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GYRGY E.

SZNYI

HUNGARIAN ETHNOGRAPHY, FOLKLORE and MUSIC HISTORY


A course for international students.

UNIVERSITY OF SZEGED Hungarian and Central European International Studies Center 2012

CONTENTS

I. RESOURCES, WHERE TO FIND FOLKLORE?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Folklore on display.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Folklore assimilated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. ETHNOGRAPHY, ETHNOLOGY, AND FOLKLORE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Some Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 III. BETWEEN EAST AND WEST. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Conflicting views about the origins of Hungarian ethnic character.. . . . . . . . 2. The Hungarian Ethnogenesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The Complexity of the Hungarian Ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 2 3

IV. HISTORICAL LAYERS IN HUNGARIAN FOLKLORE.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 V. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. The Family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Power stratification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 VI. MATERIAL ANTHROPOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. Settlements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. The Lot / The House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 VII. FOLK COSTUMES AND ORNAMENTAL ART. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Folk Costumes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Ornamental Art. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 VIII. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Customs and Beliefs .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. The Role of Sacral Folklore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. The Framework: The Calendar Year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. The Major Christian Feasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Cycles of Life, Rites of Passage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 IX. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY FOLK ART. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. Instruments of Expression In Cultural Anthropology; The Media. . . . . . . . 10 2. Folk Poetry And Prose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 X. THE STORY OF HUNGARIAN FOLK MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. The Origins of Verbunkos Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Discovery of Pentatony.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI. FOLK DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Historical Layers Of European Dance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Hungarian national dances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 14 14 15 15 16

RECOMMENDED READINGS MANDATORY


Sznyi, Gyrgy E. 2005. Hungarian Ethnography, Folklore, and Music History. Lecture Notes. SZTE Hungarian Studies. Video and PowerPoint materials shown in the class.

RECOMMENDED
Balassa, Ivn; Gyula Ortutay. 1979, 1980. Magyar nprajz. Budapest: Corvina. Balassa, Ivn; Gyula Ortutay. 1984. Hungarian Ethnography and Folklore. Preface by Alexander Fenton. Budapest: Corvina. Dmtr, Tekla. 1982. Hungarian Folk Beliefs. Budapest: Corvina. Dmtr, Tekla. 1988. Hungarian Folk Customs. Budapest: Corvina. Gborjn, Alice. 1988. Hungarian Peasant Costumes. Budapest: Corvina. Hofer, Tams; Pter Niedermller. 1988. Life History As Cultural Construction/Performance. Budapest: MTA Folklore Institute. Hofer, Tams; Edit Fl. 1994. Hungarian Folk Art. Budapest: Corvina. Hoppl, Mihly; Juha Pentikkainen. 1989. Uralic Mithology and Folklore. Budapest: EUR. Kecsks, Pter. 1990. The Museum of the Hungarian Village at Szentendre. Budapest: Corvina. Kodly, Zoltn. 1982. Folk Music of Hungary. Revised by Lajos Vargyas. Budapest: Corvina. Ksa, Lszl. 1984. Life and Tradition in Rural Hungary. Budapest: Corvina. Lange, Roderyk. 1982. Dance Studies Vol. 6. In Memoriam Gyrgy Martin. Jersey, Channel Islands: Centre for Dance Studies. Manga, Jnos. 1969. Hungarian Folk Songs and Instruments. Budapest: Corvina. Martin, Gyrgy. 1980. Improvisation and Regulation in Hungarian Folk Dances. Budapest: Akadmiai. Martin, Gyrgy. 1985. Peasant Dance Traditions and National Dance Types in East-Central Europe in the 16th-19th Centuries. Budapest: Akadmiai. Martin, Gyrgy. 1988. Hungarian Folk Dances. Budapest: Corvina. Moldovn, Domokos. 1982. Love Spells and Death Rites in Hungary. Budapest: Gondolat. Pcs, Eva. 1999. Between the Living and the Dead. A Perspective on Witches and Seers in the Early Modern Age. Budapest: CEU Press. Rcz, Istvn. Finno-Ugric Folk Art. 1979. Budapest: Corvina. Srosi, Blint. 1986. Folk Music. Hungarian Musical Idiom. Budapest: Corvina. Scheiber, Alexander. 1985. Essays on Jewish Folklore and Comparative Literature. Budapest: Akadmiai. Somos, Andrs. 1984. The Paprika. Budapest: Akadmiai. Veres, Pter. 1996. The Ethnogenesis of the Hungarian People. Budapest: Ethnographical Institute (Occasional Papers in Anthropology 5). Important Periodicals Hungarian Heritage. Budapest: European Folklore Institute. Shaman. Journal of the Intrnational Society for Shamanistic Research. Szeged: Molnar and Kelemen Oriental Publishers. Very Important Weblink Hungarolgiai Alapknyvtr <http://mek.oszk.hu/hungalap/index.html>.

I. RESOURCES, WHERE TO FIND FOLKLORE?


One of Hungarys hallmark in the eyes of foreigners is our famous folklore. Our giftshops are full of folkloric souvenirs, toursists find old women selling their embroidery at many frequented places, the folk music concerts and the folkdancing programs are always full, and the visitors on the Puszta can easily find the tough Hungarian horsemen and cowboys as they parade with their animals, dressed in spectacular folkdresses. And still, we have to admit, that living Hungarian folklore is virtually extinct, except for special political reasons in Transylvania. The survival and availability of rural culture can be seen in the following forms:

1. Folklore on display
1/ 2/ 3/ 1/ 2/ 3/ Museum villages, skanzens. The idea of the skanzen (of Swedish origin). Famous sites: Szentendre, pusztaszer, Szombathely, Nyregyhza. Collections, museums: the Museum of Ethnography and Folklore in Budapest and in most local museums. Books, publications. In literature and the visual arts: from the 19th century popular movement to present day ruralism. In the music of Bartk and Kodly. The Dancing House movement since the 1970s. Historicist interpretations.

2. Folklore assimilated

(1) Rural vs. urban folklore Some elements of folklore have been assimilated in everyday life. These predominantly relate to customs, which is an important field of ethnography. The importance of sacral folklore: the study of those customs and folk-cultural productions which can be connected to the church rituals and religious beliefs. Feast, family devotion, paraliturgical everyday customs, community cult. By and large folk customs and beliefs fall within the territory of sacral folklore. The structure of folk customs coincides with the Christian calendar year. (2) Folklore abused, commericalized Folkisch items sold to tourists; Piroschka tours; Gypsy music in restaurants. (3) The special case of Hollk, village of the world heritage In this village (which has been fortunately preserved in its 19th century state) time has stopped. The inhabitants are forced to live a lifestyle which is long dead elsewhere. Although beautiful, this way of preserving folklore is very debatable. (4) The survival of living folklore in Transylvania Because of the long political oppression of the Hungarian minority in Transylvania (todays Roumania), the ethnic Hungarians until recently stick to their customs, costumes and language as a sign of resistance. Because of this the old rural lifestyle survived longer than in present day Hungary. As the oppressive system fell in 1989, however, and together with the modernization beginning with the reintroduction of capitalism and market economy, the old lifeways have started quickly disappear. (Remember: gas-station culture attracts the youth in the villages.)

Religious procession in Hollk

II. ETHNOGRAPHY, ETHNOLOGY, AND FOLKLORE 1. Some Definitions


ANTHROPOLOGY the study of the races, physical and mental characteristics, distribution, customs, social relationships etc. of mankind (institutions, myths) ETHNOGRAPHY the branch of anthropology that deals descriptively with specific cultures esp with those of primitive peoples FOLKLORE the traditions, beliefs, customs etc. of a people; the specific study of these; it excludes social and material anthropology ETHNOLOGY the branch of anthropology that deals with the comparative cultures of various peoples, including their distribution, folkways, etc.

(1) Major areas of ethnography (and ethnology) 1/ 2/ 3/ Social anthropology: society, social stratification, the family, kindred, and clan; work distribution, the village hierarchy. Material anthropology: the settlement, environment, architecture; farming and animal husbandry; alimentation, dressing, folk costumes, etc. Cultural anthropology: the peasant world view; folk customs; folk poetry, music, and dancing.

III. BETWEEN EAST AND WEST The Ethnogenesis Of The Hungarian People 1. Conflicting views about the origins of Hungarian ethnic character
1/ 2/ 3/ an undisputed variant of Western cultural models enthusiasm for Eastern cultures (Turanic origin, Hun-Scythian relationship, Iranian-Sumeric origin) frustration: totally lonely, isolated culture (linguistic isolation)

2. The Hungarian Ethnogenesis


The relationship of the FinnoUgric peoples. Original homeland: the upper-Volga region. The original Hungarians: fishing-hunting people. (2500 500 B.C.) Transfer to the South: the Hungarians merged with Turkic peoples (Chuvash tribes) and adopted nomadic lifestyle (500 B.C.463 A.D.). Moving westward, north from the Black Sea (Khazar Empire, c. 630830). The Turkic influence resulted in animal husbandry, domestication of sheep, cattle,

The Family Tree of Finno-Urgic Peoples

and horses. Basics of plaugh agriculture. Byzantine sources call them Turks, Onugrians 'ten tribes'. From this comes the internationally used name: (H)Ungarus, Ungar, Vengri; while the Hungarians call themselves Magyars after the tribal name Magyer of Ugrian origin. In the 9th century seven Hungarian tribes with a Khazar group (Kabars) moved towards West. From this time on Byzantine sources use the Magyar name. Further Turcic cultural influences: runic script, cosmology (tltos shaman). 862896: the Hungarians occupied the Carpathian Basin. This was the Conquest, or Landtaking. 20,000 horsemen constituting about 100,000 families, altogether about half a million Hungarians. In the new land: Slavic influences.

The Hungarian transfer to the Carpathian Basin

3. The Complexity of the Hungarian Ethnicity


(1) Neighbors, interacting cultures Finnish, Polish, Slovakian in the North; Austrian-German in the West; Serbo-Croatian in the South; Rumanian, Ruthenian in the East. Later cultural influences: Italian, French, Osman-Turkish. (2) Interacting nationalities in historical Hungary Slovaks (Tt); Rumanians (Olh); Germans (saxon/szsz in Transylvania, svb in Hungary). (3) Hungarian ethnic groups, ethnographic regions Pockets of survival in Transdanubia - rsg, in Upper Hungary the Palotses and Matys, on the Great Plain the Cumanians, in Transylvania the Szkelys and in Moldva the Csngos. (4) Religious divisions Roman Catholicism (WEST) vs. Greek-Slavic Orthodoxy EAST) The importance of Reformation (Lutheranism and Calvinism mostly).

In spite of the Eastern origin the Hungarians retained very little of it in their folklore. More decisive factors were the acceptance of Christianity and the influence of the neighbors. Hungarian folk culture is a complex unity of its constituents and international in character. Despite linguistic ethnic isolation, Hungarian folk culture became part and parcel of Europe's rich and complex folk culture.

Ethnic And Folkloric Regions In Historical Hungary

IV. HISTORICAL LAYERS IN HUNGARIAN FOLKLORE


(1) The ethnography of the pre-conquest, nomadic period Allied disciplines: historical linguistics, musicology, archeology. This ethnic culture has only very remote links with present day folklore. (2) From the Middle Ages to the 19th century The great watershed of adpoting Christianity. Up to the 16th century there was no distinctive folklore. From that time on we see a process of "descending/sinking cultural goods". (3) Present day folklore It was formed in the 18th and 19th centuries. The amount of data we have is from that period (c. 17501950), however it represents various historical layers: 1/ Gothic: tables with large drawers, small wall cabinets, coffin shaped cloth-chests. Geometric ornamental art. 2/ Renaissance: architecture (flower painted ceilings), furniture. Flowery ornamental art, embroidery. Csrds dancing. Folk ballads, poetry, "flower songs". Renaissance dressing style: loose sleeved women's shirts. 3/ Baroque: architecture (manor house style), ornamental art (Turkish influences). 4/ 18th century: great shift, the emergence of "modern" Hungarian folklore, "new styles". Regional variants, peasant style emerging from the capitalizing, prospering peasantry. 4

Peasant Chests (19th And Early 20th Century), Representing Various Period Styles

V. SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Social anthropology has been a relatively neglected area of ethnography. An important link between material and cultural anthropology. The social relations were formed by and forming the other two.

1. The Family
FAMILY the smallest work and cultural unit the house NUCLEAR parents and children EXTENDED several generations on one land, in patriarchal structure 'gazda', 'gazdasszony' TROOP, CLAN, KINDRED artificial kindreds: neighbors, godparents, etc. the importance of fence, border

2. Power stratification
1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ government: nobles, lords, the village intelligentsia (priest, notary, doctor, pharmacist) self-government: rich and poor peasants (judge of peace, night watch, fire watch) landless agricultural laborers (share laborers, seasonal workers, pick and shovel) artisans, enterpreneurs 5

(1) Links between smaller and larger regions and areas Labor migrations (especially from the second half of the last century): seasonal workers, pick and shovel men. (2) Collective work and social gatherings Reaping and harvesting, hay collecting, grape picking, housebuilding, barn stamping through collective help (kalka). Winter works at the spinning house, corn husking, etc. Feasts: family (baptism, wedding, burial) and community (church holidays, election, drafting) occasions, the role of the village pubs. (3) Church order Catholics, Calvinists, Lutherans, Jews. (4) Markets and fairs Hdi vsr on the Hortobgy; the Dorozsma, Feketet fairs, etc.

Selling Cows at the Hortobgy Fair (1920s)

VI. MATERIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 1. Settlements


All man-made objects from house to furnishing and clothing. Some decorated objects overlap: they can be treated in folklore (becuase of the cultural function dominating over their use).
THE SETTLEMENT VILLAGES - central - streets - stripe The outskirts (hatr) marsh wood cemetery, churchyard Farms (farmsteads, tanya) "szer", "szlls" ties to neighboring settlements (road system)

(1) Population of SZEGED the city


farmsteads

Photograph of a centrally developed village and the plan of a striped settlement (one street).

2. The Lot / The House


The gate (remember Transylvanian gates) - yard (outbuildings) - house (walling, roofing; the clean room, living room, kitchen, pantry; the stove) - furniture.

(1) Regional differences in architecture Geographic influences, available building materials. High roofed wooden buildings in the mountains, flat, ranch style clay buildings on the Plains. Tiled roofs vs. thatch. 7

(2) The rhythm of work That of nature: seasons, animal breeding. Daily life: work - eating - sleep - feasts.

VII. FOLK COSTUMES AND ORNAMENTAL ART On The Border Of Material Anthropology And Folklore 1. Folk Costumes
(1) The cultural factor The role of tradition. Prescriptions for dressing style according to age, family status (married, children), etc. After the first grandchild obligatory garment for elderly persons. Traditionally regulated feast-garments: for baptism, wedding, burial (mourning). The role of authorities: state/governmen (banned overdecorated clothes that imitated noble wear); church (under the slogan of morals, puritanism BUT sometimes church decorations inspired folkloric motives). (2) Historical layers Very little is known about Finno-Ugric (v [belt], szj [stripe], szalag [ribbon]) and Turcic origins (saru [sandals], csat [brouch], kdmn [short fur jacket], kpnyeg [cloak], gyr [ring]. In the later periods we must count with a bi-directional movement of influences between the Hungarians and their neighbors. (3) The elements of folk costumes Hairdo - headdressing - underwear - outer wear - mantle (coat-like outerwear) -footwear. (4) Most important geographical areas Transdanubia: RSG, SRKZ, MEZFLD; Upper-Hungary: PALTS and MATY counties; Transylvania: KALOTASZEG, MEZSG, SZKELYFLD, CSNG counties in Moldva.

2. Ornamental Art
Not individual artworks, rather, decorated objects of general utilitarian use. The importance of functionality, and also the first elements of independent aesthetical value. (1) Most important fields of ornamental art Furniture woodcarving textile, embroidery pottery bone carving egg painting, etc. (2) Historical layers The last 200 years can be documented well enough. General remarks: very conservative art, descending cultural goods. The most ancient layers of ornamentation point back to shamanism, pagan cosmological systems and calendars. Geometrical ornamentation from the Gothic, flower motifs from the Renaissance (Italian-Turkish influence) period. Baroque and Rococo influences are less significant (except in architecture); Austrian-German, Slavic, Rumanian influences. 8

Pottery Is An Important Area Of Ornamental Art

(3) General Hungarian characteristics Simple, clean colors: black, red, blue (more colors appeared only in the last century [Kalocsa, Maty]). Original folk objects were never overdecorated. Proportionality.

Hungarian Embroidery With Geometric And With Flower Patterns

VIII. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Customs and Beliefs

1. The Role of Sacral Folklore


Sacral folklore is the study of those customs and folk-cultural productions which can be connected to the church rituals and religious beliefs. Feast, family devotion, paraliturgical everyday customs, community cult. By and large folk customs and beliefs fall within the territory of sacral folklore.

2. The Framework: The Calendar Year


An archetypical experience of man: the cyclic progress of time (a cultic uniy and unity in a cosmic framework. COMPONENTS: BASIS: RESULT: METHOD: BASIC AIMS: Old Testament tradition Pagan (Greco-Roman) systems archaic systems of European nations astronomical year (economic/agricultural cycles) New Testament calendar (events of the Gospels) assimilation by substitution to gain blessing (for field, crops, family, woman [fertility]) and prevent maleficium.

3. The Major Christian Feasts


1/ Advent (holy time, four weeks of fasting before Christmas). 9

2/

3/ 4/

5/

Lucia feast (Luca calendar, Luca's stool, wheet growing) Christmas New Year (commemorates Christ's birth, however, a modernization of the winter solstice). Christmas (preparations with straw, the tree, Bethlehem playing - colenda, the Xmas table [sweet bread, poppyseed pasta, walnut, honey, apple, crumbs] ); Sylvester/New Year; Epiphany (consecration of water, consecration of houses). Carnival period (a period of joy and excess before the time of lent/fasting, leading to the mystery of Easter (death and resurrection). Shrove Tuesday (the last meat eating day, disguising). Lent Easter (a period from Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday, the resurrection, followed by Easter Monday). Palm Sunday (catkin collecting); Passion Week (the bells go to Rome, rattling, beating Pilate [children beat church benches], calvary pilgrimage); Holy Saturday (resurrection procession, consecrated baskets, "watering" of nubile girls). After Easter. Ascension Day (the footprints of Christ). Whitsun/Pentecost (wind customs [Holy Ghost] ). Chorpus Christi (procession, petal throwing, work forbidden).

Shrove TUE Sunday after full moon following Spring equinox Ash WED &Palm Sunday/Passion Week/EASTER &Ascension Day/THU 40 days 40th day

&Whitsun/SUN &Corpus Xti THU


50th day 60th day

Bethlehem Playing and Easter Watering (1950s)

4. Cycles of Life, Rites of Passage


Folk customs either relate to the ecclesiastical year and through this to the general cosmic cycles of nature , or to the cycles of the individual human life (birthcoming of age / pubertymatingdeath). These turning points of the individual life are marked by socially important feasts, rites of passage (in European Christianity: baptism, confirmation, wedding, burial).

IX. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY FOLK ART 1. Instruments of Expression In Cultural Anthropology; The Media
1/ 2/ language (a/ Hungarian dialects; b/ folk literature) music 10

3/

dance

2. Folk Poetry And Prose


(1) The theory of Hungarian folk literature Folk literature is oral tradition, community production. Folk literature belongs to the superstructure has close connections with ideology. Certain structural elements are identical with that of high literature.
FOLK LIT. the individual talent is reflected in the community product functional changeable occasion-oriented importance of empathy HIGH LIT. the community is reflected in the individual product aesthetical function fixed

(2) Antecedents Flower songs (16th century), kuruc songs (18th century). Rising interest in folk poetry from the late 18th century, a strong cult of rural culture in the mid-19th century the effect of Romanticism. (3) Genres Structural characteristics: parallelism, image from nature + parallel/contrast. The beginning nature image is an Eastern characteristic feature.
River Tisza rolls on downwards, Never will it flow up backwards. Still I have my sweetheart's kisses, Let her take back those she misses! Oh how tall you greenwood have grown! Oh how far you sweet dove have flown! If I could that greenwood hack down, I could take my sweetheart back home.

Songs love songs songs of wandering and captivity outlaw songs herdsman songs soldier songs wine songs mocking songs; Folk ballads; Tales and legends; Proverbs and riddles. (4) Some Examples of Folk Poetry
SONGS OF WANDERING AND CAPTIVITY Sweet birdie, sweet birdie, Chattering sweet birdie, Take what I've written her, Take what I've written her, Fly to fair Hungary. If she asks who sent it, Tell her, bird, he sent it, Whose despair and sorrow E' er his heart do harrow Till the woes have rent it. Szuha (Heves County) *** I did leave behind my country, Famous dear old little Hung'ry; As I looked back,half the way gone, From my eyes the tears did roll down. Woe my dinner, woe my supper, Woeful is my every hour. As I watch the starry heaven, Of my crying there's no ending. God I beg you give me lodging,

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Tired I have grown of wand'ring, Living aye a lonely outcast, Day and night my tears roll down fast. Gyula (Bks County) POLITICAL SONGS 1848 Lajos Kossuth sent a summons: He is short of troops, battalions. If t's two or three that's missin', Gladly we shall thrteen send hm. Long live the Magyar! Lajos Kossuth sent a summons: He has too few troops, battalions. If he once more sends his callin', All of us must go and fall in. Long live the Magyar! The Great Plains Eighteen hundred eight and forty Was the year that freedom won we; Serve we shall no lordshps ever, All the world is free forever! 1 have land to plough at leisure, Bide my lunch-time at my pleasure. Love is all 1 have for dnner: Hug my sweet rose for to win her. Kalotaszentkirly (former Kolozs County) LOVE SONG Evening's fallen, dark the fields grown everywhere; Do you love me still so true, my sweetheart fair? I have plucked this red rose for your lovely hair, Yours shall it be Camival time for to wear. Kiskunhalas (Pest County) SONGS OF HEARDSMEN Look at me a horseherd, Pride of Hortobgy land. Cowherd, though he looks good, After me he must rank. Rarely will I hobnob With some hook-staff shepherds, Even less palaver With some dirty swineherds. (Hortobgy) If a man lives merrily, It's the shepherd verily: In the greenwoods, on the lowlands, Walks he, pipes he, plays the flute; Ambles, stops and shuffles foot. If a man's lot's misery, It's the swineherd's verily: All the winter, all the summer Tends his pigs out on a limb; Shepherd lads poke fun at him. Balatonboglr (Somogy County) SEASONAL WORKERS SONG Grapes they are growing, Vines are a-groaning Under their heavy weight. Two needy farmhands Want to go ploughing But have no bread to take.

'Tis but some onion They have to munch on; It has a bitter smack. Shallow the ladle, Long is the table, What a poor, meagre snack! Roguish the master Chases girls after; Keeps of the 'days' no track. But the day labrer, Every poor eighbour Gets but a meagre snack. (Gcnerally known) SOLDIERS DRAFTING SONGS I've become a soldier, Native land's defender, Mother is a-crying, Now I'm taken from her. Mother is a-crying, And my rose in sorrow: Blossom black of mourning Sorrows in her window. FareweIl my rose dear, I am off and leaving, Don't forget me ever, I shall not you either. Egyhzaskr (former Torontl County) *** Now the drum is rolling In the city market, Now the flag is hoisted High atop the turret. Now must they be marching, Poor and helpiess fellows, They must leave behind them Many wives and widows. When the rose's root's cut, Then the bloom is fading, When a bird has no mate, Then her heart is aching. Okorg (Baranya County) WINE SONGS Wine, wine, wine, Did you drink such good red wine! If the women start a-sipping, Soon their topknots go a-slipping. Nagyszalonta (farmer Bihar County) *** God created cockerels, Cockerels and pickerels, And he made some water wells For to water animals. But as even quacks do claim Drinking from a well is shame: Toads and frogs infest the same, And a man's life mar and maim. Mohcs (Baranya County) MOCKING SONGS Corn-cake, milky, sugar-coated, Soon I will become betrothed: Bride today and wife tomorrow,

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Goodwife then, a year tomorrow. Corn-cake, stodgy, made with flour, Old man am I, past my flower, Got one thing to pin my hope on: I have such a sprightly woman. (Generally known) *** Lizzy's busy lentils shuckin' Waitin' till her great goodluck's in. When she is not all alone in, O the bench goes creakin', groanin'! Pusztafalu (farmer Abaj County) *** Puszta lads are hard-up fellers, hard-up fellers, All the money that they earn is merely fillrs. Though they search their trouser pockets, trouser pockets, All they find there is but pumpkin seeds or peanuts. Hdmezvsrhely (Csongrd County) A FOLK BALLAD Lszl Fehr (The Convict's Sister) Lszl Fehr roped some mounts in Down below the black wood mountain. Some he whipped off, some he snaffled; Grc town was dismayed and baffled. "Come on, come on, men of Grc town; Lszl Fehr we have run down. Put the irons on the brigand, Chain the left leg with the right hand." "Cive yourself up, doggone betyr, Say your name, you outlawed beggar! Give yourself up, doggone betyr, Else your name speak, outlawed beggar!" "Stockings white my horse's legs wear, Sister mine's called Anna Fehr." "What's your horse like asked you not we, Nor about your sister haughty." "Give yourself up, doggone betyr, Say your name, you outlawed beggar! Give yourself up, doggone betyr, Else your name speak, outlawed beggarl" "Stockings white my horse's legs wear, And my name is Lszl Fehr." "Put the irons on the brigand, Chain the left leg with the right hand." Off to take hm they were risen, For to take him to the prison. Off to take him they were risen, Rode him off to darkest prison. Anna Fehr when they told her That they caught and jailed her brother, Gave her coachman orders, said she, "Get the coach-and-six all ready. Get the coach-and-six all ready, Put some gold on, gold with pecks three, Put some gold on, gold wth pecks three, I shall get my brother set free." Anna Fehr could not wait more, Hied she to the iron-shod door: "Brother, brother, Lszl Fehr, Are you sleeping, resting in there?"

"Neither resting nor a-sleeping, On you, sister, I am thinking. Neither resting nor a-sleeping, On you, sister, I am thinking." Anna Fehr could not wait more, Hied she to the iron-shod door: "Brother, brother, Lszl Fehr, Whats he called, the magistrate here? Justice Horvt is the villain, He's the rascal fit for swinging. Justice Horvt is the villain, He's the rascal fit for swinging. Anna Fehr none could hinder, She will to the judge's winder: Justice Horvt, Lordship listen, Get my brother out of prison. Get my brother out of prison, I shall give you gold in ransom." "Keep your gold, I don't want any, All I want is, lie down with me." Anna Fehr could not wait more, Hied she to the iron-shod door: "Brother, brother, Lszl Fehr, Justice told me, this he did say: "He'll today be freed of fetter If we were to sleep together; He'll today be .freed of fetter If we were to sleep together." "Sister, sister, Anna Fehr, Do not go to spend the night there; For he shall your maidenhead take And he shall your brother's head take. Anna Fehr could not wait there She will to the judge's chamber; She did aye spend one night with him, Gilded poster bed they lay in. When it struck one midnight after, From the courtyard came a clatter; "Oh, Your Worship, Justice Horvt, What's that clatter down the courtyard?" "Thats my coachmam makes his horse drink, It's the curb-bit makes that clinking. That' s my coachman makes his horse drink, It's the curb-bit makes that clinking." Anna Fehr could not wait more, Hied she to the iron-shod door: "Brother, brother, Lszl Fehr, Are you sleeping, resting in there?" "Sister, sister, Anna Fehr, Do not seek your brother in here; O'er greenwood, o'er meadows, There he hangs high from the gallows!" Anna Fehr none could hinder, She will to the judge's winder: "Judge, Your Lordship, Justice Horvt, May the horse you're riding stumble, May the horse you're riding stumble, May you from the saddle tumble, May the horse you're riding stumble, May you from the saddle tumble. Thirteen cartloads' straw for palliasse Go a-rolling in your mattress; Thirteen years you lie on straw-sacks Till their bottom with your weight sags.

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Thirteen doctors be all busy, With your sores should grow a-weary. Thirteen stores of chemists, druggists Empty for you all their physics.

Hark you, judge, what I am saying: Be it blood you wash your face in, Fire set your towel blazing, May you never God's good grace win!"

X. THE STORY OF HUNGARIAN FOLK MUSIC


Towards the end of the 18th century Hungarian music became quite famous all over Europe. It was wandering Gypsy bands who propagated this kind of music and it became so popular, that almost all famous Romantic composers of various Western (and Eastern) European nations started composing Hungarian Dances or Hungarian Csrds. Among others, such composers were Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Johann Strauss, Hector Berlioz, and Piotr Tchaikovsky. The greatest advertizer of Hungarian-Gypsy music was the Romantic giant, Hungarian-origin FERENC LISZT (1811-86), who, while spent most of his life abroad, offered his Hungarian symphonies and rhapsodies to the international public. Liszt almost accidentally got acquainted with Hungarian-Gypsy music and never engaged in any research about its origin, which is quite an interesting storyin itself.
Liszt, the Romantic Hungarian

1. The Origins of Verbunkos Music


Verbunkos music was invented by Gypsy musicians who were employed by the Austrians to assist recruiting Hungarian soldiers in the Habsburg army from the early 18th century on. (Werbung = advertisement, adopted in Hungarian as verbunk.) The verbunk was popularized by Hungarian-Gypsy musicians and orchestras all over Europe, offering emotion and rhythmic pulsation typical romantic attitudes. In the time of rising nationalism and the resistance movement against the Austrians in Hungary, verbunkos also became a national hallmark, which became the musical foundation of the Hungarian aristocratic dance, palots (from the word palota, palace) and later the national folk dance, csrds (from the word csrda, country inn).

2. The Discovery of Pentatony

Verbunkos dancing (18 century) The great career of verbunkos music ended in the late 19th century. A new generation of musicologists, first of all BLA BARTK (1881-1945) and ZOLTN KODLY set out to faraway villages and collected folk music directly from the peasants. The were aided by a new technical invention, the phonograph by the help of which they could also record their findings. The greatest discovery was, that the most ancient previously unknown layer of Hungarian folk music was identified as pentatonic (five scale) as opposed to the eight-scale music common in Europe. However, outside Europe, world music is everywhere pentatonic so the Hungarians brought this heritage with them from Siberia and the Asian steppes.

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Bartk on a field trip in Slovakia (next page) and working with his phonograph (right)

According to Bartk: "folk music is the melodies used by a community to express the musical instinct spontaneously". 3000 base melodies plus their innumerable variants have been collected. (1) Historical layers 1/ 2/ 3/ Pentatony (most ancient layer, five scale melodies with "quint drop"). Western influences (Renaissance harmonies). "New style" of modern Hungarian folklore melodies: A5A5A A -- A A5A5 A -- A B B A

Bartk's findings of the proportion of Hungarian folk music: ancient pentatony new melodies folkish (gypsy) foreign 9% 30% 23% 38%

(2) Occasions for singing Work feast games church. Folk instruments: pipe, bagpipe, fiddle, hurdy-gurdy, zithern.

Old Piper (photograph from the 1930s)

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XI. FOLK DANCE


In case of folk dances, the role of descending elite culture is particularily strongly manifest. In East-Central Europe the concept of folk dance mixes with the concept of national dance culture, a characteristic of national Romanticism in the 19th century. The development of modern national dances was a direct result of the conscious effort of the elite who wanted to mobilize all strata of society. Romantic intellectuals wanted to raise the folk dance to the level of theater dance. Two simultaneous movements, "upward" and "downward": the creation of new artificial dance forms for public use, which were selectively taken from peasant dance traditions (verbunkos & palots); and the rapid dissemination of these new dances among the rural population (palots & csrds).

1. Historical Layers Of European Dance And Characteristic Dance Territories


The regional differences in European dance traditions represent phase differences. Close scutiny reveals that all of these genres were parts of the general dance history of Europe during different eras.
HISTORICAL LAYERS (Elite dance styles in W. Europe) Early medieval: collective chain dances. DANCE TERRITORIES Balkan zone (Bulgarians, Rumanians, Greeks): chain dances, representing early medieval structures, because of the isolation (Turkish occupation) from the rest of Europe. Carpathian basin (Slovaks, Hungarians, Transylvanian Rumanians): male dances and free couple dances. West-European zone, including Austria and Poland: walking, whirling, jumping variants of couple dances (waltz, polka).

Late medieval and Renaissance: male dances and improvised free couple dances. Baroque and Classicism: country dance. Combination of couple and group dances. Simple movements, rich spatial choreography.

2. Hungarian national dances


Hungarian national dances show a great variety. Rather uniquely Hungarian folk culture has absorbed all three major traditions mentioned above (medieval chain, Renaissance individual, early modern country dances). 1/ 2/ Medieval origin dances: chain and round dances, krtnc, karikz. Characteristic movements: widening and closing circular motion, pendulum-like whirling, rotation of the circle. Hajdu originating in the 15th-18th centuries. A weapon dance, representing armed herdsmen who often served in the anti-Turkish wars, later in the antiHabsburg insurrections. The dance was performed by men alone, or by men forming a circle. Informal, improvised structure, virtuoso handling of weapons, fighting gestures, acrobatic jumping, rhytmical exclamations. Newer derivations of hajdutnc: botol, kansztnc [swineherd's dance], ugrs [jumping]. Individual, couple, or group dances always with rods, sticks. Legnyes ["manly"], introductory dance at the beginning of feasts. Rich culture of forms, motions. Verbunkos 'verbunk' = recruiting soldiers. Characteristic for the 18th and 19th centuries. During recruiting village lads were persuaded to join the (Austrian) army by drinking, revelry, music and verbunkos dance. Verbunkos music was often played by gypsy bands and by the end of the 18th century it was generally considered in Europe as a typical Hungarian dance. So it became the main Hungarian musical idiom of our national Romanticism. 16

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Csrds - a couple dance version for verbunkos music. Developed in the second half of the 19th century and quickly went through folklorization.

(1) The varieties of Hungarian folk dances The great variety of dances in Hungarian folklore partly originates from the mentioned three Hungarian national dances but also a great variety of foreign and historical influences contributed to its development. From Northern Europe couple dancing was adopted, while from the Balkans group dancing (chain, round, cotillon [changing partners]). In Hungary we find complex combinations of these basic patterns. (2) The social context of dancing The importance of the Dancing House. Its derivation in present day urban (university) folklore. (Seb Ensemble, Vznt, Muzsiks.)

Girls Chain Dancing (photograph from the 1920s)

Representation of Dancing on a Carved Wooden Box

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