You are on page 1of 26

Chapter 33 Solutions

33.1 ∆v(t) = ∆Vmax sin(ω t) = 2 ∆Vrms sin(ω t) = 200 2 sin[2 π (100t)] = (283 V) sin (628 t)

170 V
33.2 ∆Vrms = = 120 V
2

(∆Vrms )2 (120 V)2


(a) P= →R= = 193 Ω
R 75.0 W

(120 V)2
(b) R= = 144 Ω
100 W

33.3 Each meter reads the rms value.

100 V
∆Vrms = = 70.7 V
2

∆Vrms 70.7 V
I rms = = = 2.95 A
R 24.0 Ω

33.4 (a) ∆vR = ∆Vmax sin ω t

∆vR = 0.250 ( ∆Vmax ) , so sin ω t = 0.250, or ω t = sin −1 (0.250)

The smallest angle for which this is true is ω t = 0.253 rad. Thus, if t = 0.010 0 s ,

0.253 rad
ω= = 25.3 rad/s
0.010 0 s

(b) The second time when ∆vR = 0.250 ( ∆Vmax ) , ω t = sin −1 (0.250) again. For this occurrence,
ω t = π − 0.253 rad = 2 .89 rad (to understand why this is true, recall the identity sin( π − θ ) = sin θ
from trigonometry). Thus,
2.89 rad
t= = 0.114 s
25.3 rad s

33.5 iR = I max sin ω t becomes 0.600 = sin(ω 0.00700)

Thus, (0.00700)ω = sin–1(0.600) = 0.644

and ω = 91.9 rad/s = 2π f so f = 14.6 Hz

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


Chapter 33 Solutions 271

33.6 P = I rms ( ∆Vrms ) and ∆Vrms = 120 V for each bulb (parallel circuit), so:

P1 150 W ∆Vrms 120 V


I1 = I 2 = = = 1.25 A , and R1 = = = 96.0 Ω = R2
∆Vrms 120 V I1 1.25 A

P3 100 W ∆Vrms 120 V


I3 = = = 0.833 A , and R3 = = = 144 Ω
∆Vrms 120 V I3 0.833 A

33.7 ∆Vmax = 15.0 V and Rtotal = 8.20 Ω + 10.4 Ω = 18.6 Ω

∆Vmax 15.0 V
I max = = = 0.806 A = 2 I rms
Rtotal 18.6 Ω
2
 0.806 A 
P speaker = I rms Rspeaker =   (10.4 Ω) = 3.38 W
2
 2 

80.0 mA
33.8 For Imax = 80.0 mA, Irms = = 56.6 mA
2

Vrms 50.0 V
Irms = 0.0566 A = 884 Ω
(XL)min =

XL 884 Ω
XL = 2π f L → L = 2π f ≥ 2π (20.0) ≥ 7.03 H

∆Vmax 100
33.9 (a) XL = = = 13.3 Ω
I max 7.50

XL 13.3
L= = = 0.0424 H = 42.4 mH
ω 2 π (50.0)

∆Vmax 100
(b) XL = = = 40.0 Ω
I max 2.50

XL 40.0
ω= = = 942 rad/s
L 42.4 × 10 − 3

 X 
50.0
XL = 2 π ( 50.0 Hz)L = 2 π ( 50.0 Hz) ( 54.0 Ω) = 45.0 Ω
L 60.0 Hz
33.10 At 50.0 Hz, =
 2 π (60.0 Hz)  60.0
 

∆Vmax 2 ( ∆Vrms ) 2 (100 V )


I max = = = = 3.14 A
XL XL 45.0 Ω

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


272 Chapter 33 Solutions

iL (t ) =
∆Vmax
sin (ω t − π 2) =
[
(80.0 V ) sin (65.0 π )(0.0155) − π 2 ]
( )
33.11
ωL (65.0 π rad s) 70.0 × 10−3 H

iL (t ) = ( 5.60 A ) sin(1.59 rad) = 5.60 A

33.12 ω = 2 π f = 2 π (60.0 / s) = 377 rad / s

XL = ω L = (377 / s)(0.0200 V ⋅ s / A) = 7.54 Ω

∆Vrms 120 V
I rms = = = 15.9 A
XL 7.54 Ω

I max = 2 I rms = 2 (15.9 A) = 22.5 A

 2 π (60.0) 1 s 
i(t) = I max sin ω t = (22.5 A)sin  ⋅  = (22.5 A) sin 120° = 19.5 A
 s 180 

 V ⋅ s
U = 21 Li 2 = 21 0.0200 (19.5 A)2 = 3.80 J
 A 

33.13 L=
N ΦB
where Φ B is the flux through each turn. N Φ B, max = LI B, =
(
XL ∆VL, max )
max
I ω XL

N Φ B, max =
(
2 ∆VL, rms )= 120 V ⋅ s  T ⋅ C ⋅ m   N ⋅ m   J 
  = 0.450 T · m2
2π f 2 π (60.0)  N ⋅ s   J   V ⋅ C 

1 1
33.14 (a) XC = : < 175 Ω
2π f C 2 π f (22.0 × 10 −6 )

1
<f f > 41.3 Hz
2 π (22.0 × 10 −6 )(175)

1
(b) XC ∝ , so X(44) = 21 X(22): XC < 87.5 Ω
C

2 ( ∆Vrms )
33.15 I max = 2 I rms = = 2 ( ∆Vrms ) 2 π f C
XC

(a) I max = 2 (120 V)2 π (60.0 / s)(2.20 × 10 − 6 C / V) = 141 mA

(b) I max = 2 (240 V)2 π (50.0 / s)(2.20 × 10 − 6 F) = 235 mA


Chapter 33 Solutions 273

33.16 Qmax = C ( ∆Vmax ) = C [ ]


2 ( ∆Vrms ) = 2 C ( ∆Vrms )

33.17 I max = ( ∆Vmax )ω C = (48.0 V)(2 π )(90.0 s −1 )(3.70 × 10 − 6 F) = 100 mA

1 1
33.18 XC = = = 2.65 Ω
ω C 2 π (60.0 / s)(1.00 × 10 − 3 C / V)

vC (t) = ∆Vmax sin ω t , to be zero at t = 0

∆Vmax 2 (120 V)  60 s -1 
iC = sin(ω t + φ ) = sin 2 π + 90.0° = (64.0 A)sin(120° + 90.0°) = – 32.0 A
XC 2.65 Ω  180 s
-1

33.19 (a) XL = ω L = 2π (50.0)(400 × 10- 3) = 126 Ω

1 1
XC = = = 719 Ω
ω C 2 π (50.0)(4.43 × 10 −6 )

Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2 = 500 2 + (126 − 719)2 = 776 Ω

∆Vmax = Imax Z = (250 × 10- 3)(776) = 194 V

X L − XC   126 − 719 
(b) φ = tan −1  = tan −1 = – 49.9° Thus, the Current leads the voltage.
 R   500 

1 1 1
33.20 ωL = →ω = = = 1.75 × 10 4 rad / s
ωC LC (57.0 × 10 )(57.0 × 10 −6 )
−6

ω
f = 2π = 2.79 kHz

33.21 (a) XL = ω L = 2π (50.0 s-1)(250 × 10-3 H) = 78.5 Ω

[ ]
1 −1
(b) XC = = 2 π (50.0 s −1 )(2.00 × 10 −6 F) = 1.59 kΩ
ωC

(c) Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2 = 1.52 kΩ

∆Vmax 210 V
(d) I max = = = 138 mA
Z 1.52 × 10 3 Ω
X L − XC 
(e) φ = tan −1  −1
 = tan (−10.1) = – 84.3°
 R

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


274 Chapter 33 Solutions

Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = 68.0 2 + (16.0 − 101) = 109 Ω


2
33.22 (a)

XL = ω L = (100)(0.160) = 16.0 Ω

1 1
XC = = = 101 Ω
(
ω C (100) 99.0 × 10 −6 )
∆Vmax 40.0 V
(b) I max = = = 0.367 A
Z 109 Ω

XL − XC 16.0 − 101
(c) tan φ = = = −1.25:
R 68.0

φ = − 0.896 rad = − 51.3°

Imax = 0.367 A ω = 100 rad/s φ = – 0.896 rad = – 51.3°

33.23 XL = 2 π f L = 2 π (60.0)(0.460) = 173 Ω

1 1
XC = = = 126 Ω
( )
2 π f C 2 π (60.0) 21.0 × 10 − 6

XL − XC 173 Ω − 126 Ω
(a) tan φ = = = 0.314
R 150 Ω

φ = 0.304 rad = 17.4°

(b) Since XL > XC , φ is positive; so voltage leads the current .

1 1
33.24 XC = = = 1.33 × 108 Ω
2 π f C 2 π (60.0 Hz)(20.0 × 10 −12 F)

Z = (50.0 × 10 3 Ω)2 + (1.33 × 108 Ω)2 ≈ 1.33 × 108 Ω

∆Vrms 5000 V
Irms = = = 3.77 × 10–5 A
Z 1.33 × 108 Ω

( ∆Vrms )body = Irms Rbody = (3.77 × 10− 5 A)(50.0 × 10 3 Ω) = 1.88 V


Chapter 33 Solutions 275

1 1
33.25 XC = = = 49.0 Ω
ω C 2 π (50.0)(65.0 × 10 −6 )

XL = ω L = 2 π (50.0)(185 × 10 −3 ) = 58.1 Ω

Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2 = (40.0)2 + (58.1 − 49.0)2 = 41.0 Ω

∆Vmax 150
I max = = = 3.66 A
Z 41.0

(a) ∆VR = Imax R = (3.66)(40) = 146 V

(b) ∆VL = Imax XL = (3.66)(58.1) = 212.5 = 212 V

(c) ∆VC = Imax XC = (3.66)(49.0) = 179.1 V = 179 V

(d) ∆VL – ∆VC = 212.5 – 179.1 = 33.4 V

33.26 R = 300 Ω
XL = 200 Ω
 500 −1 
XL = ω L = 2 π s (0.200 H) = 200 Ω
 π 

−1
XL - XC = 109 Ω
{ Z
φ

  500 −1 
( 
)
R = 300 Ω
1
XC = = 2 π s 11.0 × 10 −6 F  = 90.9 Ω XC = 90.9 Ω
ωC   π  

X L − XC 
Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = 319 Ω φ = tan −1 
2
and = 20.0°
 R 

33.27 (a) XL = 2 π (100 Hz)( 20.5 H) = 1.29 × 10 4 Ω

∆Vrms 200 V
Z= = = 50.0 Ω
I rms 4.00 A

(XL − XC )2 = Z2 − R 2 = (50.0 Ω)2 − (35.0 Ω)2


1
XL − XC = 1.29 × 10 4 Ω − = ± 35.7 Ω C = 123 nF or 124 nF
2 π (100 Hz)C

(b) ( )
∆VL,rms = I rms XL = ( 4.00 A ) 1.29 × 10 4 Ω = 51.5 kV

Notice that this is a very large voltage!

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


276 Chapter 33 Solutions

33.28 XL = ω L = [(1000 / s)(0.0500 H)] = 50.0 Ω

[ ]
−1
XC = 1/ ω C = (1000 / s)(50.0 × 10 − 6 F) = 20.0 Ω

Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2

Z = (40.0)2 + (50.0 − 20.0)2 = 50.0 Ω

(a) I rms = ( ∆Vrms ) / Z = 100 V / 50.0 Ω

I rms = 2.00 A

X − XC 
φ = Arctan  L
 R 

30.0 Ω
φ = Arctan = 36.9°
40.0 Ω

(b) P = ( ∆Vrms ) I rms cos φ = 100 V(2.00 A) cos 36.9° = 160 W

(c) 2
P R = I rms R = (2.00 A)2 40.0 Ω = 160 W

33.29 ω = 1000 rad/s, R = 400 Ω, C = 5.00 × 10– 6 F, L = 0.500 H

 1 
∆Vmax = 100 V, ω L = 500 Ω ,   = 200 Ω
 ω C

2
 1 
Z = R2 +  ω L − = 400 2 + 300 2 = 500 Ω
 ω C 

∆Vmax 100
I max = = = 0.200 A
Z 500

 I2 
The average power dissipated in the circuit is P = I rms
2
R =  max  R
 2 

(0.200 A)2
P= (400 Ω) = 8.00 W
2
Chapter 33 Solutions 277

Goal Solution
An ac voltage of the form ∆v = (100 V ) sin(1000 t ) is applied to a series RLC circuit. If R = 400 Ω,
C = 5.00 µ F, and L = 0.500 H, what is the average power delivered to the circuit?

G: Comparing ∆v = (100 V ) sin(1000 t ) with ∆v = ∆Vmax sin ω t, we see that

∆Vmax = 100 V and ω = 1000 s -1


Only the resistor takes electric energy out of the circuit, but the capacitor and inductor will impede the
current flow and therefore reduce the voltage across the resistor. Because of this impedance, the
average power dissipated by the resistor must be less than the maximum power from the source:

P max =
( ∆Vmax )2 = (100 V)2 = 12.5 W
2R 2( 400 Ω)

O: The actual power dissipated by the resistor can be found from P = I rms
2
R, where I rms = ∆Vrms / Z.

100
A : ∆Vrms = = 70.7 V
2
In order to calculate the impedance, we first need the capacitive and inductive reactances:

XC =
1
=
1
ω C (1000 s -1 )(5.00 × 10 −6 F)
= 200 Ω and ( )
XL = ω L = 1000 s -1 (0.500 H) = 500 Ω

Then, Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2 = (400 Ω)2 + (500 Ω − 200 Ω)2 = 500 Ω

∆Vrms 70.7 V
R = (0.141 A ) ( 400 Ω) = 8.00 W
2
I rms = = = 0.141 A and P = I rms
2
Z 500 Ω

L : The power dissipated by the resistor is less than 12.5 W, so our answer appears to be reasonable. As
with other RLC circuits, the power will be maximized at the resonance frequency where XL = XC so
that Z = R . Then the average power dissipated will simply be the 12.5 W we calculated first.

Z = R 2 + ( X L − XC ) ( X L − XC ) =
2
33.30 or Z2 − R2

(XL − XC ) = (75.0 Ω)2 − ( 45.0 Ω)2 = 60.0 Ω

X L − XC   60.0 Ω 
φ = tan −1  = tan −1 = 53.1°
 R   45.0 Ω 

∆Vrms 210 V
I rms = = = 2.80 A
Z 75.0 Ω

P = ( ∆Vrms ) I rms cos φ = ( 210 V )( 2.80 A ) cos( 53.1˚ ) = 353 W

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


278 Chapter 33 Solutions

33.31 (a) P = I rms (∆Vrms )cos φ = (9.00)(180) cos(– 37.0°) = 1.29 × 10 3 W

P = I rms
2
R so 1.29 × 10 3 = (9.00)2 R and R = 16.0 Ω

X L − XC X L − XC
(b) tan φ = becomes tan( − 37.0°) = : so XL – XC = – 12.0 Ω
R 16

*33.32 XL = ω L = 2 π (60.0 / s)(0.0250 H) = 9.42 Ω

Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2 = (20.0)2 + (9.42)2 Ω = 22.1 Ω

∆Vrms 120 V
(a) I rms = = = 5.43 A
Z 22.1 Ω

(b) φ = tan −1 (9.42 / 20.0) = 25.2° so power factor = cos φ = 0.905

1
(c) We require φ = 0. Thus, XL = XC: 9.42 Ω =
2 π (60.0 s −1 )C

and C = 281 µF

( ∆Vrms )d 2
(d) Pb = Pd or ( ∆Vrms )b ( Irms )b cos φb = R

( ∆Vrms )d = R( ∆Vrms )b ( I rms )b cos φ b = (20.0 Ω)(120 V )( 5.43 A)(0.905) = 109 V

33.33 Consider a two-wire transmission line:


R1
P 100 × 106 W
I rms = = = 2.00 × 10 3 A
∆Vrms 50.0 × 10 3 V ∆Vrms RL

loss = (0.010 0)P = I rms


2
R line = I rms
2
(2R1 ) R1

(0.010 0)P = (0.010 0)(100 × 10 ) = 0.125 Ω


6
W
Thus, R1 =
( )
2 2
2 I max 2 2.00 × 10 A3

ρl π d 2 ρl
But R1 = or A= =
A 4 R1

Therefore d=
4ρ l
=
( )(
4 1.70 × 10 − 8 Ω ⋅ m 100 × 10 3 m ) = 0.132 m = 132 mm
π R1 π (0.125 Ω)
Chapter 33 Solutions 279

33.34 Consider a two-wire transmission line:


R1
P P
I rms = and power loss = 2
I rms R line =
∆Vrms 100 ∆Vrms RL

( ∆Vrms )2
2
 P 
 ( 2R1 ) =
P R1
Thus,  or R1 =
 ∆Vrms  100 200 P

ρ d ( ∆Vrms ) π ( 2r )2 200ρ P d
2
R1 = = or A= =
A 200 P 4 ( ∆Vrms )2

800ρ P d
and the diameter is 2r =
π ( ∆Vrms )
2

33.35 One-half the time, the left side of the generator is positive, the
top diode conducts, and the bottom diode switches off. The R1
power supply sees resistance
∆Vrms RL
 1 1 
−1
( ∆V rms )2
 2R + 2R  =R and the power is
R R1

The other half of the time the right side of the generator is
positive, the upper diode is an open circuit, and the lower diode
has zero resistance. The equivalent resistance is then

 1
Req = R + 
1
+ 
−1
=
7R
and P=
( ∆V rms )2 =
4( ∆V rms )
2

 3R R  4 Req 7R

The overall time average power is:


[(∆V rms )2 ][
R + 4( ∆V rms ) 7R
2
]= 11( ∆V rms )
2

2 14 R

1 1
33.36 At resonance, = 2π f L and =C
2π f C ( 2 π f )2 L
The range of values for C is 46.5 pF to 419 pF

1
33.37 ω 0 = 2 π (99.7 × 106 ) = 6.26 × 108 rad / s =
LC
1 1
C= = = 1.82 pF
ω 0 2 L (6.26 × 108 )2 (1.40 × 10 − 6 )

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


280 Chapter 33 Solutions

33.38 L = 20.0 mH, C = 1.00 × 10–7, R = 20.0 Ω, ∆Vmax = 100 V

1 1
(a) The resonant frequency for a series –RLC circuit is f= = 3.56 kHz
2π LC
∆Vmax
(b) At resonance, I max = = 5.00 A
R
ω 0L
(c) From Equation 33.36, Q= = 22.4
R

(d) ∆VL, max = XL I max = ω 0 L I max = 2.24 kV

33.39 The resonance frequency is ω 0 = 1 LC . Thus, if ω = 2ω 0 ,

 2  L 1 LC 1 L
XL = ω L =  L = 2 and XC = = =
 LC  C ωC 2C 2 C

∆Vrms ∆Vrms
Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = R 2 + 2.25( L C )
2
so I rms = =
Z R + 2.25( L C )
2

and the energy dissipated in one period is Q = P ∆t:

( ∆Vrms )2 R  2π  = ( ∆Vrms )2 RC π 4 π ( ∆Vrms ) RC LC


2
Q=
R 2 + 2.25( L C )  ω  R 2C + 2.25 L
( )
LC =
4R 2C + 9.00 L

With the values specified for this circuit, this gives:

( ) (10.0 × 10 H)
32 12
4 π ( 50.0 V ) (10.0 Ω) 100 × 10 −6 F −3
2
Q= = 242 mJ
(
4(10.0 Ω) 100 × 10 −6
2
F ) + 9.00(10.0 × 10 H)
−3

33.40 The resonance frequency is ω 0 = 1 LC . Thus, if ω = 2ω 0 ,

 2  L 1 LC 1 L
XL = ω L =  L = 2 and XC = = =
 LC  C ωC 2C 2 C

∆Vrms ∆Vrms
Then Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = R 2 + 2.25( L C )
2
so I rms = =
Z R + 2.25( L C )
2

and the energy dissipated in one period is

( ∆Vrms )2 R  2π  = ( ∆Vrms )2 RC π 4 π ( ∆Vrms ) RC LC


2
Q = P ∆t =
R 2 + 2.25( L C )  ω  R 2C + 2.25 L
( )
LC =
4R 2C + 9.00 L
Chapter 33 Solutions 281

1 1
*33.41 For the circuit of problem 22, ω0 = = = 251 rad s
LC
(160 × 10 −3
)(
H 99.0 × 10 −6 F )

Q= =
(
ω 0 L ( 251 rad s) 160 × 10 H
−3
= 0.591
)
R 68.0 Ω

ω 0L L 1 L 1 460 × 10 −3 H
For the circuit of problem 23, Q= = = = = 0.987
R R LC R C 150 Ω 21.0 × 10 −6 F

The circuit of problem 23 has a sharper resonance.

33.42 (a) ∆V 2, rms = 13 ( )


1 120 V = 9.23 V

(b) ∆V1, rms I1, rms = ∆V 2, rms I 2, rms

(120 V)( 0.350 A) = (9.23 V)I 2, rms

42.0 W
I 2, rms = = 4.55 A for a transformer with no energy loss
9.23 V

(c) P = 42.0 W from (b)

( ∆Vout )max = N2 ( ∆Vin )max = 


N 2000 
33.43 (170 V) = 971 V
1 350 

(971 V)
( ∆Vout )rms = 2
= 687 V

33.44 (a) (∆V2, rms ) = NN21 (∆V1, rms ) N2 =


(2200)(80)
110
= 1600 windings

(b) ( ) (
I1, rms ∆V1, rms = I 2, rms ∆V 2, rms ) I1, rms =
(1.50)(2200)
110
= 30.0 A

(c) ( ) (
0.950 I1, rms ∆V1, rms = I 2, rms ∆V 2, rms ) I1, rms =
(1.20)(2200)
110(0.950)
= 25.3 A

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


282 Chapter 33 Solutions

33.45 The rms voltage across the transformer primary is


N1
N2
(
∆V 2, rms )
so the source voltage is ∆V s, rms = I1, rms Rs +
N1
N2
(
∆V 2, rms )

The secondary current is


(∆V2, rms ) , so the primary current is
(
N 2 ∆V 2, rms)= I1, rms
RL N1 RL

Then ∆V s, rms =
(
N 2 ∆V 2, rms Rs ) +
(
N1 ∆V 2, rms )
N1RL N2

N1RL 
 ∆V s, rms −
(
N1 ∆V 2, rms )  = 5(50.0 Ω)  80.0 V − 5(25.0 V) = 87.5 Ω
( )
and Rs =
N 2 ∆V 2, rms 
 N2 
 2(25.0 V)  2 

N 2 ∆V 2, rms 10.0 × 10 3 V
33.46 (a) ∆V 2, rms =
N2
N1
(
∆V1, rms ) =
N1 ∆V1, rms
=
120 V
= 83.3

(b) ( )
I 2, rms ∆V 2, rms = 0.900 I1, rms ∆V1, rms ( )
(
I 2, rms 10.0 × 10 3 V = 0.900)  120 V 
 24.0 Ω 
(120 V ) I 2, rms = 54.0 mA

∆V 2, rms 10.0 × 10 3 V
(c) Z2 = = = 185 kΩ
I 2, rms 0.054 A

P 5.00 × 106 W
33.47 (a) R = (4.50 × 10 − 4 Ω / m)(6.44 × 10 5 m) = 290 Ω and I rms = = = 10.0 A
∆Vrms 5.00 × 10 5 V
2
P loss = I rms R = (10.0 A)2 (290 Ω) = 29.0 kW

P loss 2.90 × 10 4
(b) = = 5.80 × 10 − 3
P 5.00 × 106

(c) It is impossible to transmit so much power at such low voltage. Maximum power transfer
occurs when load resistance equals the line resistance of 290 Ω, and is

(4.50 × 10 3 V)2
= 17.5 kW, far below the required 5 000 kW
2 ⋅ 2(290 Ω)
Chapter 33 Solutions 283

∆Vout XC
33.48 For the filter circuit, =
∆Vin R + XC2
2

1 1
At f = 600 Hz , XC = = = 3.32 × 10 4 Ω
( )
(a)
2 π f C 2 π (600 Hz) 8.00 × 10 −9 F

∆Vout 3.32 × 10 4 Ω
and = ≈ 1.00
(90.0 Ω)2 + (3.32 × 10 4 )
∆Vin 2

1 1
At f = 600 kHz, XC = = = 33.2 Ω
( )( )
(b)
2 π f C 2 π 600 × 10 Hz 8.00 × 10 −9 F
3

∆Vout 33.2 Ω
and = = 0.346
∆Vin (90.0 Ω)2 + (33.2 Ω)2

∆Vout R
33.49 For this RC high-pass filter, =
∆Vin R + XC2
2

(a)

∆Vout
(a) When = 0.500,
∆Vin

0.500 Ω
then = 0.500 or XC = 0.866 Ω
(0.500 Ω)2 + XC2
(b)
If this occurs at f = 300 Hz, the capacitance is

1 1
C= = = 6.13 × 10 − 4 F = 613 µ F
2 π f XC 2 π ( 300 Hz)(0.866 Ω)

(b) With this capacitance and a frequency of 600 Hz,


(c)
1
XC = = 0.433 Ω
(
2 π (600 Hz) 6.13 × 10 − 4 F )
Figures for Goal
∆Vout R 0.500 Ω
= = = 0.756 Solution
∆Vin R 2 + XC2 (0.500 Ω)2 + (0.433 Ω)2

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


284 Chapter 33 Solutions

Goal Solution
The RC high-pass filter shown in Figure 33.22 has a resistance R = 0.500 Ω. (a) What capacitance gives an
output signal that has one-half the amplitude of a 300-Hz input signal? (b) What is the gain ( ∆V out / ∆Vin )
for a 600-Hz signal?

G: It is difficult to estimate the capacitance required without actually calculating it, but we might expect a
typical value in the µ F to pF range. The nature of a high-pass filter is to yield a larger gain at higher
frequencies, so if this circuit is designed to have a gain of 0.5 at 300 Hz, then it should have a higher
gain at 600 Hz. We might guess it is near 1.0 based on Figure (b) above.

O: The output voltage of this circuit is taken across the resistor, but the input sees the impedance of the
resistor and the capacitor. Therefore, the gain will be the ratio of the resistance to the impedance.

∆Vout R
A: =
∆Vin R + (1 ω C )
2 2

(a) When ∆V out / ∆Vin = 0.500

1 1
solving for C gives C= = = 613 µ F
 ∆Vin 
2
(2 π )(300 Hz)(0.500 Ω) (2.00)2 − 1
ωR   −1
 ∆Vout 

(b) At 600 Hz, we have (


ω = ( 2 π rad) 600 s -1 )
∆Vout 0.500 Ω
so = = 0.756
∆Vin  
2
1
(0.500 Ω)2 + 
 (1200 π rad / s) (613 µ F ) 

L : The capacitance value seems reasonable, but the gain is considerably less than we expected. Based o n
our calculation, we can modify the graph in Figure (b) to more transparently represent the
characteristics of this high-pass filter, now shown in Figure (c). If this were an audio filter, it would
reduce low frequency “humming” sounds while allowing high pitch sounds to pass through. A low
pass filter would be needed to reduce high frequency “static” noise.

33.50 ∆V1 = I (r + R)2 + XL2 , and ∆V 2 = I R 2 + XL2 r = 20.0 Ω

Thus, when ∆V1 = 2 ∆V 2 (r + R)2 + XL2 = 4( R 2 + XL2 ) L = 250 mH

∆V1 ∆V2

or (25.0 Ω) 2
+ XL2 = 4( 5.00 Ω) +
2
4XL2
R =5.00 Ω

625 − 100
which gives XL = 2 π f (0.250 H) = Ω and f = 8.42 Hz
3
Chapter 33 Solutions 285

∆Vout R
*33.51 =
∆Vin R + ( X L − XC )
2 2

(a) At 200 Hz:


1
=
(8.00 Ω)2
2
4  1 
(8.00 Ω)2 + 400 π L − 
 400 π C 
2
 1 
At 4000 Hz: (8.00 Ω) 2
+ 8000 π L −  = 4(8.00 Ω)
2

 8000 π C 

1
At the low frequency, XL − XC < 0 . This reduces to 400π L − = − 13.9 Ω [1]
400π C
1
For the high frequency half-voltage point, 8000π L − = + 13.9 Ω [2]
8000π C
Solving Equations (1) and (2) simultaneously gives C = 54.6 µ F and L = 580 µ H

∆Vout  ∆Vout 
(b) When XL = XC , =  = 1.00
∆Vin  ∆Vin  max
1 1
(c) XL = XC requires f0 = = = 894 Hz
2 π LC 2π (5.80 × 10 −4
)(
H 5.46 × 10 − 5 F )
∆Vout R 1
(d) At 200 Hz, = = and XC > X L , R
∆Vin Z 2 ∆Vout
φ or φ
XL - XC
so the phasor diagram is as shown: Z ∆Vin

φ = − cos −1   = − cos −1  
R 1
so ∆Vout leads ∆Vin by 60.0°
 Z  2

At f 0 , XL = XC so ∆Vout and ∆Vin have a phase difference of 0°

∆Vout R 1
At 4000 Hz, = = and X L − XC > 0
∆Vin Z 2
∆Vin
Z
or
 1 XL - XC
Thus, φ = cos −1 = 60.0° φ φ ∆Vout
 2 R

or ∆Vout lags ∆Vin by 60.0°

(∆Vout, rms ) = ( 21 ∆Vin, rms ) ( )


2 2 2
1 1 ∆V
(e) At 200 Hz and at 4 kHz, P= =
2 2 in, max
=
(10.0 V )2 = 1.56 W
R R R 8(8.00 Ω)

At f 0 , P =
(∆Vout,rms )2 = (∆Vin,rms )2 = 21 (∆Vin,max )2 = (10.0 V)2 = 6.25 W
R R R 2(8.00 Ω)

(f) We take: Q =
ω 0L
= =
(
2 π f 0 L 2 π (894 Hz) 5.80 × 10 H
−4
= 0.408
)
R R 8.00 Ω

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


286 Chapter 33 Solutions

∆Vout R
33.52 For a high-pass filter, =
∆Vin  1 
2
R2 +  
 ωC

( ∆Vout )1 R ( ∆Vout )2 R
= and =
( ∆Vin )1  1 
2 ( ∆Vin )2  1 
2
R2 +   R2 +  
 ωC  ωC

( ∆Vout )2 R2 1
Now ( ∆Vin )2 = ( ∆Vout )1 so = =
( ∆Vin )1  1 
2
 1 
2
R2 +   1+  
 ωC  ω RC 

33.53 Rewrite the circuit in terms of impedance as shown in Fig. (b). ZR


a
ZC

ZR ∆Vin
Find: ∆Vout = ∆V ab [1] ZC ZR ∆Vout
ZR + ZC

ZC || ( ZR + ZC )
b
From Figure (c), ∆V ab = ∆Vin Figure (a)
ZR + ZC || ( ZR + ZC )
ZC

[ ]
a
ZR ZC || ( ZR + ZC )
So Eq. [1] becomes ∆Vout = ∆Vin ∆Vab ZR ∆Vout
[
(ZR + ZC ) ZR + ZC||(ZR + ZC ) ] b
−1 Figure (b)
 1 1 
ZR  + 
∆Vout  C
Z Z + ZC
or = R
−1 ZR
∆Vin   1 1   a
(ZR + ZC )ZR +  Z + Z + Z  
  C R C  ∆Vin ZC
ZC ∆Vab
ZR
∆Vout ZR ZC ZR
= =
∆Vin ZC ( ZC + ZR ) + ZR ( ZR + 2ZC ) 3ZR + ZC + ( ZR )2 ZC b
Figure (c)

−j
Now, ZR = R and ZC = where j= −1 R
ωC
− ĵ
∆Vout R 1 Z
= where we used = −j. ωC
∆Vin  1  j
3R −   j+ R ω C j
2
 ω C

∆Vout R R 1.00 × 10 3
= = = = 0.317
∆Vin  1 
( )
2 2
 1  + (1592 − 628)
2
3R −  − R 2ω C j 3.00 × 10 3
ωC  (3R) 2
+ − R 2ω C
 ω C 
Chapter 33 Solutions 287

33.54 The equation for ∆v(t ) during the first period (using
y = mx + b ) is:

2( ∆Vmax ) t
∆v(t ) = − ∆Vmax
T

( ∆Vmax )
[ ]
2 2 2
T2 
( ∆v)2
ave
=
1 T
T ∫0
[ ∆v ( t )] dt =
T ∫0  T t − 1 dt

t=T
( ∆Vmax )2  T  [2t T − 1] 3 ( ∆Vmax )2 (+1)3 − (−1)3 = ( ∆Vmax )2
[( ∆v) 2
]
ave
=
T  2 3
=
6 [ ] 3
t=0

( ∆Vmax )2
∆Vrms = [
( ∆v)2 ] ave
=
3
=
∆Vmax
3

1 1
33.55 ω0 = = = 2000 s −1
−6
LC (0.0500 H)(5.00 × 10 F)

ω0
so the operating frequency of the circuit is ω = = 1000 s −1
2

( ∆Vrms )2 Rω 2
Using Equation 33.35, P= (Q ≈ 12.5)
( )
2
R 2ω 2 + L2 ω 2 − ω 02
Figure for Goal
Solution
(400)2 (8.00)(1000)2
P= = 56.7 W
[ ]
2
(8.00)2 (1000)2 + (0.0500)2 (1.00 − 4.00) × 106

Goal Solution
A series RLC circuit consists of an 8.00-Ω resistor, a 5.00-µ F capacitor, and a 50.0-mH inductor. A variable
frequency source applies an emf of 400 V (rms) across the combination. Determine the power delivered
to the circuit when the frequency is equal to one half the resonance frequency.

G: Maximum power is delivered at the resonance frequency, and the power delivered at other
frequencies depends on the quality factor, Q. For the relatively small resistance in this circuit, we
could expect a high Q = ω 0 L R . So at half the resonant frequency, the power should be a small
R = ( 400 V ) 8 Ω = 20 kW.
2
fraction of the maximum power, P av, max = ∆Vrms
2

O: We must first calculate the resonance frequency in order to find half this frequency. Then the power
delivered by the source must equal the power taken out by the resistor. This power can be found
from P av = I rms
2
R where I rms = ∆Vrms / Z.

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


288 Chapter 33 Solutions

1 1
A : The resonance frequency is f0 = = = 318 Hz
2 π LC 2 π (0.0500 H)( 5.00 × 10 −6 F )
The operating frequency is f = f 0 / 2 = 159 Hz . We can calculate the impedance at this frequency:

1 1
XL = 2 π f L = 2 π (159 Hz)(0.0500 H) = 50.0 Ω XC = = = 200 Ω
( )
and
2 π f C 2 π (159 Hz) 5.00 × 10 -6 F

Z = R 2 + (XL − XC )2 = 8.00 2 + (50.0 − 200)2 Ω = 150 Ω

∆Vrms 400 V
So, I rms = = = 2.66 A
Z 150 Ω
The power delivered by the source is the power dissipated by the resistor:

P av = I rms 2 R = (2.66 A)2 (8.00 Ω) = 56.7 W

L : This power is only about 0.3% of the 20 kW peak power delivered at the resonance frequency. The
significant reduction in power for frequencies away from resonance is a consequence of the relatively
high Q -factor of about 12.5 for this circuit. A high Q is beneficial if, for example, you want to listen
to your favorite radio station that broadcasts at 101.5 MHz, and you do not want to receive the signal
from another local station that broadcasts at 101.9 MHz.

∆V 12.0 V
I = 0.630 A = 19.0 Ω
33.56 The resistance of the circuit is R=

∆Vrms 24.0 V
The impedance of the circuit is Z = = = 42.1 Ω
I rms 0.570 A

Z 2 = R 2 + ω 2 L2

1 1
L= Z2 − R2 = (42.1)2 − (19.0)2 = 99.6 mH
ω 377

33.57 (a) When ω L is very large, the bottom branch carries negligible current. Also, 1/ω C will be
negligible compared to 200 Ω and 45.0 V/200 Ω = 225 mA flows in the power supply and the
top branch.

(b) Now 1/ω C → ∞ and ω L → 0 so the generator and bottom branch carry 450 mA
Chapter 33 Solutions 289

33.58 (a) With both switches closed, the current goes only through
generator and resistor.

∆Vmax
i(t) = cos ω t
R

1 ( ∆Vmax )
2
(b) P=
2 R

∆Vmax
(c) i(t) = cos [ω t + Arctan(ω L / R)]
R 2 + ω 2 L2

 1 
ω L−
 0 ω 0C 
(d) For 0 = φ = Arctan  
 R 
 

1 1
We require ω 0 L = , so C=
ω0 C ω 02 L

(e) At this resonance frequency, Z= R

U = 21 C ( ∆VC ) = 21 C I 2 XC 2
2
(f)

U max = 21 CI max
2
XC 2 = 21 C
( ∆Vmax )2 1
=
( ∆Vmax )2 L
R2 ω 0 2C 2 2R 2

(g) U max = 1 LI 2 = 1L ( ∆Vmax )2


2 max 2 R2

2
(h) Now ω = 2ω 0 =
LC

 1   L 1 L
ωL −
 ωC  2 C − 2 C   3 L
So φ = Arctan   = Arctan   = Arctan  
 R   R   2R C 
   

1 1 1 ω0
(i) Now ω L = ω= =
2 ωC 2 LC 2

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


290 Chapter 33 Solutions

33.59 (a) As shown in part (b), circuit (a) is a high-pass filter


and circuit (b) is a low-pass filter .
∆Vin ∆Vout

RL2 + (ω L)
2
∆Vout RL2 + XL2
(b) For circuit (a), = =
∆Vin RL2 + ( XL − XC )
2
RL2 + (ω L − 1 ω C )
2
Circuit (a)

∆Vout
As ω → 0, ≈ ω RLC ≈ 0
∆Vin

∆Vout
As ω → ∞ , ≈1 (high-pass filter)
∆Vin ∆Vin ∆V out

∆Vout XC 1 ωC
For circuit (b), = =
∆Vin RL2 + ( X L − XC )
2
RL2 + (ω L − 1 ω C )
2 Circuit (b)

∆Vout
As ω → 0, ≈1
∆Vin

∆Vout 1
As ω → ∞ , ≈ 2 ≈0 (low-pass filter)
∆Vin ω LC

∆Vrms 100 V
33.60 (a) I R, rms = = = 1.25 A IR ∆V
R 80.0 Ω
φ
(b) The total current will lag the applied voltage as seen in the IL
I
phasor diagram at the right.

∆Vrms 100 V
I L, rms = = = 1.33 A
XL ( )
2 π 60.0 s −1 (0.200 H)

 I L, rms  −1  1.33 A 
Thus, the phase angle is: φ = tan −1   = tan  1.25 A  = 46.7°
 R, rms 
I

*33.61 Suppose each of the 20 000 people uses an average power of 500 W. (This means 12 kWh per
day, or $36 per 30 days at 10¢ per kWh). Suppose the transmission line is at 20 kV. Then

I rms =
P
=
(20 000)(500 W) ~10 3 A
∆Vrms 20 000 V

If the transmission line had been at 200 kV, the current would be only ~10 2 A .
Chapter 33 Solutions 291

33.62 L = 2.00 H, C = 10.0 × 10– 6 F, R = 10.0 Ω, ∆v(t) = (100 sin ω t)

(a) The resonant frequency ω0 produces the maximum current and thus the maximum power
dissipation in the resistor.
1 1
ω0 = = = 224 rad/s
LC (2.00)(10.0 × 10 − 6 )

(b) P=
( ∆Vmax )2 =
(100)2
= 500 W
2R 2(10.0)

∆Vrms ∆Vrms ∆Vrms


(c) I rms =
Z
=
2
and ( Irms )max = R
 1 
R2 +  ω L −
 ω C 

( ∆Vrms )2 R = 1 ( ∆Vrms )2 R
2
I rms R=
2
( )
1 2
I rms
max
R or
Z2 2 R2
2
 1 
This occurs where Z 2 = 2R 2: R2 +  ω L − = 2R 2
 ω C 

ω 4 L2C 2 − 2Lω 2C − R 2ω 2C 2 + 1 = 0 or L2C 2ω 4 − (2LC + R 2C 2 )ω 2 + 1 = 0

[(2.00) (10.0 × 10 ) ]ω − [2(2.00)(10.0 × 10


2 −6 2 4 −6
]
) + (10.0)2 (10.0 × 10 − 6 )2 ω 2 + 1 = 0

Solving this quadratic equation, we find that ω 2 = 51 130, 48 894

ω 1 = 48 894 = 221 rad/s and ω 2 = 51 130 = 226 rad/s

33.63 R = 200 Ω, L = 663 mH, C = 26.5 µ F, ω = 377 s −1 , ∆Vmax = 50.0 V

 1 
Z = R 2 + ( XL − XC ) = 250 Ω
2
ω L = 250 Ω,  ω C  = 100 Ω,
 

∆Vmax 50.0 V
(a) I max = = = 0.200 A
Z 250 Ω

X L − XC 
φ = tan −1  = 36.8° (∆V leads I)
 R 

(b) ∆V R, max = I max R = 40.0 V at φ = 0°

I max
(c) ∆VC, max = = 20.0 V at φ = – 90.0° (I leads ∆V)
ωC

(d) ∆VL, max = I maxω L = 50.0 V at φ = + 90.0° (∆V leads I)

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


292 Chapter 33 Solutions

 ∆Vrms 
2
(120 V )2 Z = R 2 + (ω L − 1 ω C )
( 40.0 Ω) :
2
*33.64 P = I rms
2
R= R, so 250 W =
 Z  Z 2

250 =
(120)2 ( 40.0) and 250 =
576 000 f 2
( )
2 2
  1600 f 2 + 1.1624 f 2 − 2448.5
1
( 40.0) 2
+ 2 π f (0.185) − 

 (
2 π f 65.0 × 10 − 6 ) 

2304 f 2
1= so 1.3511 f 4 − 6396.3 f 2 + 5 995 300 = 0
1600 f 2 + 1.3511 f 4 − 5692.3 f 2 + 5 995 300

6396.3 ± (6396.3)2 − 4(1.3511)( 5 995 300)


f2= = 3446.5 or 1287.4
2(1.3511)

f = 58.7 Hz or 35.9 Hz

N1 ∆V1
33.65 (a) From Equation 33.39, =
N 2 ∆V 2

∆V1 ∆V 2
Let output impedance Z1 = and the input impedance Z2 =
I1 I2

N1 Z1I1 I1 ∆V 2 N 2
so that = But from Eq. 33.40, = =
N 2 Z2 I 2 I 2 ∆V1 N1

N1 Z1
So, combining with the previous result we have =
N2 Z2

N1 Z1 8000
(b) = = = 31.6
N2 Z2 8.00

∆Vrms ∆Vrms ∆Vrms


33.66 IR = ; IL = ; IC =
R ωL (ω C)−1

2
 1   1 
I rms = I R2 + (IC − I L )2 = ∆Vrms + ωC −
 R 2   ω L 
(a)

IC − I L  1 1  1 
(b) tan φ = = ∆Vrms  −  
IR  C
X X L  ∆V rms / R 

 1 1 
tan φ = R  − 
 C
X X L
Chapter 33 Solutions 293

2
1  1 
I rms = ∆Vrms + ωC −
ω L 
33.67 (a)
R 2

1
∆Vrms → ( ∆Vrms )max when ω C =
ωL

1
f=
2 π LC

1
f= = 919 Hz
−3
2 π 200 × 10 H)(0.150 × 10 − 6 F)

∆Vrms 120 V
(b) IR = = = 1.50 A
R 80.0 Ω

∆Vrms 120 V
IL = = = 1.60 A
ωL (374 s −1 )(0.200 H)

IC = ∆Vrms (ω C) = (120 V)(374 s −1 )(0.150 × 10 − 6 F) = 6.73 mA

(c) I rms = I R2 + (IC − I L )2 = (1.50)2 + (0.00673 − 1.60)2 = 2.19 A

I − I  0.00673 − 1.60 
(d) φ = tan −1  C L  = tan −1   = – 46.7°
 IR   1.50

The current is lagging the voltage .

∆VL I (ω L) ω L
33.68 (a) tan φ = = =
∆V R IR R L
∆Vin R ∆V out

Thus, R =
ωL
=
(
200 s (0.500 H)
−1
)
= 173 Ω
tan φ tan( 30.0°)

∆V = IZ
∆Vout ∆V R
(b) = = cos φ
∆Vin ∆Vin ∆VL = IXL
φ

∆Vout = ( ∆Vin ) cos φ = (10.0 V ) cos 30.0° = 8.66 V ∆VR = IR

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.


294 Chapter 33 Solutions

33.69 (a) XL = XC = 1884 Ω when f = 2000 Hz

XL 1884 Ω 1 1
L= = = 0.150 H and C= = = 42.2 nF
2 π f 4000 π rad s (2π f )XC ( 4000π rad s)(1884 Ω)
1
XL = 2 π f (0.150 H) XC = Z= ( 40.0 Ω)2 + (XL − XC )2
(2π f )( 4.22 × 10 −8
F )
(b) Impedence, Ω
f (Hz) X L (Ω) XC (Ω) Z (Ω)

300 283 12600 12300


600 565 6280 5720
800 754 4710 3960
1000 942 3770 2830
1500 1410 2510 1100
2000 1880 1880 40
3000 2830 1260 1570
4000 3770 942 2830
6000 5650 628 5020
10000 9420 377 9040

1 1
33.70 ω0 = = 1.00 × 106 rad s ω ω0 ω L (Ω )
(Ω ) Z (Ω )
LC ωC P = I 2 R (W)
0.9990 999.0 1001.0 2.24 0.19984
For each angular frequency, we 0.9991 999.1 1000.9 2.06 0.23569
0.9993 999.3 1000.7 1.72 0.33768
find
0.9995 999.5 1000.5 1.41 0.49987
0.9997 999.7 1000.3 1.17 0.73524
Z = R 2 + (ω L − 1/ ω C )
2 0.9999 999.9 1000.1 1.02 0.96153
1.0000 1000 1000.0 1.00 1.00000
1.0001 1000.1 999.9 1.02 0.96154
then I = (1.00 V ) / Z 1.0003 1000.3 999.7 1.17 0.73535
1.0005 1000.5 999.5 1.41 0.50012
1.0007 1000.7 999.3 1.72 0.33799
and P = I 2 (1.00 Ω) 1.0009 1000.9 999.1 2.06 0.23601
1.0010 1001 999.0 2.24 0.20016

The full width at half maximum is:

∆ω (1.0005 − 0.9995)ω 0
∆f = =
2π 2π

1.00 × 10 3 s −1
∆f = = 159 Hz

while
R 1.00 Ω
= = 159 Hz
(
2 π L 2 π 1.00 × 10 −3 H )
Chapter 33 Solutions 295

∆Vout R R C
33.71 = =
∆Vin R 2 + (1 ω C )
2
R 2 + (1 2 π f C )
2

∆Vin R ∆Vout
∆Vout 1 1
(a) = when =R 3
∆Vin 2 ωC

ω 1
Hence, f = = = 1.84 kHz
2 π 2 π RC 3

(b) Log Gain versus Log Frequency

-1

Log∆V out / ∆ V in -2

-3

-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Log f

© 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.