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33.1 ∆v(t) = ∆Vmax sin(ω t) = 2 ∆Vrms sin(ω t) = 200 2 sin[2 π (100t)] = (283 V) sin (628 t)

170 V

33.2 ∆Vrms = = 120 V

2

(a) P= →R= = 193 Ω

R 75.0 W

(120 V)2

(b) R= = 144 Ω

100 W

100 V

∆Vrms = = 70.7 V

2

∆Vrms 70.7 V

I rms = = = 2.95 A

R 24.0 Ω

The smallest angle for which this is true is ω t = 0.253 rad. Thus, if t = 0.010 0 s ,

0.253 rad

ω= = 25.3 rad/s

0.010 0 s

(b) The second time when ∆vR = 0.250 ( ∆Vmax ) , ω t = sin −1 (0.250) again. For this occurrence,

ω t = π − 0.253 rad = 2 .89 rad (to understand why this is true, recall the identity sin( π − θ ) = sin θ

from trigonometry). Thus,

2.89 rad

t= = 0.114 s

25.3 rad s

Chapter 33 Solutions 271

33.6 P = I rms ( ∆Vrms ) and ∆Vrms = 120 V for each bulb (parallel circuit), so:

I1 = I 2 = = = 1.25 A , and R1 = = = 96.0 Ω = R2

∆Vrms 120 V I1 1.25 A

I3 = = = 0.833 A , and R3 = = = 144 Ω

∆Vrms 120 V I3 0.833 A

∆Vmax 15.0 V

I max = = = 0.806 A = 2 I rms

Rtotal 18.6 Ω

2

0.806 A

P speaker = I rms Rspeaker = (10.4 Ω) = 3.38 W

2

2

80.0 mA

33.8 For Imax = 80.0 mA, Irms = = 56.6 mA

2

Vrms 50.0 V

Irms = 0.0566 A = 884 Ω

(XL)min =

XL 884 Ω

XL = 2π f L → L = 2π f ≥ 2π (20.0) ≥ 7.03 H

∆Vmax 100

33.9 (a) XL = = = 13.3 Ω

I max 7.50

XL 13.3

L= = = 0.0424 H = 42.4 mH

ω 2 π (50.0)

∆Vmax 100

(b) XL = = = 40.0 Ω

I max 2.50

XL 40.0

ω= = = 942 rad/s

L 42.4 × 10 − 3

X

50.0

XL = 2 π ( 50.0 Hz)L = 2 π ( 50.0 Hz) ( 54.0 Ω) = 45.0 Ω

L 60.0 Hz

33.10 At 50.0 Hz, =

2 π (60.0 Hz) 60.0

I max = = = = 3.14 A

XL XL 45.0 Ω

272 Chapter 33 Solutions

iL (t ) =

∆Vmax

sin (ω t − π 2) =

[

(80.0 V ) sin (65.0 π )(0.0155) − π 2 ]

( )

33.11

ωL (65.0 π rad s) 70.0 × 10−3 H

∆Vrms 120 V

I rms = = = 15.9 A

XL 7.54 Ω

2 π (60.0) 1 s

i(t) = I max sin ω t = (22.5 A)sin ⋅ = (22.5 A) sin 120° = 19.5 A

s 180

V ⋅ s

U = 21 Li 2 = 21 0.0200 (19.5 A)2 = 3.80 J

A

33.13 L=

N ΦB

where Φ B is the flux through each turn. N Φ B, max = LI B, =

(

XL ∆VL, max )

max

I ω XL

N Φ B, max =

(

2 ∆VL, rms )= 120 V ⋅ s T ⋅ C ⋅ m N ⋅ m J

= 0.450 T · m2

2π f 2 π (60.0) N ⋅ s J V ⋅ C

1 1

33.14 (a) XC = : < 175 Ω

2π f C 2 π f (22.0 × 10 −6 )

1

<f f > 41.3 Hz

2 π (22.0 × 10 −6 )(175)

1

(b) XC ∝ , so X(44) = 21 X(22): XC < 87.5 Ω

C

2 ( ∆Vrms )

33.15 I max = 2 I rms = = 2 ( ∆Vrms ) 2 π f C

XC

Chapter 33 Solutions 273

2 ( ∆Vrms ) = 2 C ( ∆Vrms )

1 1

33.18 XC = = = 2.65 Ω

ω C 2 π (60.0 / s)(1.00 × 10 − 3 C / V)

∆Vmax 2 (120 V) 60 s -1

iC = sin(ω t + φ ) = sin 2 π + 90.0° = (64.0 A)sin(120° + 90.0°) = – 32.0 A

XC 2.65 Ω 180 s

-1

1 1

XC = = = 719 Ω

ω C 2 π (50.0)(4.43 × 10 −6 )

X L − XC 126 − 719

(b) φ = tan −1 = tan −1 = – 49.9° Thus, the Current leads the voltage.

R 500

1 1 1

33.20 ωL = →ω = = = 1.75 × 10 4 rad / s

ωC LC (57.0 × 10 )(57.0 × 10 −6 )

−6

ω

f = 2π = 2.79 kHz

[ ]

1 −1

(b) XC = = 2 π (50.0 s −1 )(2.00 × 10 −6 F) = 1.59 kΩ

ωC

∆Vmax 210 V

(d) I max = = = 138 mA

Z 1.52 × 10 3 Ω

X L − XC

(e) φ = tan −1 −1

= tan (−10.1) = – 84.3°

R

274 Chapter 33 Solutions

2

33.22 (a)

XL = ω L = (100)(0.160) = 16.0 Ω

1 1

XC = = = 101 Ω

(

ω C (100) 99.0 × 10 −6 )

∆Vmax 40.0 V

(b) I max = = = 0.367 A

Z 109 Ω

XL − XC 16.0 − 101

(c) tan φ = = = −1.25:

R 68.0

1 1

XC = = = 126 Ω

( )

2 π f C 2 π (60.0) 21.0 × 10 − 6

XL − XC 173 Ω − 126 Ω

(a) tan φ = = = 0.314

R 150 Ω

1 1

33.24 XC = = = 1.33 × 108 Ω

2 π f C 2 π (60.0 Hz)(20.0 × 10 −12 F)

∆Vrms 5000 V

Irms = = = 3.77 × 10–5 A

Z 1.33 × 108 Ω

Chapter 33 Solutions 275

1 1

33.25 XC = = = 49.0 Ω

ω C 2 π (50.0)(65.0 × 10 −6 )

XL = ω L = 2 π (50.0)(185 × 10 −3 ) = 58.1 Ω

∆Vmax 150

I max = = = 3.66 A

Z 41.0

33.26 R = 300 Ω

XL = 200 Ω

500 −1

XL = ω L = 2 π s (0.200 H) = 200 Ω

π

−1

XL - XC = 109 Ω

{ Z

φ

500 −1

(

)

R = 300 Ω

1

XC = = 2 π s 11.0 × 10 −6 F = 90.9 Ω XC = 90.9 Ω

ωC π

X L − XC

Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = 319 Ω φ = tan −1

2

and = 20.0°

R

∆Vrms 200 V

Z= = = 50.0 Ω

I rms 4.00 A

1

XL − XC = 1.29 × 10 4 Ω − = ± 35.7 Ω C = 123 nF or 124 nF

2 π (100 Hz)C

(b) ( )

∆VL,rms = I rms XL = ( 4.00 A ) 1.29 × 10 4 Ω = 51.5 kV

276 Chapter 33 Solutions

[ ]

−1

XC = 1/ ω C = (1000 / s)(50.0 × 10 − 6 F) = 20.0 Ω

Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2

I rms = 2.00 A

X − XC

φ = Arctan L

R

30.0 Ω

φ = Arctan = 36.9°

40.0 Ω

(c) 2

P R = I rms R = (2.00 A)2 40.0 Ω = 160 W

1

∆Vmax = 100 V, ω L = 500 Ω , = 200 Ω

ω C

2

1

Z = R2 + ω L − = 400 2 + 300 2 = 500 Ω

ω C

∆Vmax 100

I max = = = 0.200 A

Z 500

I2

The average power dissipated in the circuit is P = I rms

2

R = max R

2

(0.200 A)2

P= (400 Ω) = 8.00 W

2

Chapter 33 Solutions 277

Goal Solution

An ac voltage of the form ∆v = (100 V ) sin(1000 t ) is applied to a series RLC circuit. If R = 400 Ω,

C = 5.00 µ F, and L = 0.500 H, what is the average power delivered to the circuit?

Only the resistor takes electric energy out of the circuit, but the capacitor and inductor will impede the

current flow and therefore reduce the voltage across the resistor. Because of this impedance, the

average power dissipated by the resistor must be less than the maximum power from the source:

P max =

( ∆Vmax )2 = (100 V)2 = 12.5 W

2R 2( 400 Ω)

O: The actual power dissipated by the resistor can be found from P = I rms

2

R, where I rms = ∆Vrms / Z.

100

A : ∆Vrms = = 70.7 V

2

In order to calculate the impedance, we first need the capacitive and inductive reactances:

XC =

1

=

1

ω C (1000 s -1 )(5.00 × 10 −6 F)

= 200 Ω and ( )

XL = ω L = 1000 s -1 (0.500 H) = 500 Ω

∆Vrms 70.7 V

R = (0.141 A ) ( 400 Ω) = 8.00 W

2

I rms = = = 0.141 A and P = I rms

2

Z 500 Ω

L : The power dissipated by the resistor is less than 12.5 W, so our answer appears to be reasonable. As

with other RLC circuits, the power will be maximized at the resonance frequency where XL = XC so

that Z = R . Then the average power dissipated will simply be the 12.5 W we calculated first.

Z = R 2 + ( X L − XC ) ( X L − XC ) =

2

33.30 or Z2 − R2

X L − XC 60.0 Ω

φ = tan −1 = tan −1 = 53.1°

R 45.0 Ω

∆Vrms 210 V

I rms = = = 2.80 A

Z 75.0 Ω

278 Chapter 33 Solutions

P = I rms

2

R so 1.29 × 10 3 = (9.00)2 R and R = 16.0 Ω

X L − XC X L − XC

(b) tan φ = becomes tan( − 37.0°) = : so XL – XC = – 12.0 Ω

R 16

∆Vrms 120 V

(a) I rms = = = 5.43 A

Z 22.1 Ω

1

(c) We require φ = 0. Thus, XL = XC: 9.42 Ω =

2 π (60.0 s −1 )C

and C = 281 µF

( ∆Vrms )d 2

(d) Pb = Pd or ( ∆Vrms )b ( Irms )b cos φb = R

R1

P 100 × 106 W

I rms = = = 2.00 × 10 3 A

∆Vrms 50.0 × 10 3 V ∆Vrms RL

2

R line = I rms

2

(2R1 ) R1

6

W

Thus, R1 =

( )

2 2

2 I max 2 2.00 × 10 A3

ρl π d 2 ρl

But R1 = or A= =

A 4 R1

Therefore d=

4ρ l

=

( )(

4 1.70 × 10 − 8 Ω ⋅ m 100 × 10 3 m ) = 0.132 m = 132 mm

π R1 π (0.125 Ω)

Chapter 33 Solutions 279

R1

P P

I rms = and power loss = 2

I rms R line =

∆Vrms 100 ∆Vrms RL

( ∆Vrms )2

2

P

( 2R1 ) =

P R1

Thus, or R1 =

∆Vrms 100 200 P

ρ d ( ∆Vrms ) π ( 2r )2 200ρ P d

2

R1 = = or A= =

A 200 P 4 ( ∆Vrms )2

800ρ P d

and the diameter is 2r =

π ( ∆Vrms )

2

33.35 One-half the time, the left side of the generator is positive, the

top diode conducts, and the bottom diode switches off. The R1

power supply sees resistance

∆Vrms RL

1 1

−1

( ∆V rms )2

2R + 2R =R and the power is

R R1

The other half of the time the right side of the generator is

positive, the upper diode is an open circuit, and the lower diode

has zero resistance. The equivalent resistance is then

1

Req = R +

1

+

−1

=

7R

and P=

( ∆V rms )2 =

4( ∆V rms )

2

3R R 4 Req 7R

[(∆V rms )2 ][

R + 4( ∆V rms ) 7R

2

]= 11( ∆V rms )

2

2 14 R

1 1

33.36 At resonance, = 2π f L and =C

2π f C ( 2 π f )2 L

The range of values for C is 46.5 pF to 419 pF

1

33.37 ω 0 = 2 π (99.7 × 106 ) = 6.26 × 108 rad / s =

LC

1 1

C= = = 1.82 pF

ω 0 2 L (6.26 × 108 )2 (1.40 × 10 − 6 )

280 Chapter 33 Solutions

1 1

(a) The resonant frequency for a series –RLC circuit is f= = 3.56 kHz

2π LC

∆Vmax

(b) At resonance, I max = = 5.00 A

R

ω 0L

(c) From Equation 33.36, Q= = 22.4

R

2 L 1 LC 1 L

XL = ω L = L = 2 and XC = = =

LC C ωC 2C 2 C

∆Vrms ∆Vrms

Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = R 2 + 2.25( L C )

2

so I rms = =

Z R + 2.25( L C )

2

2

Q=

R 2 + 2.25( L C ) ω R 2C + 2.25 L

( )

LC =

4R 2C + 9.00 L

( ) (10.0 × 10 H)

32 12

4 π ( 50.0 V ) (10.0 Ω) 100 × 10 −6 F −3

2

Q= = 242 mJ

(

4(10.0 Ω) 100 × 10 −6

2

F ) + 9.00(10.0 × 10 H)

−3

2 L 1 LC 1 L

XL = ω L = L = 2 and XC = = =

LC C ωC 2C 2 C

∆Vrms ∆Vrms

Then Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = R 2 + 2.25( L C )

2

so I rms = =

Z R + 2.25( L C )

2

2

Q = P ∆t =

R 2 + 2.25( L C ) ω R 2C + 2.25 L

( )

LC =

4R 2C + 9.00 L

Chapter 33 Solutions 281

1 1

*33.41 For the circuit of problem 22, ω0 = = = 251 rad s

LC

(160 × 10 −3

)(

H 99.0 × 10 −6 F )

Q= =

(

ω 0 L ( 251 rad s) 160 × 10 H

−3

= 0.591

)

R 68.0 Ω

ω 0L L 1 L 1 460 × 10 −3 H

For the circuit of problem 23, Q= = = = = 0.987

R R LC R C 150 Ω 21.0 × 10 −6 F

1 120 V = 9.23 V

42.0 W

I 2, rms = = 4.55 A for a transformer with no energy loss

9.23 V

N 2000

33.43 (170 V) = 971 V

1 350

(971 V)

( ∆Vout )rms = 2

= 687 V

(2200)(80)

110

= 1600 windings

(b) ( ) (

I1, rms ∆V1, rms = I 2, rms ∆V 2, rms ) I1, rms =

(1.50)(2200)

110

= 30.0 A

(c) ( ) (

0.950 I1, rms ∆V1, rms = I 2, rms ∆V 2, rms ) I1, rms =

(1.20)(2200)

110(0.950)

= 25.3 A

282 Chapter 33 Solutions

N1

N2

(

∆V 2, rms )

so the source voltage is ∆V s, rms = I1, rms Rs +

N1

N2

(

∆V 2, rms )

(∆V2, rms ) , so the primary current is

(

N 2 ∆V 2, rms)= I1, rms

RL N1 RL

Then ∆V s, rms =

(

N 2 ∆V 2, rms Rs ) +

(

N1 ∆V 2, rms )

N1RL N2

N1RL

∆V s, rms −

(

N1 ∆V 2, rms ) = 5(50.0 Ω) 80.0 V − 5(25.0 V) = 87.5 Ω

( )

and Rs =

N 2 ∆V 2, rms

N2

2(25.0 V) 2

N 2 ∆V 2, rms 10.0 × 10 3 V

33.46 (a) ∆V 2, rms =

N2

N1

(

∆V1, rms ) =

N1 ∆V1, rms

=

120 V

= 83.3

(b) ( )

I 2, rms ∆V 2, rms = 0.900 I1, rms ∆V1, rms ( )

(

I 2, rms 10.0 × 10 3 V = 0.900) 120 V

24.0 Ω

(120 V ) I 2, rms = 54.0 mA

∆V 2, rms 10.0 × 10 3 V

(c) Z2 = = = 185 kΩ

I 2, rms 0.054 A

P 5.00 × 106 W

33.47 (a) R = (4.50 × 10 − 4 Ω / m)(6.44 × 10 5 m) = 290 Ω and I rms = = = 10.0 A

∆Vrms 5.00 × 10 5 V

2

P loss = I rms R = (10.0 A)2 (290 Ω) = 29.0 kW

P loss 2.90 × 10 4

(b) = = 5.80 × 10 − 3

P 5.00 × 106

(c) It is impossible to transmit so much power at such low voltage. Maximum power transfer

occurs when load resistance equals the line resistance of 290 Ω, and is

(4.50 × 10 3 V)2

= 17.5 kW, far below the required 5 000 kW

2 ⋅ 2(290 Ω)

Chapter 33 Solutions 283

∆Vout XC

33.48 For the filter circuit, =

∆Vin R + XC2

2

1 1

At f = 600 Hz , XC = = = 3.32 × 10 4 Ω

( )

(a)

2 π f C 2 π (600 Hz) 8.00 × 10 −9 F

∆Vout 3.32 × 10 4 Ω

and = ≈ 1.00

(90.0 Ω)2 + (3.32 × 10 4 )

∆Vin 2

Ω

1 1

At f = 600 kHz, XC = = = 33.2 Ω

( )( )

(b)

2 π f C 2 π 600 × 10 Hz 8.00 × 10 −9 F

3

∆Vout 33.2 Ω

and = = 0.346

∆Vin (90.0 Ω)2 + (33.2 Ω)2

∆Vout R

33.49 For this RC high-pass filter, =

∆Vin R + XC2

2

(a)

∆Vout

(a) When = 0.500,

∆Vin

0.500 Ω

then = 0.500 or XC = 0.866 Ω

(0.500 Ω)2 + XC2

(b)

If this occurs at f = 300 Hz, the capacitance is

1 1

C= = = 6.13 × 10 − 4 F = 613 µ F

2 π f XC 2 π ( 300 Hz)(0.866 Ω)

(c)

1

XC = = 0.433 Ω

(

2 π (600 Hz) 6.13 × 10 − 4 F )

Figures for Goal

∆Vout R 0.500 Ω

= = = 0.756 Solution

∆Vin R 2 + XC2 (0.500 Ω)2 + (0.433 Ω)2

284 Chapter 33 Solutions

Goal Solution

The RC high-pass filter shown in Figure 33.22 has a resistance R = 0.500 Ω. (a) What capacitance gives an

output signal that has one-half the amplitude of a 300-Hz input signal? (b) What is the gain ( ∆V out / ∆Vin )

for a 600-Hz signal?

G: It is difficult to estimate the capacitance required without actually calculating it, but we might expect a

typical value in the µ F to pF range. The nature of a high-pass filter is to yield a larger gain at higher

frequencies, so if this circuit is designed to have a gain of 0.5 at 300 Hz, then it should have a higher

gain at 600 Hz. We might guess it is near 1.0 based on Figure (b) above.

O: The output voltage of this circuit is taken across the resistor, but the input sees the impedance of the

resistor and the capacitor. Therefore, the gain will be the ratio of the resistance to the impedance.

∆Vout R

A: =

∆Vin R + (1 ω C )

2 2

1 1

solving for C gives C= = = 613 µ F

∆Vin

2

(2 π )(300 Hz)(0.500 Ω) (2.00)2 − 1

ωR −1

∆Vout

ω = ( 2 π rad) 600 s -1 )

∆Vout 0.500 Ω

so = = 0.756

∆Vin

2

1

(0.500 Ω)2 +

(1200 π rad / s) (613 µ F )

L : The capacitance value seems reasonable, but the gain is considerably less than we expected. Based o n

our calculation, we can modify the graph in Figure (b) to more transparently represent the

characteristics of this high-pass filter, now shown in Figure (c). If this were an audio filter, it would

reduce low frequency “humming” sounds while allowing high pitch sounds to pass through. A low

pass filter would be needed to reduce high frequency “static” noise.

∆V1 ∆V2

or (25.0 Ω) 2

+ XL2 = 4( 5.00 Ω) +

2

4XL2

R =5.00 Ω

625 − 100

which gives XL = 2 π f (0.250 H) = Ω and f = 8.42 Hz

3

Chapter 33 Solutions 285

∆Vout R

*33.51 =

∆Vin R + ( X L − XC )

2 2

1

=

(8.00 Ω)2

2

4 1

(8.00 Ω)2 + 400 π L −

400 π C

2

1

At 4000 Hz: (8.00 Ω) 2

+ 8000 π L − = 4(8.00 Ω)

2

8000 π C

1

At the low frequency, XL − XC < 0 . This reduces to 400π L − = − 13.9 Ω [1]

400π C

1

For the high frequency half-voltage point, 8000π L − = + 13.9 Ω [2]

8000π C

Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously gives C = 54.6 µ F and L = 580 µ H

∆Vout ∆Vout

(b) When XL = XC , = = 1.00

∆Vin ∆Vin max

1 1

(c) XL = XC requires f0 = = = 894 Hz

2 π LC 2π (5.80 × 10 −4

)(

H 5.46 × 10 − 5 F )

∆Vout R 1

(d) At 200 Hz, = = and XC > X L , R

∆Vin Z 2 ∆Vout

φ or φ

XL - XC

so the phasor diagram is as shown: Z ∆Vin

φ = − cos −1 = − cos −1

R 1

so ∆Vout leads ∆Vin by 60.0°

Z 2

∆Vout R 1

At 4000 Hz, = = and X L − XC > 0

∆Vin Z 2

∆Vin

Z

or

1 XL - XC

Thus, φ = cos −1 = 60.0° φ φ ∆Vout

2 R

2 2 2

1 1 ∆V

(e) At 200 Hz and at 4 kHz, P= =

2 2 in, max

=

(10.0 V )2 = 1.56 W

R R R 8(8.00 Ω)

At f 0 , P =

(∆Vout,rms )2 = (∆Vin,rms )2 = 21 (∆Vin,max )2 = (10.0 V)2 = 6.25 W

R R R 2(8.00 Ω)

(f) We take: Q =

ω 0L

= =

(

2 π f 0 L 2 π (894 Hz) 5.80 × 10 H

−4

= 0.408

)

R R 8.00 Ω

286 Chapter 33 Solutions

∆Vout R

33.52 For a high-pass filter, =

∆Vin 1

2

R2 +

ωC

( ∆Vout )1 R ( ∆Vout )2 R

= and =

( ∆Vin )1 1

2 ( ∆Vin )2 1

2

R2 + R2 +

ωC ωC

( ∆Vout )2 R2 1

Now ( ∆Vin )2 = ( ∆Vout )1 so = =

( ∆Vin )1 1

2

1

2

R2 + 1+

ωC ω RC

a

ZC

ZR ∆Vin

Find: ∆Vout = ∆V ab [1] ZC ZR ∆Vout

ZR + ZC

ZC || ( ZR + ZC )

b

From Figure (c), ∆V ab = ∆Vin Figure (a)

ZR + ZC || ( ZR + ZC )

ZC

[ ]

a

ZR ZC || ( ZR + ZC )

So Eq. [1] becomes ∆Vout = ∆Vin ∆Vab ZR ∆Vout

[

(ZR + ZC ) ZR + ZC||(ZR + ZC ) ] b

−1 Figure (b)

1 1

ZR +

∆Vout C

Z Z + ZC

or = R

−1 ZR

∆Vin 1 1 a

(ZR + ZC )ZR + Z + Z + Z

C R C ∆Vin ZC

ZC ∆Vab

ZR

∆Vout ZR ZC ZR

= =

∆Vin ZC ( ZC + ZR ) + ZR ( ZR + 2ZC ) 3ZR + ZC + ( ZR )2 ZC b

Figure (c)

−j

Now, ZR = R and ZC = where j= −1 R

ωC

− ĵ

∆Vout R 1 Z

= where we used = −j. ωC

∆Vin 1 j

3R − j+ R ω C j

2

ω C

∆Vout R R 1.00 × 10 3

= = = = 0.317

∆Vin 1

( )

2 2

1 + (1592 − 628)

2

3R − − R 2ω C j 3.00 × 10 3

ωC (3R) 2

+ − R 2ω C

ω C

Chapter 33 Solutions 287

33.54 The equation for ∆v(t ) during the first period (using

y = mx + b ) is:

2( ∆Vmax ) t

∆v(t ) = − ∆Vmax

T

( ∆Vmax )

[ ]

2 2 2

T2

( ∆v)2

ave

=

1 T

T ∫0

[ ∆v ( t )] dt =

T ∫0 T t − 1 dt

t=T

( ∆Vmax )2 T [2t T − 1] 3 ( ∆Vmax )2 (+1)3 − (−1)3 = ( ∆Vmax )2

[( ∆v) 2

]

ave

=

T 2 3

=

6 [ ] 3

t=0

( ∆Vmax )2

∆Vrms = [

( ∆v)2 ] ave

=

3

=

∆Vmax

3

1 1

33.55 ω0 = = = 2000 s −1

−6

LC (0.0500 H)(5.00 × 10 F)

ω0

so the operating frequency of the circuit is ω = = 1000 s −1

2

( ∆Vrms )2 Rω 2

Using Equation 33.35, P= (Q ≈ 12.5)

( )

2

R 2ω 2 + L2 ω 2 − ω 02

Figure for Goal

Solution

(400)2 (8.00)(1000)2

P= = 56.7 W

[ ]

2

(8.00)2 (1000)2 + (0.0500)2 (1.00 − 4.00) × 106

Goal Solution

A series RLC circuit consists of an 8.00-Ω resistor, a 5.00-µ F capacitor, and a 50.0-mH inductor. A variable

frequency source applies an emf of 400 V (rms) across the combination. Determine the power delivered

to the circuit when the frequency is equal to one half the resonance frequency.

G: Maximum power is delivered at the resonance frequency, and the power delivered at other

frequencies depends on the quality factor, Q. For the relatively small resistance in this circuit, we

could expect a high Q = ω 0 L R . So at half the resonant frequency, the power should be a small

R = ( 400 V ) 8 Ω = 20 kW.

2

fraction of the maximum power, P av, max = ∆Vrms

2

O: We must first calculate the resonance frequency in order to find half this frequency. Then the power

delivered by the source must equal the power taken out by the resistor. This power can be found

from P av = I rms

2

R where I rms = ∆Vrms / Z.

288 Chapter 33 Solutions

1 1

A : The resonance frequency is f0 = = = 318 Hz

2 π LC 2 π (0.0500 H)( 5.00 × 10 −6 F )

The operating frequency is f = f 0 / 2 = 159 Hz . We can calculate the impedance at this frequency:

1 1

XL = 2 π f L = 2 π (159 Hz)(0.0500 H) = 50.0 Ω XC = = = 200 Ω

( )

and

2 π f C 2 π (159 Hz) 5.00 × 10 -6 F

∆Vrms 400 V

So, I rms = = = 2.66 A

Z 150 Ω

The power delivered by the source is the power dissipated by the resistor:

L : This power is only about 0.3% of the 20 kW peak power delivered at the resonance frequency. The

significant reduction in power for frequencies away from resonance is a consequence of the relatively

high Q -factor of about 12.5 for this circuit. A high Q is beneficial if, for example, you want to listen

to your favorite radio station that broadcasts at 101.5 MHz, and you do not want to receive the signal

from another local station that broadcasts at 101.9 MHz.

∆V 12.0 V

I = 0.630 A = 19.0 Ω

33.56 The resistance of the circuit is R=

∆Vrms 24.0 V

The impedance of the circuit is Z = = = 42.1 Ω

I rms 0.570 A

Z 2 = R 2 + ω 2 L2

1 1

L= Z2 − R2 = (42.1)2 − (19.0)2 = 99.6 mH

ω 377

33.57 (a) When ω L is very large, the bottom branch carries negligible current. Also, 1/ω C will be

negligible compared to 200 Ω and 45.0 V/200 Ω = 225 mA flows in the power supply and the

top branch.

(b) Now 1/ω C → ∞ and ω L → 0 so the generator and bottom branch carry 450 mA

Chapter 33 Solutions 289

33.58 (a) With both switches closed, the current goes only through

generator and resistor.

∆Vmax

i(t) = cos ω t

R

1 ( ∆Vmax )

2

(b) P=

2 R

∆Vmax

(c) i(t) = cos [ω t + Arctan(ω L / R)]

R 2 + ω 2 L2

1

ω L−

0 ω 0C

(d) For 0 = φ = Arctan

R

1 1

We require ω 0 L = , so C=

ω0 C ω 02 L

U = 21 C ( ∆VC ) = 21 C I 2 XC 2

2

(f)

U max = 21 CI max

2

XC 2 = 21 C

( ∆Vmax )2 1

=

( ∆Vmax )2 L

R2 ω 0 2C 2 2R 2

2 max 2 R2

2

(h) Now ω = 2ω 0 =

LC

1 L 1 L

ωL −

ωC 2 C − 2 C 3 L

So φ = Arctan = Arctan = Arctan

R R 2R C

1 1 1 ω0

(i) Now ω L = ω= =

2 ωC 2 LC 2

290 Chapter 33 Solutions

and circuit (b) is a low-pass filter .

∆Vin ∆Vout

RL2 + (ω L)

2

∆Vout RL2 + XL2

(b) For circuit (a), = =

∆Vin RL2 + ( XL − XC )

2

RL2 + (ω L − 1 ω C )

2

Circuit (a)

∆Vout

As ω → 0, ≈ ω RLC ≈ 0

∆Vin

∆Vout

As ω → ∞ , ≈1 (high-pass filter)

∆Vin ∆Vin ∆V out

∆Vout XC 1 ωC

For circuit (b), = =

∆Vin RL2 + ( X L − XC )

2

RL2 + (ω L − 1 ω C )

2 Circuit (b)

∆Vout

As ω → 0, ≈1

∆Vin

∆Vout 1

As ω → ∞ , ≈ 2 ≈0 (low-pass filter)

∆Vin ω LC

∆Vrms 100 V

33.60 (a) I R, rms = = = 1.25 A IR ∆V

R 80.0 Ω

φ

(b) The total current will lag the applied voltage as seen in the IL

I

phasor diagram at the right.

∆Vrms 100 V

I L, rms = = = 1.33 A

XL ( )

2 π 60.0 s −1 (0.200 H)

I L, rms −1 1.33 A

Thus, the phase angle is: φ = tan −1 = tan 1.25 A = 46.7°

R, rms

I

*33.61 Suppose each of the 20 000 people uses an average power of 500 W. (This means 12 kWh per

day, or $36 per 30 days at 10¢ per kWh). Suppose the transmission line is at 20 kV. Then

I rms =

P

=

(20 000)(500 W) ~10 3 A

∆Vrms 20 000 V

If the transmission line had been at 200 kV, the current would be only ~10 2 A .

Chapter 33 Solutions 291

(a) The resonant frequency ω0 produces the maximum current and thus the maximum power

dissipation in the resistor.

1 1

ω0 = = = 224 rad/s

LC (2.00)(10.0 × 10 − 6 )

(b) P=

( ∆Vmax )2 =

(100)2

= 500 W

2R 2(10.0)

(c) I rms =

Z

=

2

and ( Irms )max = R

1

R2 + ω L −

ω C

( ∆Vrms )2 R = 1 ( ∆Vrms )2 R

2

I rms R=

2

( )

1 2

I rms

max

R or

Z2 2 R2

2

1

This occurs where Z 2 = 2R 2: R2 + ω L − = 2R 2

ω C

2 −6 2 4 −6

]

) + (10.0)2 (10.0 × 10 − 6 )2 ω 2 + 1 = 0

1

Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = 250 Ω

2

ω L = 250 Ω, ω C = 100 Ω,

∆Vmax 50.0 V

(a) I max = = = 0.200 A

Z 250 Ω

X L − XC

φ = tan −1 = 36.8° (∆V leads I)

R

I max

(c) ∆VC, max = = 20.0 V at φ = – 90.0° (I leads ∆V)

ωC

292 Chapter 33 Solutions

∆Vrms

2

(120 V )2 Z = R 2 + (ω L − 1 ω C )

( 40.0 Ω) :

2

*33.64 P = I rms

2

R= R, so 250 W =

Z Z 2

250 =

(120)2 ( 40.0) and 250 =

576 000 f 2

( )

2 2

1600 f 2 + 1.1624 f 2 − 2448.5

1

( 40.0) 2

+ 2 π f (0.185) −

(

2 π f 65.0 × 10 − 6 )

2304 f 2

1= so 1.3511 f 4 − 6396.3 f 2 + 5 995 300 = 0

1600 f 2 + 1.3511 f 4 − 5692.3 f 2 + 5 995 300

f2= = 3446.5 or 1287.4

2(1.3511)

f = 58.7 Hz or 35.9 Hz

N1 ∆V1

33.65 (a) From Equation 33.39, =

N 2 ∆V 2

∆V1 ∆V 2

Let output impedance Z1 = and the input impedance Z2 =

I1 I2

N1 Z1I1 I1 ∆V 2 N 2

so that = But from Eq. 33.40, = =

N 2 Z2 I 2 I 2 ∆V1 N1

N1 Z1

So, combining with the previous result we have =

N2 Z2

N1 Z1 8000

(b) = = = 31.6

N2 Z2 8.00

33.66 IR = ; IL = ; IC =

R ωL (ω C)−1

2

1 1

I rms = I R2 + (IC − I L )2 = ∆Vrms + ωC −

R 2 ω L

(a)

IC − I L 1 1 1

(b) tan φ = = ∆Vrms −

IR C

X X L ∆V rms / R

1 1

tan φ = R −

C

X X L

Chapter 33 Solutions 293

2

1 1

I rms = ∆Vrms + ωC −

ω L

33.67 (a)

R 2

1

∆Vrms → ( ∆Vrms )max when ω C =

ωL

1

f=

2 π LC

1

f= = 919 Hz

−3

2 π 200 × 10 H)(0.150 × 10 − 6 F)

∆Vrms 120 V

(b) IR = = = 1.50 A

R 80.0 Ω

∆Vrms 120 V

IL = = = 1.60 A

ωL (374 s −1 )(0.200 H)

I − I 0.00673 − 1.60

(d) φ = tan −1 C L = tan −1 = – 46.7°

IR 1.50

∆VL I (ω L) ω L

33.68 (a) tan φ = = =

∆V R IR R L

∆Vin R ∆V out

Thus, R =

ωL

=

(

200 s (0.500 H)

−1

)

= 173 Ω

tan φ tan( 30.0°)

∆V = IZ

∆Vout ∆V R

(b) = = cos φ

∆Vin ∆Vin ∆VL = IXL

φ

294 Chapter 33 Solutions

XL 1884 Ω 1 1

L= = = 0.150 H and C= = = 42.2 nF

2 π f 4000 π rad s (2π f )XC ( 4000π rad s)(1884 Ω)

1

XL = 2 π f (0.150 H) XC = Z= ( 40.0 Ω)2 + (XL − XC )2

(2π f )( 4.22 × 10 −8

F )

(b) Impedence, Ω

f (Hz) X L (Ω) XC (Ω) Z (Ω)

600 565 6280 5720

800 754 4710 3960

1000 942 3770 2830

1500 1410 2510 1100

2000 1880 1880 40

3000 2830 1260 1570

4000 3770 942 2830

6000 5650 628 5020

10000 9420 377 9040

1 1

33.70 ω0 = = 1.00 × 106 rad s ω ω0 ω L (Ω )

(Ω ) Z (Ω )

LC ωC P = I 2 R (W)

0.9990 999.0 1001.0 2.24 0.19984

For each angular frequency, we 0.9991 999.1 1000.9 2.06 0.23569

0.9993 999.3 1000.7 1.72 0.33768

find

0.9995 999.5 1000.5 1.41 0.49987

0.9997 999.7 1000.3 1.17 0.73524

Z = R 2 + (ω L − 1/ ω C )

2 0.9999 999.9 1000.1 1.02 0.96153

1.0000 1000 1000.0 1.00 1.00000

1.0001 1000.1 999.9 1.02 0.96154

then I = (1.00 V ) / Z 1.0003 1000.3 999.7 1.17 0.73535

1.0005 1000.5 999.5 1.41 0.50012

1.0007 1000.7 999.3 1.72 0.33799

and P = I 2 (1.00 Ω) 1.0009 1000.9 999.1 2.06 0.23601

1.0010 1001 999.0 2.24 0.20016

∆ω (1.0005 − 0.9995)ω 0

∆f = =

2π 2π

1.00 × 10 3 s −1

∆f = = 159 Hz

2π

while

R 1.00 Ω

= = 159 Hz

(

2 π L 2 π 1.00 × 10 −3 H )

Chapter 33 Solutions 295

∆Vout R R C

33.71 = =

∆Vin R 2 + (1 ω C )

2

R 2 + (1 2 π f C )

2

∆Vin R ∆Vout

∆Vout 1 1

(a) = when =R 3

∆Vin 2 ωC

ω 1

Hence, f = = = 1.84 kHz

2 π 2 π RC 3

-1

Log∆V out / ∆ V in -2

-3

-4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Log f

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