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h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

λ= = = 9.92 × 10 −7 m

mv (1.67 × 10 kg)(0.400 m/s)

41.1 (a) -27

1

d sin θ = m + λ

2

with m = 0 for the first minimum. Then,

λ

θ = sin −1 = 0.0284°

2d

y

= tan θ so y = L tan θ = (10.0 m)(tan 0.0284°) = 4.96 mm

L

(c) We cannot say the neutron passed through one slit. We can only say it passed through the slits.

41.2 Consider the first bright band away from the center: d sin θ = mλ

.400

= 1λ = 1.20 × 10

−10

m

h h

λ= so me v = and

me v λ

me 2 v 2 h2

= e( ∆V )

1

K = me v 2 = =

2 2me 2me λ2

( )

2

h2 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆V = = = 105 V

( )( )(

2eme λ2 2 1.60 × 10 −19 C 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 1.20 × 10 −10 m

)

2

41.3 (a) The wavelength of a non-relativistic particle of mass m is given by λ = h / p = h 2mK where the

kinetic energy K is in joules. If the neutron kinetic energy Kn is given in electron volts, its kinetic

energy in joules is ( )

K = 1.60 × 10 −19 J/eV Kn and the equation for the wavelength becomes

λ= = = m

2mK

( )(

2 1.67 × 10 −27 kg 1.60 × 10 −19 )

J/eV Kn Kn

Chapter 41 Solutions 495

h h h2

41.4 λ= = , so K =

p 2mK 2mλ2

If the particles are electrons and λ ~ 0.1 nm = 10 −10 m , the kinetic energy in electron volts is

( 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)

2

1 eV 2

K= = ~ 10 eV

2(9.11 × 10 kg )(10 m) 1.602 × 10 J

−31 −10 2 -19

h h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

41.5 λ= p= = = 6.63 × 10 −23 kg ⋅ m/s

p λ 1.00 × 10 −11 m

( 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)

2

2

p

Ke = = J = 15.1 keV

2(9.11 × 10 −31 )

(a) electrons:

2me

The relativistic answer is more precisely correct:

( )

1/ 2

Ke = p 2 c 2 + me 2 c 4 − me c 2 = 14 /.9 keV

(b) photons: ( )(

Eγ = pc = 6.63 × 10 −23 3.00 × 108 = 124 keV )

41.6 The theoretical limit of the electron microscope is the wavelength of the electrons. If

Ke = 40.0 keV , then E = Ke + me c 2 = 551 keV and

p= E − me 2 c 4 = = 1.10 × 10 −22 kg ⋅ m/s

c 3.00 × 10 m/s 8

1.00 keV

The electron wavelength, and hence the theoretical limit of the microscope, is then

h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

λ= = −22

= 6.03 × 10 −12 m = 6.03 pm

p 1.10 × 10 kg ⋅ m/s

p = 1.42 MeV/c

h

λ= =

hc

=

(

6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s 3.00 × 108 m/s )(

= 8.74 × 10 −13 m

)

p 1.42 MeV 1.42 × 10 1.60 × 10

6

(

−19

J )( )

Suppose the array is like a flat diffraction grating with openings 0.250 nm apart:

d sin θ = mλ

5 8 74 10 −13

Chapter 41 Solutions 496

h 2π J ⋅ s

∆v ≥ = = 0.250 m/s

4π m∆x 4π (2.00 kg )(1.00 m)

(b) The duck might move by (0.25 m/s)(5 s) = 1.25 m . With original position uncertainty of

1.00 m , we can think of ∆x growing to 1.00 m + 1.25 m = 2.25 m

( ) ( )

∆p = me ∆v = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg ( 500 m/s) 1.00 × 10 −4 = 4.56 × 10 −32 kg ⋅ m/s

h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆x = = = 1.16 mm

( )

4π ∆p 4π 4.56 × 10 −32 kg ⋅ m/s

h

∆x = = 5.28 × 10 −32 m

4π ∆p

Goal Solution

An electron ( me

500 m/s , accurate to within 0.0100%. Within what limits could we determine the position of the

objects?

G: It seems reasonable that a tiny particle like an electron could be located within a more narrow region

than a bigger object like a bullet, but we often find that the realm of the very small does not obey

common sense.

O: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle can be used to find the uncertainty in position from the

uncertainty in the momentum.

A: The uncertainty principle states: ∆x∆px ≥ h/2 where ∆px = m∆v and h = h/2π .

∆v = (0.000100)( 500 m/s) = 0.0500 m/s

h 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆x = = = 1.16 mm

( )

4π m∆v 4π 9.11 × 10 −31 kg (0.0500 m/s)

h 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆x = = = 5.28 × 10 −32 m

4π m∆v 4π (0 0200 kg )(0 0500 m/s)

Chapter 41 Solutions 497

Chapter 41 Solutions 498

∆y ∆py

41.10 = and d∆py ≥ h /4π Eliminate ∆py and solve for x .

x px

)( ( )

−3

2.00 × 10 m

d

( )

x = 4πpx ( ∆y ) = 4π 1.00 × 10 −3 kg (100 m/s) 1.00 × 10 −2 m

h

(

6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

=

)

3.79 × 10 28 m

This is 190 times greater than the diameter of the Universe!

h h

41.11 ∆p∆x ≥ so ∆p = me ∆v ≥

2 4π ∆x

h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆v ≥ = = 1.16 × 106 m/s

( )(

4π me ∆x 4π 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 5.00 × 10 −11 m )

h

41.12 With ∆x = 2 × 10 −15 m, the uncertainty principle requires ∆px ≥ = 2.6 × 10 −20 kg ⋅ m/s

2 ∆x

The average momentum of the particle bound in a stationary nucleus is zero. The uncertainty in

momentum measures the root-mean-square momentum, so we take prms = 3 × 10 −20 kg ⋅ m/s .

For an electron, the non-relativistic approximation p = me v would predict v = 3 × 1010 m/s ,

while v cannot be greater than c .

( )

1/ 2

E = me c 2 + ( pc)

2 2

Thus, a better solution would be = 56 MeV = γ me c 2

1

γ ≈ 110 = so

1 − v2 /c2

v ≈ 0.99996c

For a proton, v = p / m gives v = 1.8 × 107 m / s, less than one-tenth the speed of light.

At the top of the ladder, the woman holds a pellet inside a small region

principle requires her to release it with typical horizontal momentum ∆px = m∆vx = h/2 ∆xi . It

falls to the floor in time given by H = 0 + 21 gt as t = 2 H g , so the total width of the impact

2

points is

h 2H A

∆x f = ∆xi + ( ∆vx ) t = ∆xi + = ∆xi + , where

2m∆xi g ∆xi

h 2H

A=

Chapter 41 Solutions 499

1/ 4

A

1/ 2

2H

(∆x f )min = ∆xi +

∆xi

=2 A=

2h

m

=

g

∆x i= A

( )

1/ 2

2 1.0546 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

2(2.00 m)

1/ 4

(b) (∆x f )min =

5.00 × 10 −4 kg 9.80 m/s 2

= 5.19 × 10 −16 m

Chapter 41 Solutions 500

a

a a a a 1 x

P=∫ ψ (x) = ∫ tan −1

2

dx =

(x 2 + a2 )

41.14 Probability

−a −a π π a a −a

P=

1

π

[ ]

1 π π

tan −1 1 − tan −1( −1) = − − = 1/ 2

π 4 4

2π x

λ (

= A sin 5.00 × 1010 x )

2π 2π

= 5.00 × 1010 m −1 λ= = 1.26 × 10 −10 m

(5.00 × 10 )

so

λ 10

h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

(b) p= = −10

= 5.27 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m/s

λ 1.26 × 10 m

( )

2

p2 5.27 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m/s 1.52 × 10 −17 J

K= = = 1.52 × 10 −17 J = = 95.5 eV

2m (

2 × 9.11 × 10 −31 kg ) 1.602 × 10 −19 J/eV

integral number of half-wavelengths must equal the width of the

well.

nλ

= 1.00 × 10 −9 m so

2

2.00 × 10 −9 h

λ= =

n p

(a) Since K =

p2

=

h 2 / λ2(=

h2 )

n2

(

= 0.377 n2 eV )

( )

2

2me 2me 2me 2 × 10 −9

For K ≈ 6 eV , n=4

standing mechanical waves. In each state, we measure the

distance d from one node to another (N to N ), and base our

solution upon that:

λ

Since dN to N = and

2

h

λ

Chapter 41 Solutions 501

Next,

( J ⋅ s )

−34 2

p2 h2 1 6.626 × 10

K= = =

(

2me 8me d d 2 8 9.11 × 10 −31 kg

)

6.02 × 10 −38 J ⋅ m 2

Evaluating, K=

d2

3.77 × 10 −19 eV ⋅ m 2

K=

d2

K1 = 37.7 eV

K2 = 151 eV

K3 = 339 eV

K 4 = 603 eV

(b) When the electron falls from state 2 to state 1, it puts out

energy

hc

E = 151 eV − 37.7 eV = 113 eV = hf =

λ

into emitting a p h o to n of wavelength

λ=

hc

=

(

6.626 × 10 −34

)(

J ⋅ s 3.00 × 10 m/s 8

= 11.0 nm

)

E (

(113 eV) 1.60 × 10 −19 J/eV )

The wavelengths of the other spectral lines we find similarly:

T

r

a

n

s

i

t

i

o

n

E(eV)

λ (nm)

Chapter 41 Solutions 502

h2

For the ground-state, E1 =

8me L2

h

(a) L= = 4.34 × 10 −10 m = 0.434 nm

8me E1

h2 h2

(b) ∆E = E2 − E1 = 4 − = 6.00 eV

8me L2 8me L2

hc h 2 2 2

41.19 ∆E = =

λ 8me L2

2 −[1 =

3h2

8me L2

]

3hλ

L= = 7.93 × 10 −10 m = 0.793 nm

8me c

hc h 2 2 2

41.20 ∆E = =

λ 8me L2

2 −[1 =

3h2

8me L2

]

3hλ

so L=

8me c

n2 h 2

41.21 En =

8mL2

3( hc)

2

3h2

so ∆E = E2 − E1 = 2

=

8mL 8mc 2 L2

hc

and ∆E = hf =

λ

( )( )

−5 2

8mc 2 L2 8 938 × 10 eV 1.00 × 10 nm

6

Hence, λ = = Fi

3hc 3(1240 eV ⋅ nm) gu

re

λ = 2.02 × 10 −4 nm (gamma ray)

fo

r

G

hc oa

E= = 6.15 MeV

λ So

l

lu

ti

Chapter 41 Solutions 503

Goal Solution

The nuclear potential energy that binds protons and neutrons in a nucleus is often approximated by a

square well. Imagine a proton confined in an infinitely high square well of width 10.0 fm , a typical

nuclear diameter. Calculate the wavelength and energy associated with the photon emitted when the

proton moves from the n = 2 state to the ground state. In what region of the electromagnetic

spectrum does this wavelength belong?

G: Nuclear radiation from nucleon transitions is usually in the form of high energy gamma rays with

short wavelengths.

O: The energy of the particle can be obtained from the wavelengths of the standing waves

corresponding to each level. The transition between energy levels will result in the emission of a

photon with this energy difference.

A: At level 1, the node-to-node distance of the standing wave is 1.00 × 10 −14 m , so the wavelength is

twice this distance: h / p = 2.00 × 10 −14 m . The proton’s kinetic energy is

( )

2

1 p2 h2 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s 3.29 × 10 −13 J

K= mv 2 = = = = = 2.06 MeV

( )(

2m 2mλ2 2 1.67 × 10 −27 kg 2.00 × 10 −14 m

) 1.60 × 10 −19 J/eV

2 2

In the first excited state, level 2, the node-to-node distance is two times smaller than in state 1. The

momentum is two times larger and the energy is four times larger: K = 8.23 MeV .

The proton has mass, has charge, moves slowly compared to light in a standing-wave state, and stays

inside the nucleus. When it falls from level 2 to level 1, its energy change is

Therefore, we know that a photon (a traveling wave with no mass and no charge) is emitted at the speed

of light, and that it has an energy of +6.17 MeV .

Its frequency is

E

f= =

( )(

6.17 × 106 eV 1.60 × 10 −19 J/eV

= 1.49 × 10 21 Hz

)

−34

h 6.63 × 10 J⋅s

and its wavelength is λ= = = 2.02 × 10 −13 m

f 1.49 × 10 21 s −1

L:The radiated photons are energetic gamma rays as we expected for a nuclear transition. In the above

calculations, we assumed that the proton was not relativistic ( v < 0.1c ), but we should check this

assumption for the highest energy state we examined ( n = 2 ):

v=

2K

=

( )(

2 8.23 × 106 eV 1.60 × 10 −19 J/eV ) = 3.97 × 107 m/s = 0.133c

m 1.67 × 10 −27 kg

This appears to be a borderline case where we should probably use relativistic equations, but our

classical treatment should give reasonable results, within (0.133)2 = 1% accuracy.

Chapter 41 Solutions 504

K= = = = = 8.27 × 10 −14 J =

[(

2m 2mλ2 8mD 8 4 1.66 × 10 −27 kg 1.00 × 10 −14 m

)]( )

2

0.517 MeV

h h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

p= = = = 3.31 × 10 −20 kg ⋅ m/s

(

λ 2D 2 1.00 × 10 −14 m )

h2 2

41.23 En = n

8mL2

( 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)

2

E1 = = 8.21 × 10 −14 J

8(1.67 × 10 kg )(2.00 × 10 m)

−27 −14 2

L 2 2π x 2 L 1 1 4π x

41.24 (a) < x >= ∫ x sin 2 dx = ∫ x − cos dx

0 L L L 0 2 2 L

L L

1 x2 1 L2 4π x 4π x 4π x

< x >= − L sin L + cos L = L/2

L 2 L 16π 2 0

0

0.510 L

0.510 L 2 2π x 1 1 L 4π x

(b) Probability =∫ sin 2 dx = x − sin

0.490 L L L L L 4π L 0.490 L

Probability = 0.20 −

1

4π

( sin 2.04π − sin 1.96π ) = 5.26 × 10 −5

0.260 L

x 1 4π x

(c) Probability = − sin = 3.99 × 10 −2

L 4π L 0.240 L

(d) In the n = 2 graph in Figure 41.11 (b), it is more probable to find the particle either near

L 3L

x= or x= than at the center, where the probability density is zero.

4 4

Chapter 41 Solutions 505

L nπ x L 2

∫x = 0 A dx = A 2 =1 A=

2

sin 2 or

L 2 L

x = L/ 4 2 L / 4 2 2π x

P=∫

L ∫0

2

41.26 The desired probability is ψ dx = sin dx

x=0 L

1 − cos 2θ

where sin 2 θ =

2

Thus,

L/ 4

x 1 4π x 1

P= − sin = − 0 − 0 + 0 = 0.250

L 4π L 0 4

41.27 In0 ≤ x ≤ L , the argument 2π x / L of the sine function ranges from 0 to 2π . The probability

density ( 2 / L) sin ( 2π x / L) reaches maxima at sin θ = 1 and sin θ = −1 at

2

2π x π 2π x 3π

= and =

L 2 L 2

L 3L

∴ The most probable positions of the particle are at x= and x =

4 4

L/ 3 L/ 3 2 π x 2 L/ 3 1 1 2π x

P=∫ ψ dx = ∫ dx = ∫

2

41.28 (a) The probability is sin 2 − cos dx

0 0 L L L 0 2 2 L

L/ 3

x 1 2π x 1 1 2π 1 3

P= − sin = − sin = − = 0.196

L 2π L 0 3 2π 3 3 4π

the probability of finding the particle between x = 2L / 3 and

x = L is the same 0.196 . Therefore, the probability of finding

it in the range L / 3 ≤ x ≤ 2L / 3 is

P = 1.00 − 2(0.196) = 0.609 .

(c) Classically, the electron moves back and forth with constant

speed between the walls, and the probability of finding the

electron is the same for all points between the walls. Thus, the

classical probability of finding the electron in any range equal

to one-third of the available space is Pclassical = 1/ 3 .

Chapter 41 Solutions 506

h2

41.29 The ground state energy of a particle (mass m ) in a 1-dimensional box of width L is E1 = .

8mL2

(6.626 × 10 J ⋅ s)

−34 2

E = = 8.22 × 10 J = 5.13 × 10 −3 eV

−22

8(1.67 × 10 kg )(2.00 × 10 m)

1 2

−27 −10

−31

(b)

(6.626 × 10 J ⋅ s)

−34 2

−18

E = = 1.51 × 10 J = 9.41 eV

8(9.11 × 10 kg )(2.00 × 10 m)

1 2

−31 −10

(c) The electron has a much higher energy because it is much less massive.

2 π x 2 π x

ψ 1( x) = P1( x) = ψ 1( x)

2

41.30 (a) cos = cos 2

L L L L

2 2π x 2 2π x

ψ 2 (x) = P2 ( x) = ψ 2 ( x)

2

sin = sin 2

L L L L

2 3π x 2 3π x

ψ 3 (x) = P3 ( x) = ψ 3 ( x)

2

cos = cos

L L L L

∂ 2ψ

41.31 We have ψ = Ae i( kx −ω t ) and = − k 2ψ

∂x 2

∂ 2ψ 2m

Schrödinger’s equation: = − k 2

ψ = (E − U )ψ

∂ x2 h2

Since k 2

=

(2π )2 =

( 2π p)

2

=

p2

and (E − U ) = p 2 / 2 m

λ2

h 2

h 2

Chapter 41 Solutions 507

∂ψ

*41.32 ψ ( x) = A cos kx + B sin kx = − kA sin kx + kB cos kx

∂x

∂ 2ψ 2m 2mE

= − k 2 A cos k x − k 2B sin kx − 2 (E − U )ψ = − 2 ( A cos kx + B sin kx)

∂x 2

h h

Therefore the Schrödinger equation is satisfied if

∂ 2ψ 2m

= − (E − U )ψ or

∂ x 2 h2

2mE

− k 2 ( A cos kx + B sin kx) = − 2 ( A cos kx + B sin kx)

h

h2 k 2

This is true as an identity (functional equality) for all x if E =

2m

41.33 Problem 45 in Ch. 16 helps students to understand how to draw conclusions from an identity.

x2 dψ 2 Ax ∂ 2ψ 2A

(a) ψ ( x ) = A 1 − 2 =− 2 =− 2

L dx L ∂x 2

L

∂ 2ψ 2m

Schrödinger’s equation = − 2 (E − U )ψ

∂x 2

h

becomes

x2

2 A 2m x 2 2m

−h 2 2

x A

(

1 −

L2

)

− 2 = 2 EA 1 − 2 + 2

L h L h mL2 L2 − x 2 ( )

1 mE mEx 2 x 2

− = − + 2 2 − 4

L2 h2 h L L

1 mE mE 1

This will be true for all x if both = and − 4 =0

L2 h2 2 2

h L L

h2

Both of these conditions are satisfied for a particle of energy E= .

L2 m

(b) For normalization,

2

L 2

x2 L 2x 2 x 4

1 = ∫ A 1 − 2 dx = A 2 ∫ 1 − 2 + 4 dx

−L L −L L L

L

2 2x 3 x 5 2 L 2 L 16L 15

1 = A x − 2 + 4 = A 2 L − L + + L − L + = A2 A=

3L 5L − L 3 5 3 5 15 16L

(c)

Chapter 41 Solutions 508

47

P= = 0.580

81

Chapter 41 Solutions 509

41.34 (a) Setting the total energy E equal to zero and rearranging the Schrödinger equation to isolate the

potential energy function gives

h2 1 d 2ψ

U (x) =

2m ψ dx 2

2

−x /L 2

If ψ ( x) = Axe − x 2 / L2

Then

d 2ψ

dx 2

(

= 4 Ax − 6 AxL

3

)

2 e

L4

or

d 2ψ

=

(

4 x 2 − 6L2

ψ (x)

)

dx 2 L4

and

h2 4 x 2

U (x) = 2 2

− 6

2mL L

traveling to the left is the same as the original

wavelength, which equals 2L .

( )(

2 2 9.11 × 10 −31 8.00 × 10 −19 )

2CL =

1 055 × 10 −34 (2.00 × 10−10 ) = 4.58 F

i

Chapter 41 Solutions 510

o

r

G

o

a

l

S

o

l

u

t

i

o

n

Chapter 41 Solutions 511

Goal Solution

An electron with kinetic energy E = 5.00 eV is incident on a barrier with thickness L = 0.100 nm

and height U = 10.0 eV (Fig. P41.37). What is the probability that the electron (a) will tunnel

through the barrier and (b) will be reflected?

G: Since the barrier energy is higher than the kinetic energy of the electron, transmission is not likely,

but should be possible since the barrier is not infinitely high or thick.

O: The probability of transmission is found from the transmission coefficient equation 41.18.

C=

2m(U − E)

=

( ) (

2 9.11 × 10 −31 kg (10.0 eV − 5.00 eV) 1.60 × 10 −19 J/eV ) = 1.14 × 1010 m-1

h 6.63 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s/2π

T = e −2CL = e

( )(

−2 1.14 × 1010 m −1 2.00 × 10 −10 m ) = e −4.58 = 0.0103

(b) If the electron does not tunnel, it is reflected, with probability 1 − 0.0103 = 0.990

L:Our expectation was correct: there is only a 1% chance that the electron will penetrate the barrier. This

tunneling probability would be greater if the barrier were thinner, shorter, or if the kinetic energy of

the electron were greater.

41.38 C=

( ) ( )

2 9.11 × 10 −31 ( 5.00 − 4.50) 1.60 × 10 −19 kg ⋅ m/s

1.055 × 10 -34

J⋅s

[ ( )(

T = e −2CL = exp −2 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 950 × 10 −12 m = exp( −6.88) )]

T = 1.03 × 10 −3

[ (

10 −6 = exp −2 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 L )]

Taking logarithms, (

−13.816 = −2 3.62 × 10 9 m −1 L )

New L = 1.91 nm

Chapter 41 Solutions 512

*41.40 With the wave function proportional to e − CL , the transmission coefficient and the tunneling current

e − CL .

2

are proportional to ψ , to

Then, = −2(10.0 /nm )(0.515 nm ) = e 20.0(0.015) = 1.35

I (0.515 nm) e

−2 10.0 /nm )( L + 0.002 00 nm )

e −2(10.0 /nm )L − e (

= 1− e (

29.0 0.002 00 )

−2(10.0 /nm )L

= 0.0392 = 3.92%

e

2

dψ mω d 2ψ mω 2 mω

ψ = Be −( mω /2h)x

2

41.42 so =− xψ and = xψ+ − ψ

dx h dx 2 h h

Substituting into Equation 41.19 gives

2 2

mω 2 mω mω 2

ψ = 2 ψ +

2mE

xψ+ − xψ

h h h h

hω

which is satisfied provided that E = .

2

41.43 Problem 45 in Chapter 16 helps students to understand how to draw conclusions from an identity.

dψ

= Ae − bx − 2bx 2 Ae − bx

2 2

ψ = Axe − bx

2

so

dx

and

d 2ψ

= −2bxAe − bx − 4bxAe − bx + 4b 2 x 3 Ae − bx = −6bψ + 4b 2 x 2ψ

2 2 2

2

dx

2

2mE mω 2

Substituting into Equation 41.19, −6bψ + 4b 2 x 2ψ = − ψ + xψ

h h

For this to be true as an identity, it must be true for all values of x.

2

2mE mω

So we must have both −6b = − and 4b 2 =

h2 h

mω

(a) Therefore b=

2h

3bh2 3

(b) and E= = hω

m 2

(c) The wave function is that of the first excited state .

Chapter 41 Solutions 513

*41.44 The longest wavelength corresponds to minimum photon energy, which must be equal to the spacing

between energy levels of the oscillator:

hc k

= hω = h so

λ m

1/ 2

9.11 × 10 −31 kg

λ = 2π c

m

k

(

= 2π 3.00 × 108 m/s

8.99 N/m

) = 600 nm

2

∫all ψ

2

*41.45 (a) With dx = 1

∞ ∞ π

1 = ∫ B2 e −2( mω / 2h)x dx = 2B2 ∫ e −2( mω / 2h)x dx = 2B2

2 2 1

becomes

−∞ 0 2 mω /h

where Table B.6 in Appendix B was used to evaluate the integral.

1/ 4

πh mω

Thus, 1= B 2

and B=

mω πh

(b) For small δ , the probability of finding the particle in the range −δ / 2 ≤ x ≤ δ / 2 is

1/ 2

δ /2 mω

∫−δ / 2 ψ dx = δ ψ (0) 2 −0

2 2

= δB e = δ

πh

41.46 (a) With < x >= 0 and < px >= 0 , the average value of x 2 is ( ∆x)2 and the average value of px 2 is

(∆px )2 . Then ∆x ≥ h/2∆px requires

px 2 k h2 px 2 kh2

E≥ + = +

2 m 2 4 px 2 2 m 8 px 2

dE 1 kh2 1

(b) To minimize this as a function of px 2 , we require 2

= 0 = + (−1) 4

dpx 2m 8 px

kh2 1

Then 4

=

8 px 2m

1/ 2

2mkh2 h mk

px 2

= =

8 2

h mk kh2 3 h k h k

and E≥ + = + .

2(2m) 8h mk 4 m 4 m

Chapter 41 Solutions 514

*41.47 Suppose the marble has mass 20 g . Suppose the wall of the box is 12 cm high and 2 mm thick.

While it is inside the wall,

( )

U = mgy = (0.02 kg ) 9.8 m/s 2 (0.12 m) = 0.0235 J

and

1

E = K = mv 2 =

2

1

2

(0.02 kg)(0.8 m/s)2 = 0.0064 J

2m(U − E) 2(0.02 kg )(0.0171 J)

Then C= = −34

= 2.5 × 10 32 m −1

h 1.055 × 10 J⋅s

and the transmission coefficient is

e −2CL = e

( )(

−2 2.5 × 10 32 2 × 10 −3 ) = e −10 ×10 29 = e −2.30( 4.3 ×10 29 ) = 10−4.3 ×10 29 = ~ 10−10 30

h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

(b) p= = −10

= 3.31 × 10 −24 kg ⋅ m/s

λ 2.00 × 10 m

p2

(c) E= = 0.172 eV

2m

(d) Since ψ is symmetric,

∞ ∞

∫−∞ ψ dx = 2 ∫ ψ dx = 1

2 2

0

or

2 A 2 −∞

∞

2 A 2 ∫ e −2α x dx =

0 −2α

(

e − e0 = 1 )

This gives A= α

Chapter 41 Solutions 515

∂ 2ψ 2m

= − 2 (E − U )ψ

∂x 2

h

[region I]

ψ 2 = Ce ik 2 x

[region II]

2mE

Where k1 =

h

and

2m(E − U )

k2 =

h

and

dψ 1 dψ 2

= ⇒ k1( A − B) = k2C

dx 0 dx 0

1 − k2 k1

Then B= A

1 + k2 k1

2

C= A

1 + k2 / k1

reflects Be − ikx

, with probability

B2 (1 − k2 / k1 )

R= 2 =

(k − k )

2

= 1 2 2

2

A (1 + k2 / k1 ) (k1 + k2 )

2

k2 E −U 2.00

(b) With E = 7.00 eV and U = 5.00 eV , = = = 0.535

k1 E 7.00

(1 − 0.535)

2

= 0.0920

(1 + 0.535)2

The probability of transmission is T = 1 − R = 0.908

41.51 R=

( k1 − k2 )

2

=

(1 − k2 / k1 )

2

(k1 + k2 )2 (1 + k2 / k1 )2

h2 k 2

= E − U for constant U

2m

h 2 k12

= E since U = 0 (1)

2m

Chapter 41 Solutions 516

k2 2 U 1 1

Dividing (2) by (1), 2

= 1− = 1− = so

k1 E 2 2

k2 1

=

k1 2

and therefore,

(1 − 1/ 2 ) = ( ) = 0.0294

2 2

2 −1

R=

(1 + 1/ 2 ) ( 2 + 1)

2 2

Chapter 41 Solutions 517

41.52 (a) The wave functions and probability densities are the same as those shown in the two lower curves in

Figure 41.11 of the textbook.

(b)

2 πx

2 2.00 x 1.00 nm 2π x

∫ ∫ sin 1.00 nm dx = nm 2 − 4π sin 1.00 nm

2

P1 = ψ1 dx =

1.00 nm 0.150 nm

0.150 nm 0.150 nm

2

axdx = ( x / 2) − (1/ 4 a) sin(2 ax)

0.350 nm

1.00 1.00 nm 2π x

P1 = x − 1.00 nm 0.150 nm

sin

nm 2π

1.00

P1 =

nm

0.350 nm − 0.150 nm −

1.00 nm

2π

[ sin(0.700π ) − sin(0.300π )] = 0.200

0.350

2 0.350 2 2π x x 1.00 4π x

(c) P2 = ∫

1.00 0.150

sin

1.00

dx = 2.00 −

2 8π

sin

1.00 0.150

0.350

1.00 4π x

P2 = 1.00 x −

4π

sin

= 1.00(0.350 − 0.150) −

1.00

4π

[ sin(1.40π ) − sin(0.600π )] =

1.00 0.150

0.351

n2 h 2

(d) Using En = , we find that E1 = 0.377 eV and E2 = 1.51 eV

8mL2

41.53 (a)

1

mgyi = mv f 2

2 ( )

v f = 2 gyi = 2 9.80 m/s 2 ( 50.0 m) = 31.3 m/s

h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

λ= = = 2.82 × 10 −37 m (not observable)

mv (75.0 kg )(31.3 m/s)

6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆E∆t ≥ h/2 ∆E ≥ = 1.06 × 10 −32 J

( )

(b) so

−3

4π 5.00 × 10 s

∆E 1.06 × 10 −32 J

= = 2.87 × 10 −35 %

( )

(c)

E (75 0 kg ) 9 80 m/s 2 ( 50 0 m)

Chapter 41 Solutions 518

∆E∆t − h/2 or ∆ mc 2 ∆t = h/ 2 . Therefore,

= = = =

m ( )

4π c ( ∆t)m 4π ( ∆t)ER 4π 8.70 × 10 −17 s (135 MeV) 1.60 × 10 -13 J

2

−8

2.81 × 10

Chapter 41 Solutions 519

41.55 (a) f= = −34 = 4.34 × 1014 Hz

h 6.626 × 10 J ⋅ s 1.00 eV

(b) λ= = = 6.91 × 10 −7 m = 691 nm

f 4.34 × 10 Hz

14

h

(c) ∆E∆t ≥ so

2

h h 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

∆E ≥ = = = 2.64 × 10 −29 J = 1.65 × 10 −10 eV

2 ∆t 4π ∆t 4π 2.00 × 10 −8 s ( )

E

41.56 (a) f=

h

c hc

(b) λ= =

f E

h h h

(c) ∆E∆t ≥ so ∆E ≥ =

2 2 ∆t 4π T

∞

x2 = ∫

2

41.57 x 2 ψ dx

−∞

2 nπ x

For a one-dimensional box of width L, ψn = sin

L L

2 L 2 2 nπ x L2 L2

L ∫0

Thus, x2 = x sin dx = − (from integral tables)

L 3 2n2π 2

∞

∫−∞ ψ

2

41.58 (a) dx = 1 becomes

L/ 4

L/ 4 2π x L π x 1 4π x

2 L π

A2 ∫

− L/ 4

cos 2

L

dx =A

2π L

+ sin

4

L − L/ 4

= A2

2π 2

=1

4 2

or A2 = and A=

L L

(b) The probability of finding the particle between 0 and L/8 is

L/8 2 L/8 2π x 1 1

∫0 ψ dx = A 2 ∫

0

cos 2

L

dx = +

4 2π

= 0.409

Chapter 41 Solutions 520

2 −x/a

41.59 For a particle with wave function ψ (x) = e for x > 0 and 0 for x < 0

a

2 −2 x / a

ψ (x) = 0 , x < 0 ψ 2 (x) =

2

(a) and e , x>0

a

0 0

Prob( x < 0) = ∫ ψ ( x) dx = ∫ (0) dx = 0

2

(b)

−∞ −∞

(c) Normalization

∞ 0 ∞

∫−∞ ψ (x) dx = ∫ ψ dx + ∫ ψ dx = 1

2 2 2

−∞ 0

( )

0 ∞ ∞

∫−∞ 0 dx + ∫0 (2 / a)e

−2 x / a

dx = 0 − e −2 x / a = − e −∞ − 1 = 1

0

a a a

Prob(0 < x < a) = ∫ ψ dx = ∫ (2 / a) e −2 x / a dx = e −2 x / a = 1 − e −2 =

2

0 0 0

0.865

h hc hc

41.60 (a) λ= = =

p E − me c

(mec2 + K ) − (mec2 )

2 2 4 2 2

λ=

( 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s)(3.00 × 108 m/s) 1 keV

= 4.68 × 10 −12 m

−16

(576 keV)2 − (511 keV)2 1.60 × 10 J

(b)

h

Choosing ∆p = , K =

p2

=

(∆p) = h2 2

ke e 2 h2 ke e 2

U=− , so E = K + U = −

r 2me r 2 r

(c) To minimize E,

dE h ke e 2 h2

Chapter 41 Solutions 521

2

h2 me ke e 2 2 me ke e

2 me ke 2 e 4

Then, E =

2me h2

− k e

e = − = −13.6 eV

h2 2h2

nλ h nh

41.62 (a) The requirement that = L so p = = is still valid.

2 λ 2L

(pc)2 + (mc 2 )

2

nhc

( )

2 2

E= ⇒ En = + mc 2

2L

2

nhc

( )

2

Kn = En − mc 2 = + mc 2 − mc 2

2L

(b) Taking L = 1.00 × 10 −12 m , m = 9.11 × 10 −31 kg , and n = 1 , we find K1 = 4.69 × 10 −14 J

( )

2

h2 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅ s

Nonrelativistic, E1 = = = 6.02 × 10 −14 J

(

8mL2 8 9.11 × 10 −31 kg 1.00 × 10 −12 m

)( )

2

( −7 / 3)e

2

e2 1 1 1 7 ke e 2

U= −1 + − + −1 + + ( −1) = =−

4π e0 d

41.63 (a)

2 3 2 4π e0 d 3d

2h2 h2

K = 2E1 = =

( )

(b) From Equation 41.9,

8me 9d 2 36me d 2

dE 7 ke e 2 h2

(c) E = U + K and = 0 for a minimum: − =0

dd 3d 2 18me d 3

( )

2

3h2 h2 6.626 × 10 −34

d= = = =

(7 )(18ke e 2 me ) ( )(

42me ke e 2 ( 42) 9.11 × 10 −31 8.99 × 10 9 1.602 × 10 −19 C

)( )

2

0.0499 nm

(d) Since the lithium spacing is a , where Na3 = V , and the density is Nm /V , where m is the mass of

one atom, we get:

1/ 3 1/ 3

Vm

1/ 3

m 1.66 × 10 −27 kg × 7

a= = = m = 2.80 × 10 −10 m = 0.280 nm

Nm density 530 kg

Chapter 41 Solutions 522

ψ = Bxe −( mω /2h)x

2

*41.64 (a)

dψ − mω mω 2 −( mω

2 xe −( mω / 2h)x = Be (

2h ) x 2 2h ) x 2

= Be −( mω / 2h)x + Bx

2 2 − mω

−B x e

dx 2h h

d 2ψ − mω −( mω / 2h)x 2 mω − ( mω / 2h) x 2 mω 2 − mω −( mω 2h ) x 2

= Bx xe − B 2 xe − B x xe

dx 2 h h h h

d 2ψ mω −( mω / 2h)x 2 mω 3 −( mω / 2h)x 2

= −3B xe +B x e

dx 2 h h

Substituting into the Schrödinger Equation (41.19), we have

2

mω −( mω / 2h)x 2 mω 3 −( mω / 2h)x 2 mω 2

= − 2 Bxe −( mω / 2h)x + x Bxe −( mω / 2h)x

2mE 2 2

−3B xe +B x e

h h h h

2E 3

This is true if −3ω = − ; it is true if E = h ω

h 2

(b) We never find the particle at x = 0 because ψ = 0 there.

dψ mω h

(c) ψ is maximized if = 0 = 1 − x2 , which is true at x = ±

dx h mω

∞

∫−∞ ψ

2

(d) We require dx = 1:

∞ ∞ π B2 π 1/ 2h3 / 2

B2 x 2 e −( mω /h)x dx = 2B2 ∫ x 2 e −( mω /h)x dx = 2B2

2 2 1

1= ∫ =

−∞ 0 4 (mω /h)3 2 (mω )3/ 2

1/ 4

21/ 2 mω

3/ 4 4m3ω 3

Then B = 1/ 4 = 3

π h πh

1 1

(e) At

than the total energy 3h ω / 2 , so there is zero classical probability of finding the particle here.

2

= ψ dx = Bxe −( mω / 2h)x δ = δB2 x 2 e −( mω /h)x

2 2 2

(f) Probability

3/ 2 1/ 2

2 mω 4h −( mω /h)4(h / mω ) 8δ mω e −4

Probability =δ e =

π 1/ 2 h mω hπ

Chapter 41 Solutions 523

L L π x 2π x π x 2π x

∫0 A 2 ∫ sin 2

2

ψ dx = 1: + 16 sin 2 + 8 sin sin dx = 1

L

41.65 (a)

0 L L L

L L L π x 2π x

A2 + 16 + 8 ∫ sin sin dx = 1

2 2 0 L L

17 L 16L x=L

17 L L π x π x π x

A2 + 16 ∫ sin 2 cos dx = A 2 + sin 3 =1

2 0 L L 2 3π L x=0

2

A2 = , so the normalization constant is A = 2 /17 L

17 L

a

∫− a ψ

2

(b) dx = 1:

a

π x π x π x π x

∫ A

2 2

cos 2 + B sin 2 + 2 A B cos sin dx = 1

2a a 2a a

−a

2 2

The first two terms are A a and B a . The third term is:

a a a

π x π x π x 2 π

x π x 8a A B 3 π x

2A B ∫ cos

2a

2 sin

2a

cos

2 a

dx = 4 A B ∫ cos 2a sin 2a dx = 3π cos 2a =0

−a −a −a

so that (

a A +B

2 2

) = 1, giving 2 2

A + B = 1/ a .

2

*41.66 With one slit open P1 = ψ 1 or

2

P2 = ψ 2

2

With both slits open, P = ψ1 +ψ 2

Pmax = ( ψ 1 + ψ 2 )

2

At a maximum, the wave functions are in phase

Pmin = ( ψ 1 − ψ 2 )

2

At a minimum, the wave functions are out of phase

2

P ψ1 ψ1

Now 1 = = 25.0 , so = 5.00

P 2

ψ

Chapter 41 Solutions 524

*41.67 (a) The light is unpolarized. It contains both horizontal and vertical field oscillations.

(b) The interference pattern appears, but with diminished overall intensity.

(d) The interference pattern appears and disappears as the polarizer turns, with alternately increasing

and decreasing contrast between the bright and dark fringes. The intensity on the screen is precisely

zero at the center of a dark fringe four times in each revolution, when the filter axis has turned by 45°,

135°, 225°, and 315° from the vertical.

(e) Looking at the overall light energy arriving at the screen, we see a low-contrast interference pattern.

After we sort out the individual photon runs into those for trial 1, those for trial 2, and those for trial

3, we have the original results replicated: The runs for trials 1 and 2 form the two blue graphs in

Figure 41.3, and the runs for trial 3 build up the red graph.

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