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34.1 Since the light from this star travels at 3.00 × 108 m/s, the last bit of light will hit the Earth i n

6.44 × 1018 m

= 2.15 × 1010 s = 680 years. Therefore, it will disappear from the sky in the year

3.00 × 108 m / s

1999 + 680 = 2.68 × 10 3 A.D.

1 1

34.2 v= = c = 0.750c = 2.25 × 108 m/s

kµ 0 e0 1.78

E 220

B = 3.00 × 10 ;

34.3 B =c or 8

so B = 7.33 × 10–7 T = 733 nT

Emax

34.4 Bmax = v is the generalized version of Equation 34.13.

Emax 7.60 × 10 −3 V / m N ⋅ m T ⋅ C ⋅ m

Bmax = = = 3.80 × 10–11 T = 38.0 pT

v (2 / 3)(3.00 × 108 m / s) V ⋅ C N ⋅ s

34.5 (a) fλ = c or f (50.0 m) = 3.00 × 108 m/s so f = 6.00 × 106 Hz = 6.00 MHz

E 22.0

Bmax = 3.00 × 10

8

(b)

B =c

or so Bmax = (73.3 nT)(–k)

2π 2π

(c) k= = 50.0 = 0.126 m–1 and ω = 2π f = 2π (6.00 × 106 s–1) = 3.77 × 107

λ

rad/s

k= =c = = 20.0π = 62.8 m–1 Bmax = c = = 1.00 µT

λ 3.00 × 108 m/s 3.00 × 108 m/s

E = 300

V

m

(

cos 62.8x − 1.88 × 1010 t ) B = (1.00 µT) cos (62.8x – 1.88 × 1010 t)

Chapter 34 Solutions 299

E 100 V/m

34.7 (a) B= = = 3.33 × 10–7 T = 0.333 µT

c 3.00 × 10 8 m/s

2π 2π

(b) λ= k = = 0.628 µm

1.00 × 10 7 m – 1

(c) f= = = 4.77 × 1014 Hz

λ 6.28 × 10–7 m

∂E ∂E

= –Emax sin(kx – ω t)(k) = –Emax sin(kx – ω t)(–ω)

∂x ∂t

∂ 2E ∂ 2E

= –Emax cos(kx – ω t)(k 2) = –Emax cos(kx – ω t)(–ω)2

∂x2 ∂t2

∂E ∂ 2E

We must show: = µ 0e0 2

∂x 2

∂t

That is, ( )

− k 2 Emax cos( kx − ω t ) = − µ 0e0 ( −ω ) Emax cos( kx − ω t )

2

2

k2 1 1

But this is true, because = = 2 = µ 0 e0

ω 2

fλ

c

The proof for the wave of magnetic field is precisely similar.

*34.9 In the fundamental mode, there is a single loop in the standing wave between the plates.

Therefore, the distance between the plates is equal to half a wavelength.

λ = 2L = 2(2.00 m) = 4.00 m

Thus, f = = = 7.50 × 10 7 Hz = 75.0 MHz

λ 4.00 m

λ

*34.10 dA to A = 6 cm ± 5% =

2

λ = 12 cm ± 5%

300 Chapter 34 Solutions

( )

v = λ f = (0.12 m ± 5%) 2.45 × 10 9 s −1 = 2.9 × 108 m s ± 5%

U Uc

S=I=

A t = V = uc

34.11

=u= = = 3.33 µ J/m3

Unit Volume c 3.00 × 108 m/s

P 4.00 × 10 3 W

34.12 Sav = = = 7.68 µW/m 2

4π r 2 4π (4.00 × 1609 m)2

P 250 × 10 3 W

S= = = 307 µW/m 2

4π r 2 4π (8.04 × 10 3 m) 2

Chapter 34 Solutions 301

Goal Solution

What is the average magnitude of the Poynting vector 5.00 miles from a radio transmitter broadcasting

isotropically with an average power of 250 kW?

G: As the distance from the source is increased, the power per unit area will decrease, so at a distance of

5 miles from the source, the power per unit area will be a small fraction of the Poynting vector near

the source.

O: The Poynting vector is the power per unit area, where A is the surface area of a sphere with a 5-mile

radius.

250 × 10 3 W

and the magnitude is S = = 3.07 × 10 −4 W / m 2

(4 π )(8045)2

2

L : The magnitude of the Poynting vector ten meters from the source is 199 W/m , on the order of a

million times larger than it is 5 miles away! It is surprising to realize how little power is actually

received by a radio (at the 5-mile distance, the signal would only be about 30 nW, assuming a

2

receiving area of about 1 cm ).

100 W

34.14 I= = 7.96 W/m2

4π (1.00 m)2

I

u = c = 2.65 × 10 – 8 J/m3 = 26.5 n J/m3

1

(a) uE = 2 u = 13.3 n J/m3

1

(b) uB = 2 u = 13.3 n J/m3

Thus, Power input = = = 3.33 × 106 W

eff 0.300

P 3.33 × 10 6 W

and A= = = 3.33 × 10 3 m 2

I 1.00 × 10 3 W/m 2

302 Chapter 34 Solutions

2

Bmax c P

*34.16 I= =

2µ 0 4 π r2

P 2µ 0 (10.0 × 10 )(2)(4π × 10 ) =

3 −7

Bmax = 4π r 2 c = 5.16 × 10–10 T

4 π ( 5.00 × 10 ) ( 3.00 × 10 )

3 2 8

Since the magnetic field of the Earth is approximately 5 × 10 –5 T, the Earth's field is some

100,000 times stronger.

P

S= = 332 kW/m2 (points radially inward)

A

I µ0(1.00)

(b) B = µ 0 2π r = = 222 µT

2π (0.900 × 10 –3)

∆V IR 150 V

E= = L = 0.0800 m = 1.88 kV/m

∆x

EB

Note: S = µ = 332 kW/m2

0

Chapter 34 Solutions 303

34.18 (a) E · B = (80.0 i + 32.0 j – 64.0 k)(N/C) · (0.200 i + 0.0800 j + 0.290 k)µT

µ 0 E × B=

(b) S=

4π × 10 –7 T · m/A

S=

4π × 10–7

34.19 We call the current I rms and the intensity I . The power radiated at this frequency is

0.0100(∆Vrms)2

P = (0.0100)(∆Vrms)Irms = = 1.31 W

R

P 1.31 W c 2

I= = = 0.104 W/m2 = Sav = 2µ Bmax

A 4π (1.00 m)2 0

Bmax =

2µ 0 I

=

( )(

2 4 π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m / A 0.104 W / m 2 )= 29.5 nΤ

c 3.00 × 10 m / s

8

*34.20 (a) efficiency = × 100% = × 100% = 50.0%

total power input 1400 W

P 700 W

(b) Sav = = = 2.69 × 10 5 W m 2

A (0.0683 m )(0.0381 m )

2

Emax

(c) Sav =

2µ 0 c

T ⋅ m m W V

Emax = 2 4 π × 10 −7 3.00 × 108 2.69 × 10 5 = 1.42 × 10 4 = 14.2 kV m

A s m 2

m

304 Chapter 34 Solutions

34.21 (a) Bmax = = = 2.33 mT

c 3.00 × 108 m/s

2

Emax (7.00 × 10 5)2

(b) I = 2µ c = = 650 MW/m 2

0 2(4π × 10 –7 )(3.00 × 108)

P π

(c) I= : P = I A = (6.50 × 108 W/m2) 4 (1.00 × 10 – 3 m) 2 = 510 W

A

2

Emax Pµ 0 c (100 W)µ 0 c

34.22 Power = SA = (4 π r 2 ); solving for r , r= = = 5.16 m

2µ 0 c 2

Emax 2π 2 π (15.0 V / m)2

(10.0 × 10 − 3 )W

34.23 (a) I= = 4.97 kW/m2

π (0.800 × 10 − 3 m)2

I 4.97 × 10 3 J / m 2 ⋅ s

(b) uav = = = 16.6 µ J/m3

c 3.00 × 108 m / s

B2 (1.80 × 10 − 6 )2

(b) uav = = = 2.58 µ J/m3

µ0 4 π × 10 − 7

(d) This is 77.3% of the flux in Example 34.5 . It may be cloudy, or the Sun may be setting.

S 25.0

34.25 For complete absorption, P = c = = 83.3 nPa

3.00 × 108

*34.26 (a) ( )( )

P = (Sav )( A) = 6.00 W / m 2 40.0 × 10 −4 m 2 = 2.40 × 10 −2 J / s

In one second, the total energy U impinging on the mirror is 2.40 × 10–2 J. The momentum p

transferred each second for total reflection is

2U 2(2.40 × 10–2 J) kg · m

p= c = = 1.60 × 10 –10 (each second)

3.00 × 10 m/s

8 s

(b) F = dt = = 1.60 × 10–10 N

1s

Chapter 34 Solutions 305

(2)(1340 W / m 2 )

34.27 (a) The radiation pressure is = 8.93 × 10 −6 N / m 2

3.00 × 108 m / s 2

F 5.36 N

(b) The acceleration is: a = m = 6000 kg = 8.93 × 10– 4 m/s2

1

(c) It will take a time t where: d = 2 at 2

t=

2d

=

(

2 3.84 × 108 m ) = 9.27 × 10 5 s = 10.7 days

(8.93 × 10 )

or −4 2

a m/s

2Sav

34.28 The pressure P upon the mirror is P=

c

P

where A is the cross-sectional area of the beam and Sav =

A

2P 2P

The force on the mirror is then F = PA = A =

c A c

2(100 × 10 −3 )

Therefore, F= = 6.67 × 10–10 N

(3 × 108 )

2

P Emax

34.29 I= =

π r 2 2µ 0 c

P ( 2µ 0 c )

(a) Emax = = 1.90 kN/C

π r2

15 × 10–3 J/s

(b) (1.00 m) = 50.0 pJ

3.00 × 108 m/s

U 5 × 10–11

(c) p= c = = 1.67 × 10–19 kg · m/s

3.00 × 108

306 Chapter 34 Solutions

34.30 (a) If P S is the total power radiated by the Sun, and rE and r M are the radii of the orbits of the

planets Earth and Mars, then the intensities of the solar radiation at these planets are:

PS PS

IE = and IM =

4 π rE2 4π rM

2

2 2

r 1.496 × 1011 m

Thus,

rM

(

I M = IE E = 1340 W m 2 )

2.28 × 1011 m

= 577 W/m

2

( ) ( )( )

2

P M = I M π RM

2

= 577 W m 2 π 3.37 × 106 m = 2.06 × 1016 W

SM I M

(c) If Mars behaves as a perfect absorber, it feels pressure P = =

c c

and force F = PA =

IM

c

(

π RM

2 P

= M =

c

)

2.06 × 1016 W

3.00 × 108 m s

= 6.87 × 107 N

Fg =

GMS M M

=

( )(

6.67 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 kg 2 1.991 × 10 30 kg 6.42 × 10 23 kg )(

= 1.64 × 10 21 N

)

( )

2 2

rM 2.28 × 10 m

11

( )

W

(

U = 21 I At = 21 750 2 0.500 × 1.00 m 2 (60.0 s) = 11.3 kJ

m

)

(b) The total energy incident on the surface in this time is 2U = 22.5 kJ, with U = 11.3 kJ being

absorbed and U = 11.3 kJ being reflected. The total momentum transferred to the surface is

p=

U 2U 3U 3 11.3 × 10 J

+ = =

3

( )

= 1.13 × 10 −4 kg ⋅ m s

c c c 3.00 × 108 m s

µ 0 Jmax

2

c (4 π × 10 −7 )Jmax

2

(3.00 × 108 )

34.32 Sav = or 570 = so Jmax = 3.48 A/m2

8 8

Chapter 34 Solutions 307

µ J 2 c

34.33 (a) P = Sav A = 0 max A

8

P= (1.20 × 0.400) = 2.26 kW

8

µ 0 Jmax

2

c (4 π × 10 −7 (10.0)2 (3.00 × 108 )

(b) Sav = = = 4.71 kW/m2

8 8

*34.34 P=

( ∆V )2 or P ∝ ( ∆V )

2

R eceiving

∆y l ntenna

θ

∆V = ( − )Ey ⋅ ∆y = Ey ⋅ l cos θ

∆V ∝ cos θ so P ∝ cos 2 θ

some integer n.

λ λ

cos θ = n = n = 2n n = 0, ± 1, ± 2, . . .

d λ / 2

2n + 1

d cos θ = λ: cos θ = 2n + 1

2

308 Chapter 34 Solutions

Goal Solution

Two radio-transmitting antennas are separated by half the broadcast wavelength and are driven in phase

with each other. In which directions are (a) the strongest and (b) the weakest signals radiated?

G: The strength of the radiated signal will be a function of the location around the two antennas and

will depend on the interference of the waves.

O: A diagram helps to visualize this situation. The two antennas are driven in phase, which means

that they both create maximum electric field strength at the same time, as shown in the diagram. The

radio EM waves travel radially outwards from the antennas, and the received signal will be the vector

sum of the two waves.

A : (a) Along the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the antennas, the distance is the same to

both transmitting antennas. The transmitters oscillate in phase, so along this line the two signals will

be received in phase, constructively interfering to produce a maximum signal strength that is twice

the amplitude of one transmitter.

(b) Along the extended line joining the sources, the wave from the more distant antenna must

travel one-half wavelength farther, so the waves are received 180° out of phase. They interfere

destructively to produce the weakest signal with zero amplitude.

L : Radio stations may use an antenna array to direct the radiated signal toward a highly-populated

region and reduce the signal strength delivered to a sparsely-populated area.

c λ

34.36 λ= = 536 m so h= = 134 m

f 4

c λ

λ= = 188 m so h= = 46.9 m

f 4

The period and frequency of the proton’s circular motion are therefore:

T=

2 πR 2 π m

= =

(

2 π 1.67 × 10 −27 kg )= 1.87 × 10 −7 s f = 5.34 × 106 Hz .

v qB ( )

1.60 × 10 −19 C (0.350 T )

c 3.00 × 108 m s

The charge will radiate at this same frequency, with λ= = = 56.2 m

f 5.34 × 106 Hz

mv 2

34.38 For the proton, ΣF = ma yields qvB sin 90.0° =

R

2 πR 2 π m

The period of the proton’s circular motion is therefore: T= =

v qB

The frequency of the proton's motion is f = 1/ T

c 2 π mc

The charge will radiate electromagnetic waves at this frequency, with λ= = cT =

f qB

Chapter 34 Solutions 309

*34.39 From the electromagnetic spectrum chart and accompanying text discussion, the following

identifications are made:

f λ=c f

2 Hz = 2 × 100 Hz 150 Mm Radio

2 kHz = 2 × 10 3 Hz 150 km Radio

2 MHz = 2 × 106 Hz 150 m Radio

2 GHz = 2 × 10 9 Hz 15 cm Microwave

2 THz = 2 × 1012 Hz 150 µ m Infrared

2 PHz = 2 × 1015 Hz 150 nm Ultraviolet

2 EHz = 2 × 1018 Hz 150 pm x-ray

2 ZHz = 2 × 10 21 Hz 150 fm Gamma ray

2 YHz = 2 × 10 24 Hz 150 am Gamma Ray

λ f =c λ

2 km = 2 × 10 3 m 1.5 × 10 5 Hz Radio

2 m = 2 × 100 m 1.5 × 108 Hz Radio

2 mm = 2 × 10 −3 m 1.5 × 1011 Hz Microwave

2 µ m = 2 × 10 −6 m 1.5 × 1014 Hz Infrared

2 nm = 2 × 10 −9 m 1.5 × 1017 Hz Ultraviolet/x-ray

2 pm = 2 × 10 −12 m 1.5 × 10 20 Hz x-ray/Gamma ray

2 fm = 2 × 10 −15 m 1.5 × 10 23 Hz Gamma ray

2 am = 2 × 10 −18 m 1.5 × 10 26 Hz Gamma ray

c 3 × 108 m/s

*34.40 (a) f= = ~ 108 Hz radio wave

λ 1.7 m

(b) 1000 pages, 500 sheets, is about 3 cm thick so one sheet is about 6 × 10 – 5 m thick

3 × 108 m/s

f= ~ 1013 Hz infrared

6 × 10–5 m

*34.41 f= = = 5.45 × 1014 Hz

λ 5.50 × 10–7 m

34.42 (a) λ= f = = 261 m so

261 m = 0.690 wavelengths

1150 × 103/s

(b) λ= f = = 3.06 m so

3.06 m = 58.9 wavelengths

98.1 × 106/s

310 Chapter 34 Solutions

34.43 (a) fλ = c gives (5.00 × 1019 Hz)λ = 3.00 × 108 m/s: λ = 6.00 × 10 –12 m = 6.00 pm

(b) fλ = c gives (4.00 × 109 Hz)λ = 3.00 × 108 m/s: λ = 0.075 m = 7.50 cm

1 1

*34.44 Time to reach object = 2 (total time of flight) = 2 (4.00 × 10 – 4 s) = 2.00 × 10 – 4 s

100 × 10 3 m

34.45 The time for the radio signal to travel 100 km is: tr = = 3.33 × 10 – 4 s

3.00 × 108 m / s

3.00 m

343 m/s = 8.75 × 10

–3

The sound wave to travel 3.00 m across the room in: ts = s

Therefore, listeners 100 km away will receive the news before the people in the newsroom

by a total time difference of

c 3.00 × 108 m s

*34.46 The wavelength of an ELF wave of frequency 75.0 Hz is λ= = = 4.00 × 106 m

f 75.0 Hz

0.621 mi

or L = (1000 km ) = 621 mi

1.00 km

Thus, while the project may be theoretically possible, it is not very practical.

c 3.00 × 108 m / s

34.47 (a) For the AM band, λ max = = = 556 m

f min 540 × 10 3 Hz

c 3.00 × 108 m / s

λ min = = = 187 m

f max 1600 × 10 3 Hz

c 3.00 × 108 m / s

(b) For the FM band, λ max = = = 3.41 m

f min 88.0 × 106 Hz

c 3.00 × 108 m / s

λ min = = = 2.78 m

f max 108 × 106 Hz

Chapter 34 Solutions 311

2

cBmax 2 µ 0S 2(4 π × 10 −7 N / A 2 )(1340 W / m 2 )

(b) S= so Bmax = = = 3.35 µT

2µ 0 c 3.00 × 108 m / s

( )( )

2

Emax

S= so Emax = 2µ 0 cS = 2 4 π × 10 −7 3.00 × 108 (1340) = 1.01 kV/m

2µ 0 c

*34.50 Suppose you cover a 1.7 m-by-0.3 m section of beach blanket. Suppose the elevation angle of

the Sun is 60°. Then the target area you fill in the Sun's field of view is

P E W

Now I = = : E = IAt = 1340 (0.6)(0.5)(0.4 m2) 3600 s ~ 106 J

A At m2

(Bmax cos ω t cos θ ) = ABmax ω (sin ω t cos θ )

dt dt dt

Thus, ε max = 2π 2r 2 f Bmax cos θ , where θ is the angle between the magnetic field and the

normal to the loop.

(b) If E is vertical, then B is horizontal, so the plane of the loop should be vertical and the

plane should contain the line of sight to the transmitter .

312 Chapter 34 Solutions

GMs m GMs

34.52 (a) F grav = = ρ ( 4 / 3)π r 3

R2 R2

where M s = mass of Sun, r = radius of particle and R = distance from Sun to particle.

Sπ r 2 Frad 1 3SR 2 1

Since Frad = , = ∝

c F grav r 4cGMsρ r

3SR 2

(b) From the result found in part (a), when Fgrav = Frad, we have r=

4cGM s ρ

( )( )

2

3 214 W / m 2 3.75 × 1011 m

r= = 3.78 × 10–7 m

( )( )( )(

4 6.67 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 kg 2 1.991 × 10 30 kg 1500 kg m 3 3.00 × 108 m s )

Emax

c = 6.67 × 10 T

–16

34.53 (a) Bmax =

2

Emax

(b) Sav = = 5.31 × 10–17 W/m 2

2 µ0 c

Sav

(d) F = PA = A = 5.56 × 10–23 N (≈ weight of 3000 H atoms!)

c

i

downward in the figure. The magnetic field between the plate's

edges is B = µ 0 i 2 π r counterclockwise. + +

+ ++ +

+ +

+ ++

B + + +

E - - -

S - - -- - -

( ∆V ) i

- - -

1 -- - -

The Poynting vector is: S= E×B= (radially outward)

µ0 2 π rl i

(b) The lateral surface area surrounding the electric field volume is

( ∆V ) i

A = 2 π rl, so the power output is P = SA = ( 2 π rl) = (∆V)i

2 π rl

(c) As the capacitor charges, the polarity of the plates and hence the direction of the electric field

is unchanged. Reversing the current reverses the direction of the magnetic field, and

therefore the Poynting vector.

Chapter 34 Solutions 313

*34.55 (a) The magnetic field in the enclosed volume is directed upward,

B

dB di

with magnitude B = µ 0 ni and increasing at the rate = µ 0n .

dt dt

The changing magnetic field induces an electric field around any

circle of radius r , according to Faraday’s Law:

E

E( 2 π r ) = − µ 0n ( )

di

dt

π r2

µ nr di

E=− 0

2 dt

S

µ 0nr di

or E= (clockwise)

2 dt i

1 1 µ 0nr di

Then, S=

µ0

E×B=

µ 0 2 dt

(µ 0ni) inward,

µ 0n2 r i di

or the Poynting vector is S= (radially inward)

2 dt

(b) The power flowing into the volume is P = SAlat where Alat is the lateral area perpendicular to

S . Therefore,

µ n2 r i di 2 2 di

P= 0

( 2 π rl) = µ 0 π n r li

2 dt dt

(c) Taking Across to be the cross-sectional area perpendicular to B, the induced voltage between

the ends of the inductor, which has N = nl turns, is

∆V = ε =N

dB

A

dt cross

= nl µ 0n

di

dt ( )

π r 2 = µ 0 π n2 r 2l

di

dt

W

m

[ 2

]

P I = IA = 1340 2 π (100 m ) = 4.21 × 107 W

(

The power reflected through the atmosphere is P R = 0.746 4.21 × 107 W = 3.14 × 107 W )

PR 3.14 × 107 W

(b) S= = = 0.625 W/m2

( )

2

A π 4.00 × 10 3 m

(c) Noon sunshine in Saint Petersburg produces this power-per-area on a horizontal surface:

( )

P N = 0.746 1340 W / m 2 sin 7.00° = 122 W / m 2

0.625 W m 2

122 W m 2 100% = 0.513% of that from the noon Sun in January.

314 Chapter 34 Solutions

1 2

34.57 u = 2 e0Emax (Equation 34.21)

2u

Emax = = 95.1 mV/m

e0

*34.58 The area over which we model the antenna as radiating is the lateral surface of a cylinder,

( )

A = 2 π r l = 2 π 4.00 × 10 −2 m (0.100 m ) = 2.51 × 10 −2 m 2

P 0.600 W

(a) The intensity is then: S= = = 23.9 W m 2

A 2.51 × 10 −2 m 2

−3

mW 1.00 × 10 W 1.00 × 10 cm

4 2

mW W

(b) The standard is: 0.570 = 0.570 = 5.70 2

cm 2 cm 2 1.00 mW 1.00 m 2 m

23.9 W m 2

While it is on, the telephone is over the standard by = 4.19 times

5.70 W m 2

c = 3.00 × 108 m/s = 5.83 × 10 T

–7

34.59 (a) Bmax =

2π 2π

k= = (0.0150 m) = 419 rad/m

λ

EmaxBmax

(b) Sav =

2µ 0 = 40.6 W/m2

2S

(c) Pr = c = 2.71 × 10–7 N/m2

(d) a=

ΣF PA

= =

( )(

2.71 × 10 −7 N / m 2 0.750 m 2 )

= 4.06 × 10 −7 m / s 2

m m 0.500 kg

Chapter 34 Solutions 315

*34.60 (a) At steady-state, P in = P out and the power radiated out is P out = eσAT 4 .

W W

Thus, 0.900 1000 2 A = (0.700) 5.67 × 10 −8 AT 4

m m ⋅ K4

2

14

900 W m 2

T= = 388 K = 115°C

( )

or

0.700 5.67 × 10 −8 W m 2 ⋅ K 4

(b) The box of horizontal area A , presents projected area A sin 50.0° perpendicular to the

sunlight. Then by the same reasoning,

W W

0.900 1000 2 A sin 50.0° = (0.700) 5.67 × 10 −8 AT 4

m m ⋅ K4

2

( )

14

900 W m 2 sin 50.0°

T= = 363 K = 90.0 °C

( )

or

0.700 5.67 × 10 −8 W m 2 ⋅ K 4

F I

34.61 (a) P= A = c

= 3.33 × 10 −7 N = (110 kg )a

IA P 100 J / s

F= = =

c c 3.00 × 108 m / s

1

a = 3.03 × 10–9 m/s2 and x = 2 at 2

2x

t= = 8.12 × 10 4 s = 22.6 h

a

(b) 0 = (107 kg)v – (3.00 kg)(12.0 m/s – v) = (107 kg)v – 36.0 kg · m/s + (3.00 kg)v

36.0

v = 110 = 0.327 m/s

t = 30.6 s

316 Chapter 34 Solutions

Goal Solution

An astronaut, stranded in space 10.0 m from his spacecraft and at rest relative to it, has a mass (including

equipment) of 110 kg. Since he has a 100-W light source that forms a directed beam, he decides to use the

beam as a photon rocket to propel himself continuously toward the spacecraft. (a) Calculate how long it

takes him to reach the spacecraft by this method. (b) Suppose, instead, he decides to throw the light

source away in a direction opposite the spacecraft. If the mass of the light source has a mass of 3.00 kg and,

after being thrown, moves at 12.0 m/s relative to the recoiling astronaut , how long does it take for the

astronaut to reach the spacecraft?

G: Based on our everyday experience, the force exerted by photons is too small to feel, so it may take a

very long time (maybe days!) for the astronaut to travel 10 m with his “photon rocket.” Using the

momentum of the thrown light seems like a better solution, but it will still take a while (maybe a few

minutes) for the astronaut to reach the spacecraft because his mass is so much larger than the mass of

the light source.

O: In part (a), the radiation pressure can be used to find the force that accelerates the astronaut toward

the spacecraft. In part (b), the principle of conservation of momentum can be applied to find the time

required to travel the 10 m.

SA 100 J / s

F= = = = 3.33 × 10 −7 N

c 3.00 × 108 m / s

F 3.33 × 10 −7 N

By Newton’s 2nd law, a= = = 3.03 × 10 −9 m / s 2

m 110 kg

This acceleration is constant, so the distance traveled is x = 21 at 2 , and the amount of time it travels is

2x 2(10.0 m )

t= = = 8.12 × 10 4 s = 22.6 h

a 3.03 × 10 −9 m / s 2

(b) Because there are no external forces, the momentum of the astronaut before throwing the light

is the same as afterwards when the now 107-kg astronaut is moving at speed v towards the spacecraft

and the light is moving away from the spacecraft at (12.0 m / s − v ) . Thus, pi = p f gives

36.0

v= = 0.327 m / s

110

x 10.0 m

t= = = 30.6 s

v 0.327 m / s

L : Throwing the light away is certainly a more expedient way to reach the spacecraft, but there is not

much chance of retrieving the lamp unless it has a very long cord. How long would the cord need to

be, and does its length depend on how hard the astronaut throws the lamp? (You should verify that

the minimum cord length is 367 m, independent of the speed that the lamp is thrown.)

Chapter 34 Solutions 317

W 2S 2(0.380)S

34.62 The 38.0% of the intensity S = 1340 that is reflected exerts a pressure P1 = r =

m2 c c

Sa (0.620)S

The absorbed light exerts pressure P2 = =

c c

(a) Ptot = P1 + P2 = = = 6.16 × 10– 6 Pa

c 3.00 × 108 m/s

Pa 1.01 × 10 5 N / m 2

(b) = = 1.64 × 1010 times smaller than atmospheric pressure

Ptot 6.16 × 10 −6 N / m 2

2

34.63 Think of light going up and being absorbed by the bead which presents a face area π r b .

S I

The light pressure is P = c = .

c

2 1/3

Iπ r b 4 3 4ρ gc 3m

(a) Fl = c = mg = ρ 3 π r b g and I= = 8.32 × 10 7 W/m 2

3 4 πρ

2

34.64 Think of light going up and being absorbed by the bead which presents face area π r b .

Sav I Fl

If we take the bead to be perfectly absorbing, the light pressure is P = = =

c c A

Flc F g c m gc

(a) Fl = F g so I= = =

A A π rb 2

( )

m m 1 4 1/3

From the definition of density, ρ = = 4

so = πρ m

V π rb 3 rb 3

3

1/3

m gc 4 πρ 2/3 2/3

4ρ m

1/3

4ρ gc 3m

Substituting for rb , I = = gc =

π 3m 3 π 3 4 π ρ

π r 24ρgc 3m 1/3

(b) P = IA =

3 4π ρ

318 Chapter 34 Solutions

In the image,

P 785 W

(a) I2 = = = 625 kW/m2

A2 π (0.0200 m )2

2

E max

(b) I 2 = 2µ c so Emax = (2µ0c I 2 )1/2 = [2(4π × 10–7)(3.00 × 108)(6.25 × 105)]1/2= 21.7 kN/C

0

Emax

Bmax =

c = 72.4 µT

(c) 0.400 P t = mc ∆T

J

0.400(785 W)t = (1.00 kg) 4186 kg · C° (100°C – 20.0°C)

3.35 × 105 J

t= 314 W = 1.07 × 103 s = 17.8 min

c 3.00 × 108 m s

34.66 (a) λ= = = 1.50 cm

f 20.0 × 10 9 s −1

(b)

U = P ( ∆t ) = 25.0 × 10 3

J

s

( )

1.00 × 10 −9 s = 25.0 × 10 −6 J = 25.0 µJ

U U U 25.0 × 10 −6 J

uav = = = =

( ) ( ) ( )( )

(c)

V π r 2 l π r 2 c( ∆t ) π (0.0600 m )2 3.00 × 108 m s 1.00 × 10 −9 s

(d) Emax =

2uav

=

(

2 7.37 × 10 −3 J m 3 ) = 4.08 × 10 4 V m = 40.8 kV/m

−12

e0 8.85 × 10 C N ⋅ m2

2

Emax 4.08 × 10 4 V m

Bmax = = = 1.36 × 10 −4 T = 136 µT

c 3.00 × 108 m s

S c uav J

(e) F = PA = A= A = uav A = 7.37 × 10 −3 π (0.0600 m )2 = 8.33 × 10 −5 N = 83.3 µN

c c m3

Chapter 34 Solutions 319

( )

2

C2 m s2 N ⋅ m 2 ⋅ C2 ⋅ m 2 ⋅ s3 N ⋅ m J

(a) On the right side of the equation, = = = =W

(C N ⋅ m )(m s)

34.67

2 2 3

C2 ⋅ s 4 ⋅ m 3 s s

(b) F = ma = qE or a= = = 1.76 × 1013 m s 2

m 9.11 × 10 −31 kg

q2 a2

=

(

1.60 × 10 1.76 × 10 −19 2

)( 13 2

) = 1.75 × 10 − 27 W

6 π e0 c

( )( )

3 3

6 π 8.85 × 10 −12 3.00 × 108

v 2

qBr

(c) F = mar = m = qvB so v=

r m

( )

2

1.60 × 10 −19 (0.350) (0.500)

2

v 2 q 2B2 r

The proton accelerates at a= = = = 5.62 × 1014 m s 2

r m2 1.67 × 10 −27 2

( )

The proton then radiates P=

q2 a2

=

(

1.60 × 10 5.62 × 10 −19 2

)( 14 2

) = 1.80 × 10

−24

W

(

6 π e0 c 3 6 π 8.85 × 10 −12 3.00 × 108

)( )

3

S Power P 60.0 W

34.68 P= = = = = 6.37 × 10–7 Pa

c Ac 2 π rlc 2 π (0.0500 m)(1.00 m)(3.00 × 108 m \ s)

SA ( P / A)A P

τ = F =

l Pl

34.69 F = PA = = = , , and τ = κθ

c c c 2 2c

θ=

Pl

=

(

3.00 × 10 −3 (0.0600) )

= 3.00 × 10– 2 deg

( )( )

Therefore,

2c κ 2 3.00 × 108 1.00 × 10 −11

*34.70 We take R to be the planet’s distance from its star. The planet, of radius r , presents a

projected area π r 2

perpendicular to the starlight. It radiates over area 4 π r 2 .

( ) (

At steady-state, P in = P out : e I in π r 2 = eσ 4 π r 2 T 4 )

6.00 × 10 23 W

e

4π R2

( )

π r = eσ 4 π r T

2 2 4

( ) so that 6.00 × 10 23 W = 16 π σ R 2 T 4

6.00 × 10 23 W 6.00 × 10 23 W

R= = = 4.77 × 10 9 m = 4.77 Gm

16 π σ T 4

(

16 π 5.67 × 10 −8 W m 2 ⋅ K 4 ( 310 K )

4

)

320 Chapter 34 Solutions

E2

34.71 The light intensity is I = Sav =

2 µ 0c

S E2

The light pressure is P= = = 1 e0 E 2

c 2 µ 0c 2 2

e0E 2 A

For the asteroid, PA = m a and a=

2m

c

(a) λ= = 3.33 m

f

1

T= = 1.11 × 10 −8 s = 11.1 ns

f

Emax

Bmax = = 6.67 × 10 −12 T = 6.67 pT

c

x t x t

E = (2.00 mV / m) cos 2 π − B = (6.67 pT )k cos 2 π −

ns

(b) j

3.33 m 11.1 3.33 m 11.1 ns

2

Emax (2.00 × 10 − 3 )2

(c) I= = = 5.31 × 10 − 9 W / m 2

2µ 0 c 2(4 π × 10 − 7 )(3.00 × 108 )

2I (2)(5.31 × 10 − 9 )

(e) P= = = 3.54 × 10 −17 Pa

c 3.00 × 108

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