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Using SAP2000 Software Package in
Earthquake Engineering (Part II: Pushover)
Sameframebut
differentloading
Q
D
=4.5kips/ft
Q
D
=10.5kips/ft
Q
D
=10.5kips/ft
Loads on structures:
- Static (e.g. self-weight)
- Dynamic (e.g. earthquake)
Structures response:
Linear (constant stiffness) - Linear (constant stiffness)
- Nonlinear (variable stiffness)
Structural Analysis Approaches:
- Linear static (ELF)
(least accurate; least complex) ( p )
- Linear dynamic (response spectra)
- Nonlinear static (pushover)
- Nonlinear dynamic (time history)
(most accurate; most complex)
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Pushover analysis:
Applying a force distribution force distribution to the structure in an
incremental fashion while monitoring the
occurrence of nonlinear behavior nonlinear behavior and plotting the
base shear (V
b
) versus control node control node displacement
(u
N
).
compromise the simplicity of linear static approaches
and accuracy of nonlinear dynamic methods.
1- Nonlinearity sources:
- Geometrical (P-Delta effects)
(consider or not: codes)
- Material
(too many materials behavior models) (too many materials behavior models)
2- Nonlinearity modeling:
- Concentrated - Distributed
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Plastic hinge properties:
- running section analysis and coming up with M- curves
Plastic hinge properties:
- using codes tabulated properties
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3- Lateral load pattern:
- a single concentrated force at the top
(good for one-story buildings)
- in proportion to the standard code procedure:
in proportion to the product of story masses and
( )
/ x x x x x F wh wh V =

- in proportion to the product of story masses and
predominant mode shape of the elastic model of the
structure
( )
/ x x x x x F w w V = u u

4- Control node:
- For common buildings, the control node could be
selected as roof (top) story node
h l i i d h h h - Pushover analysis is stopped when the structure reaches:
pre-defined displacement
or
ultimate capacity
5- Gravity loads should be applied prior to the
application of lateral loads
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6- Check at performance point :
The global response of the structure and individual
component deformations are compared to limits in
li ht f th ifi f l f th t light of the specific performance goals of the system
Using SAP2000 for Pushover Analysis
We will use the same frame (elastic beams), just
modify dead loads:
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1- Run Modal Analysis
( 1 )
1 . 0
0 . 7 5 9 |


=
`

0 . 3 4 5

)
1 0 0 0


Select lateral load pattern:
7 5 9
3 4 5
x
F k i ps

=
`

)
2- Lateral Load Case
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3- Modify Dead Load Case
3- Define Push Load Case
1
2
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3- Define Push Load Case
1 2
4- Assign Plastic Hinges
Select column elements:
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4- Assign Plastic Hinges
4- Assign Plastic Hinges
Select beam elements:
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5- Run
6- Results Output
Display displacement:
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6- Results Output
Display pushover curve:
7- Checking Hinges Status
Looking for 0.5 ft roof displacement:
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7- Checking Hinges Status
At 0.5 ft roof displacement: the performance level
of the system is Collapse Prevention (CP)