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Kaitlyn Couvillon 1 Hursh, David, and Camille Anne Martina.

"Neoliberalism and schooling in the US: How state and federal government education policies perpetuate inequality." Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies 1.2 (2003): 1-13. In this article, Hursh and Martina goes into detail about how the US governments main focus is to create "skilled and entrepreneurial citizens and worker able to generate new and added economic values". They explain how the government is creating educational laws to help promote this style of citizen in schools. Also they go into detail of the No Child Left Behind Act and how it is affecting education. It states that the government supplies very little funding for schooling and education but "intervenes" quite a bit through the No Child Left Behind Act. He explains how the Act has not actually helped students gain a better education. The authors main argument is on how the government is trying to just get ahead in the international economy and to create better citizens in school. They feel it is of no help what the government is doing. Hursh and Martina use data to back up their evidence. The data comes from statistics taken from public schools. They argue very valid points throughout the article and use other well acclaimed works throughout the work. They insured to use enough information to leave no unanswered questions. The strengths throughout the article are when they use numbers to back up their statements. I feel that this source will be very beneficial in my inquiry. Their arguments are very valid throughout the whole article. It raises the idea of including the No Child Left Behind Act in

my paper. A few of my other articles have included this act as well and some have gone into more detail. I agree whole heartedly with the authors on the fact that the Federal government has a big hand in the education system and has changed the system many times but it still seems to be failing. This paper helps me in every way. There are very strong quotes throughout the article that I can use throughout my paper. I will most likely end my paper with this article because I feel it will give me a strong ending. While the federal government provides less than ten percent of

public school funding, it has intervened to an unprecedented degree, through the No Behind Act (NCLB), in elementary and secondary education. (2) Susan Robertson describes the changing mandate as requiring educational systems, through creating appropriately skilled and entrepreneurial citizens and workers able to generate new and added economic values, will enable nations to be responsive to changing conditions within the international marketplace (1) Over the last decade education in the U.S. has undergone the largest transformation within its history (2) 2 Spring, Joel H. The Politics of American Education. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print. In this book it talks about how not only the government has an influence in education but also how the students, state, parents, teachers, and non-profit organizations influence education as well. The book is mainly his take on the No Child Left Behind Act and who it influences, in

both a good way and a bad way. The book also includes how the federal government has their hand in education in other ways. Along with the No Child Left Behind Act, he talks about Obamas new law, Race to the Top, and its effects. The author is giving both sides of the story. It has a lot of factual information on the education system and it goes into a lot more detail than some other resources. He takes both sides for all of the information given. He uses strongly acclaimed resources to help support his information. The most useful piece of information is the No Child Left Behind Act. I will use the No Child Left Behind Act in my paper and the information he gives on it. I feel it will be very helpful since it does not have one sided information. He explains it in a unbiased way. It answers all the questions I could think of. It is a foundational text that does provide definitions and different ways of thinking about my inquiry just from all the information, and again how it is not one sided. No Child Left Behind strengthened the power of state education authorities over local schools. (3) This legislation [No Child Left Behind Act] became a powerful instrument for federal control of state education systems. (64) No Child Left Behind pushed the country closer to a nationalized school system with state and local school authorities becoming conduits for federal policies. (65) 3 Miller, Raegen, Robin Lake, and Center on Reinventing Public Education University of

Washington. "Federal Barriers To Innovation."Center On Reinventing Public Education, University Of Washington (2012): ERIC. Web. 26 Mar. 2013. This article is about how the federal government should have more control in education and put more money into the education system. They feel that the government should promote innovation in schools. It goes into detail on how much money the education system is granted from the federal budget. Also it talks about educational boards functions and roles in promoting education. The authors argument is on how the federal government should invest more of the federal budget into education for innovation purposes. This also is a very informational article along with The Politics of American Education. The purpose of this article is to gain support towards gaining funding from the government, along the development of the federal governments role. Lake and Miller use not only other acclaimed articles but speeches from Obama, which is what strengthens the article. They have other educational departments such as the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, the Center for American progress and the American Enterprise Institute. Any possible questions are answered they supply definitions for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Investing in innovation program. I will use the information given on the federal governments role and how it helps to support the system. It causes me to wonder how they expect the government to change the budget and how much they want or need for education. I agree with the point of how the government should pay more towards education. It is for the future of America, the students coming up in school now will one day be leading the US. This helps with my inquiry because of all the statistics given and other interesting facts I didnt find in my other resources.

The federal role in elementary and secondary education involves implementing legislation passed by congress and to a lesser extent pursuing executive initiatives. (2)

Title I funds are meant to enhance the educational experience of eligible students in high needs schools, not to compensate for an inequitable distribution of resources between those schools and schools serving more affluent students. (4)

Our recommendations to modify specific fiscal requirements of the largest federal education programs promote smarter, fairer uses of the taxpayer money to support public education. (9)

4 Guthrie, James W. Modern Education Finance and Policy. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2007. Print. This book is about how the government finances and controls education. The main parts are the No Child Left Behind Act, the laws passed on how the government gained control over education and how the states have power over education. When the No Child Left Behind is being talked about it is mainly on the law based facts on how it helps the government gain power over education. The parts about how states have power over education is smaller than how the federal government has power because the federal government has more control over it. The author is not really giving an argument. He is more just stating facts about the finance view and the control view of education. He gives a lot of information throughout the entire book on how it benefits education and hinders education. Things such as non-profit organizations and their roles in education, along with how the states and federal governments

work together are examples of the information in the book. All the information is very helpful. It is from very acclaimed known works. I am not left with any questions because of how well the author provides all the information needed to understand how the education system works. I will use the information on the No Child Left Behind Act, the federal government and state governments power over the education system. The information provided in this book will be very beneficial for my inquiry. It is beneficial because of the books detail on the state and federal governments involvement. I can use this throughout my entire paper for examples and discussion. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has created new standards of accountability that seek to increase student performance. (164) When viewed from an overseas or global perspective, schooling in the United States has three unusual governance and organizational features.(28) The 10th Amendments reservation of authority to states and the people and the absence, deliberate or not, of education as an enumerated federal government power leaves authority for education policy to states.(64) 5 Department of Education, (ED). "Race To The Top. North Carolina. Year 1: School Year 20102011. [State-Specific Summary Report]."US Department Of Education (2012): ERIC. Web. 31 Mar. 2013.

The Race to the Top article is about the program and the funding provided to make the program possible. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 is providing the funds for the statewide grants. They have provided over $4 billion for the program. The state will have a report summary after the end of the year to show how the funding is being used and if school systems are improving. The Race to the Top act is going to be implemented to 11 states. The article is more of an informational piece. It states all of the facts on how the program will be funded, how the program will be surveyed and its main state it focuses on is North Carolina. If I were to choose an argument that the author is trying to get across I would say it is that he feels there should be more funding for education. The article is written by the Department of Education so the information will be very accurate. The entire article is cited throughout. They use not only other acclaimed articles but speeches from Obama, which is what strengthens the article. There are many resources and definitions throughout the article that help answer questions. I will use the key points in the article for my inquiry paper. There are many statistics I can use to my advantage, such as the graphs given on the effectiveness of the program so far. I feel this piece will help a lot with where I am trying to take my paper. It provides me with the information on North Carolina government involvement. It gives me a different act, other than the No Child Left Behind Act, to talk about in my paper and it is also about the state of North Carolina not just the Federal government. In January 2010, the North Carolina Governor introduced a vision for education, Career and College: Ready, Set Go! , to drive the state toward ensuring that every student

graduates from high school prepared for success in a career, two- year or four-year college, or technical training program.(2) The state [North Carolina] adopted the CCSS in June 2010 and created the North Carolina Essential Standards for all content areas not covered by the CCSS (3) The PMO provides both coordination among State level initiatives and oversight of local initiatives. (4)