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Introduction to Nursing

Definitions of Nursing
Florence Nightingale (1860) Notes on
Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not)
 The nurse is in “charge of somebody’s health” based
upon the knowledge of “how to put the body in such
a state to be free of disease or to recover from
disease.”

Definitions of Nursing
ANA Definition(2003)-

 Nursing is the protection, promotion, and


optimization of health and abilities, prevention of
illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the
diagnosis and treatment of human response, and
advocacy in the care of individuals, families,
communities, and populations. (Page 2 Potter and
Perry).

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Definitions of Nursing
Nursing is an art and a science
Art:
Patient care is given with compassion,
respect, dignity, creativity
Science:
Patient care is based upon a body of
knowledge research

Nursing Values
Caring
Altruism

Giving of Dignity

Integrity

Social Justice

Educational Preparation
LVN/ LPN
 1- 1 1/2 years, practice under supervision of RN or physician

RN
 3 Types of programs
 ADN, Diploma, Baccalaureate

Graduate Nursing Education


 Advanced nursing theory and science expand the role of the nurse
 MSN, MN
 Doctoral degrees available since 1970
 Masters may be required for clinical specialists, educators, researchers,
administrators, or nurse practioners

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Further Education
Continuing Education
 Formal, organized educational programs
 Required by licensing board to maintain nursing license
 Many organizations offer CEUs (continuing education units), the units must
be approved by the State Boards of Nursing

Inservice Education
 Instruction or training provided by individual health care facilities
 Examples include: use of new equipment, new policies and procedures,
updates.

Career Mobility and Clinical Ladder


 Contains structure that allows for advancement and salary increases
 Often includes criteria for clinical competency

Nursing Practice
Nurse Practice Acts
 Laws established by states
 Regulate licensure and practice in each state
 Know your practice- go to California BRN website
and read about your practice: www.rn.ca.gov
Standards of Practice
 Describes a competent level of nursing care
 Describes a competent level of behavior in the
professional role
 See Table 1-2 ANA Standards of Nursing Practice/
page 8-16.

Practice Settings
Hospitals
Health Care Institutions
Community Settings
Occupational Health Settings
Home Health Agencies
Parrish Nursing
Industrial Nursing
Audit Nursing

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Practice Settings

Functions of the Nurse


 Caregivers
 Decision Makers
 Protectors
 Client Advocates
 Managers
 Rehabilitators
 Comforters
 Communicators
 Teachers

Expanded
Roles of A Nurse
Nurse Educator
Clinical Nurse Specialist
Nurse Practitioner
Certified Nurse Midwife
Nurse Anesthetist
Nurse Administrator
Nurse Researcher

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Nursing as a Profession
Characteristic of a Profession:
Extensive Education
Theoretical Body of Knowledge
Service Orientation
Autonomy in Decision Making
Professional Code of Ethics

Professional Organizations
ANA, CNA, NLN, ICN, CCRN, AORN

Influences on Nursing
Scientific and technological
advances
Changing demographics
Consumer movement
Other movements:
Women’s issues
Human rights

Nurse’s Influence

Political
Nursing involvement increasing
Lobbyists

Health care policies and practice