breakdown or equipment damage. In present day distribution systems (DS), major power consumption has been in reactive loads. The typical loads may be computer loads, lighting ballasts, small rating adjustable speeds drives (ASD) in air conditioners, fans, refrigerators, pumps and other domestic and commercial appliances are generally behaved as nonlinear loads. These loads draw lagging power-factor currents and therefore give rise to reactive power burden in the DS. Moreover, situation worsens in the presence of unbalanced and non-linear loads, affect the

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effective control of active and reactive power exchanges between the DSTATCOM and the ac system. Such configuration allows the device to absorb or generate controllable active and reactive power. on the efficiency of the converter, without incurring significant switching losses.

The VSC connected in shunt with the ac system provides a multifunctional topology which can be used for up to three quite distinct purposes: 1. Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power; 2. Correction of power factor 3. Elimination of current harmonics. Here, such device is employed to provide continuous voltage regulation using an indirectly controlled converter. As shown in Figure-1 the shunt injected current Ish corrects the voltage sag by adjusting the voltage drop across the system impedance Zth. The value of Ish can be controlled by adjusting the output voltage of the converter. The shunt injected current I sh can be written as, Ish = IL IS = IL ( Vth VL ) / Zth Ish /_ = IL /_- (1) (2)

The controller input is an error signal obtained from the reference voltage and the rms terminal voltage measured. Such error is processed by a PI controller; the output is the angle , which is provided to the PWM signal generator. It is important to note that in this case, of indirectly controlled converter, there is active and reactive power exchange with the network simultaneously. The PI controller processes the error signal and generates the required angle to drive the error to zero, i.e. the load rms voltage is brought back to the reference voltage. C. Control for Harmonics Compensation The Modified Synchronous Frame method is presented in [7]. It is called the instantaneous current component (id-iq) method. This is similar to the Synchrous Reference Frame theory (SRFT) method. The transformation angle is now obtained with the voltages of the ac network. The major difference is that, due to voltage harmonics and imbalance, the speed of the reference frame is no longer constant. It varies instantaneously depending of the waveform of the 3-phase voltage system. In this method the compensating currents are obtained from the instantaneous active and reactive current components of the nonlinear load. In the same way, the mains voltages V (a,b,c) and the available currents il (a,b,c) in - components must be calculated as given by (4), where C is Clarke Transformation Matrix. However, the load current components are derived from a SRF based on the Park transformation, where represents the instantaneous voltage vector angle (5).

The complex power injection of the D-STATCOM can be expressed as, Ssh = VL Ish* (3) It may be mentioned that the effectiveness of the DSTATCOM in correcting voltage sag depends on the value of Zth or fault level of the load bus. When the shunt injected current Ish is kept in quadrature with V L, the desired voltage correction can be achieved without injecting any active power into the system. On the other hand, when the value of I sh is minimized, the same voltage correction can be achieved with minimum apparent power injection into the system. B. Control for Reactive Power Compensation The aim of the control scheme is to maintain constant voltage magnitude at the point where a sensitive load under system disturbances is connected. The control system only measures the root mean square (rms) voltage at the load point, i.e., no reactive power measurements are required. The VSC switching strategy is based on a sinusoidal PWM technique which offers simplicity and good response. Since custom power is a relatively low-power application, PWM methods offer a more flexible option than the fundamental frequency switching methods favored in FACTS applications. Apart from this, high switching frequencies can be used to improve

[ ] [ ]

[ ][ ] [ ][ ]

(4) (5)

Figure-3 shows the block diagram SRF method. Under balanced and sinusoidal voltage conditions angle is a uniformly increasing function of time. This transformation angle is sensitive to voltage harmonics and unbalance;

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therefore d/dt may not be constant over a mains period. With transformation given below the direct voltage component is [ ] [ ] (6)

Table-2:- Switching table for 5-level CHB Inverter

][

(7)

[ ] [

(8)

S1 S3

E. Design of Single H-Bridge Cell 1. Device Current The IGBT and DIODE currents can be obtained from the load current by multiplying with the corresponding duty cycles. Duty cycle, d = (1+Kmsint), Where, m = modulation index K = +1 for IGBT, -1 for Diode. For a load current given by Iph = 2 I sin (wt ) Then the device current can be written as follows. ( ) ( ) (10) (9)

Vdc S4

Vout

S2

Figure-4 shows the circuit model of a single CHB inverter configuration. By using single H-Bridge we can get 3 voltage levels. The number of output voltage levels of CHB is given by 2n+1 and voltage step of each level is given by Vdc/2n, where n is number of H-bridges connected in cascaded. The switching table is given in Table 1.

Table-1 Switching table of single CHB inverter

The average value of the device current over a cycle is calculated as = [ ( ] ) ( ) (11)

B IGBT Loss Calculation IGBT loss can be calculated by the sum of switching loss and conduction loss. The conduction loss can be calculated by, Pon (IGBT) = Vceo * Iavg (igbt) + I2rms (igbt) * rceo

( )

(13) (14)

[ [

] ]

(15)

Values of Vceo and rceo at any junction temperature can be obtained from the output characteristics (Ic vs. Vce) of the IGBT as shown in Fig .6.

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PT (DIODE) = Pon (DIODE) + Psw (DIODE) (24)

The total loss per one switch (IGBT+DIODE) is the sum of one IGBT and DIODE loss. PT = PT (IGBT) + Psw (DIODE) D. (25)

The switching losses are the sum of all turn-on and turnoff energies at the switching events Esw = Eon + Eoff = a + bI + cI2 Assuming the linear dependence, switching energy Esw = (a + bI + cI2) * (17) (16)

Thermal Calculations The junction temperatures of the IGBT and DIODE are calculated based on the device power losses and thermal resistances. The thermal resistance equivalent circuit for a module is shown in Fig-7. In this design the thermal calculations are started with heat sink temperature as the reference temperature. So, the case temperature from the model can be written as follows. Tc = PT Rth (c-h) + Th (26)

Here Rth(c-h) = Thermal resistance between case and heat sink PT = Total Power Loss (IGBT + DIODE) (27)

Here VDC is the actual DC-Link voltage and Vnom is the DCLink Voltage at which Esw is given. Switching losses are calculated by summing up the switching energies. () Here n depends on the switching frequency. Psw = ( ) [ ] (19) (18)

IGBT junction temperature is the sum of the case temperature and temperature raise due to the power losses in the IGBT. Tj (IGBT) = PT (IGBT) Rth (j-c) IGBT + Tc (28)

The DIODE junction temperature is the sum of the case temperature and temperature raise due to the power losses in the DIODE. Tj (DIODE) = PT (DIODE) Rth (j-c) DIODE + Tc (29)

After considering the DC-Link voltage variations, switching losses of the IGBT can be written as follows. Psw (IGBT) = fsw [ ] (20)

The above calculations are done based on the average power losses computed over a cycle. So, the corresponding thermal calculation gives the average junction temperature. In order to make the calculated values close to the actual values, transient temperature values are to be added to the average junction temperatures.

So, the sum of conduction and switching losses is the total losses given by PT (IGBT) = Pon (IGBT) + Psw (IGBT) C (21)

Diode Loss Calculation The DIODE switching losses consist of its reverse recovery losses; the turn-on losses are negligible. Erec = a + bI + cI2 Psw (DIODE) = fsw [ ] (22) (23)

Figure-7 Thermal resistance equivalent circuit

So, the sum of conduction and switching losses gives the total DIODE looses.

E. DC-Capacitor Selection The required capacitance for each cell depends on the allowable ripple voltage and the load current. The rms ripple

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current flowing into the capacitor can be written as follows and the ripple current frequency is double the load current frequency.

S1 S3

this case the phase displacement of Vcr1 = 0, Vcr2 = 90, Vcr1= 180 and Vcr2- = 270. Case-2:- Level Shifted Carrier PWM (LSCPWM)

Vdc S4

Vout

S2

(|

(30)

Since the value of L is very small, the above equation can be simplified to (|

| |

| (

) )

) ( )

(31) (32)

Figure-10 shows the Level shifted carrier pulse width modulation. An m-level Cascaded H-bridge inverter using level shifted modulation requires (m1) triangular carriers, all having the same frequency and amplitude. The frequency modulation index is given by mf = fcr / fm, which remains the same as that for the phase-shifted modulation scheme. For PID modulation, the multilevel converter with multilevel requires (m1) triangular carriers with same amplitude and frequency. The frequency modulation index mf which can be expressed as: mf = fcr / fm (32)

where fm is modulating frequency and fcr are carrier waves frequency. The amplitude modulation index ma is defined by ma = Vm / Vcr (m-1) for 0 ma 1 (33)

F. PWM Techniques for CHB Inverter The most popular PWM techniques for CHB inverter are 1. Phase Shifted Carrier PWM (PSCPWM), 2. Level Shifted Carrier PWM (LSCPWM). Case-1:- Phase Shifted Carrier PWM (PSCPWM)

Figure-9 shows the Phase shifted carrier pulse width modulation. In general, a multilevel inverter with m voltage levels requires (m 1) triangular carriers. In the phase shifted multicarrier modulation, all the triangular carriers have the same frequency and the same peak-to-peak amplitude, but there is a phase shift between any two adjacent carrier waves, given by

( )

Where Vm is the peak value of the modulating wave and V cr is the peak value of the each carrier wave [1]. The amplitude modulation index, ma is 1 and the frequency modulation index, mf is 6. The triggering circuit is designed based on the three phase sinusoidal modulation waves, Va, Vb, and Vc. Three of the sine wave sources have been obtained with same amplitude and frequency but displaced 120 out of the phase with each others. For carriers wave sources block parameters, the time values of each carrier waves are set to [0 1/600 1/300] while the outputs values are set according to the disposition of carrier waves. After comparing, the output signals of comparator are transmitted to the IGBTs. Fig-10, 11, 12 shows the waveforms based on three schemes of level shifted multilevel modulations: (a) in phase disposition (IPD) fig-10, where all carriers are in phase; (b) alternative phase opposite disposition (APOD) fig-11, where all carriers are alternatively in opposite disposition; and (c) phase opposite disposition (POD) fig-12, where all carriers above zero reference are in phase but in opposition with those below the zero reference [1]. Out of IPOD, APOD and POD, IPOD gives better harmonic performance.

three-phase sinusoidal wave with adjustable amplitude and frequency. The gate signals are generated by comparing the modulating wave with the carrier waves. It means for the five level inverter, four are triangular carriers are needed with a 90 phase displacement between any two adjacent carriers. In

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Figure-15 shows the three phase source voltages, three phase source currents and load currents respectively without DSTATCOM. It is clear that without DSTATCOM load current and source currents are same.

IV MATLAB/SIMULINK MODELING AND SIMULATION RESULTS Figure-13 shows the Matab/Simulink power circuit model of DSTATCOM. It consists of five blocks named as source block, non linear load block, control block, APF block and measurements block. The system parameters for simulation study are source voltage of 11KV, 50 Hz AC supply, DC bus capacitance 1550e-6 F, Inverter series inductance 10 mH, Source resistance of 0.1 ohm and inductance of 0.9 mH. Load resistance and inductance are chosen as 30mH and 60 ohms respectively.

Figure-16 shows the three phase source voltages, three phase source currents and load currents respectively with DSTATCOM. It is clear that with DSTATCOM even though load current is non sinusoidal source currents are sinusoidal

Case-1 Phase shifted carrier PWM technique results Figure-14 shows the phase-A voltage of five level output of phase shifted carrier PWM inverter.

Figure-17 shows the DC bus voltage. The DC bus voltage is regulated to 11kv by using PI regulator.

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Figure-18 shows the harmonic spectrum of Phase A Source current without DSTATCOM. The THD of source current without DSTACOM is 36.89%.

Figure-21 shows the DC bus voltage with respect to time. The DC bus voltage is regulated to 11kv by using PI regulator.

Figure-22 shows the harmonic spectrum of Phase A Source current without DSTATCOM. The THD of source current without DSTACOM is 29.48 %.

Figure-19 shows the harmonic spectrum of Phase A Source current with DSTATCOM. The THD of source current without DSTACOM is 5.05%.

Figure-23 shows the harmonic spectrum of Phase A Source current with DSTATCOM. The THD of source current without DSTACOM is 7%.

Fig-19 Harmonic spectrum of Phase-A Source current with DSTATCOM

Case-2 Level shifted carrier PWM technique results Figure-20 shows the three phase source voltages, three phase source currents and load currents respectively with DSTATCOM. It is clear that with DSTATCOM even though load current is non sinusoidal source currents are sinusoidal.

Fig-23 Harmonic spectrum of Phase-A Source current with DSTATCOM

Table-3: Comparison between the phase and level shifted PWM schemes Comparison Phase shifted Level shifted Modulation modulation (IPD)

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Device switching frequency Device conduction period Rotating of switching patterns THD of Source Current Same for devices Same for devices Not required 5.05% all all Different Different Required 7%

867, August 2002.

V CONCLUSION A DSTATCOM with five level CHB inverter is investigated. Mathematical model for single H-Bridge inverter is developed which can be extended to multi H-Bridge. The source voltage, load voltage, source current, load current, power factor simulation results under non-linear loads are investigated for both PSCPWM and LSCPWM and are tabulated. Finally with the help of Matlab/Simulink based model simulation we conclude that PSCPWM is better than LSCPWM techniques and the results are presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am thankful to my Guide Dr. K. Ramesh Reddy, Professor, Dean and Head of Department of EEE for his valuable suggestion to complete my paper in time.

REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonics Control in Electric Power Systems, IEEE Std. 519, 1992. [2] A. Moreno-Munoz, Power Quality: Mitigation Technologies in a Distributed Environment. London, U.K.: Springer-Verlag, 2007. [3] N. G. Hingorani, Introducing Custom Power, IEEE Spectrum, Vol.32, n . 6, pp. 41-48, June 1995 [4] Ghosh and G. Ledwich, Power quality enchancement using custom power devices, London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. [5] Acha, V.G. Agelidis, O. Anaya-Lara and T.J.E.Miller, Power ElectronicControl in Electrical systems, England, Newnes, 2002. [6] A Pandey, B Singh, B N Singh, A Chandra, K Al-Haddad, D P Kothari,A Review of Multilevel Power Converters, IE (I) Journal.EL, vol. 86, pp.220231, March, 2006. [7] K.A Corzine, and Y.L Familiant, A New Cascaded Multi -level H-Bridge Drive, IEEE Trans. Power.Electron., vol.17, no.1, pp.125 -131. Jan 2002. [8] J.S.Lai, and F.Z.Peng Multilevel converters A new breed of converters, IEEE Trans. Ind.Appli., vol.32, no.3, pp.509 -517. May/ Jun. 1996. [9] T.A.Maynard, M.Fadel and N.Aouda, Modelling of multilevel converter, IEEE Trans. Ind.Electron., vol.44, pp.356 -364. Jun.1997. [10] P.Bhagwat, and V.R.Stefanovic, Generalized structure of a multilevel PWM Inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appln, Vol.1A-19, no.6, pp.1057-1069, Nov./Dec..1983. [11] J.Rodriguez, Jih-sheng Lai, and F Zheng peng, Multilevel Inverters; A Survey of Topologies, Controls, and Applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.49 , no4., pp.724-738. Aug.2002. [12] Roozbeh Naderi, and Abdolreza rahmati, Phase-shifted carrier PWM technique for general cascaded inverters, IEEE Trans. Power.Electron., vol.23, no.3, pp.1257-1269. May.2008. [13] Bhim Singh, Kamal AlHaddad & Ambrish Chandra, 1999, A Review of Active Filter for Power Quality Improvements, IEEE Trans on Industrial Electronics, 46(5), pp.960970 [14] Mauricio Angulo, Pablo Lezana, Samir Kouro, Jose Rodrguez and Bin Wu,Level-shifted PWM for Cascaded Multilevel Inverters with Even Power Distribution IEEE Power Electronics specialist conference, 17-21 june 2007, pp.2373-2378. [15] B. P. McGrath and D. G. Holmes, Multicarrier PWM strategies for multilevel inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 858

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